You are on page 1of 45

DOCSIS 3.

1 An evolutionary approach to Gigabit Class DOCSIS


CABU EMEAR Marketing Nov. 14th 2012

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Introduction

Advanced* DOCSIS
Case Study

Advanced* DOCSIS vs EPOC

* Standardization is underway at CableLabs under DOCSIS 3.1 reference


2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

This year DOCSIS is 15 years old

DOCSIS 3.1 An evolutionary

approach to Gigabit-class DOCSIS


For an era where MSOs will continue to push fiber deeper, potentially/eventually switch to all fiber for new build, but will do everything to maximize the return on earlier investments in coax plant.

How the next 15 years will look like!

DOCSIS 1.0 I01 Spec released March 26, 1997.

* Standardization is underway at CableLabs


2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4

Data as an IP Service

Voice as an IP Service

Video as an IP Service

More services requires more IP bandwidth. How much bandwidth? What is really possible?

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Number of DS channels required

Example:
300 video subs per SG,

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 100 150 200 250 300 350

multicast for linear, unicast for VoD, 50% HD, 50% SD, VBR, MPEG4, 20 DOCSIS channels
150 channels collapsing

CBR VBR

to 20 That is efficient!

Number of IP video subs per Service Group

Video bandwidth will expand as new 4K and 8K formats are adopted. HSD will continue to grow and eventually may exceed SP video BW.
Source: HFC Capacity Planning for IP Video by Sangeeta Ramakrishnan, SCTE Expo 2011
2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6

Goals
Allow DOCSIS over HFC to compete with FTTH solutions. Achieve 5+ Gbps in the downstream. Achieve 1+ Gbps in the upstream Backward compatibility story with DOCSIS 3.0, 2.0, & 1.1. Better spectral efficiency.

Technology
OFDM and LDPC Re-use SCDMA MAC concepts

* Standardization is underway at CableLabs


2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7

EPOC is EPON over Coax. EPOC and D3.1 will use the same PHY. DOCSIS (as it evolves) and EPOC are similar technologies but in

different markets.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction Cable Spectrum Analysis Solving Legacy Issues Coax Network Analysis HFC Optical Transport Options HFC Topology DOCSIS PHY (ATDMA, SCDMA, OFDM) 8. DOCSIS MAC 9. Network Capacity Analysis 10. Network Capacity Migration 11. Recommendations

, , and teamed together to help define and drive DOCSIS 3.1. was a landmark white paper at NCTA 2012, both in terms of size and in terms of collaboration.
182 pages 83 Figures 43 Tables 10 recommendations 7 areas of further study

The first output of this joint effort

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

John T. Chapman

Cisco Confidential

Evolution of the Upstream/Downstream Split


To get to a more Symmetrical Service Proposition (more in line with ETTH or xPON architecture)

Extending the Frequency Spectrum


In the first place to get maximum use on coax and passives in place (and found to easily support approx. 1.2 Ghz so 20% more than currently specd for us)

MAC & PHY Layer


To further Increase the Spectral Efficiency

Maintaining Backwards Compatibility


Avoid forklift upgrades and provide investment protection for earlier D1.1 or D2.0 CM, QAMs, .

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

10

DOCSIS 3.1 will introduce OFDM with LDPC.


The target modulation is 1024-QAM. Up to 4K QAM will be specified

Improved FEC (Forward Error Correction) enables higher modulation at the same CNR performance RF Spectrum Efficiency Improvement: ~ 25% with same CNR
(8 10 bits / symbol, 1024QAM Equivalent)

Using the spectrum above current plant cut-offs (750 MHz to 1 GHz) requires an advanced PHY to support more complex modulation such as OFDM. OFDM will also be used below 1 GHz, and will likely supplant legacy QAM bandwidth over time. The initial push is to 1150 MHz. This may be possible without replacing taps. The long term push is 1.7 GHz, but this would require tap replacement.

~ 50% with improved CNR


(8 12 bits / symbol, 4096QAM Equivalent)

The DOCSIS 3.1 downstream deployment may occur before DOCSIS 3.1 upstream deployment.
2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11

DOCSIS 3.1 upstream will use OFDMA with an LDPC FEC


Target modulation is 256-QAM. Up to 4K will be speced.

Existing spectrum will be shared between ATDMA/SCDMA and OFDM. New spectrum will be OFDM only. Frequency split options:
The immediate goal is to maximize sub-split. (42/65 MHz) The short-term recommendation is mid-split. (85 MHz) The long-term recommendation is high-split. (~230 MHz)

Improved FEC (Forward Error Correction) enables higher modulation at the same CNR performance RF Spectrum Efficiency Improvement: ~ 33% with same CNR
(256QAM Equivalent)

~ 66% with improved CNR


(1024QAM Equivalent)

Mid-split triples upstream throughput and is available today with D3.0. DOCSIS 3.1 high-split provides 1 Gbps.
2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12

DOCSIS 3.0 Now DS Range (MHz) DS QAM Level # DS Channels DS Capacity (bps) 54 - 1002 256 8 300M Phase 1 108 - 1002 256 24 1G

DOCSIS 3.1 Phase 2 300 - 1152 1024* 142 7G Phase 3 500 - 1700 1024* 200 10G

US Range (MHz) US QAM Level # US Channels US Capacity (bps)

5 - 42 64 4 100M

5 - 85 64 12 300M

5 - 230 256* 33 1G

5 - 400 1024* 60 2.5G


* On OFDM PHY
13

Note: TBD values are underlined, Channels in quotes = Equivalent # of SC-QAMs

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

As extra measures to increase flexibility as well as system

throughput DOCSIS AMP is likely to bring following news related to MAC & PHY:
US PHY: Additional OFDMA* with new LDPC FEC** DS PHY: Additional OFDM with new LDPC FEC** Order of modulation: With a plan to investigate 4k QAM for OFDM, see table on previous slide that new standard targets supporting at least 1k QAM in both US and DS MAC: Likely for current SCDMA MAC functionality to be the basis for the new OFDMA MAC Layer Remark: Goal as set out for throughput is an increase of min. 50% in bits/Hz
* Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access ** Low Density Parity Check Forward Error Correction providing the equivalent of 5 to 6 dB performance improvement, in other words a system that runs today 64-QAM could run 256-QAM with new LDPC FEC
2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14

DOCSIS 3.0 uses single carrier QAM (SC-QAM) in the downstream and

upstream.
Two sine waves, I and Q, each with separate amplitude and phase are added together to create symbol within a constellation. Each instance is referred to as a symbol. 16-QAM is 4 bits per symbol 256-QAM is 8 bits per symbol 1024-QAM is 10 bits per symbol 4096-QAM is 12 bits per symbol 16384-QAM is 16 bits per symbol

Example: 16-QAM

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

15

OFDM is identical to coded OFDM (COFDM) and discrete multi-

tone modulation (DMT)


A frequency-division multiplexing scheme used as a digital multi-

carrier modulation method using a large collection of very narrow QAM subcarriers.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

16

FEC = Forward Error Correction FEC adds redundant bits so that errored bits can be re-created. FEC requires an interleaver in order to be truly effective. LDPC = Low Density Parity Check Invented by Robert Gallager in 1960. Could not be implemented in HW until recently. LDPC is much more robust than Reed-Solomon.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

17

2 dB for FEC improvements

Reed Solomon versus LDPC

1 dB for OFDM filter edge improvements versus Single Channel QAM 1 dB for lowest common denominator for 12 KHz channel versus 6 MHz channel width Total = 4 dB equivalent improvement Remark: Assuming that most plants have 2 dB headroom for existing modulation depth there might be 2 modulation depth increases possible
Resulting in 25-33% increase bits/Hz depending current DS/US constellation

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

18

OFDM LDPC Single Channel OFDM LDPC Upstream Single Channel QAM RS Downstream 28% QAM RS Upstream < 35% improvement Downstream Improvement
MER SCQAM 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 Approximate Data RF Spectrum MER OFDM w/ rate for 6 MHz Required to support 1 Gbps (MHz) LDPC Channel Mbps 12 9 667 15 14 444 18 18 333 21 24 255 24 28 212 27 33 182 30 38 159 33 42 141 36 49 122 39 54 111 42 59 102 45 64 94 48 69 87
Data Rates are +/- 10% for differences in overhead Upstream vs. Downstream and Reed Solomon vs. LPDC

Modulation Bits/Sym QPSK 2 8QAM 3 16QAM 4 32QAM 5 64QAM 6 128QAM 7 256QAM 8 512QAM 9 1024QAM 10 2048QAM 11 4096QAM 12 8192QAM 13 16384QAM 14

Docsis 3.0 standard for Upstream Docsis 3.0 standard for Downstream Docsis 3.1 proposed standard for both Upstream and Downstream
2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

19

The CNR can vary by at least 8 dB

on a good plant.
Equivalent to ~3 orders of modulation D3.1 will sort CMs into different

profiles
MCS = Modulation and Coding Scheme Not one MCS per CM. No unicast. 4 profiles should suffice
Worst Case Average Case Best Case

A: Best Case (e.g. 4096-QAM) B: Better Case (e.g. 2048-QAM) C: Good Case (e.g. 1024-QAM) D: Common channel (e.g. 256-QAM)

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

20

Generates MMM

Convergence Layer - Framing, Mapping

CPU

CL PHY Control Channel

Message Blocks, Preamble

CL Buffer Channel A

CL Buffer Channel B Forwarding Engine L3/L2 Queuing CL Buffer Channel C


Tags packet to both L3 and L2 queues MAC Domain QoS HFQ Rate Shaping Service Flows Builds sequential bursts FEC MCS

iFFT Mux Burst Builder

CL Buffer Channel D

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

21

f A B B C AA D

FEC blocks are mapped to sub-

= sub-carrier group for one symbol time

carrier groups (N sub-carrier for one symbol time) vertically (in the frequency domain, one symbol wide) within a FFT block.
This in effect creates a serial byte

= FEC block begin/end

stream.
Multiplexing of profiles is done

A = DS Channel with a

unique OFDM prole

within this byte stream.


It is okay if the FEC block crosses

D A B B C A A t

a FFT block boundary in consecutive (time-domain) FFT blocks.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

22

5 Gbps >
Analog Reclamation Node Splits

7 Gbps >

10+ Gbps
Slightly Modified

D/S

New Legacy

Guard Band

Improved bits/Hz (OFDM) Broadcast reduction

Bonded Group

Legacy

Legacy

Legacy

Legacy

Legacy

Legacy

Legacy

OFDM D/S PHY channel

OFDM D/S PHY channel

Future OFDM Future OFDM D/S bands D/S bands


1000MHz

42/54 85/105 230/300 MHz MHz MHz

750MHz

Frequency

Downstream Band

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

23

100 Mbps > 150 Mbps > 500 Mbps > 1200 Mbps Upper Layers Typical 42 MHz US Plant at 64QAM is limited to 4 channels at about 100 Mbps With OFDMA the capability could be stretched to ~ 150 Mbps (250 Mbps with no QAM) Upstream spectrum upgrade to 85 MHz: Move/remap 5 DS channels 300 Mbps w/ 64QAM 500 Mbps w/ OFDMA
85/105 MHz 230/300 MHz

U/S

Bonded Group Bonded Group

Legacy

Legacy

OFDMA U/S PHY channel

Legacy

PHY

42/54 MHz

Upstream Band

Guard Band

MAC

Upstream spectrum upgrade to 230 MHz Move / remap channels 2 36 Aggregate data rate 1.2 1.7 Gbps depending on CNR
Cisco Confidential 24

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Upper Layers

Slightly Modified

U/S

D/S

New Legacy

Bonded Group

Guard Band

MAC

Bonded Group

Legacy

Legacy

Legacy

OFDMA U/S PHY channel

Legacy

Legacy

Legacy

PHY

OFDM D/S PHY OFDM D/S PHY channel channel


750MHz

Future OFDM D/S bands


1000MHz

Frequency

Upstream Band

Downstream Band

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

25

Both OFDM and OFDMA work by separating a single signal into subcarriers,

or, in other words, by dividing one extremely fast signal into numerous slow signals that optimize mobile access, as the subchannels can then transmit data without being subject to the same intensity of multipath distortion faced by single carrier transmission. The numerous subcarriers are then collected at the receiver and recombined to form one high speed transmission.
The difference between OFDM and OFDMA is that OFDMA has the ability to

dynamically assign a subset of those subcarriers to individual users, making this the multi-user version of OFDM, using either Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (separate time frames) or Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) (separate channels) for multiple users. OFDMA simultaneously supports multiple users by assigning them specific sub-channels for intervals of time.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

26

The OFDM MAC will be based upon

the SCDMA MAC which is similar to the ATDMA MAC.


Minislot = X sub-carriers for Y symbol times.

All three MACs use mini-slots with

upstream scheduling.
ATDMA: minislots map to time SCDMA: minislots map to time and a group of codes OFDMA: minislots map to time and a group of tones

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

27

OFDMA Convergence layer is capable of multiplexing ATDMA, SCDMA, and OFDMA PHYs.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

28

Upstream
ODFM and ATDMA/SCDMA can share the same spectrum Bonding between OFDMA and ATDMA/SCDMA is possible

Downstream
Bonding between OFDM and SC-QAM is supported.

This allows a gradual and evolutionary introduction

of DOCSIS 3.1.
This is a distinct competitive advantage that DOCSIS has over other non-DOCSIS solutions such as EPOC.

DOCSIS 3.0 will get capped.


The target cap is 16x4 or 24x8.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

29

DOCSIS 3.1 plans to state: D3.1 CM MUST support SCDMA. D3.1 CMTS MAY support SCDMA. It is generally agreed that OFDMA with LDPC will be able to

replace the role that SCDMA and ATDMA perform today.


Thus, support for SCDMA is for legacy D3.0 and below CMs. Long term use of SCDMA really depends upon if and how

much of SCDMA gets deployed prior to D3.1 being available.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

30

A: Initially run D3.1 CMs in D3.0 mode (avoiding RF Data Simulcasting Tax) B: For US, enable OFDMA and perform channel bonding with legacy D3.0 C: Increase D3.1 CM count in SG. Enable some DS OFDM channels & bond with legacy D3.0 D: Use existing passives with OFDM & 1.2+ GHz electronics as required E: We Could End Up With One Advanced PHY (OFDM/LDPC) For The Entire Spectrum as our Target Architecture
Now Phase 1 Phase 3

E D
Phase 2

DOCSIS 1.0 - 3.0 (HSD, VoIP, & IP Video) Down Legacy Video EQAM (Digital Video)

DOCSIS 3.1 OFDM/LDPC (HSD @ PON Speed, Video over IP, Ultra HD, & un-discovered apps)

3.0 CMTS & EQAM Up

A
3.0 CCAP 3.1 CCAP

DOCSIS 1.0 - 3.0

B DOCSIS 3.1 OFDMA/LDPC Time


Cisco Confidential 31

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

* from DOCSIS 3.1 Deployment Scenarios Joint Suppliers Presentation hosted by Cisco, Moto, Intel and Harris July 12th 2012

The legacy migration concerns with mid-split and high-split such as analog

TV, RF interference, ADI and OOB, have workable solutions.


Analog TV can be reduced, removed, or remapped. Interference with specific OTA signals can be managed by attenuating specific

OFDM tones.
ADI = Adjacent Device Interference
HPF needed on coax in same house as mid/high-split HGW Adjacent home should be okay if coax design is good.

OOB can be replaced by DSG on most devices A Legacy Mitigation Device (LMA) can be used to fix OOB and ADI concerns

if and when they occur.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

32

DOCSIS is defined by:


market requirements, the HFC environment, available technology, and the will and creativity of the DOCSIS community.

DOCSIS is the most successful Ethernet over

Coax technology to date.


DOCSIS can be anything the DOCSIS

community wants or needs it to be.


DOCSIS 3.1 is intended to scale the delivery

of all IP services over the HFC plant and do so in a manner that is competitive with FTTH or any other broadband technologies.

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

33

Date 2012 2012 2012-07

Milestone AMP exploratory committee at CableLabs to determine technology options. MSO CTO Meeting to determine D3.1 direction D3.1 Committee has its first meeting PHY Spec W01 Downstream only MAC Spec W01 Downstream only MAC and PHY Spec W02 Upstream included CM Silicon available. System integration and test. DOCSIS 3.1 CM Product Availability DOCSIS 3.1 CMTS Product Availability

2013-02 2013-03 TBD 2014 2015 2015+

NOTE: Final vendor schedules may differ.


2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34

The Key Takeaways of this presentation were:


DOCSIS 3.1 will scale to 10 Gbps x 1

Gbps
DOCSIS 3.0 can do 1 Gbps in 2013 Cisco is helping to lead this effort. PHY layer is OFDM and LDPC

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

35

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

36

IEEE standardization in process (as compared to Docsis 3.1 standardization in process through Recent agreement that EPON and Docsis 3.1 will utilize the same PHY OFDM with LDPC
Currently EPoC yields greater spectral efficiency when compared to DOCSIS 3.0. This is not the case when evolving to DOCSIS 3.1

MAC and PHY for EPOC will be isolated at the CMC location no QAM sharing across service groups.
Unlike EPoC, DOCSIS QAMs can be shared across multiple service groups

EPOC will not be backwards compatible to SC QAM Docsis


The current investment in DOCSIS QAMs can be leveraged as we evolve to DOCSIS 3.1

Requires dedicated channels and RF spectrum for each technology (Docsis and EPOC)
2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37

The DOCSIS 3.0 and EPoC analysis is focused in four primary areas
1. The similarities and differences of coexistence and backwards compatibility with DOCSIS 3.1 2. Spectrum efficiency of each technology based on assumed bandwidth requirement 3. Physical topology of the fiber and coaxial infrastructure 4. CAPEX estimates based on the assumed evolution of technology and future price declination

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

38

Coax signals must coexist with legacy HFC signals multiple possible solutions

Home
Cable Modem Gateway / STT EPOC Coax Network Unit

7600 Router

CMTS Legacy Transmitter / Reciever 1310 or 1550nm Fiber Node

Node N

EPOC RF

EPON OLT

Opctical Splitter

Coaxial Media Converter


Node 3 Node 2 Node 1
DS US

Optical Line Terminal Chassis

CAT-5

Optical Network Unit

Fiber Network
Fiber plant is a parallel network using standard EPON equipment does not necessarily require an additional fiber (does require some wavelength planning) If DPoE is utilized then EPOC can share CMTS chassis and use common provisioning tools.

Coax Network
Coax Network requires outside plant changes to insert RF signal at the Node and make room for RF signals. Coax network must share RF spectrum with HFC and current services Multiple possible RF spectrum solutions, (i.e. Top Split, High Split)
Cisco Confidential 39

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

8 Wavelength DWDM with dual fiber


New 1550nm Transmitter
1x8 DS DWDM + US Ethernet 1x8 DS Demux 1x8 DS Mux

(requires new RF combining modules in existing node)

Fiber Node
Downstream fiber

DOCSIS+EPOC RF

EPOC RF 750 1.125 GHz


1490nm US

FNs 1-8

OLT PORT 1

1490nm US

1x2
1310nm DS

Expansion Ports

Expansion Ports

1310/1490nm

1x2
1310nm DS

ONU/CMC

1x8 US Deux

1x8 US Mux

OLT PORT 2

1X2

Upstream fiber

FNs 9-16

Optical Line Terminal Chassis


(Serves up to 16 nodes)

1x8 US DWDM + DS Ethernet

Hub
Serves up to 32 Fiber Nodes

Outside Plant
Each node is segmented up to 8x (~128 hhp)

Initially eight fiber nodes are provisioned per 10G OLT Provisioning EPoC still allows the use of all 155x nm wavelengths Each set of 16 nodes requires an additional 10G OLT
2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40

The first and second node segmentations occur in 2015 and 2019 Node segmentation occurs prior to reaching the 1 Gbps threshold 1 Gbps per downstream service group determines the timing for node segmentation

1000 hhp

250 hhp

125 hhp

1000 hhp

250 hhp

125 hhp

The timing of downstream node segmentation causes under-utilization of the upstream spectrum Increasing the downstream threshold would better utilize spectrum in both directions
2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41

The initial EPoC deployment requires a significantly greater amount of Capital investment
The DOCSIS deployment is able to leverage the existing infrastructure The NPV calculation highlights the value of the EPoC investment

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

42

Since EPOC and DOCSIS 3.1 will use the same PHY, there will be no difference in RF Spectrum efficiency between DOCSIS 3.1 and EPOC EPoC is not backwards compatible with DOCSIS and therefore cannot bond with SC QAM (Single Channel QAM) The coexistence of EPoC and DOCSIS requires segregated RF spectrum for both technologies When provisioning 1 GHz EPoC, none of the previous investment in DOCSIS QAMs can be leveraged The initial investment in EPoC is much higher than scaling DOCSIS 3.0 or the evolution to DOCSIS 3.1 Although the total CAPEX for DOCSIS 3.0 and EPoC is similar, the evolution to DOCSIS 3.1 and the value of Capital over time indicates DOCSIS 3.1 is a wise investment
2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43

Thank you.

November 15th 2012


Review with SCTE materials on D3.1 and D3.1 vs EPOC Case Study

September 5th 2012


Flagged INTERNAL ONLY

August 30th 2012:


Slide 12: Added target to the increase in spectral efficiency Slide 13: added remark related to use of earlier D3.0 DS LC Slide 16: Inserted first targets around timing

August 24th 2012:


made correrctions and added comments to slide 9 and 10. Added source reference for figure on slide 14

August 22nd 2012: Initial post

2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

45