The "Lazarillo:" Spain's Most Prestigious Prize for Children's Literature Author(s): M.
Louise Salstad Source: Hispania, Vol. 82, No. 2 (May, 1999), pp. 220-237 Published by: American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/346395 . Accessed: 21/02/2014 05:25
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the "Lazarillo" confirmando la mayoriade las que son hoy indiscutiblesa la evoluci6nde aportaciones la literatura infantil (515). it has been convoked by the Organizaci6nEspafiola para el Libro Infantily Juvenil (OEPLI). of worksthathave won the prizefor the text of highest literaryqualityshows thatamongthe The contentof the prizewinnersoverthe yearsreflectsSpain's fictionpredominates. several of which pertainto the text itself or to the author.children'sliterature. Angela Ionescu. Indeed. sociopolitical presentedhere. has been extremely important in the evolutionof Spanishchildren's literature."hoyconsagrados fueron en su dia galardonados"with the "Lazarillo" (4). twentieth-century Spanishliterature.fivewere
This content downloaded from 117. Since 1986.in an apparent The annotated climateandto balancesuch criteriaas fairnessand practicability.Manyprize-winning liberalization has not escaped in formandcontent.C. sponsored by the de la Infancia) Comisi6nCat61lica Espahiola that have "permanecido con verdadera continuidad"(Comisi6n 5). literature.At first the prize-winning in 1963this hadto be of Spanishnationality.In 1986 espafiola" Maria Sole stated that authors like Montserrat del Amo.' This regula-
tionis understandable.86. was Ofthe thirty-seven born in Romania. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
." The externalconditionsof the prizehave undergonevariousmodificationsover the years. According to Jaime GarciaPadrino." to Latin American openingthe competition and other writers. with the support of the Ministerio de Cultura.Initially the prizewas awardedin three areas:text. Fernando Alonso." Spain'soldest andmost prestigiouscontinuousprizefor children'sliterature.I.234 on Fri. criterionstated only that the workbe writthus ten originally"en lengua castellana.220 HISPANIA 82 MAY 1999
The "Lazarillo:" Spain's Most Prestigious Prize for Children's Literature
M. was created in 1958 by The "Lazarillo" Infantil the Comisi6nde Literatura yJuvenil of the InstitutoNacionaldel LibroEspafiol andfirstconvokedby this bodywith (INLE) the economic supportof the Ministeriode Informaci6n y Turismoand the Ministerio a de Educaci6nNacional.211. prizes Prize. at times together with the Ministeriode Educaci6n y Ciencia.While in the early works couldbe either years.
ter are eligible (Asociaci6n). and CarmenVazquez-Vigo." inaugurated
(Cendan31. createdto stimulatethe productionof good books for young readers. but in 1977this andpublishing. gradual genres. last category was dropped (Asociaci6n).It is the oldest of all the official prizes for children'sand adolescent literature in Spainand is one of the two Spanish nationalprizes in this area (the otheris the Premio C..Externalconditionsof the prizehave effortto adaptto changes in the been modifiedseveraltimes between 1958and the present. Carmen Kurtz. giventhe purposeof writer the prize.E. Key Word:Lazarillo
1958. prizewinningwritersfrom1958to 1998.soon afterits incep"fue descubriendo y tion. LouiseSalstad NorthCarolinaState University
was Abstract: The "Lazarillo.Althoughthe "Lazarillo" children'sliterature throughtheir innovations criticism. narrative authorshave influencedthe evolutionof and openingto the outsideworld. illustration. prize-winning lateronlythe latpublishedor unpublished. the prize awardedto a writerfor the work deemed "demas altacalidadliteraria. the 1963 "Lazarillo" winner.Itwas "destinado estimularla producci6nde buenos libros
in paralos lectores infantilesy adolescentes" Premio "Lazarillo.the prizecontinuesto enjoygreat prestigein both SpainandLatinAmerica. Angela Ionescu. bibliography. 205). The presentarticledeals onlywiththe first.
the However. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.foradolescents. born in Argentina.KingJuanCarlosrescinded again.convocatoriasthat I have seen mentions tion of adjunctcommissions: such a regulation.and in a minimumnumberof words was first es1982-83 the "Ley de Normalizaci6n tablishedin 1961:25. enough. Cupit (1972).is not reflected in won the firstprizein 1975andagainin 1978. As early dificultadque en las condiciones de este in the Spanish afio ha representado para el Jurado la as 1965.Likewise. In 1977 the convoking notewithrespect groupaddeda cautionary to the lema or pseudonym: "sin que en ninguin caso pueda deducirse la personalidadde sus respectivos autores" Libro234:310). in Uruguay." Libro169) influencedby the factthatHildaPererahad This decision.("Anuncio.domicilio cuartilla y telkfono del concursante"("Concurso." a decade later." Delibros 4) to Infantil Literatura y Juvenil distinguishin the futurebetween books for adolescents.000forthose directed Lingtiistica" try.for severalyears beginningin 1961the Ilego y vasco en cuya lengua se hubierarecibidoal. y su funci6n people This a of the 1959jury's was result change sert la de leer la obraescritaen su respectivalengua to Comisi6n de recommendation the seleccionar todos textos de aquellos y susceptibles obtenerel Premio.se constituira supposedto be undersixteenyears of Comisi6nparalas areas lingiiisticasdel catalan.000for texts intended in Catalonia. none of the subsequent convocatoria for 1988announcesthe forma.211. lengua castellana. Afterthe restorationof 484). y que contenga una con el nombre.the criterion was broadenedin 1968 language to include "cualquiera de las lenguas espafiolas".("Reuni6n.si lo desean.that manuscripts be submitted "bajo lema.years Libro169).be("Concurso.the author ginning of the text is allowedthe choice of submitting undera pseudonymor underhis or her la obligatoriedad de presentarunatraduc." Hispania 48: 373).stipulated betweenyoung groupalternated gun original. Interestingly the convocation announcement for 1971 states thataspirants to the prize"podrin. However. the BasqueCoun. the nation'ssingle officiallanguage. acompaiiadosde sobre cerradoen el que del origifigureel mismolemaidentificador en su interior nal.THE "LAZARILLO:" SPAIN'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE FOR CHILDREN'S LITERATURE221
of these regions co-officialwith Castilian (70:313-14).age. and Alcaintara (1987)." eligible los concursantesla convenienciao no de adjuntar di. In 1958the intendedreadersof the text Con el fin de facilitarla labor del Juradoque ha de were el de una discernir Premio escritores. Finally. and has reFranco'spolicythatdesignatedCastilian as mainedthe same to the present. and Doumerc (1987).texts in a Spanish language other than Castilianwere to be accompanied by a translation.items of information de trabajos destinadosa puiblico government publicationEspai~aSemanal calificaci6n indicate a mellowing attitude toward the tan diferente como son los nifios y los Libro20-21: BasqueandCatalan languages ("Hispanic.This resolutionmay have been cha traducci6n. especialistasdesignadospor la OEPLI.apellidos.in 1988. objeto larlanguagesotherthanCastilian. In 1973 the age criterion changed the monarchy. The foregoing variations correspond to andthose for children. acompafiar la correspondiente en traducci6n. Among the decisions of the [s]uprimir ci6n en lengua castellana cuando los originales se Comisi6nde Literatura Infantil y Juvenilin de las demis lenguas espapresentenen cualquiera 1979 that winners must waitfive is previous fiolas.dejandoporconsiguientea la libredecisi6nde to be once again ("Reuni6n.Finally.to younger than fifteen." adolescentes" ("Concesi6n. Vasquez Vigo (1973).and4.own name.ga. the convocatoria until 1985. however.86. Afterthe age of the
born outside Spain: Tiraboschi (1967).Estas Comisionesestarin formadas por to ten fifteen and youngerthan ten." Libro 207: 122).althoughin 1979the Comisi6nde Literatura Infantil y Juvenildecided to
This content downloaded from 117." Anforthe yearsthereafter nouncements return to the previoususe of the verbdeber in place of poder.234 on Fri. and Galiciamade the nativelanguages to childrenunder ten. A new regulationappearedin 1975.alternating between in if laws them "al evitar asi la de changes Spain's regardingpeninsunecessary.
the minimumchanged again. if not greater than. was the smallest. By 1977at the latest. Some members served Escomultipleterms.certain facts or tendencies emerge. in 1985.each served at least four times. author and expert in children's literature.000pesetas. The firstjury. Consejo of INLE.Arque6logos y Documentalistas.234 on Fri.beginningin 1994. unawarded Regulationsregardingthe composition of the juryhave also changed somewhatin the course of years.body for each jurymember:
resentative of the Ministerio de Culturaand paraescritorespresia voting member representing each of the El juradodel Premio'Lazarillo' dido don Rafael directordel INLE.222 HISPANIA 82 MAY 1999
readerswas set atyoungerthanfifteen." Diaz-Plaja y dofiaBlancaCalvo. RosarioG6mez Landero.they were to be chosen by OEPLIand presided over by the Director Generaldel Libroy Bibliotecasor his delegate and. four sections of OEPLI:"Galicia. that of men.The firstjurywas to be formedof threemembersdesignatedby the Comisi6nDelegadade Literatura Juvenile of the de Administraci6n Infantil. Carolina Toral.The next year the members increasedto five.were each on the juryat least six times.men on the juries outnumbered women two to one or three to two.Juriesas earlyas the 1960s included six voting members and sometimes more. for several years. From these reconstructions.Hip61ito andeditor.and Carmen BravoVillasante. and from 1991.The in 1958was 25.Catalufia.while peripheral to the text.. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. The announcementof the awardfor 1984was unusual in the precision of its information. award monetary the followingyear it had doubled.2 However.andin by generalhas increasedconsistently.respectiFrom bits and pieces of information vamente. are certainly important.considerably For manyyears the convocatoria statedexplicitly that the prizes could not remain "desiertos. being consistently10. and in fact. Otherexternalcriteria. and then.untilin 1988 it reached 500. by which time LatinAmericanauthorswere eligible to compete.because by the 1970s the members were fewer.The number of jury memberswas set officially at six by 1991.In general. cluding El LibroEspailol. In the earlyyears of the prizeandapparently throughoutthe 1960s. at least three of whomwere to be membersof the said Comisi6n.andMontserrat del lar. in. the monthly jour.authorof children's books. The eight-member jury for 1967 included three Latin Americans.porla Asociaci6nEspafiola de CriticosLitegleaned from various Spanish journals.ratios y por la Asociaci6n Espafiolade Archiveros. actuallyconsisted of fourteenmembers in additionto the president. I havebeen able to reconstructthe juries.one millionpesetas.In 1979a prizefor the runner-up was established.Since 1988.000pesetashigherfor the latter.500. the latterover a period of two decades or more (19611981). A yearlaterthe convocatoria
nal of INLE.for example. tas.librarian Amo.and othersources.consistingof 100. the monetaryawardalso alternated. opposite ment.A commonpracticehas been to includeone or twoprevious years'prizewinners among the jury members. estuvo integradopor las bibliotecarias dofiaAurora Pais Vasco y Madrid.211. although some years show an exceptionally largenumberof new members.which was also to appointthe remainingtwo. to 5.to 7.86."i.000pesetas.000peseless thanforthe firstprize.with its three members. por Martinez-Als. not awarded for lack of for worthycandidates. which included the specific designating specified that the jury was to include a rep. Bravo-Villasante served from 1964into the 1980s and perhapsbeyond.by the presidentof OEPLI.000 words.during the years in which the prize alternatedbetween works for children and for adolescents.there seems to be a tendencyto balanceold andnew members from year to year. partiallyor entirely. however. Such a large body must have proved unwieldy.el
This content downloaded from 117.the minimum extensionfornarrative appearsin of 35 terms folios: double-spaced typed folio pages in thatyear. the prize did go in 1979and 1993.historianandcriticof children's literature.the number of women was often equal to.librarian.The announcement makes the state1977.designadas. and fiftyin 1994.e. The jury for 1964.Bibliotecarios.
the sponsibility five membersof the juryfor 1959examined 46 works. Juradodiscuti6con detenimiento sobre cada una de estas obras.foundedin 1940the Gabinete de LecturaSantaTeresa de Jesuis. or IBBY (International Board on Books for Young People).211. journalist. The choice of ("Premios.don Miguel MartinFernandezde Velasco.I am somewhatreluctantto specify age groupsforwhich a book is appropriate. 607)
withtheir Previousto or contemporaneous serving on the jury.sometimesby majority.234 on Fri. Two years later (1961)the juryof six reduced the number of candidates to seven on the firstvote. concertedeffortto promotewhatthey considered meritorious children's books. followed by a brief discussion of trends and innovations perceptiblein them.
This content downloaded from 117. togetherwith an overview of possible relationships between changes in contentof the prizewinnersand the changing socio-political context of Spain. of the difficulties the juries and the Comisi6n confronted. queactu6de secretario. must have been. for example. and the level of cognitive and emotionaldevelopment amongyoungreadersof the same chronologicalage varies a good deal. from which they chose six for "El furtherdeliberation.Forinstance.publisher.This problemmay explain why the two categorieswere eventuallyrecombined. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
." they unanimouslyagreed to discuss eight and then proceeded to vote seven times Libro54: 170). Although from 1961 to 1972 the prize was supposed to alternatebetween books for children aged ten to fifteen and for those younger than ten. Nevertheless. of the Consejo Superior de Mujeres de Acci6n whichengagedin a consistentand Cat61lica. CarmenOlivareswas one of three women who instigatedthe establishmentof a bookstore dedicated exclusively to children's books.voting members have practiced such professions as author of worksfor children. don Jesus MayorVal. Premio'Lazarillo-1983' paraescritores.y don Fernando Cendain. A good numberof jurymembershave held important positions in national or international organizations like the aforementioned INLE.el expertoen literaturainfantily pedagogo. educator. have been members of the clergy. 118). after "amplio cambio de impresiones. in presented when.scholarof children'sor otherliterature. eliminating one of the seven with each vote. jefe del Departamentode Difusi6n del Libro 263: ("Concurso. thus delaying its reaching the hands of young readers." the prize-winning book was sometimes unanimous.86. One challenge. an effortthatresultedin the Libreria Talentumin 1958 (Cendan267.balancing ness andthe public'sperceptionof fairness Anotherchallenge was with practicability.and civil servant. la quedar triunfante la titulada El 20Libro y elgato"("Concesi6n. Reportsthat appearedin the press for some of the earlierprizewinnersprovidea few moredetailson the workingsof the jury and suggest that members took their reveryseriously. the juries seem not to have followed this policy consistently." INLE. editor. When one reviews the variouschanges in the regulations concerningthe prize. Writers may have delayed submitting a workto a publisher untilthe year completed in which it was eligibleforthe competition.A few librarian.for those who mayfind some guidance helpful.with 18 titles proposed
for consideration by the members. que fueronsiendo eliminadashasta niUo. parael Libro designadoporla Organizaci6n Espafiola Infantil. then voted six more times.WhatI do wish to providehere is an annotatedlist of the books. order to give separate recognition to books written for children and those for adolescents. Several spearof forthe promotion headedearlyinitiatives in Isabel children'sliterature Spain. since manybooks may be read in different ways.one some at least speculatively. with respect to fairthe numberofjurymembers. Space constraints preclude a detailed of the individual analysis or interpretation works. the two groups of books were judged in alternateyears.THE "LAZARILLO:" SPAIN'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE FOR CHILDREN'S LITERATURE223
donLauro escritor Olmo. I have included a
general designation indicating whether I consider a book more accessible to children or adolescents. In 1962. through catalogues and other means. can appreciate." golondrina 21: 483). for example. Nifio.designadopor y dramaturgo la Asociaci6nColegialde Escritores.
severalmisbehaving ligious education classes in the schools. are honored as heroes. (Children) (Children) of the Florecillas de San Adaptation Duringthe sea creatures'celebration Francisco deAsis andintendedforuse in re.El ninio. 1959. smallfryarejailedbutrescuedby one of the Among the twenty-twochapters are such princesses.86.perhaps aftertheirexile. boy's adventurous journeythroughforest. Montserratdel. Pitin.she 1960 Amo.breakshis who travelswithhisjuglaruncle fromtown leg in the river. tonishment. to ride." beauty of the creatures that inhabit each folktalesor "real When he and his faithful asks to three sphere. Carmen. the youngest learns from them how to make cars and angel in heaven andnotverygood atflying.Concha. where he contemplatesthe reverse conventional perspectives of Inthe titlestory. companjoin boys atplayin a vacantlot. and sold to a God's loving gaze enables him to fly with gentleman in the city so his son can learn ease. sleighs fromthreadspools andtoothpicks. the boy he has come to love. Rastrode Dios says simply that she is from the farthesty otroscuentos. Fiesta en Marilandia. their constellationsappearin the surprisedat their refusal.Anaya.la golondri1963 Ionescu. They raise and contributemoney to menwhen they arecampedoutsideBurgos save himfromthe slaughterhouse andlater
This content downloaded from 117. realisticandfantastic. Roco.The boy learns to read above. awaywhen the stablescatchfire.. is spoiled and unkind. is entrusted with by Godduringthe creation an extra star. her countryboys and girls alwaysplay together. Alfonso.Roco runs throughthe eyes of the orphanedGabriel. 1959 Bufiuel.but the colt tames him 1961 AguirreBellver. When Alvar Fatfiezhears the PRIZE WINNERS "LAZARILLO" verses the boy has composedaboutthe Cid.Miguel. (Children) The fantasticand poetic accountof a Doncel. sky. In the and "Laobedienciaes ma'sque course of the rescue.he is.234 on Fri. they visit the sun and columpio.Doncel.they abandonedit in 1973.224 HISPANIA 82 MAY 1999
Indeed. andwitnessessome of their in partforthe veryreasonsI havesuggested other adventures. is separatedfromTon. and to write verses in order to become a trovador.Dicen las florecillas. (Children) Fifteenstories.and is rescued by the chilto town.who performsfor the hero andhis dren. and rather representative "San Francisco monta el primer thanbeing punished.Askedwhatcountryshe is from. Doncel. 1960." la oraci6n.a girl life. Color de fuego. (Children) awaycountryof all.Rastrode Dios." see things no one else in Marilandia ever has or will see. She is houses ions. cat.The boys eventuallylet of stories distinct her Three angels quite join in play. 1958. submerged making the lake.1961.as the primeminister nacimiento.Cid." portunity to return the favor. Eljuglardel with care andgentleness andis the vehicle Cid.. Gerona: Dalmau. the title story.." "FrayJunipero juega en el would wish.Aftercenturies of sitting and 1964 Kurtz. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.Lumen.AngelaC.Joaquin. to his as. The new child owner.while she periods.sent by Godwiththe same star to guide the Magi to the newborn Child. (Children) A colt. De un pals lejano.of the SpringEquinox.observingthatin heavens.1964.211.they learnfromher how to in theirplots andset in different In build houses thatwilllast longer. 1962. 1960. Laterthe childrenhave the optitles as "Elhermanolobo. and lake. holding the star carefully. 1962 Fernindez-Luna. nay el gato. a swallow and a in are out of moist earth. he inviteshim to Valencia. 1958 Iniesta Corredor. (Adolescents) forPitin'smakingfriendswiththe poorchilThis is a visionof the periodof the Cid dren who visit Roco regularly.
In "Aries. never sees the beautifulbird or hears its not have the heart to frighten the birds.
1968 Ferrin.Returning to heaven. 1967. One
This content downloaded from 117. tasy aboutthe life of a scarecrow. Jose Javier. Unhappy [I was unableto locate a copy of this Evenwhen he learnsof the dangersof such book or determinepublication information a life. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.Don Ram6nthinksthe here. where he later hides an escaped prisoner.because of a split in the wood from which he was 1969 Aleixandre. in one of the catalogsof the Gabinete horse has broken apartbecause it was de.he has unknowinglycreated.LaGalera. His descenHe asks the moon to take him with her and give him her light so that he can see the world and love it. but when the time comes.
dant. "Libra" recounts that among the toys in the children's room. therefore. The cat and a cricket also travelled alone to Peru in search of gold and silver for their master but did not find any. who adopt. roundis unlikethe others in that.Alcoy: Marfil. Froildn. 1970. (Children) reassuredregardingthe new.he presents to the Lordthe flowersgiven him 1966 Osorio. They all attendhis funeral.1966. his head is slightly twisted and he amigo de los pdjaros.1965.211. Ana Maria. (Children) Juji is left on the doorstep of three spinster sisters.Inhis attempt to find the man. In his seventh life the cat fulfills his promise to write the true story of the two explorers. to the Regaderaregion.Inthe atticJujtihas his ownworld witha sailingshipcalledthe "Ulises.Marta.He travels.Doncel. where he rescues a kidnapped girl and stops a cockfight. 1968 looks upward instead of straight ahead.the ancestor had gone on an Englishramawakensto the factthatthe the expedition of Don Juan Diaz Solis to worldis not onlya menacebut also a promwhat is now Uruguay.with a tragicresult (Gabinete123). 1967 Tiraboschi.whom he feeds and helps cure.
Alvar Nifiez Cabeza de Vaca to Asunci6n. andhe decides to seek its explanation. new song.where he sells all the newspapers for a street urchin. Twelve stories of fantasy.and later with Don ise. [accordingto World Catalog]. and educate him. Angel en Colombia.] It is poetic fanwho does fective.86. where he assures an image of the Virginthat her darknessmakes her all the better for her Indianpeople. El polizdn del "Ulises.explainthe originof the Castilian andreadsit to them.234 on Fri. to the Vaupes. the manuscript. persuades his master to sell the story both for financialmotives and to help school children. whomhe has volar. translated miracletakes place. Jaime.THE "LAZARILLO:" SPAIN'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE FOR CHILDREN'S LITERATURE225
decideto let him returnto the ranchandhis first master. where he secures doctorsforchildrenin the hospital.Historiadelgato que 1970 Sadot Perez. Fernando." Lumen. Madrid: Doncel.The two make plansto run away and sail the seas. (Children) writtenby an ancestorof the householdcat. (Children) Some mice discover a manuscript Zodiaco. and a but did find a brief summary.Lita.Juji'nearlydrownsbut is savedby the stowaway. his desire is as strong as ever.he doesn't look up and.Accordingto signs of the zodiac.each set in who translates it from old to modern a different country. El caballitoquequeria by a gardenerfromZipaquiri. 1965 Matute.1970.Aguilar.3(Children) The angel who first appears as protagonist in Angel en Espaiia is sent to Colombia to carry out various missions throughoutthe country.(Children) withhis life. he longs to flyfreely. the man he had stowed awayfails to meethim as agreed. to the Amazon region. el made.with a passage to the outside. the translator. palervariety Onehorse on Don Ram6n's merry-go. Cuentosdel vino con Solis. who sacrificeshis chance to escape by returningthe boy to his aunts." for example.for instance. the elephant and the cat are enemies and eventually create factions among the others." There he discoversa secret panelandroom.de SantaTeresa de Jesus.to BogotA.love.
1971 Puncel. freedom. he demands
1977 Alonso.his childhelper."Elloropel6n.including a windowful of weapons.
foraccumulated damages. They atthe lastmoment aresavedfromdrowning by simultaneously leaping onto the two pans of the toy scales.and personalfulfillmentvisa-vis responsibilityfor others. 1978. In the last the Smithstakea parstory. each in his own house.226 HISPANIA 82 MAY 1999
day when the two are fighting in the sink. both realistic and fantasall tic. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. treat such themes as personal freedom and self-realization. (Adolescents [Publishers say 10 yrs. but frequentlyvisit each other andgatheras a group.others realistic. some fantastic.freest." Citygives Amerin.Operaci6n 1971." rothome withthemto ChicagofromPuerto Rico. Alfaguara.211. Juven1975. Later.500 pesetas. (Children) grandes. Cuentos para chicosy 1976. as the model for theirworld. the childrenare surethey willend up injail. Losbatautos. andgreenest tree. Cuentosdel aino2100.Mifi6n. as well as Gusi. Hilda.The mainfiguresare good friends:Peluso. 1973. The Smithsreturnthem. Life is not without its problems. Caramelos de menta. Pata de Oso.small with earson the top of their creatures green heads. for his grumpiness. 1973.dealwith such themes as identity. Consuelo. 1975 Perera. Don Ron.set at repayment The enterprisinggroup at1.A planto use the childrenas bait to lure the spies into a trap turns into more of an adventurethan Elizabeth because four-year-old anticipated used some ofthe compound has unwittingly to refillthe paw of her toy bear.however.86.Maria.000peseta reward. the parrots. relationships. (Children) The batautos are good natured.
1972 Cupit. Carmen. after anotherto earnthe one scheme tempt short-lived. (Children) A gang of children adopt a dog of no particular breed. and mutual respect through transformations wrought by children in a world that has Inthe last story. and Erito. (Children) twinsandtheirlittle Thirteen-year-old sister spenda few dayswiththeirgrandparde Nutrici6n. The GreatSage gives all the childrena similar lanternbecause he is convincedno one will 1976 (Not convoked) make better use of it. They live in the forest."La become dehumanized. askingthe Puerto Rican shop owner to find the parrotsthe tallest. ents atthe Base Experimental where their grandfather and uncle are among the scientists testing a formulafor with a view to growingfood hydroponically An world hunger. communal solidarity. Eight stories. into tools. the thinker.When the parrotbegins pluckingout its ownfeathersbecause of loneliness.with happyresults at first.Oceanina.lovable Buu. When the toys have all made peace. Doncel. known for his awkwardness. and openness
This content downloaded from 117. each is but Just when money. the faucet is accidentallyturned on. is their elderly and self-proclaimed king. tud.African.a magic lantern that converts things into other things. play. the wealthy owner of the dog appearsand pays them a 5.The boy and his friendsAsiana. but mattersalmost alwaysend satisfactorily. (Children) Nine stories of science fantasy celebrate nature. 1974 Armijo. begin pluckingeach other'sfeathers. somewhat disoriented but ultimately wise. international eliminating to is spy ring trying steal the compoundfor less than honorablereasons. Doncel. the clown suggests they take the balance.234 on Fri. El hombrecito vestido de gris y otros cuentos. who upsets several dozen cartons of eggs in Don Joaquin's store. using theirown atoms. for whom all toys have equalweight.Aaron.and transform Europia manyobjects.they send for a mate. Fernando.+]) Eight stories. the GreatSage of the linternaatomaigica. Doncel.
1973 Vtzquez Vigo. When the children accidentally burn a hole in the storekeeper's awning. peace.unwillingfor their expected offspring to be born in a cage. socio-political allegories.
CorneliusBerzhot. the man. The second story. solves the problemby tying a cloth around his jaw and feigning an eternal toothache.his brother supports him instead of tattling. 1984.accordingto another. Espasa-Calpe. thanks to the grandfather'simagination. all of which present problems. rejected by his annoyed neighborsandthreatenedwith dismissalat work. and cat. dog. They are about to be trapped alive when his return to consciousness counteracts the quake's energy and the family's mares and colts.211. His adventuresare interrupted by various intrusionsof quotidian whichhe imreality. include such themes as self-acceptance. mediately incorporates into his fantasy.he manages to reach a differentworld.Noguer.Joan Manuel. Hilda. some realistic..in contactwithhim tin.is pasturing
lodged in one of his molars.Afterproposinga horse.In the other.
1980 Gisbert.including folktale. and he proves a resoundingsuccess. The battle is definitivelywon when their mothertells them theirfatherwillbe home that night and will probably not need to leave home againto look for work. realizingone's dreamswithinrealistic parameters. (Children) Six stories.234 on Fri. supper. 1983.solidarityin the face of inworkandplay. Podria ser que una vez. Accordingto one ending.THE "LAZARILLO:" SPAIN'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE FOR CHILDREN'S LITERATURE227
to the widerworld. 1978 Perera.In the justice. SM. 1979 (Firstprizeleft vacant)
produces an escape route to the surface. and he finallycanno longerkeep fromspillingover into song. Jose Antoniodel. reveal that Cornelius has fulfilled the original challenge andthe legend of the UniversoSur.Noguer.Everest. and a visit by the caretakerto delivera complaint. in the last chamber. (Children) Ernesto is playingwith soldiers and imagininga battlein which he is a captain. K. sive worldin which they had both been living." is an allegoricalfantasy."Elrobotdespistado. 1982 Mateos. (Children) The first of the two stories mixes realismwithfantasy. he is caught and convertedinto an electricwashingmachine. is persuadedby a journalist friendto enter a conto resolve the test greatest enigma of all time.see not onlya tankerbut its whole worldin a bottle. In the undergroundlabyrinthelaboratedby the mysteriousMr.. 1981 Cafiizo.El misteriode la isla de Tikland." an eight-year-old Dominican boy from a poor urbanfamily dreams of possessing an animal. (Adolescents) Novel of adventurethat incorporates severalothergenres.Nico andhis two grandchildrenlook forwardto their visits at the old folks' home because they have such wonderful adventures. In one of the two endings provided. The mares wound the wolf so badly that Pabluras is moved by compassion and little by little finds himself committed to feeding the wolf until he is healed enough
This content downloaded from 117.andenigma. 1981. myth. descendant of eminent explorers.he decides on a little turtle.Kazatzkian on the desert islandof Tdkland. aided for a time by a team of seven 1983 Fernandezde Velasco. 1981. Miguel Marexpertsin variousfields. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.The protagonistof the title story is an office workerwhose life is routineandgrey butwhose inner outwardly life is filled with color and music.othersfantastic. (Adolescents) from their boat via a tiny electronic radio WhilePabluras."Kilo. The papers left by Mr.he passes the three preliminary tests andproceedson his quest.The three go huntingforyawns.Lascosasdel abuelo.an orchestradirector contractshim for the operaseason..When a young robot discovers that his father has been he attempts to escapethe oppresscrapped. 1982. legend. a starving wolf appears in search of food for his mate and pups. Pabluras. The labyrinth is destroyed by an earthquake.andeffecta temporarysuspensionof the law of gravity. fourteen. Capitanesde pldstico. To Ernesto'ssurprise. but. the team finds Cornelius in a mystical trance. andbalancing first story.86. They include argumentswith his brother. Pilar.
1988. ocultoy los espiritusde la tarde. Every liness is made more tolerableby his vivid night he sees a mysteriousgalleon. seeking release for a fisherman who was imprisoned for fishing with forbiddenequipment. who arranges a meeting on board his yacht.he searches for him to the cave he inhabits in the higher andfindsthe galleon. DonWenceslaodecidesto putan end to the Anaya. An English captain leads an expedition to recover the treasure from the Spanish galleons.86.He wrestles with his conscience manytimes but always decides that he must continue to help the wolf.phenomena. ar. He makes a deal with the English to recoverandsharea cofferofgold.Amigojoins them all. By concession of the Spanish government. This is the first of a series of moves.5%of the treasure's value.El tesoro destructionby developers. Antillean Miguel's Amigo.El juego del When thirteen-year-old Miguel's pirata.describing the activityin Vigo at the end of the Span1984 L6pez Narviez. When the wolf is eventually seen and hunted down by the villagers. Ricardo. Galicia.which imagining of the former inhabitants. mutualfriendsandhelpers.Uncuento grandecomouna casa. they destroy. JavierDiosdado. Noguer. del capitdn Nemo.tired of the city. captain withwhichhe rescues his father.his is cleared of a false accusation of man.Francisco. Designationof the cavernin which their sarcophagiare found as a historical slaughter. But the English seek permission to use dynamite to raise the ships.The book ends twentyyears later.His friendtakes professorand two friends. Their last
This content downloaded from 117. Noguer.arousingMiguel'sfear and nationality. Doumerc. just right for Dofia Felicidad's aromatic herbs. and lonethe island of La Infantina. hillsfrom monument savesthe surrounding 1985 ClimentCarrau. Laterthe three move into a house with twelve flowerbeds. to be become born on in and had been the island and fallen restored. The tocratic father andmulattomother.228 HISPANIA 82 MAY 1999
to fend for himself.
from the famous French novelist Jules Verne.son of anarisits and alive memories.Afterhis name love with the daughterof the governor. (Children) The painter employed by Dofia depredations by seekers of sunkentreasure to painther kitchenends up paintFelicidad in the Bay of Vigo. 1985. El amigo ish-American War.spends ings keeping task is made the aid of summer on the before daunting lighter by beginninguniversity an unseenfriend. and Beatriz (Adolescents) Assisted by his pupil Pepe Varela. Fernando.but the Navy's lack of response prompts Pepe's friend Brunoto take mattersinto his own hands. which will destroy them.butwhen Miguellearnsthatthe of clues leads to their discoverythatthe piwho young people have come to restore. 1986.211. Novel of adventurethat incorporates grandfather is determined to stayin the abandoned town historicalelements and parapsychological to carryon the workof maintaining its build. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. with his Together history that he will be discovered. Noguer. Don Wenceslao asks help ing the whole house and marrying her daughter. each for a different reason.now in America.The wolf leaves the pupin the boy's care. with a letter from Pepe to Bruno. each house unique in itself or because of what happens there.A series sheepfolds. the expedition will receive 43.eighteenth-century pirateof unknown riveandset upcamp.but also pilferfromthe neighbors.sunkin 1713. A provesto be the ship of a seventeenth-and name group of young people.234 on Fri. 1985. (Adolescents) the boy is killedin a windstorm. 1987 Alcintara. Concha. MeanwhileDon W. To do so he must not only give up many of his own meals and hunt all sorts of small wild creatures. not ratewas a MoorishancestorofJavier's. who by now trusts and relies on him and has even defended him from a fox. has written the Ministryof the Navy. (Adolescents) 1986 MartinezGil. Pabluras managesto lead him andone of the pupsto safety.enemy.
1990 FernandezPaz.he is seduced by an extraordinarysum of money and abandons both childrento theirfate. year of an Indianrevolt against the Britishthat is motivatedby orders contradictingreligioustradition. Cuentos por in Galician: palabras. (Adolescents) A headhuntinggroup hires popular writersof children'sbooks to createads for them.The maharanibelieves it will ensure the participation of manyas yet undecidedIndianstates.they set off Reaching in a smallboat towardKanpur." maharani's soldiers.sharedwithneighvisits from Abuelo's birds and bors. Manuel.the bookconsistsof eight brief stories and an introduction which exthat the life of the plains daily ordinary person. Por un maldito anuncio.is caughtin the uprisingwhile in the streets of Lucknow. when the boy askedhim to writea storyhe wantedto give his friendfor her birthday.Noguer. El rubi del Ganges. pants family gatherings Dofia Felicidad's grandchildren. several times nearly caught by the caso del unicornioazul. share their memories of all their houses.which the pointof departure also have in commona sense of humorand the presentation of the quotidian at the momentin which it is invadedby the erupthe children are separated from Svapiti and tionof the fantastic(57).86. Amongthe many is dangersthey undergo questioningby the maharani ofJhansi.especiallycreative children whose brains they drain and whose values they distort. a splendidruby. Since they cannot return it without endangeringtheir lives. The afterwordindicates that the manuscript. 1989. not realizing its significance.Xerais. in which the author purportsto be leaving on a long tripof unknowndestination aftergiving his manuscript to a friend. 1990. with the aim of discovering.necessitatedby a flood. These ads are palabras" forthe stories. (Adolescents) To paraphrase partof the description of EquipoPeonza.son of Captain Curtis.211. 1988 Alfonseca Moreno. Twelve-year-old John.he attemptsto rescue the boy with the aid of a girl who is Matias'sclose friend.Forexample.a boy withwhomhe has been communicating.a leaderof the rebellion. never the object of the headlines. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.When the protagonist learns what has happened to Matias. He also speaks of the fortune he has amassed. creating one unique and marvellous home. John secretly intendsto get to another garrisonto seek reinforcementsfor the British besieged in the official residence. daily and attract many occudelight everyone with At children. (Children) Historicalnovel of adventure set in 1857. withwhomhe leaves the city. now grown. MiguelAngel.in "El who the narrator. After the three have been allowed to go their way.they find a littlegirl. Originally Contos porpalabras.THE "LAZARILLO:" SPAIN'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE FOR CHILDREN'S LITERATURE229
move. to whom the descendantof the mogul emperorhas sent his seal. In a house whose English inhabitants have been killed. Seeing a boat about to runs a successfulmarriage agencywiththe overtake them.Svapiti. John decides possession of the rubymay help him prevent the catastropheintimatedby the maharani. On the way
1989 Mendo. is nevertheless reflectedin the section of the newspaper known as "anuncios por or classified ads.SM. in the vicinityof those writers. John discoversthat Kumarihas taken the ruby. and his wife's leaving him. He manages to escape with Kumari from a small blue unicornseeking a mate in hopes of preservingtheir disappearing and is eventually reunited with his father. a storyabouta boy anda monster. John drops the ruby in the aid of the latest technology.is to an apartment providedby the government.He is saved fromdiscovery and death throughthe kindness of the holy man.receives a visit water. disguised as a native. the Ganges. However.234 on Fri.
This content downloaded from 117. Agustin. whom they take with them disguised as an Indianthey dub Kumari.as a sign of his supportfor the war.SM. is the fulfillmentof a promise the writerRafaelMendomadeto Matiasin its initialpages.There DofiaFelicidad's plants.This conclusion explainsdetailsrevealedin the preliminary note. 1991. now a book.
her father learns that the double. When both her first and secondplansfail. Her quest takes them to the mountains of Boz.is a golem.a studentof computerscience. (Children) Theatrical workthatplayswith some of the classic fairyand horrortales. 1993 (Firstprizenot awarded) 1994 Cano Peir6. amongother things. producers seek is spontaneity.Sure that espionageis involved. Enrique.tells them the secret of the creation of a golem and its liberation. pelo cepillo. where Cusai. a being who was once also a golem but was freed from his servitude.1992. (Adolescents) Thanksto MaijaVarela. her in to star ads are pare daughter spot the since what counterproductive. However. with whom she makes her escape.230 HISPANIA 82 MAY 1999
of keys species.Brufio. When aftera gruelling trek through the desert they reach her home.becoming a being with human feelings. In the scenes a policeman arrests in succession a Little Red Riding Hood very capable of defending herself. but when she dies twenty years later he bestows the kingshipon anotherand goes to the mountains of Bozto die. witha false script. Carles. Caperucita! Brufio. andan epilogue.directorand scriptwriterof the immensely popularTV program "Devuelveme el anillo. 1993. (Adolescents) The princess Jezabel.who will never become a person or control its own destiny and who will live only as long to help as its creator. whom he names Jared.1995. Francisco.her companypresident charges Maijawith the task of devising a control system.The protagonists of the ads are SnowWhite and Cinderella.determined behind his superhumanenergy. live eternally.86. Spiderman appliesfor a job as a windowwasher.With the help of her thirteen-year-old nephew Flipper. she learnsthatthe computeron whichshe composes containsa viruschip andthatthe engineer who installed it has been dictating her scriptsto one of the actors on the rival program via radio with the aid of filters.usingthe alphabet he had received from Cusai.
who promote cleaning products. and one of the Three Little Pigs dressed like
This content downloaded from 117. is part of the booty from a caravan attacked by the soldiers of the
powerfulruler of the city of Sibrihm.He marries Jezabel and becomes king.Devuelvemeel anillo. entrapsthe culprits Maija
and Flipper installs an antivirus protector in her computer. pelo cepillo. become a man. possible. Inotherstoriesa duplicator is asked to producethe key of happiness. as well as Frankenstein and Dracula. 1991 Piez. 1992 Diaz Guerra.five scenes that alternatewith fourads. a being createdby a managainstthe positiveorder of natureandin offenseof divinelaws.a manicuristis paidhandsomely to attendto the nails of a werewolf. Jaredis eventuallyfreed fromthe powerof his master.234 on Fri. Brufio." Channel 12 is about to become to allof Spainandthus ableto comavailable with the majorchannels. two employeesin a companythatmanufactures neon lightingforbusinesses arefired for changingthe requested designs to others they considermoreappropriate andcrea mother's determined efforts to preative. a Puss in Boots who has turned boot thief. and a rarebook seller seeks a book called the Librode las infinitashistoriasbecause its story changes with each reader. El alfabeto de las 221 puertas. iTe pille.Jezabelis determined if doom his Jaredescape and. It consists of a prologuein which a televisiondirectorinsists on showinga traditional fairy tale narrator how she has modernizedthe characters.a pete rival channel begins presenting identical formon its own program. her companion-antagonist the Wolf. plots in parodical broadcasta half hour earlier. but to learnthe secret the princess.the same one used in his creation. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. heiress of the kingdom of Assuan. discovers the existence of a double.211. though he is not a man since he can.Maija resigns andsets out to clearher nameof the accusationthatshe is selling the plots to the competitor.The newadsheik plansto espousethisbeautiful ditionto his harem in just a few days. forajob a candidate with a manufacturer of coffinsprovesto be a vampire.
"Sergio is afraidof the darkand the strange sounds he hears when he is in bed.she is made a servantto the uncle. Sergio realizes he must break the agreement and eat in order to save his friend's life.havingsufferedmanyperilsbutfinally successful in their endeavors. She and her prince marry six months later and have seven children. As the foregoing synopses indicate. 1997. 1997 CansinoMacias. and when they fail to
return. roughly speaking. and took them home.He will eat up all the food on Sergio'splateeveryday. unknownuntil now ("Resefia").1998. forheroic exploitsbut in factfor apparently deeds of mercyhe has performed.Brums. The girl's parents return after a absence. his father went to the hunterand retrievedthem. Deciding into which generic category a text or collection of texts falls is sometimes difficult. Los zapatos de Murano. However.Inthe secondstory.234 on Fri. Butwhen the littleman becomes so fat that he can barelywalk or talk. the group of texts treated here can be said to include twelve examples of the short story.Eliacer. three
This content downloaded from 117. Nevertheless.86. The baby is left in the custody of her uncle and a nurse when her parents undertake ajourney to the East in search of fortune. whom he rescued by winning a bet and whom he married.211. Angelica sees him andknowsher life belongs to him forever.including her mother'sglass slippers. his new wife (a widow with sufficientfortune to pay his debts) and two stepdaughters. 1995 Zafra Jose.to the desperation of his mother. Madrid:Siruela. fio. (Adolescents) Fictitiousversionof the historicaloriof tale. (Children) These are two stories that blend fantasy andreality." Sergiohas troubleeating. Tres historias de Sergio]. due to arrive in a separate flotilla.When he returnsto Venice after gaining great wealth and reputation. I hadnotyet been ableto obtaina copyofthis novel.andSergio must let him do so.Dianesirecognizes her immediately andreturnsher love. When the boy realizedhe preferredthose noises to the ones he then began to hear emerging from inside himself. I include here notes taken from reviews in CLIJ. in part because the format may be that of a picture book. princess in her own country.Anoldhunterofnoises gathered allthe strangesoundsin his bedroom. In spite of her great happiness. the policeman gives up andall ends happily with the wedding of Red RidingHood and the Wolf.] The novel recountsthe exevents that take place around traordinary in the last Velazquez years of his life and the strange circumstances that explains of the painting known surround the creation It is narrated the as "LasMeninas. Miguel Angel." by prothe child-dwarf tagonist.the "Lazarillo" has been awardedto texts of diverse genres. put them in his sack. who is playingwith the dog in the painting andwhom destinychooses to carryout the most surprisingof missions.Inthe first.Angelica is the daughterof the impoverished younger son of the Baronof Aquileaand an Indonesian
captive.on the dayof the dux's twenty-year ball."Elhombrecillo de la comida. Angelica does not forget to leave in the gondola at midnightto go to meet her father.THE "LAZARILLO:" SPAIN'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE FOR CHILDREN'S LITERATURE231
Rambo and seeking vengeance for the death of his brothers.Angdlicais sent to the ball in splendidattire. [Original 1996. althoughpoetryis noticeably absent. (Adolescents) [At the time I finished this article. Historiasde Sergio Castro."Elcazador de ruidos. set in the Venice gin the Cinderella of the late twelfthcentury. much against the wishes of his first-born twin brother.His problem seems to be resolvedthrougha deal made with the gluttonouslittle man who lives in a cupboarddrawer. The love of a handsomecrusaderwith whom she has a fleeting and magical encountergives Angelicastrengthto hold on to her dreams. Bruiio. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. since he doesn'tknowthe way out of the woods and can'tbribe any of the others to show him.NicolasPertusato.El misterio Veldzquez. 1996 Fernaindez-Pacheco. His father resolves his fears with a story of his own boyhood fear of the dark andits sounds.
Froildn.whichhad a decade earlier condemned the regime. Spain joined UNESCO at the end of 1952 ("Hispanic. erature. three of pure fantasy.)Of the largest group.novelsoffantasy.I have omittedit from this tabulation. Such is the case with the 1967.la reinserci6n de nuestro (Garrido pais en el conciertointernacional" 69).Thatis. ten are novels of contemporaryrealism."
This content downloaded from 117. children havea bookthatallowsthemto dream(14).the limitationson liberalizationand openness were still very much in evidence for some time to come. como verdadesinamovibles.Forexample.nineteennovels.five." For the first time in many decades.as Garcia Padrino had not observes. vadatambienporel Ilamado (1945periodo autdrquico
como alaislamiento internacional reacci6n 1951). infrastructure. One of manyeffortstowardand signs of a new dignitybeing accordedto literature for young people was the creation of the "Lazarillo" to critics.Worksfor childrenpublishedbetween 1939 and 1945displayeda
notablepredominio de la exaltaci6nde los valoresfamiliares. fromchanges in the sociocultural climateof Spain.. Nevertheless. The blend of realism and fantasyin the same text is more characteristic of works published since 1980.with Spain'sadmissionto the UnitedNations. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.andfour. simply interruptedbut reversedto a greatextentthe evolutionthat was already literatakingplacein children's in both and a content ture. Among the short stories is one exampleof and religiouslegend. fantasy.in the last analysis.were severelycensored (43:614). loss that took several decades to recuperate. foreign newspapers were periodically
seized as they arrived in order to prevent circulation within Spain of any news of protest against Franco's policies (44: 160-61).232 HISPANIA 82 MAY 1999
novelettes.211. This new openness and some degree of economic improvementcontributedto the beginningof a profound changein Spanish society.Four prize-winning collectionsincludesome realisticandsome fantastic stories.According of the winners of this prize have been influential in setting trends in Spanish children'sliteraturethrough their innovations in formand content. The SpanishCivilWar. with corresponding cultural in the areaof children'slitmanifestations. among others (Garcia Padrino 513). This that tendencyis one of manydevelopments can be seen as deriving. bondad/maldad. in the words of Garcia Padrino.one of sciencefantasy.for example.234 on Fri. 1986.AnabelSaiiz the affirms that Ripoll vocabularyof this herbook for childrenis radically different. a novel may include elements that make problematic its unqualified classification as any one of these types.The novelettes comprise two fantasies and one blend of realistic and fantastic elements. In 1955. realismis associated more with novels.86.As earlyas 1959 winnerEl ninko. meritedthe prize "comoestimuloen favor de la renovaci6n infantil" (519). with shorter fiction. many of them apparentlyinnocuous. the of the alding disappearance conceptsof Dios. but again.many prize.entendidos "Patria. and one play. Respected writers and intellectuals who had returned to Spain from exile were forced to leave again or were arrested and imprisoned for criticism of the regime inside or
Between 1952 and 1955 Spain initiated some intellectual liberalization and opening to the international political scene with the "rupturadel cerco" imposed by the victorious powers of World War II. historical novels. she says.one Menippean satire of a type. "[s]e culmina.a largenumberof books published by Mexico's Fondo de Cultura Econ6mica. nuestra (498-99) y de nuestra
Hispania59:916). three. stories that blend realityand fantasy. (Not having seen the 1969 prize winner. que motivaba la bfsquedade las raicesoriginarias de historia cultura.. and 1989 prize winners. as various notes in '"The Hispanic[andLuso-Brazilian] World"section of Hispania make clear.dentrode un modelo de vida presididopor una marcadaorientaci6nreligiosay por un obligado cantoa los valores hist6ricosdel pasadoimperialde intencionalidad fue aviideol6gica Semejante Espafia. el amigode lospdjaros. "pretendiaromper con los moldes hasta entonces habituales en la literatura dedicadaal niiio"and in the critic'sview. la golondrina "Lazarillo" y el gato.
"Esla vez que lo observamosen unaobra primera dedicada a la infancia: se entiendeel castigo como una formamis de carifio"(14). 625).THE "LAZARILLO:" SPAIN'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE FOR CHILDREN'S LITERATURE233
outside Spain(47:397-98." like Bellver's El juglar del Cid (1961). One finds greater sensitivity to the child's inner and outer worlds. rather than a dualisticimage of good and evil. Likewise.the period 1962-69 witnessed as well as increasincreasingliberalization.were introduced. Works dealing with the formerno longer tone nor an exemployeda hagiographical altation of exemplaryvirtues alien to the child'spersonality. In 1962 Spain appliedfor association with the EuropeanEconomic Community withthe statedgoal of becominga fullmember ("Hispanic. 50: 370. ForGarcia the mostnoteworthy Padrino.234 on Fri. Books in the 1960sthat reflect Christian thought and "una sensibilidad que puede calificarse como offera vision that is "mascAlida o cat61ica" mis cercanaal nifio"(534). cultural." Hispania45:349).throughout the 1960s and beyond. Teresa Colomerassertsthatin the 1970s forchildrenandadolesand 1980sliterature cents in Spain underwent a spectacular transformation. out as providinga new culturalcontext for
the production of this literature. Matute's treatment of the abandoned child who grows up among adults in
El poliz6ndel Ulises(1965)withJos6 Maria Sanchez Silva's in Marcelino Pan y Vino (1957). in view of Garcia Padrino's above-mentioned observations. In 1969. One factor is the modernization of the market. que tanto se a repiteen el texto. bien puede ser paralela la de ser libre" (15). as reflected. for example. national historywas no longertreated in a grandiloquent or epictoneto exalta glorious or imperial past. Concomitantly. compare. a continuation of trends initiated in the 1950s. In 1963 the above-mentioned Fondo de Cultura Econ6micaopeneda branchin Madrid(46: 635). Majoruniversities were closed because of student unrestandin 1972were placedunderdirect government control (49: 511.blamingstudentdisorders.the governmentdeclaredmodified martiallawundera "stateof exception"decree that reimposedfull press censorship. ism. one that accepts evil andtries to overcomeit. in Colomer's view. 51: 174. Spanish children's literature experienced considerable renewal in its themes or subjectmatter. in Ionescu's De un pals lejano (1963). Ripoll SAiz Montserrat delAmo'sRastro deDios (1960) "la brecha que.as well as in the
quality of literary treatment. and a Spanish-language of Moliere's Tartuffe. Historical novels awardedthe "Lazarillo. became the firstexplosivepolitical proteststagedin Spain in thirty-fiveyears (53: 130).86. Earlier themes were transformed. and in 1965 the regime authorizeda program of unofficial.The same couldbe said of Osorio's El caballito que queria volar (1966). incidentslikethosejust Notwithstanding mentioned. That same year Franco named Juan Carlos de Borb6nthe futurechief of the Spanishstate in a law overwhelminglyapprovedby the Cortes (52:502). the government announced an amnesty freeing all individualsfrom responsibility foracts committedduringthe CivilWarand encouraging the return of political exiles version (52: 506).New themes. for example.We see this new tendency in works like Montserrat del Amo's Rastrode Dios (1960) and Ferran's Angel en Colombia(1968). would seem to be. seemingly terminatedin January1966 under a Press Lawthathas been describedas the most importantmeasure of "probably in the 30 years of the Franco liberalization regime"(52:307.iniciarai la autonomia porque la acci6n de volar. 504). deriving. Finally.211. manifestthis difference. such as personalfreeconsiders dom. ridiculingthe Opus Dei factionwithinthe government. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. due in partto touring economicprosperity. For SAizRipoll the formerworkofferschildren. from the then recent economic development... in comparichanges in thematictreatments son to the earlierpostwar periodwerethose related to religion and Spanish history.56:482). qualitatively as well as The two factors she singles quantitatively. and result-
This content downloaded from 117. and economic contacts between Spain and Euroin 1969 peanCommunists(48:374).
Among the newly targeted consumers were teenagers (Colomer14Padrinoobservesthatthe 1970s 15). the first book to win the "Lazarillo" prize afterthe death of Franco was Fernando Alonso's El hombrecito vestido de gris (1977). in which eighty percentof those eligiblevoted (60:564). a text had to be submitted in its entirety for permission. which definedthe countryas a democraticparliamentarymonarchyandguaranteedthe basic civilfreedomsof Westerndemocracies. Kansas (Cendfan 240). Examples among the "Lazarillo" winners are Alfonseca'sEl rubidelGanges(1988)andDiazGuerra's El las 221 de These alfabeto puertas (1992). as well.the freeelections held June 15.234 HISPANIA 82 MAY 1999
ing in new types of product directed to a new clientele. A few of the events that signal Spain'sfurther opening and democratization are the five-yearTreatyof Friendship and Cooperation betweenthatcountryand the United States. to includenot onlythe European classics of the postwarperiodbutalsothe latesttrends in the "best" literature forchildrenandadolescents.the new policy had an obvious impacton the develmodelsthatprevailed opmentof the literary in Spainalmostto the end of the 1970s (15). According to Colomer.followed by a second in 1981.of a group of educators. books indicate that Spain's openness extendedto the Eastas well as the West.liandexpertsin children'sandadobrarians. youth (Cendfan liberalization was also markedby Spain's a broadenedpolicyregardingtranslations. it was in 1978 that contactswere first initiated withinSpainitself betweenSpanishandforeignexpertsin children's literature. with concomitant recognition of the legitimacyof otherreligiousconfessions.86. in Colomer'sopinion.is Spain'sculturalopening withrespectto the countriesof the West that came about with the reestablishment of democracyafterFranco'sdeath in 1975 and the new Constitutionof 1978. more salient factor.and openness to the outside worldare predominant themes.and Spain'sentry into the CommonMarketin
January 1986 (69: 585). The other.Onenew type of productwas the paperbackor libro de bolsillo." to be built in Madrid on land donated by the Spanish government ("Hispanic"48: 595). Garcia Padrino. Throughout the 1970s. Significantly.such as SM's GranAngular (542).including the right to protect children and 63). an apparently lutionwithrespectto religiousthemes. lescents' literaturefrom the Universityof Fort Hays.211. and in 1968 the first Protestant bishop was con-
This content downloaded from 117. communal solidarity. Hispania informsus that in 1965 an announcementhad been made of "the
largest and most beautiful mosque in the western world. (Prior to printing. beginning 1980s. while at the same time pointing out that such a freedomhas its limitations. One finds both these changes reflected in the increasing numberof "Lazarillo" winnerspublishedas and those directed at adolespaperbacks in the 1970sandearly late cents. signed in January1976 ("Hispanic. 1977. Interestingly enough. in 1966 the first Jewish ceremony since 1492 was celebrated in Toledo's Trinsito synagogue (50: 161). 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. One relatedevonotices." Hispania59:915).on the otherhand. sees the emeras the result of ecogence of the paperback nomic difficultiesof the mid 1970s.whose people andways of life are portrayed with a certain or sensitivity empathy. in which personal freedom. Reflectingthe new openness to the outside world is the increasing number of books set in othercountries.These contacts took the form of a visit to Spain.The "Estatuto de PublicacionesInfantilesy Juveniles" of 1967 had differedsignificantly from previous documents of the type in placingless emphasison the RomanCatholic faithas such. Garcia and 1980s saw the initiationof new series intendedespeciallyforadolescents.) The Constitution of 1978 removed this restric-
tion and recognized the right to the free expression and diffusionof ideas and opinions. which made it necessary to keep books at affordable prices while increasing the number printed (541).234 on Fri. clear complaints and criticisms had been leveled regarding "la exigencia y los criterios de la censura previa para las publicaciones infantiles" (Garcia Padrino 522).
Theyreflectdefinitechanges 1980salso presentan enlargedspectrumin in the status of women in Spain." Hispania 57: dren. but these girls or women are active. in El hombrecito vestido de gris (1977). Books foryoungpeoplein the 1970sand (Cendain 339).may reflectcircumstancesin Spanishsocitemptto protecttwo childrenwho trusthim ety ranging from the new law signed by and leaves them in the hands of their ex. seeker heroes rather in Cuentos del aio 2100 (1972). (1994). Operaci6n Pata de Oso (1971). larg"Propiciar est Islamic center in Europe. The latter book won the made by the first Simposio Nacional de "Lazarillo" Infantil.thanvictimheroes.72:1013-14. It should be father. Not only does one find more female protagonists.58: 202.Twocases in pointamongthe "Lazarillo" greater rights in their personaland family winners are Cafiizo'sLas cosas del abuelo lives and increasing participation in all lives in an spheresof publiclife. (1982).211. plays with the idea of two very different endings to the same story. maldito anuncio (1989). Caperucita!
One of the most evident trends in the prize winners of the 1990s is the assumption of a much more prominent role by female characters.El rubiportrays a Hindu traditionalsocial order.Devu"lvemeel anillo.Othernew themes that emerge in completejob equalitywiththeirmalecounthese decades include preservationof the terparts ("Hispanic. while Alonso. many Cuentos del Zodiaco (1970). We findthese themes in SadotPerez's to thematicinnovation.un c6digo antisexistaque cambiela imagen de la mujer en los libros para nifios" ratedin Madrid(76:315). capacity juego pirata (1987).Perhapsthe most unsettlingtext prize winners of 1963 (De un pais lejano) in terms of adult-child relationships is and 1971 (Operaci6n Pata de Oso) indicaMendo's Por un maldito anuncio (1989). in which the protagonistis having 68:816-17. 205.pacificism.86.in whichthe grandfather government old folks' home rather than with his chil. In addition ism. 62: 712. seven years they may save the life of the principal male in El laterthe new Constitution relias Diaz Guerra's de character. tions of a new attitude toward women.Martinez Por del Mendo's un for human languageand thought. Caperucita! while the femalehero of El alfabeto is a de. and Cano's iTe as a form of narrativeomniscience (532).the 1980s. traditional ernment in Spain (55: 366).these are the fruits of a recommendation vout Muslim. as in Paiez's unionbetweenChurchandGov.THE "LAZARILLO:" SPAIN'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE FOR CHILDREN'S LITERATURE235
secratedin Madrid(51:348). Cupit introduces neologisms and word play pills. to use Vladimir Propp's sembly of Roman Catholic bishops and terminology. With El misteriode la isla de Tiikland(1980).includingthose of the fam. 65: 444.and the military("Hispanic.even on Sundays(45:803).and anticonsumer. Cupit's narrative Cuentos delan~o 2100 (1972). They mayhave a careertradipriests themselves called for an end to the tionally considered male.Fernandezde GarciaPadrinostates that Kurtz'sColorde in its givinga coltthe Gil'sEl fuego(1964)is original Velasco'sPabluras(1983).Protagonistslike holy man in an important positive role. Gisbert initiates a style that mixes the resources of
This content downloaded from 117. pelo cepillo (1991). In 1971an as.73: difficultiescoping with the absence of his 457-58. many of their descriptionsof social structuresand them effected in the 1970s and especially circumstances.held in Madridin Deprize in the same year (1992) Literatura cember 1979: la elaboraci6nde that the CentroCultural the Islimica. by which women have won ily. 74: 947.71:592.park. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. 382-83. gious they may andState(63:408).was inaugu. 77: 166). and Mateo's Capitanes de pldstico 170.234 on Fri.Franco in 1962 supposedlygiving women ploiters. as in Cano's iTe (1994). Puncel's of the "Lazarillo" winnersexperimentwith techniqueand stylisticelements. guaranteed alfabeto 221 freedom and of Church las subvert the separation puertas(1992). pills.They Here the corruptedadultabandonshis at.including (1981).69:147.who has had to leave home to look pointed out that one sees already in the for work." Hispania 45: 561) to natural environment andhumanetreatment girls' donningof bluejeansto paradein the of animals.
of the 84). At any rate.always in settings conducive to adultreaderof children's the ocurrence of the marvellous (Equipo literary qualitymustbe the judgeregarding depldstico(1982)Mateos the firstcriticism.in El tesorodel en Espahia como en los paises it will capitdnNemo (1985).tanto Padrino559-60).234 on Fri. [Anuncio 4. Delibros 3 (Julio1988): nent is probably Joan Manuel Gisbert.I. such as manuscripts indeed the first editiondate given in the text. Asociaci6n. 1959):483-86.Gisbertmakes the rela"Lazarillo" Juvenil. Losbatautos(1974). sin embargo."Ultimos infantil afiosde la literatura Colomer.The most outstanding propodelpremioLazarillo].Premiosnacionales1958-1988: Librointionshipbetweenrealityandfantasyandthe fantil y juvenil.
This content downloaded from 117.CendAn tilesyjuvenilesen Espaia (1935-1985).Fernando. infantilesyjuveniles.1988. y juvenil:Desde mayodel 68 a la postmodernidad de los ochenta. but on page 205 he betweenhistoryandfiction. Secretariados de Prensay Literadrid?]:C. on centralthemes as well as narrative tech.C. Fundaci6n to the developmentof children'sliteraturein Spainhas not gone unchallenged.confirmshis special iberoamericanos" (205). Teresa. figures." 3The publication datesforthe 1968and1969prizes (557).throughthe structural 2Fernando CendAnPazos gives two different thematic uses he makes of classified ads.Mendoplayswiththe ideaof a manuscript written by the narrator-protagonist * NOTES thatis identicalto the book.Porun maldito toAsociaci6n. 1966. El Libro [Concesi6nde los premios'Lazarillo']. play of the imagination. Several "Lazarillo" do not appearto complywiththe 1966regulationthat must be unpublished." Fernaindez-Pacheco playswith the relation para that is. EspaRol 11 (Nov. ha recaido en originales con un toque de fingida calidad.that the readerhas in her 'According out the criteria for the fromyear to year inprize lay hands. 25 aiiosdel Comisi6nCat6lica Espafiola de libros [MapremioC." asserts.Undoubtedly form of novelizing adventureswithin the continueto be a stimulusto writersof books context of historicalevents. Madrid: in his books. Temas de Literatura Infantil."
for June 1989. Delibros8 (enero [Concesi6ndel premioLazarillo]. 1989):21.211.Othersourcesthat anuncio (1989). de la Infancia. Fernandez Paz also experiments ofanunpublished textwas thatthestipulation with narrative technique in Cuentospor dicate in 1975. con historias envejecidas o excesivamente alejadas de la realidad de los nifios lectores y que
ofthe"Lazarillo" importance prize
GermanSinchez Ruip6rez. In Capitanes reaffirms her concernforformalinnovation second. 83 (nov.El hombrecito Armijo's vestido de gris (1977). Maria Vassart.8.000pesetas cada una de las dos primeras[modalidades].Onpage 31 he states thatthe prizeoriginally while in Los zapatos de Murano (1996) involved"unadotaci6necon6micade 25. also appearsin books of fantaistico" the 1970s and 1980s. effected and palabras(1990). turaInfantil. as FernandoCendain in narrative with the converging of the Pazos affirms. 20-21 (agosto-sept.E. for writerand illustrator.86.each child reader. Climent.However1967is winners manifest this trend. which 50. whose Misterio dela isla de Tokland wonthe Asociaci6nEspafiolade Amigos del LibroInfantily in 1980. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.I.Each podianinteresarles" books sensitiveto unknown. niques 1986.E.000 pesetas para la modalidadde autores y de Garcia Padrino considers "realismo 25. 30 (junio1960): 183-84.declaresthatthe dotaci6necon6micafue de "primera ship between fantasy and reality. "Durante unos cuantos afios.236 HISPANIA 82 MAY 1999
the adventure novelwiththe searchforthe dificilmente (66). Mediosiglo de librosinfanPazos. (553).the "Lazarillo" prize "sigue child's inner and outer worlds (Garcia gozando de un reconocidoprestigio.Alacena no 1991):18.C.A new relation. "recurriendo a for childrenin those countriesfor the foreuna cierta documentaci6n periodistica" seeable future.000pesetas parala de ilustradores. and Las cosas del 0 WORKS CITED abuelo(1981). 1958):546-48."CLIJ: Cuadernos de Literatura InfantilyJuvenil26 (marzo1991):14-24. in "Libros con in the journal whichappeared Leer premio.[1987?]. while conceding that the "Lazarillo" is "el mis prestigioso de los que actualmente existen para libros in6ditos. 12 (Invier[Concesi6ndel premioLazarillo]. Madrid: with all its power.
1993):7-17. 74 (Dec.207 (marzo1975): 122.145 (enero 1970):53. World. 1979):663. 76 (May1993):315.305 (nov.504-506. 1993. 1988): 592.65 (mayo1963): 144-45. 45 (Sept.1970):127-130." Hispanic[andLuso-Brazilian] Hispania '"The 43 (Dec. Madrid: Fundaci6n German SanchezRuiperez.1982): 444. Leer21(junio con premio.192 (dic. 62 (Dec. 72 (Dec.Un libropara leermuchos mris:Guia en el mundo dela literatura infantil paraadentrarse (Madrid): Anzos. 1976):915-16. El Libro 4 (abril1958):195-96.1978):629. Fuenlabrada Gabinetede SantaTeresa de Jesus." Vassart. 52 (May1969):307.47 (May 1964):397-98.-dic. 49 (enero 1962):16-17. 45 (Dec. 1977):562-64.328 (oct.1962):276.15 (marzo Espanfol 1959): 181-82. 1961): 160-61. 1989): 1013-14. de de El misterio Cuadernos [Resefia Veldzquez].1974):170.Madrid: 1976. Garrido Gallardo.69 (Mar.68 (Dec. Catdlogo critico de libros para niiios1966-69.28788 (nov. 60 (Sept.1986):14.264 (dic.77 (Mar. 1973):675.233 (mayo1977):242.272 (agosto 1980):454-55.1971):113." 53 (sept. nuevos horizontes. MiguelAngel. 641. yjuvenil. 1972. 1991):947-50.211.289-90 (Afio1982):8889.Libros y literatura para niiios en la Espaia contempordnea. 120 (dic. 47 (Sept.58 (Mar. 106 (junio1998):67.263 (nov.282 (junio1981):283-84. 234 (junio1977):310. Maria.46 (Sept. EquipoPeonza. GarciaPadrino. 45 (May 1962): 349. 1960):614.1986):147.1966): 510-12.1967):161.322-23 (abril-mayo 1985): 15. 1967):1053. 73 (May 1990):456-58. 51 (May 1968): 347-48.1965): 595.1992. 1965):639. 1960):423-24. Espatol42 (junio1961): 191-94.Literatura y sociedad PrensaEspafiol.1969):502.205 (enero 1975):32. 1986):13. 205.-oct. 1973): 110. 1979):712. 48 (May 1965): 373-74.115-16(julio-agosto 1967):611-13. Serviciode Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educaci6n y Ciencia.1994):166.239 (nov.71 (Sept. 59 (Dec. 57 (Mar. 44 (Mar." Alacena4 (primavera 1986):45.48 (Sept.1978): 468. CLIJ: Literatura Infantily Juvenil104 (abril1998):55. 1986): 585. 1970):604-07.1983):15. 182 (feb.65 (Sept. 1985):816-17. 614. "Libros 1989):66.1971): 659.1979):607.63 (May1980):407-09. "Afios60. CLIJ nacionales "Premios de literatura infantil Sole.155 (nov.THE "LAZARILLO:" SPAIN'S MOST PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE FOR CHILDREN'S LITERATURE237
1964):546.54 (junio1962):170-72. 58 (May 1975): 382-83. 1985):11.252 (dic.67. SaiizRipoll.El Libro Espaiol 249 (sept.50 (May1967):370. 36 (dic. 1964):625-26.Anabel. 194 (feb.86.52 (Sept. 1962): 561.
1962):803-804. 1981).283 (Afio1981):347. 1974):100. 50 (Mar.MariaM.158 (feb. El Libro [Premios'Lazarillo']. Jaime. 70 (May 1987): 313-14.255 (marzo1979):169. 51 (Mar. 21 Feb 2014 05:25:56 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.1975): 202-03.1963):635-36.212 (agosto 1975):342.263. e internacionales. en la Espaia de Franco. [Concurso parala concesi6nde los premiosLazarillo]. 69 (Sept.53 55 (May1972): (Mar.336-39 (junio-sept.234 on Fri.
This content downloaded from 117.56 (May 1973):482.168 (dic. Infantily Ju[Reuni6nde la Comisi6nde Literatura venildel INLE].331-32 (enero-feb.49 (Sept.1977): 587.95 (nov. 366. 1968): 174.57-58 (sept.243 (marzo1978):172.