# IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 61, NO.

12, DECEMBER 2013

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**Theory and Design of Octave Tunable Filters With Lumped Tuning Elements
**

Akash Anand, Student Member, IEEE, Joshua Small, Member, IEEE, Dimitrios Peroulis, Member, IEEE, and Xiaoguang Liu, Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper presents octave-tunable resonators and ﬁlters with surface mounted lumped tuning elements. Detailed theoretical analysis and modeling in terms of tuning range and unloaded quality factor are presented in agreement with simulated and measured results. Based on the models, a systematic design method to maximize tuning ratio and optimize of the resonator is suggested. A resonator tuning from 0.5 to 1.1 GHz ranging from 90 to 214 is demonstrated using solid-state with varactors. A two-pole ﬁlter with a tuning range of 0.5–1.1 GHz 0.1% with a constant 3-dB fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 4 and insertion loss of 1.67 dB at 1.1 GHz is demonstrated along with a three-pole ﬁlter with a tuning range of 0.58–1.22 GHz with a constant 3-dB FBW of 4 0.2% and insertion loss of 2.05 dB at 1.22 GHz. The measured input third-order intermodulation is better than 17 dBm over the frequency range for the two-pole ﬁlter. Index Terms—Combline ﬁlter, combline resonator, evanescent-mode (EVA) design, ﬁlter design, ﬁlters, full-wave simulation, measurement and modeling, modeling, tunable ﬁlters, tunable resonators, waveguide ﬁlters.

ECENTLY, there has been a growing interest in tunable RF/microwave ﬁlters. The driving parameters for these ﬁlters are low loss, wide tuning, low power consumption, small size, fast tuning, high power handling, and ease of fabrication at a low cost. Various demonstrated tunable ﬁlters excel in some parameters at the cost of sacriﬁcing other parameters. For example, planer microstrip ﬁlters with lumped tuning components are easy to fabricate, but the unloaded quality factor suffers due to the low of the planer resonators [1]–[3]. To achieve higher than planer structures, highly loaded 3-D evanescent-mode (EVA) resonators integrated with various types of tuning technologies have shown promising results [4]–[8]. For example, a tunable ﬁlter with a piezoelectric actuator showed unloaded quality factor of 700–300 at 4.6–2.3 GHz [4]. Two EVA resonators with RF microelectromechanical systems

Manuscript received July 05, 2013; revised October 07, 2013; accepted October 16, 2013. Date of publication November 05, 2013; date of current version December 02, 2013. This work was supported by the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Program and the University of California at Davis under the Hellman Fellows Program. This paper is an expanded paper from the IEEE International Microwave Symposium, Seattle, WA, USA, June 2–7, 2013. A. Anand, J. Small, and X. Liu are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 USA (e-mail: akaanand@ucdavisedu.edu; jasmall@ucdavis.edu; lxgliu@ucdavis.edu). D. Peroulis is with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 USA (e-mail: dperouli@purdue.edu). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TMTT.2013.2287674

R

I. INTRODUCTION

(RF-MEMS) tuners, one with a switched capacitor network and the other with a silicon diaphragm, achieved of 500–300 at 5.58–4.07 GHz [5] and of 1000–300 at 24–6 GHz, respectively [8]. While these technologies attain high , complexity arises in fabrication due to the precise assembly needed to either align the tuners with the EVA cavity’s vertical gap (typically in micrometer) or insert the RF-MEMS switching network inside the cavity. To avoid complicated fabrication and yet maintain high , 3-D cavities are integrated with commercially available surface mount tuning components as an alternative medium between low planer structures and high 3-D cavities. In [9], packaged RF-MEMS switches mounted on a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) are used to get of 132–93 at 1.6–1.2 GHz. However, the tuning range is limited to a few states. RF-MEMS capacitor banks mounted on a combline resonator resulted in of 1300–374 at 2.50–2.39 GHz with a limited tuning ratio (TR) of 1.05:1 [10], [11]. A surface ring gap resonator structure loaded with solid-state varactors reports a of 160–40 with limited tuning range of 3.1–2.6 GHz [12], [13]. The authors of this paper demonstrated a continuous octave tuning substrate-integrated coaxial resonator with of 86–206 and tuning range of 0.5–1.2 GHz using solid-state varactors and of up to 240 at 6.6 GHz using RF-MEMS varactors [14]. It is the intention of this paper to further investigate this surface ring gap combline cavity. Compared to previous works [12]–[14], this paper presents an in-depth theoretical analysis of the resonant frequency, TR, and . Effects of the surface gap capacitance and surface inductance are considered to show the compromise between TR and . A design method is suggested to maximize TR and optimize . This method demonstrates tunable resonators and ﬁlters with higher and tuning range than the state-of-the-art with similar technologies. A two-pole ﬁlter with tuning range of 0.5–1.1 GHz and measured insertion loss of 1.67 dB at 1.1 GHz is demonstrated. This two-pole ﬁlter maintains a constant 3-dB fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 4%. A three-pole ﬁlter with tuning range of 0.58–1.22 GHz with a constant 3-dB FBW of 4 0.2% and measured insertion loss of 2.05 dB at 1.22 GHz is also demonstrated. The measured input third-order inter-modulation is between 17–30 dBm over the frequency range for the two-pole ﬁlter. II. SURFACE GAP COMBLINE RESONATOR Fig. 1(a) and (b) schematically compares the cross section of a vertical gap resonator with the cross section of the proposed surface ring gap resonator. In the surface ring gap design, the center post is extended to short the bottom and top of the cavity and a ring gap is created on the surface to isolate the center

0018-9480 © 2013 IEEE

Assuming low losses. Both have the same lumped equivalent circuit model. the angular resonant frequency is given as . is the radius of the inner post. This makes high-volume-manufacturing possible and the resonant frequency and tuning range independent of fabrication and assembly tolerance. precise assembly is not needed since the tuning components are surface mounted. solid-state varactors are appropriate for applications that need in the order of 100–500 without the added complexity of vertically aligned tuners. The packaging and assembly. and . as shown later. Third. It has been shown that near resonance. such as the inner post. . and is the phase constant. 2(b). To tune the resonant frequency.
is extracted from the equivalent impedance of the varactors . this type of tuning may not yield in the order of 1000 if solid-state varactors are used as the tuning components. (b) Cross-sectional lumped model. is extracted from the input impedance of a shorted transmission line (4) where (5) where is the characteristic impedance of the coaxial transmission line. VOL.). Resonant Frequency Fig. The conductors of the cavity. 2. 2(c). The capacitance
Fig. where and are the equivalent capacitance and equivalent resistance of all varactors and is the sum of all other resistors.4354
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. but allows for various types of tuning components. package parasitics are excluded and the varactor is assumed to operate well below its self resonance so the impedance resembles a series RC circuit. However. such as RF-MEMS or solid-state varactors. 1. depending on the type of varactor (solid-state. (a) Cavity resonator with dimensions. 61. Consequently. (c) Simpliﬁed LC resonator. In Fig. To keep the model generic. This design has several advantages compared to the vertical gap. outer wall. resonant frequency can be solved numerically in (7)
. (a) Vertical gap resonator and (b) surface ring gap resonator. the structure is not limited to a particular tuning technology. A simpliﬁed model for the resonator is shown in Fig. the resonator is approximated with lumped elements where is the effective inductance of the cavity and capacitance in series with resistance models a varactor. the reactance of is inductive [15] and the effective inductance is approximated as (6) where is the speed of light. For an L–C resonator. which is typically the case for the dimensions considered in this work. Since the resonator resembles a shorted coaxial transmission line. respectively. 1(b) resembles a shorted coaxial transmission line and is commonly referred as a combline resonator. 2(a) shows the dimensions of the resonator where is the height of the cavity. The above equations assume very low cavity losses. NO. is the dielectric constant of the material inside the cavity. First. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN A. which is approximated as (1) (2) (3) is the number of varactors placed in parallel on the where ring gap.
post from the rest of the cavity’s ceiling. The surface ring gap resonator in Fig. Thus. etc. The ﬁgures show that the surface ring gap resonator still has the same lumped equivalent circuit model as the vertical gap resonator. III. RF-MEMS. DECEMBER 2013
Fig. can introduce other parasitics. and are needed to ﬁnd the resonant frequency of the resonator. from Fig. tuning elements are placed across the gap to vary the capacitance instead of having to change the physical gap. and the top and bottom walls. Second. which can be integrated with other RF components. 12. this structure is easily implemented on a low-cost printed circuit board (PCB). 2(c). have resistances of . and is the radius of the outer conductor.

: THEORY AND DESIGN OF OCTAVE TUNABLE FILTERS WITH LUMPED TUNING ELEMENTS
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TABLE I CAVITY DIMENSIONS USED IN HFSS SIMULATION
Fig.67 to 0. The reason for higher in simulation is investigated in Section III-C. 3. 4. is determined by the tuning factor. 2(c)] gives
(11)
. 2(c)] gives (9)
versus frequency for three different capacitances In Fig.6 GHz to 248 at 1. To extract from simulation. decreases as frequency increases. The difference between theory and simulation (up to 9%) is addressed in Fig. Since is the resistance of the cavity conductors. B. (9) is compared to results from HFSS simulations.2 GHz. conductors of the cavity are simulated as perfect conductors to extract
Equation (6) shows that depends on . Quality Factor The resonator’s is dependent on the quality factor of the varactors and the quality factor of the cavity . Resonant frequencies from theory is between 3%–9% higher primarily because (7) does not include the effects of the gap capacitance and surface inductance (discussed later in Sections III-C and III-D). Fig. 4 also shows versus frequency as is tuned from 2. 10. resonant frequencies from (7) and HFSS simulations are plotted versus . larger . The . In Fig. neglecting the variation in . However.ANAND et al. Simulated and theoretical resonant frequency versus for the resonator. the series combination of and [see Fig. the change in or TR. 5. As the increases with frequency. are plotted.
versus frequency for three ﬁxed capacitances. 3. as the varactor is tuned to a lower capacitance. .63 pF: increases from 124 at 0. the series combination of with [see Fig. Fig. (10) and (8) show that both and frequency will increase. 5. Thus. of the varactor (8)
Substituting (7) into (9) and neglecting the variation in ratio as
gives
(10)
Ansys HFSS [16] is used to compare (7) with full-wave simulations with the cavity parameters given in Table I. Simulated and theoretical versus frequency for the resonator. the conductors (post and walls of the cavity) are simulated as perfect conductors so that is approximately . Since is the resistance of the varactors. Theoretical capacitance is tuned. The surface gap radius and surface gap width is explained in Section III-C. For a ﬁxed capacitance. but the change is is small (up to 3% for the cavity parameters and frequency range considered in this paper).
Fig. In Fig. 4.

Part of the 3%–4% loss in simulation comes from the resistance associated with the ring gap. From [17]. Note that the ring gap width is about 100–200 times smaller than the wavelength range considered in simulation. 5). Surface Ring Gap Capacitance In Fig. Fig. while is varied from
. of the resonator is approximated as (16) (15) is simulated in HFSS with cavity parameters The resonator’s from Table I. NO.1. The limitations of is analyzed in more detail in Section III-C. Thus. 8 shows that simulation results are larger than theory because was larger in simulation previously (Fig. 12. this capacitance is dependent on the ring radius . which is considered in Section III-C and Fig. 3. (12) is the surface resistance. 7. 8.63 pF. Part of this difference is due to the surface ring gap capacitance . 6 and 5) so . 0. As shown in Fig. The optimized ratio is evident at all frequencies. 12. In from HFSS. order to extract
Fig. Theoretical . 6 shows a plot of theoretical from (15) compared to simulated . In Fig. The simulated is about 3%–4% lower than the theoretical one. 2(c). The sum of . and 2 GHz. gap width . is much larger than due to the relatively large (Figs. the resistance of the varactors are set to zero. 6.5. Since . 8.
with respect to
. is initially limited by at lower frequencies (larger ). the theoretical resonant frequency based on the lumped model in Fig. The outer radius and height of a copper air cavity are ﬁxed to mm and mm. 61. Simulated and theoretical is much larger than . 7. DECEMBER 2013
Fig.6 [18]. C. versus frequency for the resonator. and in Fig. Fig.4356
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. 9(a). Fig. 6 also shows that radiation from the ring gap has a negligible effect by comparing simulation results from a resonator with a shielding cap covering the ring gaps and varactors on the surface. Since is in parallel with . in simulation is set to zero and is varied from 2. depth of the gap .67 to 0. Simulated and theoretical versus frequency for the resonator. In order to get only. (14) Substitution (6) and (14) into (11) gives 1 to 25 at four ﬁxed frequencies: 0. and the dielectric constant .
HFSS is used to compare (15) with simulation with cavity parameters from Table I. . 1. 2(b) is . The of a coaxial resonator is optimized when the ratio is 3. Using (9) and (15) and the series L–C resonator model in Fig. VOL. In this case. Optimal
is achieved at
which is essentially the quality factor of the cavity with lossless varactors. but starts to exceed at higher frequencies (smaller ). This optimum ratio is again veriﬁed by plotting (15) in Fig. Surface current density in which on the top and bottom of the cavity varies radially from the outer conductor to the inner post. integrating in the radial direction gives (13) Summing (12) and (13) gives . from (7) is modiﬁed as (17)
Fig. 2(c) was up to 9% higher than the simulated results.

was 3%–4% lower than theoretical (15). while the rest of the cavity surface is still copper and with parameters from Table I. Also plotted in the ﬁgure is theoretical at pF (maximum ). 12 shows that with is higher than with . then (22) reduces to (16). The extraction of here assumes that is constant as or varies.
and
from (16) is modiﬁed as (22)
Fig. width of the gap .ANAND et al. The difference in frequency is reduced tance when the effects of to within 1%. Since is in parallel with . 3. Simulated and theoretical resonant frequency versus varactor capaciis included. 9(b) and is initially neglected . then a signiﬁcant portion of the electromagnetic energy will be stored in . These two thin walls are simulated in HFSS as a perfect electric conductors (PECs) or . if . Compared to Fig. 13. 11(a) plots (22) versus frequency when varies from 1 to 11 mm to show the effects of on and TR. 6. Since the of is expected to be higher than (resistance associated with is small compared to ).: THEORY AND DESIGN OF OCTAVE TUNABLE FILTERS WITH LUMPED TUNING ELEMENTS
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in (23) and how to minimize the variation is considered in Section III-D. such as when no varactors are mounted in a static surface ring gap resonator [19]. In the case of ideal varactors or when . in Fig. 13 shows that effects of is negligible for the parameters in Table I. Note that if A cavity with the parameters from Table I is simulated. 9. but as decreases. simulation is within 1% of theoretical . When is larger. accomplished at the cost of reduced tuning range. Before. of this impedance then becomes (21)
Fig. is extracted for simulated data from Fig. In Fig. is given by (19) where (20) and is the resistance associated with shown in Fig. maximum for each curve approaches maximum . in parallel with . 6 when all of the cavity surface was copper (no PEC or ). however. The value of simulated at two different values ( cavity structure from
can be extracted from and ) for a ﬁxed
(18) where is the resonant frequency for and is the resonant frequency for . Capacitance exists in parallel with the tuning components (varacis dependent on the radius of the ring . should exceed . The equivalent impedance. (b) There is resistance wall plates (dark color region) around the surface ring gap. Thus. Fig. As becomes larger. Fig. 10. so that the effects of are more signiﬁcant compared to . Fig. Fig. 9(b) shows that depends on the two thin layers of metal wall (dark regions labeled as ring gap resistance in ﬁgure) that border the surface ring gap. the total electromagnetic energy will be distributed between and . (a) due to the of the gap . but with . As expected. then . if the conductors were lossless. The variation
is small and negligible. when pF is included in (17). 11 is
. Previously. 3 to be pF. depth tors). 10 shows the difference in resonant frequency is within 1% of simulation. However. and the dielectric constant . resistance of the varactors is included in HFSS simulation to compare when and . 12 compares of this PEC wall’s simulation with the previous case in Fig. Since dominates both and .
where is given by (23). Fig. maximum for each curve is not limited by maximum theoretical (dotted line) and far exceeds . expect with . the previous assumption of made in Fig. TR decreases and increases. if is large enough. This is. Fig.

will be minimal. except with
Fig. 11(b) shows that is strongly dependent on . as is varied. from Table I. Current is forced to ﬂow through the varactor resulting in a longer current path. Fig. Fig. Thus. 15(a) illustrates this with . NO. 14. theoretical maximum from simulation versus ring radius with cavity dimensions (b) Extracted . 13. 15(c) and (d) shows that current ﬂow is concentric when or when . VOL. the ring radius was changed to vary . Moreover. 8. 11. Surface Inductance
Fig. 61. Even though has an air gap. thus changing .
Fig. As the dielectric constant increases. pF for . If
. increases as decreases. Also. pF for . In simulation. increases with increasing (increasing circumference) since the surface area of the capacitance increases. D. current ﬂow is concentric regardless of . The results in the ﬁgure are based on HFSS simulation with cavity parameters from Table I as ranges from 2. is also changed to keep constant for different values. then current is distributed between the varactors and surface ring gap. the dielectric material of the cavity will partly change due to fringing electromagnetic ﬁelds. this ﬁgure shows that is limited by . Simulation with is within 1% of theoretical and with is within 3%–4% of theoretical .67 to 0. Based on (18). 14 conﬁrms this by showing the effects of various on resonant frequency and TR.
and when . and (dotted line) versus frequency as is changed. When is large and the varactors are spatially distributed. Fig. theory and simulation are in Table I since is included and is limited by . a reduction of about 11% in TR.63 pF. which reduces to only if is negligible. within 1% since the effects of reduces to if . 3) When and are comparable. 2) Consider the case of . 1) Consider the case of .4358
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. 12. simulated (dashed lines). increases and reduces TR. This current ﬂow depends on the ratio of and . within 1%. In Fig. which is veriﬁed in Table II. and on . theory and simulation are in better agreement. and pF for . Fig. DECEMBER 2013
Fig. Fig. is higher when the ring gap resistance is simulated with PEC compared to when ring gap resistance is simulated with copper . 11(a). Additionally. now that the effects of are included in theory. If current ﬂow is concentric. Simulation shows that when
The current that ﬂows on the top surface from the inner post to the outer cavity wall results in a surface inductance . current ﬂows equally in all directions through the varactors and current ﬂow is concentric. Since most of the current is distributed in the surface ring gap. The arrangement of the varactors can alter the current path. simulation
valid. 12. Effects of is negligible on for the cavity parameters considered . 15(b) shows current ﬂow when is small. (a) Theoretical (solid lines). Plot of frequency versus capacitance at various dielectric constants. compared previously to Fig.

the variation in is less than 0. 11 with pF. the effects of is included in all the theoretical analysis and plots in Section III-C. however.: THEORY AND DESIGN OF OCTAVE TUNABLE FILTERS WITH LUMPED TUNING ELEMENTS
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Though not discussed earlier. as is tuned. a cavity with parameters from Table I. With the aid of simulation software. Varactors with larger capacitances are not recommended since the increase in capacitance comes at the cost of reduced . From Fig. the variation in is less than 3. less of
TABLE II VERSUS
is large and the varactors are equally spaced on the surface ring gap. Even though is dependent on various parameters. For example. 17 shows a reduction of 5% to 7% in for compared to . Resonator (23) resulting in (24) A SIW combline resonator with solid-state varactors as tuners is designed and fabricated to validate the theoretical derivations. 160–40.5% over the frequency range with parameters from Table I. HFSS simulation showing surface currents on the varactor loaded is small. E. This is analogous to the curve in Fig. For . varies slightly with . when and are comparable and is small. For example. (a) Current is equally distributed in eight varactors and (b) Current ﬂows through just one varactor. current ﬂow depends on ring radius and . ratio. metallic vias are inserted in a PCB substrate to create the outer wall of the cavity.ANAND et al. Thus. the path of the current ﬂow through the varactor gets longer.6 to 25 can decrease the frequency from to . The diameter of the vias ( 1 mm) and the spacing between vias ( 2. current ﬂow is concentric. IV. which increases current path and . EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION A. the resonant frequency depends on the ratio. The effects of is further reduced by increasing . 18(a) shows the designed resonator.6 to 24. increasing . may result in that is too large. requires varactors on the surface ring gap to tune from 0. which directly limits . To maximize . In this design. surface. From (7) and (6). 15.2 GHz.2 in [12]. The previous example where varactors were needed to tune from 0. Also. (c) When is dominant. As mentioned previously and shown in (6). The surface inductance with is included in (17) by replacing
.27. an appropriate number of varactors can then be mounted to lower the frequency to the desired range. As gets larger. For small . If fewer varactors are to be used. and can be increased up to the size limitations and can be set by the optimal ratio. increasing from the optimum ratio of 3. appropriate is designed by changing the surface ring gap dimensions or the dielectric constant (Figs.6 to 1. based on the above discussion. 11(b) and 14). is always minimal as long as is sufﬁciently large.4% and for . Design Methodology Based on the theoretical analysis. except with mm for optimal ratio. current ﬂows concentrically through regardor (d) . changes and the impedance ratio of and changes. and . Additionally. making vary with . which has a TR of 1. to design a resonator with maximum tuning range. Another center metallic via
Fig. a resonator is designed for high . The optimum ratio may need to be sacriﬁced to get the desired frequency range for a design with less than 20 varactors. as gets larger. The reduction in tuning range and cost of high dielectric constant material restricts as a ﬂexible parameter for design.6 to 1. the compromise in and tuning range is highly dependent on . however. but with a limited TR of 1. Fig. resulting in an optimized for a maximum TR design.5 mm) are designed with the recommendations given in [25] to keep losses minimal. Alternatively. The height and radius of the cavity are typically limited by the constraints on maximum device size. then the cavity dimensions may be changed to get the desired frequency range.2 GHz can alternatively be designed by increasing the ratio from 3. From (7) and (2). Fig. is highly dependent on . decreasing . has to be minimized so that it is small relative to . gets larger and leads to a more concentric current ﬂow. This design. 16.

Fig. by
Fig. NO. Comparison of measured. 16. This ﬁgure validates
Fig. 18(c) and (d) shows the fabricated resonator and a close-up of the arranged varactors with the isolated bias point for the varactors (not yet soldered on).
with radius of shorts the bottom and top ceiling of the cavity. The ﬁrst part of the theoretical analysis was based on the lumped model presented in Fig. (a) Designed resonator’s top view and (b) bottom view showing Skyworks CPW feed lines. the effects of and given in Table III. In order to keep the same needs to be doubled for a two-ring gap design compared to a one-ring gap design. The resonant frequency decreases resonant frequency for the optimum as is changed to 25. DECEMBER 2013
TABLE III CAVITY DIMENSIONS USED IN FABRICATION
Fig. HFSS. Fig. 12. A SIW resonator to be valid. The two rings also allows for back-to-back varactor placement for improved linearity [20]. and theory. 17. 2(c). Fig. An additional lumped resistor was used during the measurement [see Fig. 19 compares is plotted versus frequency as measured. the varactors are biased from 0 to 30 V. Fig. 61. A 10-M resistor is included in the dc bias line to reduce RF losses. 24(c)] to further reduce RF losses.6. theoretical (with and without and ) versus frequency. 18(b) shows the coplanar-waveguide (CPW) feed lines for this design with length . Since solid-state varactors are used. the optimal a resonator with the same frequency range where fewer varactors are needed with reduced .
the varactors. where is the ratio. and is fabricated on a Rogers TMM3 substrate with the dimensions . (c) Rogers TMM3 substrate with vias and SMV1405 varactors. Since the additional ring is in series with the original ring. Plot of ratio versus normalized frequency . simulated. 19. Alternatively. (2) and (3) are modiﬁed to (25) (26) and thus the same frequency range. By choosing is minimized. Resonator can be designed with with optimal ratio equal can be compromised to design to 3.4360
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. In order for (7) and (16) had to be negligible. a structure with two ring gaps is needed to create a bias point for
. 18. VOL. (d) Close-up view of the two surface ring gaps showing the varactors (not soldered on yet) and the dc bias point.

Measured is lower due to losses in dielectric material (loss tangent is 0. dominates. is limited by when is large. Fig. as decreases. For example. which is close to the measured ratio of 2.002). were fabricated with ranging from 1 to 20 to show the effects of on and TR.1.1 GHz. When . Both the width of the coupling iris can be changed to change . without and . For larger . simulated TR is about 1. Fig.01.
versus post distance
and (b)
B. and thus.and three-pole tunable ﬁlter are designed and fabricated with the resonator parameters from Table III. Fig. is 0. 20. fabrication. Table IV summarizes the results of frequency range and TR. ratio increases and TR decreases. 20 includes a plot of theoretical at (maximum ). The extracted pF and nH from measured data are then included in theory and plotted in the same ﬁgure. size
SUMMARY
OF
TABLE IV MEASURED PERFORMANCE OF FABRICATED RESONATORS WITH VARYING
that the simpliﬁed lumped model from Fig. 22.ANAND et al. 22(a) shows versus when mm is simulated around 1. 21(a)].17 when to 1. (b) One-port resonator structure used to extract by varying the coupling angle when the feed line and coupling gap are constant.
Fig. As seen in the ﬁgure. Measured maximum theoretical and is limited by exceeds . A similar procedure as outlined in [21] is used to get the external quality factor and inter-resonator coupling from HFSS simulation. Table IV shows that the TR decreases from 2.: THEORY AND DESIGN OF OCTAVE TUNABLE FILTERS WITH LUMPED TUNING ELEMENTS
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Fig. . (a) Two resonators with inter-resonator coupling and weak external and post-to-post distance coupling.315 pF. The measured TR is about 2. A resonator with one port shown in Fig. In the ﬁgure. in the extreme case of . In this case. To compare the measured with .6 GHz [14]. 21. HFSS simulation is used to simulate various values of by changing the width of the coupling iris and the post distance while the feed line is kept far from the post [see Fig. Another set of resonators. It should be noted that of the tunable resonator depends heavily on the tuner technology. 22(b) shows versus
. Filter To demonstrate the application of the resonator. becomes comparable to and Fig. 21(b) is used to simulated .78 when . When the number of varactors decreases. another opening is created at the end of CPW feed lines with a coupling gap size and coupling angle of . solid-state varactors have higher at lower frequencies. a two. and assembly. The slope of the curve with and is even closer to measured and simulation data. (10) states that . RF-MEMS tuners can be used to get high at higher frequencies. but exceeds for or less: has become signiﬁcant compared to .
versus frequency for to along with (solid line) at pF. the authors have demonstrated a surface ring gap resonator with of 240 at 6. In fact. with similar dimensions as Table III. is reasonable in predicting and . and theoretical TR including the effects of is 2.94.38. Table IV also summarizes the results of and ratio at various ’s. Simulated design curves for: (a) versus coupling angle . 2(c). which is less than pF.

In [26]. This ﬁlter has a tuning range of 0.05 dB at 1.22 GHz with a constant 3-dB FBW of 4 0. A 4 0. Table V compares some of the recent tunable ﬁlters.
Fig. Since both the two.1 GHz.1 GHz. VOL.1% FBW is maintained through out the tuning range. and mm in a 5 3 0. 24(a) where and (b) shows the designed and fabricated three-pole ﬁlter with cm.2%. a varactor is mounted on the CPW feed line to change and another varactor mounted between the two resonators to change .4362
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. 23(c)].1 GHz.58 GHz to 2. the presented surface ring gap resonator exceeds the TR of all other solid-state varactor based
. and . Fig. The ﬁlter tunes from 0. As seen in Figs. adding more varactors will introduce more insertion loss. the simulated and values are best matched to the desired values at 1. Fig. . and . NO.2 dB at 0.5 cm volume. An Agilent PNA-X is used to measure the input third-order intermodulation intercept point (IIP3) with the two tones separated by 100 kHz.3 to 27. 61.67 dB and measured return loss from 8. the return loss degrades as the ﬁlter is tuned to lower frequencies. to the best of authors’ knowledge. and mm in a 5 3 0. the complexity of the presented surface ring gap resonator (and other planar varactor tuned ﬁlters) is reduced compared to some of the vertically aligned piezoelectric or RF-MEMS-based ﬁlters. The required values of and for a three-pole Butterworth ﬁlter response are (29) (30) %. As mentioned earlier and summarized in Table V.5 cm volume.46 to 1. . . The IIP3 ranged from 17 to 30 dBm when the varactors were biased at 0–30 V. This allows and to be tuned as the frequency response of the ﬁlter is tuned to improve return loss away from 1.5 to 1. 12. (a) Designed and (b) fabricated octave tunable two-pole ﬁlter with and . DECEMBER 2013
Fig.22 GHz.8 dB [see Fig. However. Moreover. 24. (a) Designed and (b) fabricated octave tunable three-pole ﬁlter with and . 23. measured (c)
where %. 23(a) and (b) shows the designed and fabricated two-pole ﬁlter with cm. the same concept of tunable and can be implemented in the presented ﬁlter design without added fabrication complexity. . 24(c) shows that the insertion loss varies from 6. Though [26] had a different resonator technology.and three-pole ﬁlters were designed at 1. The required values of ﬁlter response are
cm is simulated around and for a two-pole Butterworth (27) (28)
Fig.58–1. . 23(c) and 24(c).1 GHz with measured insertion loss from 4.1 GHz. measured (c)
when mm and 1. .

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Joshua Small (S’11–M’12) received the Bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Morgan State University.. 381–389. A. CONCLUSION
: measured TR
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and Frequency Control Society (Ferroelectrics section) Outstanding Paper Award (2012). degree from Purdue University. 61. USA. and terahertz components and systems. He has authored or coauthored over 30 papers in peer-reviewed journals and conferences. Holmes MacDonald Outstanding Teaching Award and the 2010 Charles B. Zhejiang. where he is currently a Professor leading a group of graduate students on a variety of research projects in the areas of RF-MEMS. which is Purdue University’s highest undergraduate teaching honor. Peroulis was the recipient of the National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Award (2008) and the IEEE Ultrasonics. China.
. He has coauthored over 200 journal and conference papers.D. DECEMBER 2013
Dimitrios Peroulis (S’99–M’04) received the Ph. USA.4364
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. Integrity and Survivability of Microsystems (PRISM) funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration. software-deﬁned radios. in 2004. Dr. Furthermore.
Dr. He is a Purdue University Faculty Scholar and has also been the recipient of ten teaching awards including the 2010 HKN C. Dr. University of California at Davis. sensing. Phases I and II) and the Center for the Prediction of Reliability. IN. His students have been the recipients of numerous Student Paper Awards and other student research-based scholarships. and power harvesting applications. as well as RF identiﬁcation (RFID) sensors for condition monitoring of sensitive equipment. he has been investigating failure modes of RF MEMS and MEMS sensors through the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) MEMS/Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) Science and Technology (S&T) Fundamentals Program. Ann Arbor. Ferroelectrics. Davis. West Lafayette. in 2010. in 2003. His research interests include RF-MEMS and other reconﬁgurable RF/microwave components.S. IN. Murphy award. He has been a key contribRF MEMS tunable ﬁlters utor on developing very high quality in mobile form factors. VOL. USA. West Lafayette. 12. MI. He has been a Principle Investigator (PI) or a co-PI in numerous projects funded by government agencies and industry in these areas. He was selected as a University of Californiat at Davis Hellman Fellow for the 2013–2014 academic year. NO. CA. Since August 2003. he has been with Purdue University. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. and the Ph. USA. degree from Zhejiang University. degree in electrical engineering from The University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Liu was the recipient (as a student) of the IEEE Antenna and Propagation Society Graduate Research Fellowship in 2009. Xiaoguang “Leo” Liu (S’07–M’10) received the B.D.