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BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints TABLE OF CONTENTS
0. 1. 2. 3.
3.1 3.2 3.3

RVS 15.45
Page 1

0.
.

Preliminary Notes
RVS 1.0 shall be valid concerning rules of EAA.

Preliminary Notes Range of Application General Summary of Joint Types


Directly Traffic -Exposed Expansion Joints Buried Expansion Joints Special Types

1.

Range of Application
This regulation shall be applied to all road bridges under public traffic.

2.

General
Expansion Joints are bridging the gap between structure and abutment or betw een two structures. All regular movements of these adjacent structures shall be taken over by the expansion joint, preferably without squeezing. Expansion Joints without traffic loads are not subject of this guideline. This guideline covers expansion joint, anchorage thereof, connection to watertight membrane as well as gap and blockout including connecting reinforcement and filling concrete. The expansion joint has to be executed safe for traffic, requiring low maintenance, and usually watertight. It must offer high overrolling comfort at lowest possible operating noise. In case of repair or replacement of existing joints the existing structure has to be treated with special care.

4.
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Structural Design
Strength Kinematics Reaction Forces Dimensional Stability

5.
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Design
General Design Regulations Anchorage Other Design Requirements Corrosion Protection Materials Marking

6.
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Transport, Intermediate Storage and Installation


Transport Intermediate Storage Installation and Connection to Covering Installation Report

3.

Summary of Joint Types


Details of the following sketches are examples for clarification pur pos es . They do not contain any binding rules for execution. Elevation Shifting is regulated in Chapter 5, Concrete Transition Strips in Chapter 9.

7.
7.1 7.2

Maintenance
Supervision Maintenance, Repair

3.1 8.
8.1 8.2 8.3

Directly Traffic -Exposed Expansion Joints


Sealing elements "D" usually consist of elastomere and can be designed as tape, box-, honeycomb-design etc. Regulary they take over expansion functions, too.

Quality Assurance (Attestation of Conformity)


Initial Type-Testing Factory Production Control Continous Surveillance

9.
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6

Proportion of Facilities9.1
Formwork Sheets Snow Plug Safety Precautions Evenness-Operating Noise Joint Sealants Concrete Transition Strip Acessibility

3.1.1 Strip Seal -, Modular - and Elastomeric Expansion Joints 3.1.1.1 Strip Seal - and Modular Expansion Joints (1) Strip Seal Expansion Joints P Design consists only of one sealing element, of edge profiles "RP" and their anchorage "V". It does not contain any moving part.

10.

Related Guidelines and Standards

Annex

1 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment" Edition 1999

BRIDGES

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Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
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3.1.1.2 Elastomeric Expansion Joints Mat-shaped sealing elements made of elastomere or similar with or without steel inserts bridge the gap. The sealing element carries loads. (1) Elastomeric Joint without intermediate profile M Design corresponds to 3.1.1.1 (1). Instead of sealing element "D" there is the mat-shaped sealing element "M".

Fig.. 3.1: Strip Seal Expansion Joint Connection to structure and abutment respectively can also be done by means of special grout "VM" .

Fig. 3.5: Elastomeric Expansion Joint without intermediate profile (2) Elastomeric Joints with intermediate profile MZ With bigger movements intermediate profiles "ZP" for control of movement gaps may be required. Design corresponds to 3.1.1.1 (2). Sealing elements "D" are replaced by mat-shaped sealing elements "M". Function of control elements "STK" can also be fulfilled by matshaped sealing elements "M".

Fig. 3.2: Strip Seal Expansion Joint - Alternative (2) Modular Expansion Joints PZ By arrangement of two or more sealing elements according to (1) bigger movements can be achieved. In addition to edge profiles "RP" intermediate profiles "ZP", supported by special beams"TK", as well as control elements "STK" are required.

Fig. 3.6: Elastomeric Joint with intermediate profile 3.1.2 Finger Joints 3.1.2.1 Finger Joints with seal FD By special measures (elastomere cover of metal parts, elastic membrane etc.) design gets watertight. Fig. 3.3 cross section outside TK and STK

Fig. 3.4 cross section at TK and STK Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment" Edition 1999

Fig. 3.7. Finger Joint with seal 2

BRIDGES

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Expansion Joints
3.1.2.2 Finger Joint without seal F Surfacedewatering s hall be enabled by gutter or similar means.

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Fig. 3.8: Finger Joint without seal Fig. 3.10: Buried joint 3.1.3 Asphaltic Plug Joints BD Movement gap is bridged by pavement strip "BS" with specific material properties. Gap is covered by plate "A" with centering.

4.

Structural Design (Requirements and Verification)


Expansion Joints have to meet the criteria mentioned in Art. 2 Specific requirements for expansion joints are: transfer of traffic loads design (design details, sealing, material properties, operational requirements) kinematics (gap movements, reaction forces) Minor deviations of verification processes duet to design can be approved by the approval authority. In the following these requirements are described in detail, minimum requirements including verification thereof are determined. In case of specific designs, which have to allow for deviations to regular design due to tender conditions, the tender has to indicate, if and what kind of tests and verifications shall be executed.

Fig. 3.9: Asphaltic plug joint

3.2

Buried Joints

4.1

Strength
Relevant actions for stress analyses are traffic loads and structure gaps. For description of acting traffic load the relevant load arrangement is the single-axle truck. Load is transferred over support area of wheel. Size of load is determined by single wheel loads, with components which are contacted only from parts of wheel area by the relevant portions.

Pavement is situated directly over joint. Sealing element "D" is situated between edge profiles "RP" in resp. below level of watertight membrane of bridge structure. Coverplate "A" is fixed to one of the edge profiles. Sealing element "D" is made of elastomere and is usually strip shaped.

3.3

Special Types

All designs not covered before shall be considered special types, e.g. roller-shutter joints, sliding plate joints, elevation shifting.

3 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment" Edition 1999

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4.1.1 U l t i m a t e L i m i t S t a t e The following data of wheel loads and track width are based on the corresponding conditions for the 25 ton-truck (carriageway) and the 16 ton-truck (sidewalk) respectively acc. to NORM B 4002 . 4.1.1.1 Loads 4.1.1.1.1 Wheel Loads in Carriageway Two wheel loads shall be placed in the most unfavourable position. Their distance normal to bridge`s longitudinal axis is s = 1600 mm (Fig. 4.1). For carriageway components of wheel loads Rv and R h acting normal to and in road level respectively including dynamic coef ficient shall be: Rv = 140 KN Eq.(1.1) Rh = Rv . 0,3 = 42 KN Eq.(1.2)

A horizontal component RGh at sidewalk does not have to be considered. The tyre area is: lbr x b2 = 200 x 350 mm. The outmost load position is given by approaching tyre area to interior edge of railing. (Fig. 4.1) Wheel load components at sidewalks shall be computed with lbr = 200 mm. 4.1.1.2 Verification According to NORM B4600 - 2 with load as per 4.1.1.1 most unfavourable conditions may be evaluated according the linear elasticity theory. For moments of resistance of steel components plastical moments of resistance may be used. Increased permissible stresses acc. to NORM B4600 - 2 shall be complied with. For practical test verification the same safety coefficients as forcomputed verification shall be considered. If possible tests shall be run until failure. Kind of failure shall be described. For designs in aluminium or other materials the procedure shall be similar. Strip Seal Expansion Joints -P For design of expansion joints type P verification shall be done either by tests or computation. Modular Expansion Joints - PZ For design PZ verifications for intermediate profiles shall be carried out at vertically and haorizontally rigid supported continous beam, whereby loads may be be assumed to act in centeraxis of profiles. This way determined stresses of simultaneously acting vertical and horizontal loads shall be fully superimposed. Midspan values shall be increased by 15%. For structural design of connections and supporting parts loads in road level shall be applied. For modular joints - PZ, where intermediate profiles are torsionally supported, torsional elasticity shall be considered with determination of loads. Ideally this torsional elasticity is considered with a horiziontally elastical spring in the axis of the intermediate profile, whereby spring characteristics depends also on position of overturning axis. Torsional elasticity shall be determined either by tests or calculation. Elastomeric Joints - M For design M verification of sealing elements with related anchorage shall be carried out with 3 statical tests.. Test pieces shall correspond to complete design in their execution (edge profile and sealing element). Length of test piece shall be 1200 mm. Application of load is carried out by an elastomere plate simulating wheel stiffness, which is fixed to sealing element in a suitable way. This elastomere plate shall be centered between edge profiles and loaded by a ridgid plate of the same size. The elastomere plate has a minimum thickness of 50 mm and Shore-A hardness 60, a length of 500 mm

Rh acts in direction of bridge`s longitudinal axis. Tyre Area is lbr x b1. The calculated length of the tyre area lbr has to be computed acc. 4.1.1.1.2. Width b1 shall be assumed with 500 mm . Area of possible load positions is limited by curbs. Tyre contact areas have to be shifted to curbs. (Fig. 4.1) 4.1.1.1.2 Wheel load components in carriageway If supporting components of an expansion joint are loaded only by part of the tyre area, load components R av , Rah shall be computed as follows: (Fig. 4.2) lbr = 235 + 0,3 . s F ln =lbr - s F b ar = ln Rav = Rv . ar . a Eq.(2.1) Rah = Rh . ar . a Eq.(2.2a) Equations (2.1) and (2.2a) are valid for all supporting components except edge profiles 'RP' and their anchorage 'V'. For edge profiles 'RP' equations (2.1) and (2.2b) shall be applied. Rah = Rh Eq. (2.2b) lbr ln s Fmi sF b ar a Rav, Rah computed length of tyre area [mm] net length of tyre area [mm] max. gap width at biggest permissible gap opening of expansion joint [mm] sum of tyre covered gap width at max. gap opening s F = s Fi [mm] (Fig. 4.2) width of load supporting component [mm] relative part of wheel load (Fig. 4.2) skew factor of expansion joint (Fig. 4.2) wheel load components

4.1.1.1.3 Wheel loads and their components at sidewalks In the area of sidewalks, refuges, cycle tracks and central reserves the wheel load RGv acting normal to surface is: RGv = 77 KN Eq.(3.1)

4 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment" Edition 1999

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Fig. 4.1: Wheel load arrangement for ultimate limit state check

55 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment" Edition 1999

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Fig. 4.2: Determination of wheel load components in carriageway

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Edition 1999

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Expansion Joints
and a width corresponding to the width of the sealing element at maximum gap opening, however not larger than 235 mm (Fig. 4.5). If the plate width is smaller than 235 mm, wheel loads can be reduced proportionally to the plate width reduction. Tests shall be run at maximum gap opening position. Design - MZ For design MZ verification of intermediate profiles shall be done as with design PZ, whereby for computation of wheel load components acc. to 4.1.1.1.2 load distribution in sealing element shall be verified. For sealing element verification shall be carried out as with design M . Finger Joints FD and F Supported Designs For designs with supported fingers elastical support of the metal top because of its fixing in the sealing element shall be considered. The test shall be performed with the metal top resting on its edge on the movable part of the joint. The testing procedure shall be the same as with design M, with the width of the elastomere plate assumed at distance c of the load supporting metal top, however not larger than 235 mm. Elastomere plate shall be positioned centrically over the clear span of metal top (Fig. 4.6). Cantilever design For cantilever design according to NORM B4600 - 2 with loads as per 4.1.1.1 most unfavourable conditions may be evaluated according the linear elasticity theory. Test procedure shall be as in design M, with the elastomere plate positioned at the front end of the cantilever metal parts (Fig. 4.7). Design BD Designs BD shall be executed as per design principles of Chapter. 5 . Ultimate limit state verification can be dropped. For the cover plate a computed stress verification shall be ex ecuted, whereby load distribution in pavement by 45 shall be assumed.

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Design U Designs U shall be executed according to design principles of Chapter. 5 . ULS verification does not have to be done. For load distribution and transfer a computed stress verification shall be executed, with an load distribution in pavement under 45 Design S Ultimate limit state shall be verified similar to above described tests. Elevation shifting designs: Due to larger levers especially of horizontal loads in respect of basic design it shall be verified that basic design can bear the increased stresses. 4.1.2 Fatigue For load supporting parts of expansion joints in carriageways as well as for their anchorage a fatigue verification shall be executed. In order to consider actual operation loads as realistically as possible the following data for wheel load, tyre area and track width deviating from 4.1.1 shall be applied. In the area of sidewalks, refuges, cycle tracks and central reserves no wheel loads have to be assumed. 4.1.2.1 Loads 4.1.2.1.1 Wheel loads Two wheel loads shall be positioned most unfavourably, without considering any relieving action. The distance between wheels normal to longitudinal axis of bridge is s = 1800 mm (Fig. 4.3). In carriageway components Rv and Rh acting normal to and in road level respectively shall be assumed as follows: Rv = 65 KN Rh = Rv . 0,2 = 13 KN Gl.(4.1) Gl.(4.2)

These wheel loads shall be increased by dynamic coefficient v = 1,4 and h = 1,4. Rh acts in direction of longitudinal axis of bridge. Tyre area is lbr x b1. Computed length of tyre area lbr shall be calculated acc. 4.1.1.1.2. Width b s1 shall be a sumed at 500 mm. Possible load positions are limited by curbs. Tyre areas have to be shifted to curbs up to 100mm . (Fig. 4.3).

7 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

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Expansion Joints
4.1.2.1.2 Wheel load components If supporting parts of an expansion joint are only subject to parts of the wheel contact area relating components of wheel load components Rav and Rah shall be determined with wheel loads Rv and Rh as per 4.1.2.1.1 acc. to 4.1.1.1.2 . 4.1.2.2 Verifications Fatigue shall be verified acc. to ONORM B 4300-5 Steel Structures; Fatigue. For verification an - value of 0,4 and a stress cycle number Ne = 100 Mio shall be assumed (corresponds to 15-year operation at a DTLV of 4500 per direction with 4 axles per truck). Verification shall be done by confrontation of calculated stresses and determined stresses from tests with resistance values given by component tests considering the relation of minimum and maximum stresses "k". If clearly classified impact cases are indicated in the above mentioned standard, resistance v alues can be taken from this standard. If hot-spot points of the design were not determined by standard tests they shall be ascertained and resistance values of these hot-spot points shall be determined by three tests each. Stress verification in test specimen shall be backed up by stress measurements (e.g. with strain gauges). For designs made of aluminium o r other materials the proc edure shall be similar. Design - P For edge profile 'RP' verification can be executed by calculation according to the theory of elasticity. Determination of stresses shall be based on wheel load actions and components thereof acc. to 4.1.2.1, witrh relation of stresses from vertical and horizontal loads being = 0 . With anchorage of edge profile 'RP' at a steel structure verification of anchorage 'V' as well as of edge profile 'RP' can be done by calculation. With anchorage of edge profile 'RP' in concrete (cement concrete, plastic modified concrete or plastic concrete) verification of anchorage 'V' is achieved by execution according to standard drawing (see articles. 5 and 9). In case of deviations of anchorage 'V' from standard design of standard drawings verification shall be done by tests. If connection of blockout concrete to adjacent concrete (superstructure, abutment) deviates from standard drawing equivalence of this connection shall be verified. Three tests each shall be performed. Test specimen shall comply with execution of entire design (concrete block, anchorage 'V' and edge profile 'RP'). The length of test specimen shall be 1200 mm. Load is transferred centrally at upper edge of edge profile 'RP' over a width of 500 mm. (Fig. 4.8)

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Verification of anchorage 'V' is achieved after succesfully passing 2.106 load cycles with a load corresponding to 1,25-times the actions according to 4.1.2.1. Design - PZ Support span of intermediate profiles in carriageway and sidewalk must not not exceed 1,70 m. For edge profiles 'RP' and their anchorage 'V' regulations for design - P shall apply. Transfer of loads of supports 'TK' and control elements 'STK' to superstructure and abutments shall be verified. Stress of supports 'TK' shall be determined by calculation. This shall also apply for control elements 'STK', if they are not completely consisting of plastic parts. For a dynamic analysis dynamic characteristics of the complete system such as spring characteristics and damping effects in a roll-over field test shall be determined under realistic conditions. The roll-over field test shall be carried out with a truck with 60 KN wheel load. The truck shall roll over the expansion joint at three speeds v=30 km/h, 60 km/h and if slope allows at v=90 km/h. The lane has to be chosen in a way, that maximum horizontal displacements at a measuring point (e.g. displacement transducers, strain gauges) attached to the intermediate profile can be expected. Measuring data shall be recorded in an interval delievering a clear picture of the vibration of the intermediate profile. From this data frequency 'f' during post loading vibration (no action on system) and grade of damping 'd' is determined. Then horizontal spring characteristics ch as elastic support on a continous beam simulating the intermediate profile shall be varied until the lowest natural frequency of the continous beam reaches the measured frequency of the system during post loading vibration (Fig. 4.4.). Thereby the mode shape related to the lowest natural frequency shall correspond to statical bending characteristic due to action of over roll tests. If critical influences due to changes in temperature or load speed have to be expected, change in characteristics of components can be determined in laboratory tests and their influence on the system can be calculated. Wheel loads acc. to 4.1.2.1.1 and 4.1.2.1.2 can be taken as sinus-shaped impact function considering phase displacement between horizontal and vertical loads. Impact time shall be measured for a speed of 90 km/h. Structural design is varied for dynamic answers of the complete system. Calculated stresses shall be calibrated by random sample measurements of the complete system. Approximate procedure: approximately relevant action-effects can be determined by static load substitution procedure. The static system for intermediate profiles 'ZP' is a continous beam elastically supported in horizontal and vertical direction. Compression characteristics shall be determined vertically from spring characteristics, horizontally from the roll-over field test. Verification shall be made for the maximum gap opening s Fm .

8 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

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Expansion Joints
Direction of loads shall be assumed as with ULS check. Relation of stresses for vertical loads shall be set as = -0,3 for horizontal loads at = -1,0. Resistance shall be determined by three tests each for intermediate profile 'ZP', for supports 'TK' and for connection of 'ZP' and 'TK' (Fig. 4.9). Actions acc. to 4.1.2.1 are not taken from sealing elements "D". Design - M For edge profiles "RP" and their anchorage "V" the same regulations as for design - P are valid. Fatigue strength of sealing element and anchorage thereof in edge profile shall be verified by three tests each. Test specimen have to comply with the complete system (edge profile and sealing element) in their execution. Test procedure shall be the same as with strength verification. Width of elastomere plate corresponds to width of sealing element in m edium position of total movement, however not more than 235 mm (Fig. 4.5). Is the plate width is smaller than 235 mm, wheel loads can be reduced proportionally to plate width reduction. For the test proportion of stresses = -0,3 of action of vertical and horizontal components shall be assumed. Tests shall be run in medium position of total movement of joint. Verification is achieved after successfully passing 2..106 load cycles with a load corresponding to actions acc. to 4.1.2.1. Design - MZ For edge profiles "RP" and their anchorage "V" regulations of design - P shall apply. For intermediate profiles regulations of modular expansion joints - PZ shall apply, whereby for calculation of wheel load components acc. to 4.1.2.1.2 load distribution shall be verified. Fatigue strength of sealing element and anchorage thereof in edge profile and intermediate profile shall be verified by three tests with horizontally fixed intermediate profiles. Test specimen have to comply with the complete system in their execution (edge profile, intermediate profile and sealing element). Test procedure shall be the same as with design -.M, load, however, shall act centrically between two profiles.

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Finger Joints FD and F Supported design: In case of designs with supported fingers fatigue strength of metal top including relevant a nchorage in concrete shall be verified by three tests each. Test procedure shall be the same as with design M, assuming that the width of elastomere plate is the same as the width of sealing element, however not more than 235 mm (Fig. 4.5). Cantilever metal top shall fully rest on sliding surface. For the test proportion of stresses = -0,3 of action of vertical and horizontal components shall be assumed. Tests shall be run at maximum gap opening position. Verification is achieved after successfully passing 2..106 load cycles with a load corresponding to actions acc. to 4.1.2.1. Cantilever design: In case of cantilever design fatigue strength of metal top including relevant anchorage in concrete shall be verified by three tests each. Test procedure shall be the same as with design M, assuming that the width of elastomere plate is the same as the width of sealing element however not more than 235 mm. Elastomere plate has to be fixed in a suitable manner evenly with cantilever front edge at metal top (Fig. 4.7). For the test proportion of stresses = -0,3 of action of vertical and horizontal components shall be assumed. Tests shall be run at maximum gap opening position. Verification is achieved after succesfully passing 2..106 load cycles with a load corresponding to actions acc. to 4.1.2.1. Design - BD Design - BD shall be executed according to the design principles as per article 5 , fatigue verification by calculation does not have to be done. Design - U Design - U shall be executed according to the design principles as per article 5 ,. fatigue verification by calculation does not have to be done Design - S Fatigue strength shall be verified similar to above-described tests.

9 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

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Expansion Joints

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Fig. 4.3: Arrangement of wheel loads at verification of fatigue strength

10 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

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Fig. 4.4:Vehicle position at supports

Fig. 4.5: Testing arrangement for design - M 11 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

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Fig. 4.6: Testing arrangement for supported design

12 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

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Fig. 4.7: Testing arrangement for cantilever design

Fig. 4.8: Testing arrangement for design - P

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Fig. 4.9: Testing arrangement for design PZ a) test of connection between 'ZP' and 'TK' b) test of intermediate profile 'ZP' in supported area c) test of intermediate profile 'ZP' in span area: if there is no horizontal support midspan, the test does not have to be carried out. For test of welded 'ZP'- joint the procedure shall be in a similar way (without horizontal support) d) test of support 'TK' e) test of support 'TK' and connection between 'ZP' and 'TK' of lazy tong design

14 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

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4.2 Kinematics

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4.2.1 M o v e m e n t s i n S t r u c t u r e G a p In the gaps between superstructure and abutment or between neighbouring superstructures movements at gap edges occur due to deformations of superstructures, support- and abutment displacements or maintenance works. Requirements for expansion joints have to be stipulated as per the following and under consideration of Austrian Standards (NORMEN) B 4202, B 4502 resp. B 4602 (Fig. 4.10). 4.2.1.1 Movements 4.2.1.1.1 Movements in carriageway level Movements in carriageway level are primarily primarily influenced by displacement vector l . Direction of displacement vector l is given by bearing schedule of superstructure. Value of this displacement vector l corresponds to calculated joint movement acc. to NORMEN B 4202, B 4502 etc. resp. B 4602. If direction of displacement vector l forms an angle of = / 90 with the gap (Fig. 4.11) displacements in carriageway s and q result as s = l.sin q = l.cos Eq.( 5.1a ) Apart from components of displacement s and q (Eq. 5.1a) due to elongation of superstructure, a component due to rotation of bearing support shall be considered (Fig. 4.12). In case of skew superstructures a transverse displacement q due to rotation of bearing support may occur. Rotations of bearing support are result of the following actions: traffic load temperature gradient T settlement of piers y creep 4.2.1.1.2 Movements normal to carriageway level If there is an inclination of carriageway level movements h normal to carriageway level (Fig. 4.13) result as h = l.sin Eq.(5.1b )

lifting of superstructure (e.g. at bearing repair work) (Fig. 4.16). 4.2.2 T e s t s Test specimen have to be executed in a way, that they represent the kinematical system 'expansion joint', as realistically as possible. A principle sketch of test specimen and testing arrangement respectively is given in Fig. 4.17. 4.2.2.1 Tests for movements s and q in carriageway level Starting from basic positions 'completely closed' and 'completely open' (Fig. 4.18) a movement cycle 'opening and closing' shall be run 2500 times each. Movement shall be one third of the maximum permissible movement (Fig. 4.18). Minimum duration of one movement cycle is half a minute. 4.2.2.2 Tests for movements h normal to carriageway level Starting from basic position (opening is 1/4 of maximum permissible movement, no vertical displacement h of gap edges) a movement cycle 'lifting and lowering' shall be run 2500 times. Induced displacement h shall be 4,5% of maximum permissible movement l (Fig. 4.19). 4.2.3 V e r i f i c a t i o n s Possibility of relative displacements of gap edges s, q and h 4.2.1.1 shall be verified. Expansion joints have to bear at least transverse movements of q = 5 mm. Verification is achieved if no damage at expansion joint can be noticed after execution of above-mentioned practical tests.

4.3

Reaction Forces
Movements result in resistances due t o temperature-related stiffness of sealing elements, so called reaction forces. D epending on material they may vary according to temperature. Transfer of reaction forces via anchorage into substructure (superstructure, abutment) shall be verified.

Apart from the movements h due to elongation of superstructure acc. to Eq 5.1b movements h due to the following actions shall be considered: rotation of bearing support (Fig. 4.14) long term deflexion of cantilever slabs (Fig. 4.15).

15 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

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B R I D G E EQ U I P M E N T
Expansion Joints
Size of reaction forces shall be determined according to the following tests. They are determined for ambient temperatures in system test and shall be calculated for - 20C from component tests. 4.3.1 S y s t e m T e s t Test specimen have to be executed in a way, that they represent the kinematical system 'expansion joint' as realistically as possible (see article 4.2.2). Test is run at ambient temperature. Starting from medium position expansion joint shall be completely opened and closed three times each (s max ). One movement cycle may not e xceed 24 hours. The arithmetic average of reaction forces shall be indicated as load-displacement-diagram for the whole m ovement cycle.

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4.3.2 C o m p o n e n t T e s t Test specimen have to be executed in a way, that elastic behaviour of components relevant for movement resistances and action thereof to reaction forces can be determined. A principal sketch of test specimen and testing arrangement respectively is given in Fig. 4.20. Test is run at ambient temperature and at a temperature of -20C. Elongation speed and max. elongation shall be chosen like in the system test. For both temperatures reaction forces for the whole elongation range shall be determined. Elongation, however, must not be smaller than 1/3 of that of the system test..

NORM
uniform temperature change; T

[C]
+55 -35 15 +20 -10 15 +40 - 35

Dehnwegzuschlag a l = Abstand F-FP [mm] a = 5 l < 20 m a = 10 l > 20 m ------------------------a = 5 l < 20 m a = 10 l > 20 m 0,15 mm/m NORM B 4250 Sect. 8.2 and 8.3 1,3 times increased values a = 5 l < 20 m a = 10 l > 20 m ---------------------------------

STEEL BRIDGES NORM B 4602

uneven vertical temperature change; various components and single cross sections; T uneven vertical temperature change; solid web girder; T uneven horizontal temperature change; T uniform temperature change; T

CONCRETE BRIDGES NORM B 4202


reinforced concrete; shrinkage prestressed concrete; shrinkage and creep uniform temperature change; T

+50 - 35 Steel 15 Concr. 10 10 5 0

COMPOSITE BRIDGES

NORM B 4502

uneven vertical temperature change; various components and single cross sections; T uneven vertical temperature change; solid web girder; T temperature change concrete - steel uneven horizontal temperature change; T

Fig. 4.10:

Summary of temperatures and time related deformations for expansion joints from Austrian Standards NORMEN B 4602 (1.8.1975), B 4502 (1.5.1981), B 4202 (1.3.1975) and B 4250 (1.8.1991)

Fig. 4.11: movement of bridge structure

Fig. 4.12:horizontal movement due to bearing rotation

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Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

B R I D G E EQ U I P M E N T
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 17

Fig. 4.13:movements due to inclination of carriageway

Fig. 4.16: movements due to lifting of structures

Fig. 4.14: vertical mvements due to bearing rotation

Fig. 4.17: principle sketch of test specimenand testing arrangement respectively

Fig. 4.18: testing of movements in carriageway level

Fig. 4.15: movements due to longterm deflection of cantilever slabs

Fig 4.19: testing of movements normal to carriageway level

17 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

B R I D G E EQ U I P M E N T
Expansion Joints
4.4 Dimensional Stability

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4.4.1 Requirements If directly over-rolled materials are used, whose material properties are not regulated in standards (e.g. strip seal design "P" with special grout "VM", asphaltic plug joints "BD"), long-term dimensional stability shall be verified. Verification is achieved, if after a long-term roll-over test no reduction of serviceability has occurred. Serviceability as well as watertightness has to be given after the test. Permanent deformations may not exceed values as per 5.1.6. A statement on the required equivalent or longer life period than that of adjacent pavement is necessary. 4.4.2 Verifications Test specimen have to be executed in a way, that they represent the complete system as realistically as possible. Test has to be run as long-term roll-over test on a test rig e.g. acc. to Fig. 4.21. Long-term roll-over test shall be executed with a truck axle with an axle load of 90 kN at 10 bar tyre pressure and cover 200.000 roll-over cycles; at 1 % of these cycles a break force of 10% of axle load shall be induced. Test is ex ecuted for 2000 cycles at + 45 C and for the remaining cycles at ambient temperature. Rolling over is performed continuously at a speed of 0,2 m/sec. Before execution of test approval of approval body regarding testing rig and testing arrangement is necessary.

Fig. 4.20: principle sketch of test specimen and testing arrangement respectively (component test)

Fig. 4.21:testing rig for roll-over test (schematic)

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Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 19

5.
5.1

Design
Execution of Design

5.1.5 Cable Ducts If cable ducts are penetrating the expansion joint precautions for watertight connection of ducts to joint and for watertight penetration of cables have to be taken. 5.1.6 P e r m i s s i b l e d e v i a t i o n s i n h e i g h t i n r u n n i n g s ur f a c e Steps in height of more than 8 mm are not permissible. Due to load actions resp. movements between running surface and joint a change of slope up to 3% of contacted design width may occur. The smaller value is binding. Compare Figs 5.2 and 5.3. Meeting of this requirement has to be proved during kinematics test.

5.1.1 C o n t r o l Control elements have to be designed in a way to achieve annhernd uniform gap widths. At designs of control elements n i dependent of supporting elements, between two supporting elements at least one control element has to be situated. 5.1.2 Sidewalk area Distance of outer supporting element to outer end of sidewalk cover shall not exceed 0,85 m. Distance between sidewalk cover to nearesrt control element shall not be more than two meters. 5.1.3 Gap Width Gap width SFi as per Fig. 5.1 rectangular to joint axis shall in unloaded condition not exceed 65 mm and not be less than 5 mm. Under action of horizontal loads the width of a single gap rectangular to joint axis may be 80 mm. At determination of gap width for installation an eventual replacement of sealing elements has to be considered. Gap widths in taffic direction of more than 100 mm length may have a maximum width of 20 mm.

Fig. 5.2: permissible deviation in height

Fig. 5.1: Gap Width S Fi 5.1.4 Drainage Watertight expansion joints have usually to be designed in a way, that water will be transferred in longitudinal direction of carriage way. At non watertight joints with the help of design means (dewatering channel under joint with transversal slope ) has to be secured, that water can flow away properly. Care must be taken for sufficient accessibility.

Fig. 5.3: permissible slope change 5.1.7 Connection to membrane For the purpose of watertight connection of membrane joints shall have a horizontal metallic flange with at least 8 cm

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Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints
wide contact area - compare Fig. 5.4 - , which is connected watertight to joint. Surfacing has to approach joint without worth mentioning reducement - compare Fig. 5.5. The connecting flange shall be anchored in adjacent concrete if not connected rigidly to edge profile. If purchaser has doubts in sufficient bond of membrane on connecting flange (averaget min. 0,5 N/mm, single value min. 0,4 N/mm acc. RVS 15.362), bond shall be verified. If required values are achieved, cost of verification and repair of membrane has to be borne by purchaser. If 1 or more values are not achieved, cost of test, repair and repeated testhave to be borne by supplier. For other connection designs, e.g. clamping, watertightness for a constant pressure of 15 bar and a time of 10 min shall be verified by test compare Fig. 5.6. Connection design has to be executed in sidewalk area too.

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All sealing elements and wear parts of supporting- and controlelements shall be replaceable without destruction of edge profile and asphalt resp. adjacent concrete (except buried joints and asphaltic plug joints). 5.1.9 A s p h a l t i c p l u g j o i n t s Maximum width rectangular to joint axis shall be limited to 700 mm, the minimum thickness to 80 mm. Bridge gap has to be covered by metallic sliding strip resistant to corrosion, ist load capacity has to be determined statically. 5.1.10 Buried joints Joints may not reach into asphalt. Sliding plates may be positioned in membrane level. Nominal asphalt thickness shall be at least 8 cm. 5.1.11 J o i n t s o f e d g e a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o f i l e s . Joints of expansion joints should be avoided. If it can not be prevented they shall be preferably welded on site. Welds shall be in a dimension and quality, that they can carry occurring loads and actions. In respect of corrosion protection edges and burs shall be touched up. Corrosion protection has to be supplemented acc. Art. 5.4. If in exceptional cases a bolted joint (e.g. with front flanges) is planned, a specific permittance by purchaser is necessary.. Sealing of joint has to be executed in longterm manner (e.g. Elastomere). Bituminous intermediate layers are not permissible. Connection of joint shall be capable of carrying loads and actions.

5.2
Fig. 5.4: Connection of membrane

Anchorage - Standard anchor


Minimum material quality for anchors shall be S 235 JO acc. NORM EN 10025. At welded anchors welding ability of material shall be verified. Anchor loops shall be positioned rectangular to joint axis.

5.2.1.Roadway - directly traffic exposed joints A nchorage in concrete Anchorage of edge profiles shall be done with stiffener plate and loops acc. Fig. 5.7 . Thickness of stiffener plate is 15 mm, diameter of anchor loops is 20 mm. Distance of anchors parallel to joint axis is max. 250 mm. Connection welds and welds between loops and plates shall be double sided continous fillet welds a= 4 mm. 5 . 2 . 2 . R o a d w a y buried joints a n c h o r a g e i n c on crete Anchorage of edge profiles shall be carried out by loops or head bolts. Min. thickness of loops/bolts is 14 mm. Distance of anchors parallel to joint axis is max. 250 mm.

Fig. 5.5: Permissible reduction of thicker surfacings to max 12 cm

Fig. 5.6: Test procedure for connection designs acc. 3.1.3 and special grouts VM. 5.1.8 R e p l a c e a b i l i t y o f w e a r p a r t s

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Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints
5.2.3.Sidewalk- and central reserve area anchorage in concrete - ( n o t t a f f i c e x p o s e d ) Anchorage of edge profiles and of cover components shall be carried out with loops acc. Fig. 5.8 or head bolts. Min. thickness of loops/bolts is 10 mm. Distance of anchors parallel to joint axis is max. 250 mm. 5.2.4.Connection to steel structures Anchorage of edge profiles, control- and support elements shall be carried out by watertight welding (no tack welds) to adjacent steel components of structure. With design fatigue has to be considered.

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5.2.5. Design principles Anchors are to be situated rectangular to joint axis. Instead of above shown anchors other in civil engineering usual and state of the art anchors can be used. In this case it shall be verified by fatigue tests that requirements as per Art. 4 are fulfilled.It has to be secured by design measures that concrete can be poured in completely fully covering anchors. For this purpose sufficient pouring-, vibration, control- and deaeration openings have to be foreseen. At least every 0,5 m holes with 10 mm shall be situated. Anchors only partly covered by concrete (e.g. anchor bolts) shall be made of permanent corrosion resistant materials. Concrete cover at anchor loops shall be nominally min 3,5 cm.

5.3.

Other Design Requirements

5.3.1 O p e r a t i n g n o i s e Joints shall be designed as poor of noise as possible. With design of structure unavoidable creation of operating noise has to be considered. Resonance-promoting designs shall be avoided. 5.3.2 Sidewalk covers On bridges with frequent traffic of pedestrians regularly at modular expansion joints PZ gaps due to design shall be covered at sidewalks. Decision if a cover has to be ex ecuted is up to the purchaser. If sidewalk covers have to be executed they have to meet the following design requirements: Cover shall reach acc. Fig. 5.9 (e.g. by chequered plate 10 mm) from front edge of curb and top of surfacing until outer end of sidewalk cover in the same level as sidewalk surface, sliding (e.g. on plastic sliding elements) on a substructure. Sidewalk covers shall be detachable. Cover has to be dimensioned for a single load of 15 kN, distributed to an area of 10 x 10 cm. An impact factor must not be considered. Regularly it is made of stainless steel, aluminium or hot galvanized structural steel (without coating). Sidewalk covers have to be equipped with a metallic substructure rigidly connected to edge profile and positioned even with sidewalk concrete by means of an angle.

Fig. 5.7:

Guidance drawing

anchor in carriageway

Fig. 5.8:

Guidance drawing

anchor at sidewalk

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Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 22
be connected with adjacent concrete surfacings by dowels. Sufficient clearing joints acc. Art. 9 have to be cons idered. In sidewalk area an anchorage is permissible if surplus concrete is connected rigidly to below existing sidewalk concrete. 5.3.6 Watertightness Watertightness of a joint shall be verified. Verification is suitably done in a test for design P (Single seal expansion joints) and design PZ (Modular expansion joints) by applying of a 10% NaCl solution onto a part of the expansion joint, rise at least 3cm above highest level of joint. Duration of test: 8 hours. Within this period no moisture may appear at bottom surface of seals. In the tested area in every seal a vulcanised jointshall be foreseen. Seals shall be expanded resp stretched in possible directions of movement transversally as well as longitudinally to joint axis to an extent of 20% more than permitted for the joint. For other joint types verification shall be similar as above described.

Fig. 5.9: Sidewalk cover Example 5.3.3 End cov e r s If joint ends watertight at outer end of sidewalk a cover thereof is executed by front plates or plate covers fixed on a steel substructure evenly with outer edge of sidewalk covers. Regularly it is made of stainless steel, aluminium or hot galvanized structural steel. 5.3.4 Transportfixation Devices for transport fixation preferably should be designed in a way that their corrosion protection is not damaged during their detachment. If the same device is also used for fixation of preset it shall be attached in a way, that it can be dismantled from top after installation of joint. Transport- and preset- devices have to get loud colours. 5.3.5 Elevation shifting Elevation shifting means lifting up the joint from ist original carriageway and sidewalk level to a new one. If possible the same joint should be used. If this is not possible, a similar acc. Art. 4 tested design has to be used. Shifting design has to be welded to existing joint resistant to bending and watertight. Strength and kinematics of complete system has to be verified in similar way acc. Art.4. Before installation of new seals the old ones have to be removed. Shifting design may

5.4 Corrosion protection


Corrosion protection has to executed under consideration of RVS 15.5 "Korrosionsschutz". 5.4.1. Structural steel All not concrete contacted areas including a 3 cm wide strip reaching into concrete shall get one of the following corrosion protection systems. Excepted are alloyed steel qualities as per Art. 5.4.2. The 3 cm wide strip and contact areas foe watertight membrane shall get no top coat. Top coats System B may be executed also in contact area of watertight membrane.

Fig. 5.10: Elevation shifting scheme

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Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 23

Corrosion protection system A: Pretreatment: Sandblasting acc. NORM DIN 55928 Part 4, degree of purification SA 2 1/2. 1st base coat: theoretical layer thickness SSD 70 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: zinc dust nd 2 base coat: SSD 60 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: micaceous iron ore min. 50 % 1st top coat: SSD 60 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: micaceous iron ore min. 50 % 2nd top coat: SSD 60 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: micaceous iron ore min. 50 % For top coats 2-component polyurethane may also be used for binder instead of epoxy resin. Corrosion protection system B: Pretreatment: Sandblasting acc. NORM DIN 55928 Part 4, degree of purification SA 2 1/2. 1st base coat: theoretical layer thickness SSD 70 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: zinc dust 2nd base coat: SSD 60 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: micaceous iron ore min. 50 % 1st top coat: SSD 60 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: micaceous iron ore min. 50 % nd 2 top coat: SSD 80 m binder: creosote-2-component epoxy resin or hydrocarbon-2-component epoxy resin Corrosion protection system C: According separate instructions of purchaser. Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser the following corrosion protection system may also be applied instead of system A and B: Corrosion protection system W1: Pretreatment: Sandblasting acc. NORM DIN 55928 Part 4, degree of purification SA 3. Coating: SSD 80 m to 120 m thermally sprayed metal coating with zinc Zn 99,99 acc. NORM C 2540. Sealing coat: SSD 30 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: zinc phosphate

1st top coat:

SSD 60 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: micaceous iron ore min. 50 % nd 2 top coat: SSD 60 m binder: 2-component-epoxy resin pigment: micaceous iron ore min. 50 % nd 2 top coat may also be applied as with system B. Elastomeric protective coatings: Instead of above described coating systems hot-vulcanised elastomeric coatings may be applied over entire surface, provided they comply with following requirements. Protective layer shall be sufficiently resistant to occuring actions (UV -radiation, oils, grease, fuel, mechanical effects). Minimum thickness of protective coatings on traffic contacted surfaces 5,0 mm, on not traffic contacted surfaces 2,5 mm. Hot-dip galvanizing: If joint components are suitable for hot-dip galvanizing they may be equipped with corrosion protection acc RVS 15.5, Appendix, Table N5 or N6, ausgerstet werden. (corrosion protection systems W2 and W3): Execution: Coatings generally shall be factory-applied. For differentiation single layers shall be applied in clearly differentncolour shades. When applying the coatings curing times specified by coat manufacturerers shall be observed. Components later difficult accessible for renewal of corrosion protection (e.g. niches for control elements) require reinforced corrosion protection (at least one additional top layer) unless they are not of corrosionfree design. In case of cavities welded air-tight there is no coating necessary on internal surfaces. Sliding- or roller surfaces shall be executed in corrosionresistant material. If the purchaser has doubts in to adequate adhesiveness of coating in area of later applied watertight membrane 3 pull-off tests shall be performed on connecting flange. If required adhesive strength of 1,5 N/mm is not achieved even in one test surface shall be repaired and retested. Cost shall be borne by contractor. If required values are achieved in the initial test the cost for test shall be borne by purchaser. 5.4.2 Alloy steels and other materials Stainless steels of material No. 1.4571 /V4A (X6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2) or weatherresistant grain refined steels in material No. 1.8962 (WT ST 510-3, 9 CrNiCuP 324) are

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Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints
not to be coated. With expansion joints made of weatherresistant steel suitable measures shall be taken to prevent structure and abutment from rust contaminations. If other materials with verified resistance to actions on structureare used separate corrosion protection measures must not be taken. In other case material-adequate procedures complying to steel corrosion protection are to be executed.. In combination of different materials it shall be observed that electrochemical corrosion is avoided. 5.4.3.Repair work During transport or installation damaged corrosion protection shall be repaired in eqivalent quality. Choice of layers and thicknesses have to be adopted to initial coating. Mechanical wear of coatings acc. corrosion protection systems A, B, C or W in carriageway is not covered by warranty.

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Sealing elements subject to load Requirements: Sealing elements subject to load at designs such as mats M, MZ und FD (including membranes) shall be made from high-grade materials. Material shall be resistant to acids and alcaline waters, melt water of de-icing agents as well as to weather- and environmental effects. Temperature of application varies between -35 and 70 C. Due to required long service life as polymeric materials Polychlorprene-caoutchuc (CR) and natural rubber (NR) are permissible. Use of natural caoutchouc is permitted only, if at maximum stress elongation is below 20 % and verification is done, that material is resistant to ageing even after storage in a sotution of de-icing salt. In case of composite design of metal and elastomere bond shall be made by vulcanisation. Additional requirements In addidtion to material requirements acc. 5.5.1 and 5.5.2 following additional requirements shall be fulfilled: Butt joints: At butt joints the relation of load capacity between butt-jointed andnot butt-jointed sealing elements shall be determined in a tensile test. Butt joint has to be situated in the middle of the specimen. Tear resistance of butt joint shall be at least 50 % of tear resistance of basic material. Marking: Sealing elements shall be durably marked in a distance of max every 3 m as follows: Manufacturer, manufacturing code, monitoring label, symbol for polymere type. Marking shall be in a way that it can be read even after installationst. 5.5.3: Flexible plug joints Table 5.1:Material requirements for polymere-modified bitumen (special grout: Property Requirement Soluble binder component > 80,0 M% Ring and ball softening point >75 C Density at 25 C 1,0 - 1,3 g/cm Herrmann falling-ball test at No damage to 3 -15C/5m out of 4 balls Penetration at 25C/0,1 mm 40 - 70 Ash content < 8,0 M% Extensibility and adhesive > 5 mm bond without pretreatment at -10 C Pourability and pouring tem180 5C perature Overheating safety margin > 30 C Test DIN 1996 - 6 NORM C 9212 NORM C 9211 DIN 1996 - 18 NORM C 9214 NORM C 9250 - 12 TL bit Fug 82, Appendix 6 SNV 671 914 SNV 671 915

5.5

Materials

5.5.1 Metallic materials 5.5.1.1 Steel For use of steel in load-bearing components NORM EN 10 025 and Austrian Steel Association - Guideline for determination of permissible stress of not standardized steel qualities is relevant. 5.5.1.2 Aluminium For use of and aluminium-alloys the guideline for dimensioning of aluminium structures of the Austrian Steel Association is relevant. 5.5.1.3 Other metals For the use of other netals than mentioned in 5.5.1.1 and 5.5.1.2 relevant Austrian or DIN standards shall be applied to. Especially creation of galvanic elements between different metalls shall be avoided. 5.5.2 S e a l i n g e l e m e n t s n o t s u b j e c t t o l o a d Requirements: Material shall be resistant to acid and alcaline waters, melt water of de-icing agents as well as to weatherand environmental effects and shall comply with table 5.1 entsprechen. Temperature of application varies between -35 and 70 C. Due to long life period as polymeric materials Polychlorprenecaoutchouc (CR) or Ethylene-Propylene-caoutchuc (EPDM) are to be executed. Chloroprene has a good tear resistance, a good Weiterreiwiderstand and is resistant to oil. EPDM is highly resistant to weather and swells at contact with crude oil products. To meet mechanical requirements the thickness shall be at least 4 mm. Shore hardness shall be stipulated from manufacturer of expansion joint in the nominal range between 55 and 65 Shore A .

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Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints
Bitumen in accordance with ONORM B 3610 or a material providing at least equivalent or better conditions for the entire system shall be used. At ambient and pouring temperature the appearance and condition of chipping aggregate to be used shall comply with RVS 8.01.11 and RVS 8.06.27 by analogy with table 3, load class I, particle size EBK 16/22. Mineral aggregate shall be dried, dedusted and heated to 140 170 C when placed.

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5 . 5 . 4 S p e c ial grout Requirements for use as directly traffic loaded grout "VM", which connects profile design and structure resp abutment are laid down in table 5.3 .

5.6

Marking
A durable, easy visible type-plate acc. Fig. 5.11, min. 150 mm long, shall be attached to or nearby the expansion joint.

Table 5.2 : Material requirements for sealing elements Properties Deviation from nominal value (Shore A) Tear resistance (N/mm), elongation at tear (%) Compression set rest 168 h 23 C (%) 24 h 70 C Requirements without load-bearing 5 min. 10 min. 350 max. 20 max. 30 Requirements with load-bearing 5 min. 15 min. 400 max. 20 max. 30 Test* NORM DIN 53505 NORM DIN 53504 on standard rod S 2 NORM C 9436 - 1 wit test specimen I 13( 0,5) mm x 6,3( 0,3) mm. Test specimens not thick enough shall be layered without forming bonded test specimens to max 3 layers NORM DIN 53507 test specimen A (sample strip)

min. 10 min. 15 Weiterreiwiderstand (N/mm) Abrasion (mm) max. 250 max. 150 NORM DIN 53516 Cold brittleness temperature ( C) max. - 35 max. - 35 DIN 53546 Behaviour after ozone influence: Crack pattern stage 0 Crack pattern NORM C 9435, - 1 method B, on strip-shaped spec iafter 168 h storage at 23 C in a stage 0 mens with elongation of 20 % in 168( + 0-2)h at 30( 2) 4% potassium chloride solution C. Ozone concentration is 50( 5) pphm. 168 h/30 C/50 pphm/20 % elongation Behaviour after thermal influence NORM C 9434 in a hot cabinet with forced air ventilation 14 d/70 C: for a duration of 14d at 70( 1) C. After thermal storage change in hardness (Shore A) max. + 7 max. + 5 and subsequent min 16 hours storage 23( 2) C hardchange in tear resistance (%) max. - 20 max. - 15 ness acc. NORM DIN 53505 and tear resistance and change in elongation at tear (%) max. - 20 max. - 20 elongation at tear acc NORM DIN 53504 shall be tested. Resistance to 4 % potassium chloNORM C 9445 on 2( 0,2) mm thick specimen for 14d at ride solution 14 d/23 C: change in 23( 2) C in a 4 %% potassium chloride solution: after volume (%) max. + 10 max. + 10 storage hardness acc. NORM DIN 53505 and change in change in hardness (Shore A) max. - 5 max. - 5 volume acc. NORM C 9445 shall be determined. Resistance to hot bitumen: 30 Specimen acc. NORM C 9445 with 2( + 0,2)mm are min/220 C stored for 30 minutes in Bitumen 85/25 at 220C. Change change in tear resistance (%) max. - 20 max. - 20 in tear resistance and elongation at tear is evaluated change in elongation at tear (%) max. - 20 max. - 20 Adhesion to metal: Verification of sufficient adhesion shall be done by peeling peeling or shear test Not applicable Structural fracture test.Fracture shall start in rubber. (100 % R). * Unless otherwise specified below specimen are to be produced, conditioned for at least acc. 16 h at 23( 2) C and tested acc. NORM ISO 4661 Part 1. The specimen specified in the relevant test standard shall be taken from finished sealing profiles resp. mats.

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Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 26

Table 5.3: Material requirements for directly traffic-loaded special grouting compounds acc 5.5.4 Compressive strength 1 Modulus of elasticity at ambient temperature1 Abrasion resistance to steel (sandblasted) 2 Concrete (hardened) 2 Asphaltic concrete 2 Elongation at break Thermal elongation + 18 C 20 N/mm 5,0 N/mm + 45 C - 20 C 8 N/mm 45 N/mm 6000 N/mm 2,5 N/mm 5 N/mm Abrasion resistance to concrete 1,5 N/mm Abrasion resistance to asphaltic concrete 8% 60 x 10-6 1/K No damage

Frost-thaw resistance acc. NORM B 3303 1 = in accordance to DIN 1048-1,-2 2 = in accordance to DIN ISO 4624

Fig. 5.11: name plate

6.

Transport, Intermediate Storage and I nstallation


Auxiliary devices shall be generally provided for transport, intermediate storage and installation holding together the expansion joint ready for installation.

6.1

Transport
Auxiliary device shall be of a design such that preset of expansion joint does not change during proper loading, unloading and transport. If expansion joints are delivered dismantled or in parts they shall be assembled by manufacturer or personnel accordingly instructed by manufacturer. Expansion joints delivered to site shall be properly marked.

6.2

Intermediate storage
Expansion joints shall be unloaded carefully and properly and if necessary - put into intermediate storage on suitable supports. Intermediate storage shall be done in such a way that expansion joints are neither damaged or polluted from weather effects nor from continuing construction works or site traffic.

6.3

Installation and Connection to Surfacing


Installation of expansion joints and repair of defects found shall be done properly by manufacturer or personnel instructed accordingly from manufacturer. Any approvals and method statements for installation of manufacturers as well as installation drawings have to be observed. Before installation blockout dimension shall be checked again and corrected if necessary. Surface of blockouts shall be treated like construction (see NORM B 4200 - 10). Preset for a certain temperature range of structure shall be made according instruction of project engineer.

Immediately before installation or definitive fixing of expansion joint the representative structure temperature shall be taken. Is the structure temperature at time of installation outside the temperature range assumed by the project engineer, preset shall be coorected accordingly. For this purpose the auxiliary device shall enable change of preset. Correction shall only be made by manufacturer or by personnel instructed accordingly by manufacturer under consultation of the project engineer. If an expansion joint with metallic surface is designated to get a later coating (for level adjustment) it shall be installed at a deeper level of corresponding dimension. Condition of expansion joint according to drawing shall be checked by visual inspection before installation. Eventual defect correction shall only be made by manufacturer or by personnel instructed accordingly by manufacturer. Immediately after tight and immovable fixing of edge components to structure resp. abutment (edges of civil structure) auxiliary devices shall be released. After installation damages of corrosion protection shall be repaired acc. Stipulations of Art. 5 and connecting components not yet coated shall be provided with the appropriate coatings. After installation an inspection of anchorage and reinforcement acc. Drawing shall be done by the construction supervisors. For concreting-in regularly formwork-sheets shall be attached in order to avoid later removal of other formwork or inlets and cleaning the gap. Thereto a possibility for fixing of these sheets to the reinforcement behind them shall be available. If due to technical reasons the use of these formwork-sheets is not properly resp. can formwork of joint be removed after concreting upwards in structure area resp upwards or downwards in cantilever area instead of formwork sheets other kind of formwork may be used. Thereby this formwork shall allow for movement of the joint during setting of backfill concrete.

26 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints
Formwork has to resist to concrete pressure. Expanded polystrene or similar materials may not be used as only formwork skin. Formwork shall be removed after setting proces s without residue. Blockout shall be cleaned carefully before concreting, e.g. by waterjet or compressed air. Connections to steel shall be executed acc. NORM B 4600. Before pouring resp. final welding in case of steel connection elevation and and axial position of expansion joint has to be checked. Backfill concrete shall be low -shrinkage and of the same or higher strength than concrete of. Backfill concrete shall especially careful after-treatment (see NORM B 4200 - 10). Expansion joints may only be subjected to traffic until backfill concrete has achieved a pressure strength on a test cube of min 25 N/mm. Before surfacing is applied a check shall be made that connection to membrane has been made correctly. Suitable measures shall be taken that expansion joints are not subjected to traffic before surfacing is applied. If site-traffic on expansion joints is unavoidable joints shall be protected by suitable transit bridges. Surfacing shall reach as far as edge components, gaps on surface shall be closed. Attention shall be paid to careful compaction and even connection of surfacing. Never surfacing shall be positioned lower than top surface of expansion joint, superelevation of surfacing shall not exceed 2 mm with concrete surfacing and 3 mm with bitumenous surfacings. Changes in gradient not in accordance to drawing in an area of 10 m before and af ter the expansion joint are not permisible. Regarding evenness the stipulations of RVS 8.06.27 and RVS 8.06.32 apply. After surfacing the sealing elements of expansion joints shall be cleaned carefully.

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7. Maintenance
7.1 Supervision
supervision shall be made in accordance with RVS 13.71. 7.1.1 C h e c k In addition to stipulations of above RVS functional capability of spacing gaps shall also be checked. 7.1.2 Inspection Before inspection the expansion joint has to be cleaned on running surface. Detachable obstructions to an inspection of underside of expansion joint (bird protection gratings etc.) shall be removed if necessary. Existing movement gaps shall be measured to mm accuracy at three locations if possible and recorded together with determined temperature of structure. If defects are suspected in the area of covers, these shall be removed for the inspection. Inspection shall be recorded (see Appendix: sample for inspection protocol). It is recommended that the manufacturer of expansion joint in question is allowed to have a look to the inspection protocol..

7.2

Maintenance, repair
Expansion joints shall be permanently kept in an operational condition. Repair of defects shall be done properly if possible with manufacturer involved. Stones, bituminous residue or other solids jammed into movement gaps shall be removed. Eventual water drains shall be cleaned in regular intervals. J oint sealants to adjacent carriageway surfacing or concrete shall be replaced in due time. Attention shall be taken that repair or replacement of sealing elements is only possible with certain gap widths.. Corrosion protection in the meaning of RVS 15.5 "Corrosion protection" shall be constantly maintained resp. with severe corrosion be replaced.

6.4 Installation report


Following features shall be recorded by construction supervisor after installation (see Appendix 1, page 1 - 3) : - Condition of expansion joint in accordance to drawing before installation. - Condition of anchorage and reinforcement in accordance to drawing. - Level and axial position of expansion joint before back-filling resp. welding in case of steel connection. - Condition of basis before applying watertight membrane. - Execution of connection to watertight membrane before applying surfacing.

27 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints
Attention shall be paid that galvanized and coated surfaces are not weathered too severely but recoated in due time. If supplementing coats attentiuon shall be paid to type, composition and age of original coat. Stainless or corosion-poor steel components do not require for corrosion protection. Due to expected noise emissions, creation of water-pockets as well as increased dynamic stress doubling-up of surfacings shall be connected as even as possible to expansion joint, whereby ramps with a gradient of 1:100 orshallower (depending on road category) shall be executed. Increased wear of surfacing (e.g. ruttings) leads to growing out of expansion joint and therefore to increased mechanical wear and noise emission. If these level differences cannot be eliminated at least ramps with permissible slope as with doubling-up of surfacings shall be made. Spacing gaps shall constantly be kept operational.

RVS 15.45
Page 28
This contract for external monitoring shall determine the separation of checks to be executed acc. initial type test into inhouse monitoring checks and ex ternal monitoring checks in detail for each expansion joint type of the manufacturer. The contract for external monitoring is subject to approval of approval body. External supervisor carries out an initial check and a continous standard check for each type of expansion joint of a manufacturer. At initial check external supervisor ascertains whether manufacturer has the personnel and and material resources for a continous, correct production of the expansion joint type to be checked. At standard check, which generally shall be made four times a year without prior notice, the external supervisor checks correct and complete handling of in-house monitoring and adherence to requirements of the relevant type sheet. Results of the supervision shall be recorded in an external monitoring report. This report has to contain at least: a) manufacturer b) name of expansion joint c) statements to equipment of manufacturer, in-house monitoring incl. marking d) Results of checks carried out during external monitoring e) date of check f) signature of external supervisor. Expansion joint types subject to initial and standard checks shall be provided with a mark showing to user continous external monitoring and the name of the external supervisor (see Fig. 8.1.). If defec ts are detected during external monitoring and these defects are not eliminated within reasonable period by manufacturer the external supervisor shall terminate the contract for external monitoring immediately. From date of contract termination the manufacturer is not authorised any longer to mark the manufactured joints as externally monitored. External monitoring generally takes place at factory. In case of special grouts (compounds) sampling is carried out at site.

8.

Quality assurance (Attestation of conformity)


Quality assurance consists of in-house and external monitoring. Subject of monitoring is adherence to the regulations laid down in this RVS regardingstructural design (Art. 4) and design (Art. 5). Supervision of installation is regulated in Art. 6.

8.1. Initial Type-testing


Initial type-testing shall be carried out by an authorised, independent testing institute. Selection of this institute is up to the manufacturer but requires for confirmation by the approval body. Initial type-testing determines whether basic requirements of this (calculations, tests etc.) are fulfilled. For each type d esign- and manufacturing details as well as type and scope of tests to be performed including sampling are recorded in a type-sheet. Materials shall be described in this type sheet (for later safe disposal).

8.2. In-house monitoring


In-house monitoring is the continous supervision by the manufacturer of the adherence to laid down requirements. Results of in.house monitoring shall be recorded and evaluated. Record shall contain at least following informations: a) name of expansion joint b) kind of check c) date of manufacture and of check d) result of check e) signature of person responsible for in-house monitoring. Record shall be stored for at least 6 years and shall be presented to external supervisor upon request. If result of check is unsatisfactory the necessary measures for rectifying the d efects shall be taken by themanufacturer immediately.

Fig. 8.1: Mark for external monitoring

8.4. Technical delivery and test conditions


8.4.1 Materials For metallic materials an inspection certificate B acc. NORM EN 10204 shall be issued. For non-metallic materials the type of inspection certificate shall be stipulated in the type sheet. 8.4.2 Welded components Production shop for expansion joints shall prove quality assurance for welding acc. NORM M 7812 - 2 for quality class 2.

8.3. External monitoring


Manufacturer shall conclude a supervision contract with a tes ting institute qualified in this expert field.

28 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints
Requirements for welding personnel shall be fulfilled in accordance with NORM M 7805 for quality class 2. For dynamically loaded components quality class 1 in accordance with NORM M 7812 - 2 shall be proved and evaluation group B acc. NORM EN 25817 shall be assumed unless otherwise stipulated as part of initial type testing. 8.4.3Production and installat ion and corrosion protection NORM B 4600 - 7 shall be paid attention to.

RVS 15.45
Page 29
9.4 Joint (sealants)
In general connection of bituminous or concrete surfacings to edge profile shall not provided with grouted joints (sealants) If at a later stage gaps occur due to shrinkage of surfacings they shall be trimmed and filled with material of permanent elasticity. When trimming attention shall be paid to corrosion protection. In case of concrete carriage ways RVS 8.06.32 shall be observed. Structures longer than 80m shall be provided with spacing gaps.

9.5

Concrete transition strips


If it is intended to carry out a concrete transition strip, the following comments and Fig. 9.13 shall be observed. At concrete transition strips back.fill concrete for block out reaches to carriageway running surface and is directly traffic exposed. Therefore at least the upper 10 cm shall be made of specially abrasion-resistant and low -shrinkage concrete. Fig. 9.13 represents minimum requirement.

9.

Proportion of facilities
To ensure accessibility of expansion joint for installation, inspection, maintenance and repair at least clearances acc. Figs 9.1 to 9.13 shall be kept clear.

9.1

Formwork sheets
Formwork sheets shall be designed and fixed in a way that they withstand placing of back-fill concrete. They shall be supplied hot-dip galvanised or in stainless steel. Other formwork (timber, Styropor etc.) shall not be used.

9.6

Accessibility
Expansion joints for a movement of more than 100 mm or with moveable parts shall be accessible from below. Accessibility shall be enabled by a clear space between structure and ballast wall at least 60 cm wide and 120 cm high and may be narrowed locally to 40 cm wide. The associated access shall have the same cross-section or 60 cm height and 180 cm width. In case of prestressed structures and beam bridges this space shall be provided in any case. Accessibility shall be given over entire length of expansion joints. For expansion joints with a movement less than 100 mm and without moveable parts the space between structure and ballast wall may be reduced to 15 cm wide in case of reinforced concrete-slabs. An inspection facility shall be provided.

9.2

Snow plough safety precautions


To prevent damage by snow ploughs, skew positionings of expansion joints in plan with deviations of 30 34 from the vertical to the bridge axis shall be avoided if possible. This applies also to lanes of motorways and expressways.

9.3

Evenness Operating noise


To avoid increased operating noise due to rolling traffic connection to surfacing (e.g. as hard mastic asphalt) has to be as evenly as possible. Regularly bituminous surfacings may be maximum 3 mm higher than the edge profile. Installation deeper than the edge profile is not permissible. Only joint designs planned for later coating for height compensation are excepted from before mentioned regulations. Resonancepromoting designs shall be avoided.

29 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 30

Fig. 9.1: Standard cross-section of directly traffic exposed expansion joints

30 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 31

Fig. 9.2: Plan view directly traffic-exposed expansion joints

31 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 32

Fig. 9.3: Section 1-1 design "P"

Fig. 9.4: Section 1-1 design "PZ" 32 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 33

Fig. 9.5: Section 1-1 design "M"

Fig. 9.6: Section 1-1 design "P(Alternative)"

Fig. 9.7: Section 1-1 design "BD"

33 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 34

Fig. 9.8: Section 2-2 Sidewalk area

Alternative: execution with cover plate

34 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 35

Fig. 9.9: Section 3-3 Fig. 9.9: Standard section buried expansion jopints (Section 3-3)

35 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 36

Fig. 9.10: Section 3-3 buried expansion joints

Fig. 9.11 Section 5-5 sidewalk area 36 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 37

Fig. 9.12: Standard section buried expansion joint

37 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Page 38

Fig. 9.13: Concrete transition strip for all design types P, PZ, M, MZ, FD, F

38 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints 10. Normen und Richtlinien
Neu erscheinende EN - Normen sind entsprechend zu bernehmen. NORM EN 10204

RVS 15.45
Page 39
Metallische Erzeugnisse; Arten von Prfbescheinigungen (ersetzt NORM M 3000 Bescheinigungen ber Werkstoffprfungen) NORM EN 24624 Lacke und Anstrichstoffe, Abreiversuch zur Beurteilungder Haftfestigkeit) NORM EN 25817 Lichtbogenschweiverbindungen an Stahl; Richtlinie fr die Bewertungsgruppen von Unregelmigkeiten DIN 1996 - 6 Prfung von Asphalt; Bestimmung des Bindemittelgehaltes und Rckgewinnung des Bindemittels DIN 1996 - 18 Prfung von Asphalt; Kugelfallversuch nach Herrmann DIN 53546 Prfung von Elastomeren; Bestimmung der Kltesprdigkeitstemperatur bei Schlagbeanspruchung. ISO 4661 Rubber, vulcanized-preparation of samples and test pieces RVS 8.01.11 Baustoffe; Gesteinsmaterial; Gesteinskrnung fr den Straenbau RVS 8.06.27 Deckenarbeiten; Bituminse Decken; Walzasphalt RVS 8.06.32 Deckenarbeiten; Betondecken; Deckenherstellung RVS 15.36 Brckenabdichtungen RVS 15.43 Brckenentwsserung RVS 15.5 Korrosionsschutz RVS 15... Richtlinie fr die berwachung und Prfung von Straenbrcken Richtlinie zur Berechnung ermdungsbeanspruchter Konstruktionen aus Stahl (sterr. Stahlbauverband ) TL bit Fug 82 Anhang 6 Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Bituminse Fugenmassen; BRD SNV 671 914 Schweizer Norm fr Vergumassen; Vergiebarkeit SNV 671 915 Schweizer Norm fr Vergumassen; Sicherheitsspange gegen berhitzung

10.1 Angefhrte Normen und Richtlinien


NORM B 3303 NORM B 4002 NORM B 4200 - 10 NORM B 4202 NORM B 4250 NORM B 4502 NORM B 4600 - 2 NORM B 4600 - 7 NORM B 4602 NORM C 2540 NORM C 9211 NORM C 9212 NORM C 9214 NORM C 9250 - 12 NORM C 9250 - 13 NORM C 9430 Beton; Prfung . Straenbrcken; Allgemeine Grundlagen; Berechnung und Ausfhrung der Tragwerke Beton; Herstellung und berwachung. Massivbau - Straenbrcken. Spannbetontragwerke; Berechnung und Ausfhrung. Verbundbau; Straenbrcken; Berechnung und Ausfhrung. Stahlbau; Berechnung der Tragwerke. Stahlbau; Ausfhrung der Tragwerke Stahlbau; Straenbrcken. Korrosionsschutz von Eisenwerkstoffen durch thermisches Spritzen von Zink oder Aluminium Bituminse Grundstoffe, Dichte und relative Dichte, Prfung Bitumen und Steinkohlenteerpech; Prfung; Bestimmung des Erweichungspunktes mit Ring und Kugel - ERK Bitumen und Steinkohlenteerpech; Prfung; Bestimmung der Nadelpenetration Erdlbitumen - Asphalt - Teer; Prfung; Aschegehalt Erdlbitumen - Asphalt - Teer; Prfung; Erhitzungsprfung Prfung von Elastomeren; Richtlinien fr die Herstellung von Probekrpern fr die Prfung von Elastomeren und mit Elastomer beschichteten Geweben Prfung von Elastomeren; knstliche Alterung Prfung von Elastomeren; Bestimmung der Bestndigkeit gegen Ozonribildung; statische Beanspruchung Prfung von Elastomeren; Bestimmung des Druckverformungsrestes nach konstanter Verformung bei Raumtemperatur und hheren Temperaturen Prfung von Elastomeren; Bestimmung des Verhaltens gegen Flssigkeiten Allgemeine Bausthle; Gtevorschriften Schweitechnisches Personal; Einteilung und Anforderungen Sicherung der Gte von Schweiarbeiten; Gteklassen Anforderungen an die Gte der Ausfhrung von Schmelzschweiverbindungen aus Stahl; Bewertungsgruppen Prfung von Kautschuk und Elastomeren; Bestimmung von Reifestigkeit, Zugfestigkeit, Reidehnung und Spannungswerten im Zugversuch Prfung von Kautschuk, Elastomeren und Kunststoffen; Hrteprfung nach Shore A und Shore D Prfung von Kautschuk und Elastomeren; Bestimmung des Weiterreiwiderstandes von Elastomeren; Streifenprobe Prfung von Kautschuk und Elastomeren; Bestimmung des Abriebes 4 Korrosionsschutz von Stahlbauten durch Beschichtungen und berzge; Vorbereitung und Prfung der Oberflchen

NORM C 9434 NORM C 9435 - 1 NORM C 9436 - 1

10.2 Nicht angefhrte, jedoch wesentliche Normen und Richtlinien


NORM M 7800 Symbole fr Schweiverbindungen; Schmelzschweien NORM M 7810 - 1: Allgemeintoleranzen fr Schweikonstruktionen; Lngen- und Winkelmae NORM M 7810 - 2: Allgemeintoleranzen fr Schweikonstruktionen; Form und Lage NORM M 7812 - 1: Sicherung der Gte von Schweiarbeiten; A nforderungen an Betriebe, in denen Schweiarbeiten nach Gteklassen durchgefhrt werden. NORM M 7813 Schweierpa NORM M 7827 Schweitechnik; Verfahrensprfungen ( ungltig) NORM EN 26520 Einteilung von Fehlern an Schmelzschweiverbindungen aus metallischen Werkstoffen; Benennungen, Beschreibungen (ersetzt NORM M 7829 ) NORM EN 29002 Qualittssicherungssysteme; Modell zur Darlegung der Qualittssicherung in Produktion und Montage RVS 13.542 Asphaltstrassen; Verfllen von Rissen RVS 15.41 Randleisten- und Mittelstreifenkonstruktion Richtlinie zur Festlegung der zulssigen Beanspruchung nicht genormter Sthle (sterr. Stahlbauverband ) Richtlinie fr die Bemessung von Aluminium-Konstruktionen (sterr. Stahlbauverband )

NORM C 9445 NORM M 3116 NORM M 7805 NORM M 7812 - 2 NORM M 7830 NORM DIN 53504

NORM DIN 53505 NORM DIN 53507 NORM DIN 53516 NORM DIN 55928 -

39 Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints
Annex 1 : Installation Report (Sample) acc. Article 6

RVS 15.45
Annex/Page 1

INSTALLATION REPORT OF EXPANSION JOINTS (eventual approvals and method statements for installation of manufacturer shall be adhered to)

1.Bauvorhaben

2. Client

3. Contractor

4. Manufacturer of expansion joint

5. Place of installation (Lot)

6. Expansion joint make and type

7.Drawing No of expansion joint

8. CHECK AFTER DELIVERY


8.1 Condition according execution-drawing 8.3 Preset (outside-middle-outside) 8.4 Preset e v according drawing 8.5 Remarks: e v measured mm mm mm 8.2 Corrosion protection

mm

P,PZ

______________________________ For the client

____________________________ For the contractor

_______________________________ For the manufacturer

* tick after check and being all right. Defects to be denoted under remarks.

Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Annex 1

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Annex/Page 2

9 CHECK AFTER INSTALLATION (before concreting in) (at steel-bridges after preliminary fixing) 9.1 Date 9.2 Temperature of structure

9.3 Block-out (see. Art. 6.3)

9.4 Level, location of axis, inclinat ion

9.5 Connection to structure resp. abutment (Carriageway and sidewalk) 9.6 Preset measured: 9.6.1 Place of measure Gap mm

9.6.2 Place of measure

Gap

mm

9.6.3 Place of measure

Gap

mm

9.6.4 Place of measure

Gap

mm

9.7 Corrosion protection (see. Art. 5.4)

9.8 Transport fixation removed

9.9 Ducts to structure resp. abutment

9.10 Formwork sheets

9.11 Waterproof ducts

9.12 Remarks:

____________________________ For the client

___________________________ For the contractor

_______________________________ For the manufacturer

Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Annex 2

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Annex/Page 3

10. CHECK AFTER CONCRETING IN (at steel-bridges after final welding) 10.1 Date of check 10.2 Temperature of structure.

10.3 Concrete surface (visual check)

10.4 Connection to waterproof membrane

10.5 Gap under expansion joint clear

10.6

Sidewalk resp. Name plate

central

reserve

cover-

10.7 Eventual supplement of corrosion protection

10.8 Gap widths (at same location as per 9.6.) 10.8.1 mm

10.8.2

mm

10.8.3

mm

10.8.4

mm

10.9 Remarks:

____________________________ For the client

___________________________ For the contractor

Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Annex 3

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints
Annex 2 : Recheck Report (Sample) acc. Art. 7 RECECK REPORT FOR EXPANSION JOINTS (Attention to Installation Report shall be paid)

RVS 15.45
Annex/Page 4

11.Structure

No.

12. Place of installation (Lot)

13. Make, type 15. Connection to surfacing ok 16. Gap widths approximately uniform 17. Surface of expansion joint ok 18. Total gap width "e" (normal to joint gap): 18.1 Place of measuring

14. Drawing -No. yes yes yes no* no* no*

Gap

mm

18.2 Place of measuring

Gap

mm

18.3 Place of measuring

Gap

mm

18.4 Place of measuring

Gap

mm

18.5 Place of measuring

Gap

mm

Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Annex 4

Edition 1999

BRIDGES

Version Englisch/G.Gallai

BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
Expansion Joints

RVS 15.45
Annex/Page 5

19. Watertight 20. Anchorage in structure/abutment ok: 21. Intermediate profiles ok 22. Support-, control-elements ok 23. Corrosion protectio n ok 24. Noise emission normal ? 25. Spacing gaps in proper function ? 26.1. Temperature of structure during measuring gaps 26.2. Air temperature in shadow 27. Date T 28. Checker (name, signature) M J C C

yes yes yes yes yes yes yes

no* no* no* no* no* no* no*

........................................................

29. Remarks:

* Tick where applicable. If answer is "no" state scope and reason of defect under "remarks". State if covers had been removed.

Editor: Austrian Research Council for Roads and Traffic Working Group "Bridges", Technical Committee "Bridge Equipment"

Annex 5

Edition 1999