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Chapter -1 Fundamentals of Testing

1.1 Why is testing necessary? bug, defect, error, failure, mistake, quality, risk, software, testing and exhaustive testing. 1.2 What is testing? code, debugging, requirement, test basis, test case, test objective 1. !esting "rinci"les 1.# $undamental test "rocess conformation testing, exit criteria, incident, regression testing, test condition, test coverage, test data, test execution, test log, test "lan, test strategy, test summary re"ort and testware. 1.% !he "sychology of testing inde"endence. &' (eneral testing "rinci"les Principles ) number of testing "rinci"les have been suggested over the "ast #* years and offer general guidelines common for all testing. Principle 1 Testing shows presence of defects !esting can show that defects are "resent, but cannot "rove that there are no defects. !esting reduces the "robability of undiscovered defects remaining in the software but, even if no defects are found, it is not a "roof of correctness. Principle 2 Exhaustive testing is impossible !esting everything +all combinations of in"uts and "reconditions' is not feasible exce"t for trivial cases. &nstead of exhaustive testing, risk analysis and "riorities should be used to focus testing efforts. Principle Earl! testing !esting activities should start as early as "ossible in the software or system develo"ment life cycle, and should be focused on defined objectives. Principle " #efect clustering ) small number of modules contain most of the defects discovered during "re,release testing, or are res"onsible for the most o"erational failures. Principle $ Pesticide paradox &f the same tests are re"eated over and over again, eventually the same set of test cases will no longer find any new defects. !o overcome this -"esticide "aradox., the test cases need to be regularly reviewed and revised, and new and different tests need to be written to exercise different "arts of the software or system to "otentially find more defects. Principle % Testing is context dependent !esting is done differently in different contexts. $or exam"le, safety,critical software is tested differently from an e,commerce site. Principle & 'bsence-of-errors fallac! $inding and fixing defects does not hel" if the system built is unusable and does not fulfill the 1

users/ needs and ex"ectations.

(() Fundamental test process


1) Test planning and control !est "lanning is the activity of verifying the mission of testing, defining the objectives of testing and the s"ecification of test activities in order to meet the objectives and mission. &t involves taking actions necessary to meet the mission and objectives of the "roject. &n order to control testing, it should be monitored throughout the "roject. !est "lanning takes into account the feedback from monitoring and control activities. 2) Test anal!sis and design !est analysis and design is the activity where general testing objectives are transformed into tangible test conditions and test cases. !est analysis and design has the following major tasks0 1eviewing the test basis +such as requirements, architecture, design, interfaces'. 2valuating testability of the test basis and test objects. &dentifying and "rioriti3ing test conditions based on analysis of test items, the s"ecification, behaviour and structure. 4esigning and "rioriti3ing test cases. &dentifying necessary test data to su""ort the test conditions and test cases. 4esigning the test environment set,u" and identifying any required infrastructure and tools. ) Test implementation and execution 4evelo"ing, im"lementing and "rioriti3ing test cases. 4evelo"ing and "rioriti3ing test "rocedures, creating test data and, o"tionally, "re"aring test harnesses and writing automated test scri"ts. 5reating test suites from the test "rocedures for efficient test execution. 6erifying that the test environment has been set u" correctly. 2xecuting test "rocedures either manually or by using test execution tools, according to the "lanned sequence. 7ogging the outcome of test execution and recording the identities and versions of the software under test, test tools and testware. 5om"aring actual results with ex"ected results. 1e"orting discre"ancies as incidents and analy3ing them in order to establish their cause +e.g. a defect in the code, in s"ecified test data, in the test document, or a mistake in the way the test was executed'. 1e"eating test activities as a result of action taken for each discre"ancy. $or exam"le, reexecution of a test that "reviously failed in order to confirm a fix +confirmation testing', execution of a corrected test and8or execution of tests in order to ensure that defects have not been introduced in unchanged areas of the software or that defect fixing did not uncover other defects +regression testing'. 2

") Evaluating exit criteria and reporting 5hecking test logs against the exit criteria s"ecified in test "lanning. )ssessing if more tests are needed or if the exit criteria s"ecified should be changed. Writing a test summary re"ort for stakeholders. $) Test closure activities 5hecking which "lanned deliverables have been delivered, the closure of incident re"orts or raising of change records for any that remain o"en, and the documentation of the acce"tance of the system. $inali3ing and archiving testware, the test environment and the test infrastructure for later reuse. 9andover of testware to the maintenance organi3ation. )naly3ing lessons learned for future releases and "rojects, and the im"rovement of test maturity.

((() The ps!cholog! of testing


!ests designed by the "erson+s' who wrote the software under test +low level of inde"endence'. !ests designed by another "erson+s' +e.g. from the develo"ment team'. !ests designed by a "erson+s' from a different organi3ational grou" +e.g. an inde"endent test team' or test s"ecialists +e.g. usability or "erformance test s"ecialists'. !ests designed by a "erson+s' from a different organi3ation or com"any +i.e. outsourcing or certification by an external body'. *uestions + Example 1+ $, *uestion-.nol/google/com) + !hese are sam"le questions related to cha"ter 1 , $or answers see other sections of &:!;< below' 1' When what is visible to end,users is a deviation from the s"ecific or ex"ected behavior, this is called0 a' an error b' a fault c' a failure d' a defect 2' 1egression testing should be "erformed0 v' every week w' after the software has changed x' as often as "ossible y' when the environment has changed 3' when the "roject manager says 3

a' v = w are true, x > 3 are false b' w, x = y are true, v = 3 are false c' w = y are true, v, x = 3 are false d' w is true, v, x y and 3 are false ' !esting should be sto""ed when0 a' all the "lanned tests have been run b' time has run out c' all faults have been fixed correctly d' it de"ends on the risks for the system being tested #' 5onsider the following statements about early test design0 i. early test design can "revent fault multi"lication ii. faults found during early test design are more ex"ensive to fix iii. early test design can find faults iv. early test design can cause changes to the requirements v. early test design takes more effort a' i, iii = iv are true. &i = v are false b' iii is true, &, ii, iv = v are false c' iii = iv are true. i, ii = v are false d' i, iii, iv = v are true, ii us false %' !he main focus of acce"tance testing is0 a' finding faults in the system b' ensuring that the system is acce"table to all users c' testing the system with other systems d' testing for a business "ers"ective ?' !he difference between re,testing and regression testing is a' re,testing is running a test again@ regression testing looks for unex"ected side effects b' re,testing looks for unex"ected side effects@ regression testing is re"eating those tests c' re,testing is done after faults are fixed@ regression testing is done earlier d' re,testing is done by develo"ers, regression testing is done by inde"endent testers A' 2x"ected results are0 a' only im"ortant in system testing b' only used in com"onent testing c' never s"ecified in advance d' most useful when s"ecified in advance B' !he cost of fixing a fault0 a' &s not im"ortant b' &ncreases as we move the "roduct towards live use c' 4ecreases as we move the "roduct towards live use d' &s more ex"ensive if found in requirements than functional design 4

C' $ault Dasking is a. 2rror condition hiding another error condition b. creating a test case which does not reveal a fault c. masking a fault by develo"er d. masking a fault by a tester 1*' Ene Fey reason why develo"ers have difficulty testing their own work is0 a. 7ack of technical documentation b. 7ack of test tools on the market for develo"ers c. 7ack of training d. 7ack of Ebjectivity 11' 2nough testing has been "erformed when0 a' !ime runs out. b' !he required level of confidence has been achieved. c' Go more faults are found. d' !he users won/t find any serious faults. 12' Which of the following is false? a' &n a system two different failures may have different severities. b' ) system is necessarily more reliable after debugging for the removal of a fault. c' ) fault need not affect the reliability of a system. d' Hndetected errors may lead to faults and eventually to incorrect behavior. 1 ' Which of the following characterises the cost of faults? a' !hey are chea"est to find in the early develo"ment "hases and the less ex"ensive to fix. b' !hey are easiest to find during system testing but the most ex"ensive to fix then. c' $aults are chea"est to find in the early develo"ment "hases but the most ex"ensive to fix then. d' )lthough faults are most ex"ensive to find during early develo"ment "hases, they are chea"est to fix then. 1#' )ccording to the &:!;< (lossary a risk relates to which of the following? a' Gegative feedback to the tester. b' Gegative consequences that will occur. c' Gegative consequences that could occur. d' Gegative consequences for the test object. 1%' 2nsuring that a test design start during the requirements definition "hase is im"ortant to enable which of the following test objectives? a' Ireventing defects in the system. b' $inding defects through dynamic testing. c' (aining confidence in the system. d' $inishing the "roject on time. 1?' ) failure is0 5

a' $ound in the software@ the result of an error. b' 4e"arture from s"ecified behavior. c' )n incorrect ste", "rocess or data definition in a com"uter "rogram. d' ) human action that "roduces an incorrect result. 1A' $aults found by users are due to0 a. Ioor quality software b. Ioor software and "oor testing c. bad luck d. insufficient time for testing 1B' Which of the following statements are true? a. $aults in "rogram s"ecifications are the most ex"ensive to fix. b. $aults in code are the most ex"ensive to fix. c. $aults in requirements are the most ex"ensive to fix d. $aults in designs are the most ex"ensive to fix. 1C' 5E!: is known as0 a. 5ommercial off the shelf software b. 5om"liance of the software c. 5hange control of the software d. 5a"able off the shelf software 2*' Which is not the testing objective? a. $inding defects b. (aining confidence about the level of quality and "roviding information c. Ireventing defects. d. 4ebugging defects 21' 2xhaustive !esting is a' &m"ractical but "ossible b' Iractically "ossible c' &m"ractical and im"ossible d' )lways "ossible 22' Which of the following is most im"ortant to "romote and maintain good relationshi"s between develo"ers and testers? a' Hnderstanding what Danagers value about testing. b' 2x"laining test results in a neutral fashion. c' &dentifying "otential customer work,around for bugs. d' Iromoting better quality software whenever "ossible. 2 ' )ccording to &:!;< (lossary, the word J2rror/ is synonymous with which of the following? a' $ailure b' 4efect 6

c' Distake d' <ug 2#' &n "rioritising what to test, the most im"ortant objective is to0 a' $ind as many faults as "ossible. b' !est high risk areas. c' Ebtain good test coverage. d' !est whatever is easiest to test. 2%' &ncidents would not be raised against0 a' 1equirements b' 4ocumentation c' !est cases d' &m"rovements suggested by users 2?' 4esigning the test environment set,u" and identifying any required infrastructure and tools are a "art of which "hase a' !est &m"lementation and execution b' !est )nalysis and 4esign c' 2valuating the 2xit 5riteria and re"orting d' !est 5losure )ctivities 2A' Which of the following is not a "art of the !est &m"lementation and 2xecution Ihase? a' 5reating test suites from the test cases b' 2xecuting test cases either manually or by using test execution tools c' 5om"aring actual results d' 4esigning the !ests 2B' !est 5ase are grou"ed into Danageable +and scheduled' units are called as a. !est 9arness b. !est :uite c. !est 5ycle d. !est 4river 2C' Which of the following could be a reason for a failure 1' !esting fault 2' :oftware fault ' 4esign fault #' 2nvironment $ault %' 4ocumentation $ault a. 2 is a valid reason@ 1, ,# = % are not b. 1,2, ,# are valid reasons@ % is not c. 1,2, are valid reasons@ # = % are not d. )ll of them are valid reasons for failure *' 9andover of !estware is a "art of which Ihase 7

a' !est )nalysis and 4esign b' !est Ilanning and control c' !est 5losure )ctivities d' 2valuating exit criteria and re"orting 1' )n exhaustive test suit would include0 a' )ll combination of in"ut values and "reconditions. b' )ll combination of in"ut values and out"ut values. c' )ll "airs of in"ut values and "reconditions. d' )ll states and state transitions. 2' Which of the following encourages objective testing? a' Hnit !esting. b' :ystem !esting. c' &nde"endent !esting. d' 4estructive !esting. ' 5onsider the following list of test "rocess activities0 & )nalysis and 4esign && !est 5losure activities &&& 2valuating exit criteria and re"orting &6 Ilanning and 5ontrol 6 &m"lementation and execution Which of the following "laces these in their logical sequence? a' &, &&, &&&, &6 and 6 b' &6, &, 6, &&& and && c' &6, &, 6, && and &&& d' &, &6, 6, &&& and && #' )ccording to &:!;< (lossary, debugging0 a' &s "art of the fundamental test "rocess. b' &ncludes the re"air of the cause of a failure c' &nvolves intentionally adding known defects d' $ollows the ste"s of a test "rocedure %' Which of the following could be a root cause of a defect in financial software in which an incorrect interest rate is calculated? a' &nsufficient funds were available to "ay the interest rate calculated. b' &nsufficient calculations of com"ound interest were included. c' &nsufficient training was given to the develo"ers concerning com"ound interest calculation rules. d' &ncorrect calculators were used to calculate the ex"ected results. ?' When should you sto" testing? a' When the time for testing has run out b' When all "lanned tests have been run 8

c' When the test com"letion criteria have been met d' When no faults have been found by the tests run A' )n incident logging system0 a' Enly records defects b' is of limited value c' is a valuable source of "roject information during testing if it contains all incidents d' :hould be used only by the test team B' !he term confirmation testing is synonymous to a' 2x"loratory testing b' 1egression testing c' 2xhaustive testing d' 1e, testing C' 5onsider the following statements0 i. an incident may be closed without being fixed. ii. &ncidents may not be raised against documentation. iii. !he final stage of incident tracking is fixing. iv. !he incident record does not include information on test environments. a' ii is true, i, iii and iv are false b' i is true, ii, iii and iv are false c' i and iv are true, ii and iii are false d' i and ii are true, iii and iv are false #*' Which of the following is not a characteristic of software? a' :oftware is develo"ed or engineered@ it is not manufactured in the classic sense b' :oftware doesn/t -wear out. with the time c' !he traditional industry is moving toward com"onent based assembly, whereas most software continues to be custom built and the conce"t of com"onent based assembly is still taking sha"e d' :oftware does not require maintenance #1' &f the ex"ected result is not s"ecified then0 a' We cannot run the test b' &t may be difficult to re"eat the test c' &t may be difficult to determine if the test has "assed or failed d' We cannot automate the user in"uts #2' ) reliable system will be one that0 a' is unlikely to be com"leted on schedule b' is unlikely to cause a failure c' is likely to be fault free d' is likely to be liked by the users # ' What is the "ur"ose of 2xit 5riteria? 9

a' !o determine when writing a test case is com"lete b' !o determine when to sto" the testing c' !o ensure the test s"ecification is com"lete d' !o determine when to sto" writing the test "lan ##' What is the focus of 1e,!esting? a' 1e,!esting ensures the original fault has been removed b' 1e,!esting "revents future faults c' 1e,!esting looks for unex"ected side effects d' 1e,!esting ensures the original fault is still "resent #%' 9ow is the amount of 1e,!esting required normally defined? a' 4iscussions with the end users b' 4iscussions with the develo"ers c' Detrics from Irevious "rojects d' none of the above #?' ) manifestation of an Jerror/ in software is a' )n 2rror b' ) $ault c' ) $ailure d' )n )ction #A' &f testing time is limited, we should K a' Enly test high risk areas b' Enly test sim"le areas c' Enly test low risk areas d' Enly test com"licated areas #B' !he quality of the "roduct is said to increase when? a' )ll faults have been reviewed b' )ll faults have been found c' )ll faults have been raised d' )ll faults have been rectified #C' Iick the best definition of quality a' ;uality is job one b' Lero defects c' 5onformance to requirements d' Work as designed %*' What is the Dain reason for testing software before releasing it? a' !o show the system will work after release b' !o decide when software is of sufficient quality to release c' !o find as many of bugs as "ossible before release d' !o give information for a risk based decision about release 10

%1' :elect a reason that does not agree with the fact that com"lete testing is im"ossible0 a' !he domain of "ossible in"uts is too large to test. b' 7imited financial resources. c' !here are too many "ossible "aths through the "rogram to test. d' !he user interface issues +and thus the design issues' are too com"lex to com"letely test.

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Chaper 2/ Testing throughout the software life c!cle


&nternational :oftware !esting ;uality <oard, !erms 4evelo"ment models :oftware develo"ment models, !est levels , test ty"es and maintenance testing, !ests and answers, sam"le questionaire, 4etailed ex"lanation of :475 and 6 models can be referred from software testing theory Iart 1 + &ndex and :ub &ndex' 2/1 0oftware development models 5E!:, interactive,incremental develo"ment model, validation, verification, 6,model.

2/2 Test levels )l"ha testing, beta testing, com"onent testing +also known as unit8module8"rogram testing', driver, stub, field testing, functional requirement, non,functional requirement, integration, integration testing, robustness testing, system testing, test level, test,driven develo"ment, test 12

environment, user acce"tance testing. 2/ Test t!pes <lack box testing, code coverage, functional testing, intero"erability testing, load testing, maintainability testing, "erformance testing, "ortability testing, reliability testing, security testing, s"ecification based testing, stress testing, structural testing, usability testing, white box testing 2/" 1aintenance testing &m"act analysis, maintenance testing. i) 0oftware development models a) 2-model -se3uential development model) )lthough variants of the 6,model exist, a common ty"e of 6,model uses four test levels, corres"onding to the four develo"ment levels. !he four levels used in this syllabus are0 com"onent +unit' testing@ integration testing@ system testing@ acce"tance testing. b) (terative-incremental development models &terative,incremental develo"ment is the "rocess of establishing requirements, designing, building and testing a system, done as a series of shorter develo"ment cycles. 2xam"les are0 "rototy"ing, ra"id a""lication develo"ment +1)4', 1ational Hnified Irocess +1HI' and agile develo"ment models. c) Testing within a life c!cle model &n any life cycle model, there are several characteristics of good testing0 ? $or every develo"ment activity there is a corres"onding testing activity. ? 2ach test level has test objectives s"ecific to that level. ? !he analysis and design of tests for a given test level should begin during the corres"onding develo"ment activity. ? !esters should be involved in reviewing documents as soon as drafts are available in the develo"ment life cycle.

ii) Test levels


a) Component testing 5om"onent testing searches for defects in, and verifies the functioning of, software +e.g. modules, "rograms, objects, classes, etc.' that are se"arately testable. 5om"onent testing may include testing of functionality and s"ecific non,functional 13

characteristics, such as resource,behaviour +e.g. memory leaks' or robustness testing, as well as structural testing +e.g. branch coverage'. Ene a""roach to com"onent testing is to "re"are and automate test cases before coding. !his is called a test,first a""roach or test,driven develo"ment. b) (ntegration testing &ntegration testing tests interfaces between com"onents, interactions with different "arts of a system, such as the o"erating system, file system, hardware, or interfaces between systems. 5om"onent integration testing tests the interactions between software com"onents and is done after com"onent testing@ :ystem integration testing tests the interactions between different systems and may be done after system testing. !esting of s"ecific non,functional characteristics +e.g. "erformance' may be included in integration testing. c) 0!stem testing :ystem testing is concerned with the behaviour of a whole system8"roduct as defined by the sco"e of a develo"ment "roject or "rogramme. &n system testing, the test environment should corres"ond to the final target or "roduction environment as much as "ossible in order to minimi3e the risk of environment,s"ecific failures not being found in testing. :ystem testing may include tests based on risks and8or on requirements s"ecifications, business "rocesses, use cases, or other high level descri"tions of system behaviour, interactions with the o"erating system, and system resources. :ystem testing should investigate both functional and non,functional requirements of the system. d) 'cceptance testing )cce"tance testing is often the res"onsibility of the customers or users of a system@ other stakeholders may be involved as well. !he goal in acce"tance testing is to establish confidence in the system, "arts of the system or s"ecific non,functional characteristics of the system 5ontract and regulation acce"tance testing 5ontract acce"tance testing is "erformed against a contract/s acce"tance criteria for "roducing custom,develo"ed software. )cce"tance criteria should be defined when the contract is agreed. 1egulation acce"tance testing is "erformed against any regulations that must be adhered to, such as governmental, legal or safety regulations. )l"ha and beta +or field' testing )l"ha testing is "erformed at the develo"ing organi3ation/s site. <eta testing, or field testing, is "erformed by "eo"le at their own locations. <oth are "erformed by "otential customers, not the develo"ers of the "roduct.

iii) Test t!pes


a) Testing of function -functional testing) !he functions that a system, subsystem or com"onent are to "erform may be described in 14

work "roducts such as a requirements s"ecification, use cases, or a functional s"ecification, or they may be undocumented. !he functions are -what. the system does. ) ty"e of functional testing, security testing, investigates the functions +e.g. a firewall' relating to detection of threats, such as viruses, from malicious outsiders. )nother ty"e of functional testing, intero"erability testing, evaluates the ca"ability of the software "roduct to interact with one or more s"ecified com"onents or systems. b) Testing of non-functional software characteristics -non-functional testing) Gon,functional testing includes, but is not limited to, "erformance testing, load testing, stress testing, usability testing, maintainability testing, reliability testing and "ortability testing. &t is the testing of -how. the system works. Gon,functional testing may be "erformed at all test levels. c) Testing of software structure4architecture -structural testing) :tructural +white,box' testing may be "erformed at all test levels. :tructural techniques are best used after s"ecification,based techniques, in order to hel" measure the thoroughness of testing through assessment of coverage of a ty"e of structure. :tructural testing a""roaches can also be a""lied at system, system integration or acce"tance testing levels +e.g. to business models or menu structures'. d) Testing related to changes -confirmation testing -retesting) and regression testing) )fter a defect is detected and fixed, the software should be retested to confirm that the original defect has been successfully removed. !his is called confirmation. 4ebugging +defect fixing' is a develo"ment activity, not a testing activity. 1egression testing is the re"eated testing of an already tested "rogram, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the change+s'. &t is "erformed when the software, or its environment, is changed. 1egression testing may be "erformed at all test levels, and a""lies to functional, non, functional and structural testing. iv) 1aintenance testing Ence de"loyed, a software system is often in service for years or decades. 4uring this time the system and its environment are often corrected, changed or extended. Dodifications include "lanned enhancement changes +e.g. release,based', corrective and emergency changes, and changes of environment, Daintenance testing for migration +e.g. from one "latform to another' should include o"erational tests of the new environment, as well as of the changed software. Daintenance testing for the retirement of a system may include the testing of data migration or archiving if long data,retention "eriods are required. Daintenance testing may be done at any or all test levels and for any or all test ty"es. ;uestions0 1' What are the good "ractices for testing with in the software develo"ment life cycle? a' 2arly test analysis and design b' 4ifferent test levels are defined with s"ecific objectives 15

c' !esters will start to get involved as soon as coding is done. d' ) and < above 2' Which o"tion best describes objectives for test levels with a life cycle model? a' Ebjectives should be generic for any test level b' Ebjectives are the same for each test level. c' !he objectives of a test level don/t need to be defined in advance d' 2ach level has objectives s"ecific to that level. ' Which of the following is a ty"e? a' 5om"onent testing b' $unctional testing c' :ystem testing d' )cce"tance testing #' Gon,functional system testing includes0 a' !esting to see where the system does not function "ro"erly b' testing quality attributes of the system including "erformance and usability c' testing a system feature using only the software required for that action d' testing for functions that should not exist %' <eta testing is0 a' Ierformed by customers at their own site b' Ierformed by customers at their software develo"er/s site c' Ierformed by an inde"endent test team d' Ierformed as early as "ossible in the lifecycle ?' Which of the following is not "art of "erformance testing0 a' Deasuring res"onse time b' Deasuring transaction rates c' 1ecovery testing d' :imulating many users A' Which one of the following statements about system testing is GE! true? a' :ystem tests are often "erformed by inde"endent teams. b' $unctional testing is used more than structural testing. c' $aults found during system tests can be very ex"ensive to fix. d' 2nd,users should be involved in system tests. B' &ntegration testing in the small0 a' !ests the individual com"onents that have been develo"ed. b' !ests interactions between modules or subsystems. c' Enly uses com"onents that form "art of the live system. d' !ests interfaces to other systems. 16

C' )l"ha testing is0 a' Iost,release testing by end user re"resentatives at the develo"er/s site. b' !he first testing that is "erformed. c' Ire,release testing by end user re"resentatives at the develo"er/s site. d' Ire,release testing by end user re"resentatives at their sites. 1*' :oftware testing activities should start a' )s soon as the code is written b' during the design stage c' when the requirements have been formally documented d' as soon as "ossible in the develo"ment life cycle 11' consider the following statements about regression tests &. they may useful be automated if they are well designed. &&. !hey are the same as confirmation tests &&&. !hey are a way to reduce the risk of a change having an adverse affect elsewhere in the system &6. !hey are only effective if automated. Which "airs of statements are true? a' & and && b' & and &&& c' && and &&& d' && and &6 12' Which of these statements about functional testing is true? a' :tructural testing is more im"ortant than functional testing as it addresses the code b' $unctional testing is useful throughout the life cycle and can be a""lied by business annalists, develo"ers, testers and users c' $unctional testing is more "owerful than static testing as you actually run the system and see what ha""ens. d' &ns"ection is a functional testing 1 ' 5onsider the following statements about maintenance testing0 &. &t requires both re,test and regression test and may require additional new tests &&. &t is testing to show how easy it will be to maintain the system &&&' &t is difficult to sco"e and therefore needs careful risk and im"act analysis &6. &t need not be done for emergency bug fixes. Which of the statement are true? a' & and &&& b' & and &6 c' && and &&& d' && and &6 1#' Which of the following is GE! "art of system testing0 a' business "rocess,based testing b' "erformance, load and stress testing c' requirements,based testing 17

d' to",down integration testing 1%' !o test a function, the "rogrammer has to write a MMMMMMMMM, which calls the function to be tested and "asses it test data. a. :tub b. 4river c. Iroxy d. Gone of the above 1?' Which of the following is a form of functional testing? a' <oundary value analysis b' Hsability testing c' Ierformance testing d' :ecurity testing 1A' Which one of the following describes the major benefit of verification early in the life cycle? a' &t allows the identification of changes in user requirements. b' &t facilitates timely set u" of the test environment. c' &t reduces defect multi"lication. d' &t allows testers to become involved early in the "roject. 1B' !he most im"ortant thing about early test design is that it0 a' makes test "re"aration easier. b' means ins"ections are not required. c' can "revent fault multi"lication. d' will find all faults. 1C'. Which of the following statements is not true a. "erformance testing can be done during unit testing as well as during the testing of whole system b. !he acce"tance test does not necessarily include a regression test c. 6erification activities should not involve testers +reviews, ins"ections etc' d. !est environments should be as similar to "roduction environments as "ossible 2*' Which of the following is GE! a ty"e of non,functional test? a. :tate,!ransition b. Hsability c. Ierformance d. 1eliability 21' Which of the following is not the integration strategy? a. 4esign based b. <ig,bang c. <ottom,u" d. !o",down 22' <ig bang a""roach is related to a' 1egression testing b' &nter system testing c' 1e,testing d'. &ntegration testing 18

2 ' -Which life cycle model is basically driven by schedule and budget risks. !his statement is best suited for a' Water fall model b' :"iral model c' &ncremental model d' 6,Dodel 2#' Hse cases can be "erformed to test ). Ierformance testing <. Hnit testing 5. <usiness scenarios 4. :tatic testing 2%' Which testing is "erformed at an external site? ). Hnit testing <. 1egression testing 5. <eta testing 4. &ntegration testing 2?' $unctional system testing is0 a' !esting that the system functions with other systems b' !esting that the com"onents that com"rise the system function together c' !esting the end to end functionality of the system as a whole d' !esting the system "erforms functions within s"ecified res"onse times 2A' Daintenance testing is0 a' H"dating tests when the software has changed b' testing a released system that has been changed c' testing by users to ensure that the system meets a business need d' testing to maintain business advantage 2B' Which of the following uses &m"act )nalysis most? a'com"onent testing b'non,functional system testing c'user acce"tance testing d'maintenance testing 2C' Which of the following is GE! "art of system testing? a' business "rocess,based testing b' "erformance, load and stress testing c' usability testing d' to",down integration testing *' Which of the following list contains only non,functional tests? a. com"atibility testing, usability testing, "erformance testing b. :ystem testing, "erformance testing c. 7oad testing, stress testing, com"onent testing, "ortability testing d. !esting various configurations, beta testing, load testing 1' 6,Dodel is0 19

a. ) software develo"ment model that illustrates how testing activities integrate with software develo"ment "hases b. ) software life,cycle model that is not relevant for testing c. !he official software develo"ment and testing life,cycle model of &:!;< d. ) testing life cycle model including unit, integration, system and acce"tance "hases 2' Daintenance testing is0 a. !esting management b. :ynonym of testing the quality of service c. !riggered by modifications, migration or retirement of existing software d. !esting the level of maintenance by the vendor ' 7ink !esting is also called as0 a' 5om"onent &ntegration testing b' 5om"onent :ystem !esting c' 5om"onent :ub :ystem !esting d' Daintenance testing #' 5om"onent !esting is also called as0 i. Hnit !esting ii. Irogram !esting iii. Dodule !esting iv. :ystem 5om"onent !esting Which of the following is correct? a' i, ii, iii are true and iv is false b' i, ii, iii, iv are false c' i, ii, iv are true and iii is false d' )ll of above is true %' Datch every stage of the software 4evelo"ment 7ife cycle with the !esting 7ife cycle0 i. (lobal design ii. :ystem 1equirements iii. 4etailed design iv. Hser 1equirements a' Hnit tests b' )cce"tance tests c' :ystem tests d' &ntegration tests a' i ,d , ii,a , iii,b , iv,c b' i ,c , ii,d , iii,a , iv,b c' i ,d , ii,c , iii,a , iv,b d' i ,c , ii,d , iii,b , iv,a ?' Which of these is a functional test? a' Deasuring res"onse time on an online booking system b' 5hecking the effect of high volumes of traffic in a call,center system. c' 5hecking the on,line booking screens information and the database contacts against the information on the letter to the customers d' 5hecking how easy the system is to use 20

Chaper + 0tatic Techni3ues


&nternational :oftware !esting and ;uality <oard, Ebjective !ests, sam"le questions !his cha"ter ex"lains the static and dynamic techniques of testing, 1eview "rocess, formal and informal, ins"ection, and technical review, )nalysis com"iler, com"lexity, control flow, data flow and walkthrough. $or other manual testing conce"ts and :475, :!75, <75 to"ics , Ilease refer the Dain cha"ter of :oftware testing theory.

/1 0tatic techni3ues and the test process


dynamic testing, static testing, static technique

&mg 1.1 Iermanent 4emand trend Nobmarket &nternet.HF !he chart "rovides the ,month moving total beginning in 2**# of "ermanent &! jobs citing (0T*5 within the HF as a "ro"ortion of the total demand within the *ualifications category. 2**C

/2 6eview process
entry criteria, formal review, informal review, ins"ection, metric, moderator8ins"ection leader, "eer review, reviewer, scribe, technical review, walkthrough.

/ 0tatic anal!sis b! tools


5om"iler, com"lexity, control flow, data flow, static analysis () Phases of a formal review 1' Ilanning :electing the "ersonal, allocating roles, defining entry and exit criteria for more formal reviews etc. 21

2' Fick,off 4istributing documents, ex"laining the objectives, checking entry criteria etc. ' &ndividual "re"aration Work done by each of the "artici"ants on their own work before the review meeting, questions and comments #' 1eview meeting 4iscussion or logging, make recommendations for handling the defects, or make decisions about the defects %' 1ework $ixing defects found, ty"ically done by the author $ixing defects found, ty"ically done by the author ?' $ollow,u" 5hecking the defects have been addressed, gathering metrics and checking on exit criteria (() 6oles and responsibilities Danager 4ecides on execution of reviews, allocates time in "rojects schedules, and determines if the review objectives have been met Doderator 7eads the review, including "lanning, running the meeting, follow,u" after the meeting. )uthor !he writer or "erson with chief res"onsibility of the document+s' to be reviewed. 1eviewers &ndividuals with a s"ecific technical or business background. &dentify defects and describe findings. :cribe +recorder' 4ocuments all the issues, "roblems ((() T!pes of review &nformal review Go formal "rocess, "air "rogramming or a technical lead reviewing designs and code. Dain "ur"ose0 inex"ensive way to get some benefit. Walkthrough Deeting led by the author, Jscenarios, dry runs, "eer grou"/, o"en,ended sessions. Dain "ur"ose0 learning, gaining understanding, defect finding !echnical review 4ocumented, defined defect detection "rocess, ideally led by trained moderator, may be "erformed as a "eer review, "re meeting "re"aration, involved by "eers and technical ex"erts Dain "ur"ose0 discuss, make decisions, find defects, solve technical "roblems and check conformance to s"ecifications and standards &ns"ection 7ed by trained moderator +not the author', usually "eer examination, defined roles, includes metrics, formal "rocess, "re,meeting "re"aration, formal follow,u" "rocess Dain "ur"ose0 find defects. Gote0 walkthroughs, technical reviews and ins"ections can be "erformed within a "eer grou", colleague at the same organi3ation level. !his ty"e of review is called a -"eer review..

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(2) 0uccess factors for reviews 2ach review has a clear "redefined objective. !he right "eo"le for the review objectives are involved. 4efects found are welcomed, and ex"ressed objectively. Ieo"le issues and "sychological as"ects are dealt with +e.g. making it a "ositive ex"erience for the author'. 1eview techniques are a""lied that are suitable to the ty"e and level of software work "roducts and reviewers. 5hecklists or roles are used if a""ro"riate to increase effectiveness of defect identification. !raining is given in review techniques, es"ecially the more formal techniques, such as ins"ection. Danagement su""orts a good review "rocess +e.g. by incor"orating adequate time for review activities in "roject schedules'. !here is an em"hasis on learning and "rocess im"rovement. 2) C!clomatic Complexit! !he number of inde"endent "aths through a "rogram 5yclomatic 5om"lexity is defined as0 7 > G O 2I 7 P the number of edges8links in a gra"h G P the number of nodes in a gra"hs I P the number of disconnected "arts of the gra"h +connected com"onents' )lternatively one may calculate 5yclomatic 5om"lexity using decision "oint rule 4ecision "oints O1 5yclomatic 5om"lexity and 1isk 2valuation 1 to 1*a sim"le "rogram, without very much risk 11 to 2* a com"lex "rogram, moderate risk 21 to %*, a more com"lex "rogram, high risk Q %*an un,testable "rogram +very high risk'

*uestions
1' Which of the following statements is GE! true0 a' ins"ection is the most formal review "rocess b' ins"ections should be led by a trained leader c' managers can "erform ins"ections on management documents d' ins"ection is a""ro"riate even when there are no written documents 2' Which ex"ression best matches the following characteristics or review "rocesses0 1. led by author 2. undocumented . no management "artici"ation #. led by a trained moderator or leader %. uses entry exit criteria s' ins"ection 23

t' "eer review u' informal review v' walkthrough a' s P #, t P , u P 2 and %, v P 1 b' s P # and %, t P , u P 2, v P 1 c' s P 1 and %, t P , u P 2, v P # d' s P %, t P #, u P , v P 1 and 2 ' 5ould reviews or ins"ections be considered "art of testing0 a' Go, because they a""ly to develo"ment documentation b' Go, because they are normally a""lied before testing c' Go, because they do not a""ly to the test documentation d' Res, because both hel" detect faults and im"rove quality #' &n a review meeting a moderator is a "erson who a. !akes minutes of the meeting b. Dediates among "eo"le c. !akes tele"hone calls d. writes the documents to be reviewed %' Which of the following statements about reviews is true? a' 1eviews cannot be "erformed on user requirements s"ecifications. b' 1eviews are the least effective way of testing code. c' 1eviews are unlikely to find faults in test "lans. d' 1eviews should be "erformed on s"ecifications, code, and test "lans. ?' What is the main difference between a walkthrough and an ins"ection? a' )n ins"ection is lead by the author, whilst a walkthrough is lead by a trained moderator. b' )n ins"ection has a trained leader, whilst a walkthrough has no leader. c' )uthors are not "resent during ins"ections, whilst they are during walkthroughs. d' ) walkthrough is lead by the author, whilst an ins"ection is lead by a trained moderator. A' Which of the following is a static test? a. code ins"ection b. coverage analysis c. usability assessment d. installation test

24

B' Who is res"onsible for document all the issues, "roblems and o"en "oint that were identified during the review meeting ). Doderator <. :cribe 5. 1eviewers 4. )uthor C' What is the main "ur"ose of &nformal review? ). &nex"ensive way to get some benefit <. $ind defects 5. 7earning, gaining understanding, effect finding 4. 4iscuss, make decisions and solve technical "roblems 1*' Which of the following is not a static testing technique? a. 2rror guessing b. Walkthrough c. 4ata flow analysis d. &ns"ections 11' &ns"ections can find all the following exce"t a. 6ariables not defined in the code b. :"elling and grammar faults in the documents c. 1equirements that have been omitted from the design documents d. 9ow much of the code has been covered 12' Which of the following artifacts can be examined by using review techniques? a' :oftware code b' 1equirements s"ecification c' !est designs d' )ll of the above 1 ' Which is not a ty"e of review? a' Walkthrough b' &ns"ection c' Danagement a""roval d' &nformal review 1#' Which of the following statements about early test design are true and which are false? 1. 4efects found during early test design are more ex"ensive to fix 2. 2arly test design can find defects . 2arly test design can cause to the changes to the requirements #. 2arly test design can takes more effort a' 1 and are true. 2 and # are false. 25

b' 2 is true. 1, and # are false. c' 2 and are true. 1 and # are false. d' 2, , and # are true. 1 is false 1%' :tatic code analysis ty"ically identifies all but one of the following "roblems. Which is it? a' Hnreachable code b' $aults in requirements c' Hndeclared variables d' !oo few comments 1?' What is the best descri"tion of static analysis? a' !he analysis of bath "rograms b' !he reviewing of test "lans c' !he analysis of "rogram code or other software a rtifacts d' !he use of black,box testing 1A' What is the more im"ortant factor for successful "erformance of review? a' ) se"arate scribe during the logging meeting b' !rained "artici"ants and review leaders c' !he availability of tools to su""ort the review "rocess d' ) reviewed test "lan 1B' 5ode Walkthrough is a. ty"e of dynamic testing b. ty"e of static testing c. neither dynamic nor static d. "erformed by the testing team 1C' :tatic )nalysis a. same as static testing b. done by the develo"ers c. both a and b d. none of the above 2*' Which review is inex"ensive? a. &nformal 1eview b. Walkthrough c. !echnical review d. &ns"ection 21' Who should have technical or <usiness background? a. Doderator b. )uthor 26

c. 1eviewer d. 1ecorder 22' !he "erson who leads the review of the document+s', "lanning the review, running the meeting and follow,u" after the meeting a. 1eviewer b. )uthor c. Doderator d. )uditor 2 ' Ieer 1eviews are also called as0 a' &ns"ection b' Walkthrough c' !echnical 1eview d' $ormal 1eview 2#' !he Fick Eff "hase of a formal review includes the following a' 2x"laining the objective b' $ixing defects found ty"ically done by author c' $ollow u" d' &ndividual Deeting "re"arations 2%' :uccess $actors for a review include0 i. 2ach 1eview does not have a "redefined objective ii. 4efects found are welcomed and ex"ressed objectively iii. Danagement su""orts a good review "rocess. iv. !here is an em"hasis on learning and "rocess im"rovement. a' ii, iii, iv are correct and i is incorrect b' iii , i , iv is correct and ii is incorrect c' i , iii , iv are correct and ii is in correct d' i, ii are correct and iii, iv are incorrect 2?' Why static testing described as com"lementary for dynamic testing? a' <ecause they share the aim of identifying defects and finds the same ty"es of defect. b' <ecause they have different aims and differ in the ty"es of defect they find. c' <ecause they have different aims but find the same ty"es of defect. d' <ecause they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the ty"es of defect they find. 2A' Which of the following statements regarding static testing is false? a' :tatic testing requires the running of tests through the code b' :tatic testing includes desk checking c' :tatic testing includes techniques such as reviews and ins"ections d' :tatic testing can give measurements such as cyclomatic com"lexity 27

2B' Which of the following is true about $ormal 1eview or &ns"ection? i. 7ed by !rained Doderator +not the author'. ii. Go Ire Deeting Ire"arations iii. $ormal $ollow u" "rocess. iv. Dain objective is to find defects a' ii is true and i, iii, iv are false b' i, iii, iv are true and ii is false c' i, iii, iv are false and ii is true d' iii is true and &, ii, iv are false 2C' !he Ihases of formal review "rocess is mentioned below arrange them in the correct order. i. Ilanning ii. 1eview Deeting iii. 1ework iv. &ndividual Ire"arations v. Fick Eff vi. $ollow u" a' i,ii,iii,iv,v,vi b' vi,i,ii,iii,iv,v c' i,v,iv,ii,iii,vi d' i,ii,iii,v,iv,vi *' Which of the following is Fey 5haracteristics of Walk !hrough? a' :cenario, 4ry 1un, Ieer (rou" b' Ire Deeting Ire"arations c' $ormal $ollow u" Irocess d' &ncludes Detrics

6eferences
1 &:!;< (ilb, ! = (raham, 4 +1CC ' :oftware &ns"ection, )ddison,Wesley0 7ondon 9atton, 7. +1CCA' S1eexamining the $ault 4ensity,com"onent :i3e 5onnectionS in &222 :oftware, vol. 1# &ssue 2, Darch 1CA@ "". BC,CA. 2 &:!;< , 6an 6eenendaal, 2. +2**#'. !he !esting Iractitioner, 2nd edition, H!G "ublishing van 6eenendaal, 2. and van der Lwan, D. +2***' S(;D based &ns"ectionsS in "roceedings of the 11th 2uro"ean software control and metrics conference +2:5ED', Dunich, Day 2***.

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Chaper "+ Test #esign Techni3ues 1odules


&nternational :oftware testing = ;uality <oard, !est design techniques, 5ategories :"ecifcations and White <ox 8 <lack <ox techniques, <6) and 25I , 4ecision table testing, state transition , and use case tesing. !est case s"ecification, test design, test execution schedule, test "rocedure s"ecification, test scri"t, traceability. $or more details on testing and related conce"ts "lese refer the main cha"ter of software testing theory Iart 1 "/1 The test development process !est case s"ecification, test design, test execution schedule, test "rocedure s"ecification, test scri"t, traceability. "/2 Categories of test design techni3ue s <lack,box test design technique, s"ecification,based test design technique, white,box test design technique, structure,based test design technique, ex"erience,based test design technique. "/ 0pecification-based or blac. box techni3ues <oundary value analysis, decision table testing, equivalence "artitioning, state transition testing, use case testing. "/" 0tructure-based or white box techni3ues 5ode coverage, decision coverage, statement coverage, structure,based testing. "/$ Experience-based techni3ues 2x"loratory testing, fault attack. "/% Choosing test techni3ues Go s"ecific terms.

Test #esign Techni3ues


:"ecification,based8<lack,box techniques :tructure,based8White,box techniques 2x"erience,based techniques

() 0pecification-based45lac.-box techni3ues 2quivalence "artitioning <oundary value analysis 4ecision table testing 29

:tate transition testing Hse case testing E3uivalence partitioning o &n"uts to the software or system are divided in to grou"s that are ex"ected to exhibit similar behavior o 2quivalence "artitions or classes can be found for both valid data and invalid data o Iartitions can also be identified for out"uts, internal values, time related values and for interface values. o 2quivalence "artitioning is a""licable all levels of testing 5oundar! value anal!sis o <ehavior at the edge of each equivalence "artition is more likely to be incorrect. !he maximum and minimum values of a "artition are its boundary values. o ) boundary value for a valid "artition is a valid boundary value@ the boundary of an invalid "artition is an invalid boundary value. o <oundary value analysis can be a""lied at all test levels o &t is relatively easy to a""ly and its defect,finding ca"ability is high o !his technique is often considered as an extension of equivalence "artitioning. #ecision table testing o &n 4ecision table testing test cases are designed to execute the combination of in"uts o 4ecision tables are good way to ca"ture system requirements that contain logical conditions. o !he decision table contains triggering conditions, often combinations of true and false for all in"ut conditions o &t maybe a""lied to all situations when the action of the software de"ends on several logical decisions 0tate transition testing o &n state transition testing test cases are designed to execute valid and invalid state transitions o ) system may exhibit a deferent res"onse on current conditions or "revious history. &n this case, that as"ect of the system can be shown as a state transition diagram. o :tate transition testing is much used in embedded software and technical automation. 7se case testing o &n use case testing test cases are designed to execute user scenarios o ) use case describes interactions between actors, including users and the system o 2ach use case has "reconditions, which need to be met for a use case to work successfully. o ) use case usually has a mainstream scenario and some times alternative branches. o Hse cases, often referred to as scenarios, are very useful for designing acce"tance tests with customer8user "artici"ation 30

(() 0tructure-based48hite-box techni3ues o :tatement testing and coverage o 4ecision testing and coverage o Ether structure,based techniques condition coverage multi condition coverage

0tatement testing and coverage+ :tatement )n entity in a "rogramming language, which is ty"ically the smallest indivisible unit of execution :tatement coverage !he "ercentage of executable statements that have been exercised by a test suite :tatement testing ) white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute statements #ecision testing and coverage 4ecision ) "rogram "oint at which the control flow has two or more alternative routes ) node with two or more links to se"arate branches 4ecision 5overage !he "ercentage of decision outcomes that have been exercised by a test suite 1**T decision coverage im"lies both 1**T branches coverage and 1**T statement coverage 4ecision testing ) white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute decision outcomes. Ether structure,based techniques 5ondition ) logical ex"ression that can be evaluated as true or false 5ondition coverage !he "ercentage of condition outcomes that have been exercised by a test suite 5ondition testing ) white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute condition outcomes Dulti"le condition testing ) white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute combinations of single condition outcomes

31

((() Experience-based techni3ues o 2rror guessing o 2x"loratory testing 2rror guessing o 2rror guessing is a commonly used ex"erience,based technique o (enerally testers antici"ate defects based on ex"erience, these defects list can be built based on ex"erience, available defect data, and from common knowledge about why software fails. 2x"loratory testing o 2x"loratory testing is concurrent test design, test execution, test logging and learning , based on test charter containing test objectives and carried out within time boxes o &t is a""roach that is most useful where there are few or inadequate s"ecifications and serve time "ressure.

*uestions
1' Erder numbers on a stock control system can range between 1**** and CCCCC inclusive. Which of the following in"uts might be a result of designing tests for only valid equivalence classes and valid boundaries0 a' 1***, %***, CCCCC b' CCCC, %****, 1***** c' 1****, %****, CCCCC d' 1****, CCCCC e' CCCC, 1****, %****, CCCCC, 1**** 2' Which of the following is GE! a black box technique0 a' 2quivalence "artitioning b' :tate transition testing c' :yntax testing d' <oundary value analysis ' 2rror guessing is best used a' )s the first a""roach to deriving test cases b' )fter more formal techniques have been a""lied c' <y inex"erienced testers d' )fter the system has gone live e' Enly by end users #' Which is not true,!he black box tester a. should be able to understand a functional s"ecification or requirements document b. should be able to understand the source code. c. is highly motivated to find faults d. is creative to find the system/s weaknesses.

32

%' ) test design technique is a. a "rocess for selecting test cases b. a "rocess for determining ex"ected out"uts c. a way to measure the quality of software d. a way to measure in a test "lan what has to be done ?' Which of the following is true? a. 5om"onent testing should be black box, system testing should be white box. b. if u find a lot of bugs in testing, you should not be very confident about the quality of software c. the fewer bugs you find, the better your testing was d. the more tests you run, the more bugs you will find. A' What is the im"ortant criterion in deciding what testing technique to use? a. how well you know a "articular technique b. the objective of the test c. how a""ro"riate the technique is for testing the a""lication d. whether there is a tool to su""ort the technique B' Which of the following is a black box design technique? a. statement testing b. equivalence "artitioning c. error, guessing d. usability testing C' ) "rogram validates a numeric field as follows0 values less than 1* are rejected, values between 1* and 21 are acce"ted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected Which of the following in"ut values cover all of the equivalence "artitions? a. 1*, 11, 21 b. , 2*, 21 c. , 1*, 22 d. 1*, 21, 22 1*' Hsing the same s"ecifications as question C, which of the following covers the DE:! boundary values? a. C,1*,11,22 b. C,1*,21,22 c. 1*,11,21,22 d. 1*,11,2*,21 11' 2rror guessing0 a' su""lements formal test design techniques. 33

b' can only be used in com"onent, integration and system testing. c' is only "erformed in user acce"tance testing. d' is not re"eatable and should not be used. 12' Which of the following is GE! a white box technique? a' :tatement testing b' Iath testing c' 4ata flow testing d' :tate transition testing 1 ' 4ata flow analysis studies0 a' "ossible communications bottlenecks in a "rogram. b' the rate of change of data values as a "rogram executes. c' the use of data on "aths through the code. d' the intrinsic com"lexity of the code. 1#' &n a system designed to work out the tax to be "aid0 )n em"loyee has U#*** of salary tax free. !he next U1%** is taxed at 1*T !he next U2B*** is taxed at 22T )ny further amount is taxed at #*T Which of these grou"s of numbers would fall into the same equivalence class? a' U#B**@ U1#***@ U2B*** b' U%2**@ U%%**@ U2B*** c' U2B**1@ U 2***@ U %*** d' U%B**@ U2B***@ U 2*** 1%' !est cases are designed during0 a' test recording. b' test "lanning. c' test configuration. d' test s"ecification. 1?' )n in"ut field takes the year of birth between 1C** and 2**# !he boundary values for testing this field are a. *,1C**,2**#,2**% b. 1C**, 2**# c. 1BCC,1C**,2**#,2**% d. 1BCC, 1C**, 1C*1,2** ,2**#,2**% 1A' <oundary value testing a. &s the same as equivalence "artitioning tests? b. !est boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of in"ut and out"ut equivalence classes c. !ests combinations of in"ut circumstances d. &s used in white box testing strategy 34

1B' When testing a grade calculation system, a tester determines that all scores from C* to 1** will yield a grade of ), but scores below C* will not. !his analysis is known as0 a' 2quivalence "artitioning b' <oundary value analysis c' 4ecision table d' 9ybrid analysis 1C' Which technique can be used to achieve in"ut and out"ut coverage? &t can be a""lied to human in"ut, in"ut via interfaces to a system, or interface "arameters in integration testing. a' 2rror (uessing b' <oundary 6alue )nalysis c' 4ecision !able testing d' 2quivalence "artitioning 2*' $eatures to be tested, a""roach, item "ass8fail criteria and test deliverables should be s"ecified in which document? a' !est case s"ecification b' !est "rocedure s"ecification c' !est "lan d' !est design s"ecification 21' Which s"ecification,based testing techniques are most closely related to each other? a' 4ecision tables and state transition testing b' 2quivalence "artitioning and state transition testing c' 4ecision tables and boundary value analysis d' 2quivalence "artitioning and boundary value analysis 22' assume "ostal rates for Jlight letters/ are0 V*.2% u" to 1* grams V*. % u" to %* grams V*.#% u" to A% grams V*.%% u" to 1** grams Which test in"uts +in grams' would be selected using boundary value analysis? a' *, C, 1C, #C, %*, A#, A%, CC, 1** b' 1*, %*, A%, 1**, 2%*, 1*** c' *, 1, 1*, 11, %*, %1, A%, A?, 1**, 1*1 d' 2%, 2?, %, ?, #%, #?, %%, %? 2 ' &f the tem"erature falls below 1B degrees, the heating system is switched on. When the tem"erature reaches 21 degrees, the heating system is switched off. What is the minimum set of test in"ut values to cover all valid equivalence "artitions? a' 1%, 1C and 2% degrees 35

b' 1A, 1B, 2* and 21 degrees c' 1B, 2* and 22 degrees d' 1? and 2? degrees 2#' What is a test condition? a' )n in"ut, ex"ected outcome, "recondition and "ost condition b' !he ste"s to be taken to get the system to a given "oint c' :omething that can be tested d' ) s"ecific state of the software, ex0 before a test can be run 2%' What is a key characteristic of s"ecification,based testing techniques? a' !ests are derived from information about how the software is constructed b' !ests are derived from models +formal or informal' that s"ecify the "roblem to be solved by the software or its com"onents c' !ests are derived based on the skills and ex"erience of the tester d' !ests are derived from the extent of the coverage of structural elements of the system or com"onents 2?' Why are both s"ecification,based and structure,based testing techniques useful? a' !hey find different ty"es of defect. b' using more techniques is always better c' both find the same ty"es of defect. d' <ecause s"ecifications tend to be unstructured 2A' $ind the 2quivalence class for the following test case 2nter a number to test the validity of being acce"ting the numbers between 1 and CC a' )ll numbers W 1 b' )ll numbers Q CC c' Gumber P * d' )ll numbers between 1 and CC 2B' What is the relationshi" between equivalence "artitioning and boundary value analysis techniques? a' :tructural testing b' E"aque testing c' 5om"atibility testing d' )ll of the above 2C' :uggest an alternative for requirement traceability matrix a' !est 5overage matrix b' )verage defect aging c' !est 2ffectiveness d' 2rror discovery rate 36

*' !he following defines the statement of what the tester is ex"ected to accom"lish or validate during testing activity a' !est sco"e b' !est objective c' !est environment d' Gone of the above 1' Ene technique of <lack <ox testing is 2quivalence Iartitioning. &n a "rogram statement that acce"ts only one choice from among 1* "ossible choices, numbered 1 through 1*, the middle "artition would be from MMMMM to MMMMM a' # to ? b' * to 1* c' 1 to 1* d' Gone of the above 2' !est design mainly em"hasi3es all the following exce"t a' 4ata "lanning b' !est "rocedures "lanning c' Da""ing the requirements and test cases d' 4ata synchroni3ation ' 4eliverables of test design "hase include all the following exce"t a' !est data b' !est data "lan c' !est summary re"ort d' !est "rocedure "lan #' !est data "lanning essentially includes a' Getwork b' E"erational Dodel c' <oundary value analysis d' !est Irocedure Ilanning %' !est coverage analysis is the "rocess of a' 5reating additional test cases to increase coverage b' $inding areas of "rogram exercised by the test cases c' 4etermining a quantitative measure of code coverage, which is a direct measure of quality. d' )ll of the above. ?' <ranch 5overage a' another name for decision coverage b' another name for all,edges coverage 37

c' another name for basic "ath coverage d' all the above A' !he following exam"le is a if +condition1 == +condition2 XX function1+''' statement1@ else statement2@ +!esting conce"ts' a' 4ecision coverage b' 5ondition coverage c' :tatement coverage d' Iath 5overage B' !est cases need to be written for a' invalid and unex"ected conditions b' valid and ex"ected conditions c' both a and b d' none of these C' Iath coverage includes a' statement coverage b' condition coverage c' decision coverage d' none of these #*' !he benefits of glass box testing are a' $ocused !esting, !esting coverage, control flow b' 4ata integrity, &nternal boundaries, algorithm s"ecific testing c' <oth a and b d' 2ither a or b #1' $ind the invalid equivalence class for the following test case 4raw a line u" to the length of # inches a' 7ine with 1 dot,width b' 5urve c' line with # inches d' line with 1 inch. #2' 2rror seeding a' 2valuates the thoroughness with which a com"uter "rogram is tested by "ur"osely inserting errors into a su""osedly correct "rogram. b' 2rrors inserted by the develo"ers intentionally to make the system malfunctioning. c' for identifying existing errors 38

d' <oth a and b # ' Which of the following best describes the difference between clear box and o"aque box? 1. 5lear box is structural testing, o"aque box is )d,hoc testing 2. 5lear box is done by tester, and o"aque box is done by develo"er . E"aque box is functional testing, clear box is ex"loratory testing a' 1 b' 1 and c' 2 d' ##' What is the conce"t of introducing a small change to the "rogram and having the effects of that change show u" in some test? a' 4esk checking b' 4ebugging a "rogram c' ) mutation error d' &ntroducing mutation #%' 9ow many test cases are necessary to cover all the "ossible sequences of statements +"aths' for the following "rogram fragment? )ssume that the two conditions are inde"endent of each other 0 , KKKK if +5ondition 1' then statement 1 else statement 2 fi if +5ondition 2' then statement fi KKKK a. 1 test case b. !est 5ases c. # !est 5ases d. Got achievable #?' (iven the following code, which is true about the minimum number of test cases required for full statement and branch coverage0 1ead I 1ead ; &$ IO; Q 1** !92G Irint -7arge. 2G4&$ &f I Q %* !92G Irint -I 7arge. 2G4&$ 39

a' 1 test for statement coverage, for branch coverage b' 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage c' 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage d' 2 tests for statement coverage, for branch coverage e' 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage #A' (iven the following0 :witch I5 on :tart -outlook. &$ outlook a""ears !92G :end an email 5lose outlook a' 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage b' 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage c' 1 test for statement coverage. for branch coverage d' 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage e' 2 tests for statement coverage, for branch coverage #B' &f a candidate is given an exam of #* questions, should get 2% marks to "ass +?1T' and should get B*T for distinction, what is equivalence class? ). 2 , 2#, 2% <. *, 12, 2% 5. *, ?, C 4. 2, A, #* #C' 5onsider the following statements0 i. 1**T statement coverage guarantees 1**T branch coverage. ii. 1**T branch coverage guarantees 1**T statement coverage. iii. 1**T branch coverage guarantees 1**T decision coverage. iv. 1**T decision coverage guarantees 1**T branch coverage. v. 1**T statement coverage guarantees 1**T decision coverage. a' ii is !rue@ i, iii, iv = v are $alse b' i = v are !rue@ ii, iii = iv are $alse c' ii = iii are !rue@ i, iv = v are $alse d' ii, iii = iv are !rue@ i = v are $alse %*' Which statement about ex"ected outcomes is $)7:2? a' 2x"ected outcomes are defined by the softwareSs behavior b' 2x"ected outcomes are derived from a s"ecification, not from the code c' 2x"ected outcomes should be "redicted before a test is run d' 2x"ected outcomes may include timing constraints such as res"onse times %1' Which of the following is not a white box testing? a' 1andom testing 40

b' 4ata $low testing c' :tatement testing d' :yntax testing %2' &f the "seudo code below were a "rogramming language, how many tests are required to achieve 1**T statement coverage? 1. &f xP then 2. 4is"layMmessageY@ . &f yP2 then #. 4is"layMmessageR@ %. 2lse ?. 4is"layMmessageL@ a. 1 b. 2 c. d. # % ' Hsing the same code exam"le as question 1A, how many tests are required to achieve 1**T branch8decision coverage? a. 1 b. 2 c. d. # %#' Which of the following technique is GE! a black box technique? a' 2quivalence "artitioning b' :tate transition testing c' 75:)N d' :yntax testing %%' (iven the following code, which is true? &$ )Q< !92G 5P)>< 27:2 5P)O< 2G4&$ 1ead 4 &$ 5 P 4 !92G Irint -2rror. 2G4&$ a' 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage b' 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage c' 2 tests for statement coverage, for branch coverage 41

d' tests for statement coverage, for branch coverage e' tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage %?' 5onsider the following0 Iick u" and read the news "a"er 7ook at what is on television &f there is a "rogram that you are interested in watching then switch the television on and watch the "rogram Etherwise 5ontinue reading the news "a"er &f there a crossword in the news "a"er then try and com"lete the crossword a' :5 P 1 and 45 P b' :5 P 1 and 45 P 2 c' :5 P 2 and 45 P 2 d' :5 P 2 and 45 P %A' !he s"ecification0 an integer field shall contain values from and including 1 to and including 12 +number of the month' Which equivalence class "artitioning is correct? a' 7ess than 1, 1 through 12, larger than 12 b' 7ess than 1, 1 through 11, larger than 12 c' 7ess than *, 1 through 12, larger than 12 d' 7ess than 1, 1 through 11, and above %B' )naly3e the following highly sim"lified "rocedure0 )sk0 -What ty"e of ticket do you require, single or return?. &$ the customer wants Jreturn/ )sk0 -What rate, :tandard or 5hea",day?. &$ the customer re"lies J5hea",day/ :ay0 -!hat will be U1102*. 27:2 :ay0 -!hat will be U1C0%*. 2G4&$ 27:2 :ay0 -!hat will be UC0A%. 2G4&$ Gow decide the minimum number of tests that are needed to ensure that all the questions have been asked, all combinations have occurred and all re"lies given. a' b' # c' % d' ? 42

43

Chapter $+ Test organi9ation and independence


(nternational 0oftware Testing : *ualit! 5oard; Test management; Test reports Testers; test leader; test manager; test approach; defect densit!; failure rate; test manager; test approach; configuration management; version control; 6is.; product ris.; pr<ect ris.; ris. based testing; incident logging; incident management/ Please refer to the earlier version of 0oftware testing theor! part 1 The effectiveness of finding defects b! testing and reviews can be improved b! using independent testers/ =ptions for testing teams available are+ Go inde"endent testers. 4evelo"ers test their own code. &nde"endent testers within the develo"ment teams. &nde"endent test team or grou" within the organi3ation, re"orting to "roject management or executive management &nde"endent testers from the business organi3ation or user community. &nde"endent test s"ecialists for s"ecific test targets such as usability testers, security testers or certification testers +who certify a software "roduct against standards and regulations'. &nde"endent testers outsourced or external to the organi3ation. The benefits of independence include+ &nde"endent testers see other and different defects, and are unbiased. )n inde"endent tester can verify assum"tions "eo"le made during s"ecification and im"lementation of the system. #rawbac.s include+ &solation from the develo"ment team +if treated as totally inde"endent'. &nde"endent testers may be the bottleneck as the last check"oint. 4evelo"ers may lose a sense of res"onsibility for quality. b) Tas.s of the test leader and tester Test leader tas.s ma! include+ 5oordinate the test strategy and "lan with "roject managers and others. Write or review a test strategy for the "roject, and test "olicy for the organi3ation. 5ontribute the testing "ers"ective to other "roject activities, such as integration "lanning. 44

Ilan the tests > considering the context and understanding the test objectives and risks >including selecting test a""roaches, estimating the time, effort and cost of testing, acquiring resources, defining test levels, cycles, and "lanning incident management. &nitiate the s"ecification, "re"aration, im"lementation and execution of tests, monitor the test results and check the exit criteria. )da"t "lanning based on test results and "rogress +sometimes documented in status re"orts' and take any action necessary to com"ensate for "roblems. :et u" adequate configuration management of testware for traceability. &ntroduce suitable metrics for measuring test "rogress and evaluating the quality of the testing and the "roduct. 4ecide what should be automated, to what degree, and how. :elect tools to su""ort testing and organi3e any training in tool use for testers. 4ecide about the im"lementation of the test environment. Write test summary re"orts based on the information gathered during testing. Tester tas.s ma! include+ 1eview and contribute to test "lans. )naly3e, review and assess user requirements, s"ecifications and models for testability. 5reate test s"ecifications. :et u" the test environment +often coordinating with system administration and network management'. Ire"are and acquire test data. &m"lement tests on all test levels, execute and log the tests, evaluate the results and document the deviations from ex"ected results. Hse test administration or management tools and test monitoring tools as required. )utomate tests +may be su""orted by a develo"er or a test automation ex"ert'. Deasure "erformance of com"onents and systems +if a""licable'. 1eview tests develo"ed by others. >ote+ Ieo"le who work on test analysis, test design, s"ecific test ty"es or test automation may be s"ecialists in these roles. 4e"ending on the test level and the risks related to the "roduct and the "roject, different "eo"le may take over the role of tester, kee"ing some degree of inde"endence. !y"ically testers at the com"onent and integration level would be develo"ers@ testers at the acce"tance test level would be business ex"erts and users, and testers for o"erational acce"tance testing would be o"erators. c) #efining s.ills test staff need Gow days a testing "rofessional must have Ja""lication/ or Jbusiness domain/ knowledge and J!echnology/ ex"ertise a"art from J!esting/ :kills 45

2) Test planning and estimation


a) Test planning activities 4etermining the sco"e and risks, and identifying the objectives of testing. 4efining the overall a""roach of testing +the test strategy', including the definition of the test levels and entry and exit criteria. &ntegrating and coordinating the testing activities into the software life cycle activities0 acquisition, su""ly, develo"ment, o"eration and maintenance. Daking decisions about what to test, what roles will "erform the test activities, how the test activities should be done, and how the test results will be evaluated. :cheduling test analysis and design activities. :cheduling test im"lementation, execution and evaluation. )ssigning resources for the different activities defined. 4efining the amount, level of detail, structure and tem"lates for the test documentation. :electing metrics for monitoring and controlling test "re"aration and execution, defect resolution and risk issues. :etting the level of detail for test "rocedures in order to "rovide enough information to su""ort re"roducible test "re"aration and execution. b) Exit criteria !he "ur"ose of exit criteria is to define when to sto" testing, such as at the end of a test level or when a set of tests has a s"ecific goal. !y"ically exit criteria may consist of0 !horoughness measures, such as coverage of code, functionality or risk. 2stimates of defect density or reliability measures. 5ost. 1esidual risks, such as defects not fixed or lack of test coverage in certain areas. :chedules such as those based on time to market. c) Test estimation !wo a""roaches for the estimation of test effort are covered in this syllabus0 !he metrics,based a""roach0 estimating the testing effort based on metrics of former or similar "rojects or based on ty"ical values. !he ex"ert,based a""roach0 estimating the tasks by the owner of these tasks or by ex"erts. Ence the test effort is estimated, resources can be identified and a schedule can be drawn u". 46

!he testing effort may de"end on a number of factors, including0 5haracteristics of the "roduct0 the quality of the s"ecification and other information used for test models +i.e. the test basis', the si3e of the "roduct, the com"lexity of the "roblem domain, the requirements for reliability and security, and the requirements for documentation. 5haracteristics of the develo"ment "rocess0 the stability of the organi3ation, tools used, test "rocess, skills of the "eo"le involved, and time "ressure. !he outcome of testing0 the number of defects and the amount of rework required. d) Test approaches -test strategies) Ene way to classify test a""roaches or strategies is based on the "oint in time at which the bulk of the test design work is begun0 Ireventative a""roaches, where tests are designed as early as "ossible. 1eactive a""roaches, where test design comes after the software or system has been "roduced. T!pical approaches or strategies include+ )nalytical a""roaches, such as risk,based testing where testing is directed to areas of greatest risk Dodel,based a""roaches, such as stochastic testing using statistical information about failure rates +such as reliability growth models' or usage +such as o"erational "rofiles'. Dethodical a""roaches, such as failure,based +including error guessing and fault, attacks', ex"erienced,based, check,list based, and quality characteristic based. Irocess, or standard,com"liant a""roaches, such as those s"ecified by industry, s"ecific standards or the various agile methodologies. 4ynamic and heuristic a""roaches, such as ex"loratory testing where testing is more reactive to events than "re,"lanned, and where execution and evaluation are concurrent tasks. 5onsultative a""roaches, such as those where test coverage is driven "rimarily by the advice and guidance of technology and8or business domain ex"erts outside the test team. 1egression,averse a""roaches, such as those that include reuse of existing test material, extensive automation of functional regression tests, and standard test suites. 4ifferent a""roaches may be combined, for exam"le, a risk,based dynamic a""roach. The selection of a test approach should consider the context; including 1isk of failure of the "roject, ha3ards to the "roduct and risks of "roduct failure to humans, the environment and the com"any. :kills and ex"erience of the "eo"le in the "ro"osed techniques, tools and methods. !he objective of the testing endeavour and the mission of the testing team. 47

1egulatory as"ects, such as external and internal regulations for the develo"ment "rocess. !he nature of the "roduct and the business.

) Test progress monitoring and control


a) Test progress monitoring Iercentage of work done in test case "re"aration +or "ercentage of "lanned test cases "re"ared'. Iercentage of work done in test environment "re"aration. !est case execution +e.g. number of test cases run8not run, and test cases "assed8failed'. 4efect information +e.g. defect density, defects found and fixed, failure rate, and retest results'. !est coverage of requirements, risks or code. :ubjective confidence of testers in the "roduct. 4ates of test milestones. !esting costs, including the cost com"ared to the benefit of finding the next defect or to run the next test. b) Test 6eporting What ha""ened during a "eriod of testing, such as dates when exit criteria were met. )naly3ed information and metrics to su""ort recommendations and decisions about future actions, such as an assessment of defects remaining, the economic benefit of continued testing, outstanding risks, and the level of confidence in tested software. Detrics should be collected during and at the end of a test level in order to assess0 !he adequacy of the test objectives for that test level. !he adequacy of the test a""roaches taken. !he effectiveness of the testing with res"ect to its objectives. c) Test control !est control describes any guiding or corrective actions taken as a result of information and metrics gathered and re"orted. )ctions may cover any test activity and may affect any other software life cycle activity or task. Examples of test control actions are+ Daking decisions based on information from test monitoring. 1e,"rioriti3e tests when an identified risk occurs +e.g. software delivered late'. 48

5hange the test schedule due to availability of a test environment. :et an entry criterion requiring fixes to have been retested +confirmation tested' by a develo"er before acce"ting them into a build.

") Configuration management


!he "ur"ose of configuration management is to establish and maintain the integrity of the "roducts +com"onents, data and documentation' of the software or system through the "roject and "roduct life cycle. For testing; configuration management ma! involve ensuring that+ )ll items of testware are identified, version controlled, tracked for changes, related to each other and related to develo"ment items +test objects' so that traceability can be maintained throughout the test "rocess. )ll identified documents and software items are referenced unambiguously in test documentation $or the tester, configuration management hel"s to uniquely identify +and to re"roduce' the tested item, test documents, the tests and the test harness. 4uring test "lanning, the configuration management "rocedures and infrastructure +tools' should be chosen, documented and im"lemented.

$) 6is. and testing


a) Pro<ect ris.s Iroject risks are the risks that surround the "roject/s ca"ability to deliver its objectives, such as0 Ergani3ational factors0 skill and staff shortages@ "ersonal and training issues@ "olitical issues, such as o "roblems with testers communicating their needs and test results@ o failure to follow u" on information found in testing and reviews +e.g. not im"roving develo"ment and testing "ractices'. im"ro"er attitude toward or ex"ectations of testing +e.g. not a""reciating the value of finding defects during testing'. Technical issues+ "roblems in defining the right requirements@ the extent that requirements can be met given existing constraints@ the quality of the design, code and tests.

49

0upplier issues+ failure of a third "arty@ contractual issues. b) Product ris.s Iotential failure areas +adverse future events or ha3ards' in the software or system are known as "roduct risks, as they are a risk to the quality of the "roduct, such as0 $ailure,"rone software delivered. !he "otential that the software8hardware could cause harm to an individual or com"any. Ioor software characteristics +e.g. functionality, reliability, usability and "erformance'. :oftware that does not "erform its intended functions. 1isks are used to decide where to start testing and where to test more@ testing is used to reduce the risk of an adverse effect occurring, or to reduce the im"act of an adverse effect. Iroduct risks are a s"ecial ty"e of risk to the success of a "roject. !esting as a risk,control activity "rovides feedback about the residual risk by measuring the effectiveness of critical defect removal and of contingency "lans. ) risk,based a""roach to testing "rovides "roactive o""ortunities to reduce the levels of "roduct risk, starting in the initial stages of a "roject. &t involves the identification of "roduct risks and their use in guiding test "lanning and control, s"ecification, "re"aration and execution of tests. &n a risk,based a""roach the risks identified may be used to0 4etermine the test techniques to be em"loyed. 4etermine the extent of testing to be carried out. Irioriti3e testing in an attem"t to find the critical defects as early as "ossible. 4etermine whether any non,testing activities could be em"loyed to reduce risk +e.g. "roviding training to inex"erienced designers'. 1isk,based testing draws on the collective knowledge and insight of the "roject stakeholders to determine the risks and the levels of testing required to address those risks. !o ensure that the chance of a "roduct failure is minimi3ed, risk management activities "rovide a disci"lined a""roach to0 )ssess +and reassess on a regular basis' what can go wrong +risks'. 4etermine what risks are im"ortant to deal with. &m"lement actions to deal with those risks. &n addition, testing may su""ort the identification of new risks, may hel" to determine what risks should be reduced, and may lower uncertainty about risks.

%) (ncident management
:ince one of the objectives of testing is to find defects, the discre"ancies between actual and ex"ected outcomes need to be logged as incidents. &ncidents should be tracked from discovery and classification to correction and confirmation of the solution. &n order to manage all 50

incidents to com"letion, an organi3ation should establish a "rocess and rules for classification. &ncidents may be raised during develo"ment, review, testing or use of a software "roduct. !hey may be raised for issues in code or the working system, or in any ty"e of documentation including requirements, develo"ment documents, test documents, and user information such as -9el". or installation guides. (ncident reports have the following ob<ectives+ Irovide develo"ers and other "arties with feedback about the "roblem to enable identification, isolation and correction as necessary. Irovide test leaders a means of tracking the quality of the system under test and the "rogress of the testing. Irovide ideas for test "rocess im"rovement. #etails of the incident report ma! include+ 4ate of issue, issuing organi3ation, and author. 2x"ected and actual results. &dentification of the test item +configuration item' and environment. :oftware or system life cycle "rocess in which the incident was observed. 4escri"tion of the incident to enable re"roduction and resolution, including logs, database dum"s or screenshots. :co"e or degree of im"act on stakeholder+s' interests. :everity of the im"act on the system. Hrgency8"riority to fix. :tatus of the incident +e.g. o"en, deferred, du"licate, waiting to be fixed, fixed awaiting retest, closed'. 5onclusions, recommendations and a""rovals. (lobal issues, such as other areas that may be affected by a change resulting from the incident. 5hange history, such as the sequence of actions taken by "roject team members with res"ect to the incident to isolate, re"air, and confirm it as fixed. 1eferences, including the identity of the test case s"ecification that revealed the "roblem. ;uestions 1' !he following list contains risks that have been identified for a software "roduct to be develo"ed. Which of these risks is an exam"le of a "roduct risk? a' Got enough qualified testers to com"lete the "lanned tests b' :oftware delivery is behind schedule 51

c' !hreat to a "atient/s life d' rd "arty su""lier does not su""ly as sti"ulated 2' Which set of metrics can be used for monitoring of the test execution? a' Gumber of detected defects, testing cost@ b' Gumber of residual defects in the test object. c' Iercentage of com"leted tasks in the "re"aration of test environment@ test cases "re"ared d' Gumber of test cases run 8 not run@ test cases "assed 8 failed ' ) defect management system shall kee" track of the status of every defect registered and enforce the rules about changing these states. &f your task is to test the status tracking, which method would be best? a' 7ogic,based testing b' Hse,case,based testing c' :tate transition testing d' :ystematic testing according to the 6,model #' Why can be tester de"endent on configuration management? a' <ecause configuration management assures that we know the exact version of the testware and the test object b' <ecause test execution is not allowed to "roceed without the consent of the change control board c' <ecause changes in the test object are always subject to configuration management d' <ecause configuration management assures the right configuration of the test tools %' What test items should be "ut under configuration management? a' !he test object, the test material and the test environment b' !he "roblem re"orts and the test material c' Enly the test objects. !he test cases need to be ada"ted during agile testing d' !he test object and the test material ?' Which of the following can be root cause of a bug in a software "roduct? +&' !he "roject had incom"lete "rocedures for configuration management. +&&' !he time schedule to develo" a certain com"onent was cut. +&&&' !he s"ecification was unclear +&6' Hse of the code standard was not followed u" +6' !he testers were not certified a' +&' and +&&' are correct b' +&' through +&6' are correct c' +&&&' through +6' are correct d' +&', +&&' and +&6' are correct 52

A' Which of the following is most often considered as com"onents interface bug? a' $or two com"onents exchanging data, one com"onent used metric units, the other one used <ritish units b' !he system is difficult to use due to a too com"licated terminal in"ut structure c' !he messages for user in"ut errors are misleading and not hel"ful for understanding the in"ut error cause d' Hnder high load, the system does not "rovide enough o"en "orts to connect to B' Which of the following "roject in"uts influence testing? +&' contractual requirements +&&' 7egal requirements +&&&' &ndustry standards +&6' )""lication risk +6' Iroject si3e a' +&' through +&&&' are correct b' )ll alternatives are correct c' +&&' and +6' are correct d' +&', +&&&' and +6' are correct C' What is the "ur"ose of test exit criteria in the test "lan? a' !o s"ecify when to sto" the testing activity b' !o set the criteria used in generating test in"uts c' !o ensure that the test case s"ecification is com"lete d' !o know when a s"ecific test has finished its execution 1*' Which of the following items need not to be given in an incident re"ort? a' !he version number of the test object b' !est data and used environment c' &dentification of the test case that failed d' !he location and instructions on how to correct the fault 11' Why is it necessary to define a !est :trategy? a' )s there are many different ways to test software, thought must be given to decide what will be the most effective way to test the "roject on hand. b' :tarting testing without "rior "lanning leads to chaotic and inefficient test "roject c' ) strategy is needed to inform the "roject management how the test team will schedule the test,cycles d' :oftware failure may cause loss of money, time, business re"utation, and in extreme cases injury and death. &t is therefore critical to have a "ro"er test strategy in "lace 12' &222 B2C test "lan documentation standard contains all of the following exce"t0 a' test items b' test deliverables 53

c' test tasks d' test environment e' test s"ecification 1 ' Which of the following is GE! "art of configuration management0 a' status accounting of configuration items b' auditing conformance to &:EC**1 c' identification of test versions d' record of changes to documentation over time 1#' What is the "ur"ose of test com"letion criteria in a test "lan0 a' to know when a s"ecific test has finished its execution b' to ensure that the test case s"ecification is com"lete c' to know when test "lanning is com"lete d' to "lan when to sto" testing 1%' !est managers should not0 a' re"ort on deviations from the "roject "lan b' sign the system off for release c' re,allocate resource to meet original "lans d' raise incidents on faults that they have found e' "rovide information for risk analysis and quality im"rovement 1?' What information need not be included in a test incident re"ort0 a' how to fix the fault b' how to re"roduce the fault c' test environment details d' the actual and ex"ected outcomes 1A' Which of the following is GE! included in the !est Ilan document of the !est 4ocumentation :tandard0 a' !est items +i.e. software versions' b' What is not to be tested c' !est environments d' ;uality "lans e' :chedules and deadlines 1B' Which of the following is GE! true of incidents? a' &ncident resolution is the res"onsibility of the author of the software under test. b' &ncidents may be raised against user requirements. c' &ncidents require investigation and8or correction. d' &ncidents are raised when ex"ected and actual results differ.

54

1C' Which of the following would GE! normally form "art of a test "lan? a' $eatures to be tested b' &ncident re"orts c' 1isks d' :chedule 2*' ) configuration management system would GE! normally "rovide0 a' linkage of customer requirements to version numbers. b' $acilities to com"are test results with ex"ected results. c' !he "recise differences in versions of software com"onent source code. d' 1estricted access to the source code library. 21' !estware +test cases, test dataset' a' needs configuration management just like requirements, design and code b' should be newly constructed for each new version of the software c' is needed only until the software is released into "roduction or use d' does not need to be documented and commented, as it does not form "art of the released software system 22' J4efect 4ensity/ calculated in terms of a' !he number of defects identified in a com"onent or system divided by the si3e of the com"onent or the system b' !he number of defects found by a test "hase divided by the number found by that test "hase and any other means after wards c' !he number of defects identified in the com"onent or system divided by the number of defects found by a test "hase d' !he number of defects found by a test "hase divided by the number found by the si3e of the system 2 ' )n ex"ert based test estimation is also known as a' Garrow band 4el"hi b' Wide band 4el"hi c' <es"oke 4el"hi d' 1obust 4el"hi 2#' 4uring the testing of a module tester JY/ finds a bug and assigned it to develo"er. <ut develo"er rejects the same, saying that it/s not a bug. What JY/ should do? a' 1e"ort the issue to the test manager and try to settle with the develo"er. b' 1etest the module and confirm the bug c' )ssign the same bug to another develo"er d' :end to the detailed information of the bug encountered and check the re"roducibility 55

2%' !he "rimary goal of com"aring a user manual with the actual behavior of the running "rogram during system testing is to a' $ind bugs in the "rogram b' 5heck the technical accuracy of the document c' 2nsure the ease of use of the document d' 2nsure that the "rogram is the latest version 2?' Rou are the test manager and you are about the start the system testing. !he develo"er team says that due to change in requirements they will be able to deliver the system to you for testing % working days after the due date. Rou can not change the resources +work hours, test tools, etc.' What ste"s you will take to be able to finish the testing in time. a' !ell to the develo"ment team to deliver the system in time so that testing activity will be finish in time. b' 2xtend the testing "lan, so that you can accommodate the sli" going to occur c' 1ank the functionality as "er risk and concentrate more on critical functionality testing d' )dd more resources so that the sli""age should be avoided 2A' &tem transmittal re"ort is also known as a' &ncident re"ort b' 1elease note c' 1eview re"ort d' )udit re"ort 2B' !he bug tracking system will need to ca"ture these "hases for each bug. &. Ihase injected &&. Ihase detected &&&. Ihase fixed &6. Ihase removed a' &, && and &&& b' &, && and &6 c' &&, &&& and &6 d' &, &&& and &6 2C' Which are not the "roject risks a' :u""lier issues b' Ergani3ation factors c' !echnical issues d' 2rror,"rone software delivered *' Ioor software characteristics are a' Enly Iroject risks b' Enly Iroduct risks 56

c' Iroject risks and Iroduct risks d' Iroject risks or Iroduct risks 1' <ug life cycle a' E"en, )ssigned, $ixed, 5losed b' E"en, $ixed, )ssigned, 5losed c' )ssigned, E"en, 5losed, $ixed d' )ssigned, E"en, $ixed, 5losed 2' Which is not the fundamental test "rocess a' Ilanning and control b' !est closure activities c' )nalysis and design d' Gone ' ) "roject that is in the im"lementation "hase is six weeks behind schedule. !he delivery date for the "roduct is four months away. !he "roject is not allowed to sli" the delivery date or com"romise on the quality standards established for this "roduct. Which of the following actions would bring this "roject back on schedule? a' 2liminate some of the requirements that have not yet been im"lemented. b' )dd more engineers to the "roject to make u" for lost work. c' )sk the current develo"ers to work overtime until the lost work is recovered. d' 9ire more software quality assurance "ersonnel. #' ) Iroject risk includes which of the following0 a' Ergani3ational $actors b' Ioor :oftware characteristics c' 2rror Irone software delivered. d' :oftware that does not "erform its intended functions %' &n a risk,based a""roach the risks identified may be used to 0 i. 4etermine the test technique to be em"loyed ii. 4etermine the extent of testing to be carried out iii. Irioriti3e testing in an attem"t to find critical defects as early as "ossible. iv. 4etermine the cost of the "roject a' ii is !rue@ i, iii, iv = v are $alse b' i,ii,iii are true and iv is false c' ii = iii are !rue@ i, iv are $alse d' ii, iii = iv are !rue@ i is false ?' Which of the following is the task of a !ester? i. &nteraction with the !est !ool 6endor to identify best ways to leverage test tool on the "roject. ii. Ire"are and acquire !est 4ata 57

iii. &m"lement !ests on all test levels, execute and log the tests. iv. 5reate the !est :"ecifications a' i, ii, iii is true and iv is false b' ii,iii,iv is true and i is false c' i is true and ii,iii,iv are false d' iii and iv is correct and i and ii are incorrect A' Which of the following is not a major task of 2xit criteria? a' 5hecking test logs against the exit criteria s"ecified in test "lanning. b' 7ogging the outcome of test execution. c' )ssessing if more tests are needed. d' Writing a test summary re"ort for stakeholders. B' 1e"orting 4iscre"ancies as incidents is a "art of which "hase 0, a' !est )nalysis and 4esign b' !est &m"lementation and execution c' !est 5losure )ctivities d' 2valuating exit criteria and re"orting C' Which of the following items would not come under 5onfiguration Danagement? a' E"erating systems b' !est documentation c' 7ive data d' Hser requirement document #*' Which of the following is a major task of test "lanning? a' 4etermining the test a""roach. b' Ire"aring test s"ecifications. c' 2valuating exit criteria and re"orting. d' Deasuring and analy3ing results. #1' What is the D)&G "ur"ose of a Daster !est Ilan? a' !o communicate how incidents will be managed. b' !o communicate how testing will be "erformed. c' !o "roduce a test schedule. d' !o "roduce a work breakdown structure. #2' &n a 12)5!&62 a""roach to testing when would you ex"ect the bulk of the test design work to be begun? a' )fter the software or system has been "roduced. b' 4uring develo"ment. c' )s early as "ossible. d' 4uring requirements analysis. 58

# ' What is the main "ur"ose of im"act analysis for testers? a' !o determine the "rogramming effort needed to make the changes. b' !o determine what "ro"ortion of the changes need to be tested. c' !o determine how much the "lanned changes will affect users. d' !o determine how the existing system may be affected by changes. ##' What is the difference between a "roject risk and a "roduct risk? a' Iroject risks are "otential failure areas in the software or system@ "roduct risks are risks that surround the "roject/s ca"ability to deliver its objectives. b' Iroject risks are the risks that surround the "roject/s ca"ability to deliver its objectives@ "roduct risks are "otential failure areas in the software or system. c' Iroject risks are ty"ically related to su""lier issues, organi3ational factors and technical issues@ "roduct risks are ty"ically related to skill and staff shortages. d' Iroject risks are risks that delivered software will not work@ "roduct risks are ty"ically related to su""lier issues, organi3ational factors and technical issues. #%' Which of the following is a benefit of inde"endent testing? a' 5ode cannot be released into "roduction until inde"endent testing is com"lete. b' !esting is isolated from develo"ment. c' 4evelo"ers do not have to take as much res"onsibility for quality. d' &nde"endent testers see other and different defects, and are unbiased. #?' Which is the DE:! im"ortant advantage of inde"endence in testing? a' )n inde"endent tester may find defects more quickly than the "erson who wrote the software. b' )n inde"endent tester may be more focused on showing how the software works than the "erson who wrote the software. c' )n inde"endent tester may be more effective and efficient because they are less familiar with the software than the "erson who wrote it. d' )n inde"endent tester may be more effective at finding defects missed by the "erson who wrote the software. #A' $or testing, which of the o"tions below best re"resents the main concerns of 5onfiguration Danagement? i. )ll items of testware are identified and version controlled@ ii. )ll items of testware are used in the final acce"tance test@ iii. )ll items of testware are stored in a common re"ository@ iv. )ll items of testware are tracked for change@ v. )ll items of testware are assigned to a res"onsible owner@ vi. )ll items of testware are related to each other and to develo"ment items. a' i, iv, vi. b' ii, iii, v. c' i, iii, iv. d' iv, v, vi. 59

#B' Which one is not the task of test leader? a. 5oordinate the test strategy and "lan with "roject managers and others b. 4ecide about the im"lementation of the test environment c. Write test summary re"orts d. 1eview and contribute to test "lans #C' 4efect !racking a' &s the communication channel between test team and develo"ment team b' &s the communication channel between testing team and the rest of the team c' &s the communication channel between the testing team and end users d' all of the above %*' What needs to be done when there is an insufficient time for testing? 1' 4o )d,hoc testing 2' 4o usability testing ' 4o sanity testing #' 4o a risk based analysis to "rioriti3e a' 1 and 2 b' = # c' )ll of the above d' Gone of the above %1' Which of the following is 72):! likely to be used during software maintenance? a' Iroject management "lan. b' 5ustomer su""ort hot line. c' :oftware "roblem re"orts. d' 5hange control board. %2' !est "lanning should begin a' )t the same time that requirement definitions begins b' When building starts c' When code build is com"lete d' )fter shi""ing the first version

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Chapter %+ T!pes of test tools


T!pes of test tools 1anagement of testing and tests 1equirement management tools &ncident management tools 5onfiguration management tools 0tatic testing 1eview tools :tatic analysis tools +4' Dodeling tools +4' Test specification !est design tools !est data "re"aration tools Test execution and logging !est execution tools !est harness8unit test framework tools +4' !est com"arators 5overage measurement tools +4' :ecurity tools Performance and monitoring 4ynamic analysis tools Ierformance87oad8:tress !esting tools Donitoring tools 0pecific application areas :"ecial tools for web,based a""lications :"ecial tools for s"ecific develo"ment flat forms :"ecial tools for embedded systems !ool su""ort using other tools

Test Tools and their purposes


6e3uirement management tools :tore requirements, check for consistency, allow requirements to be "rioriti3ed, trace changes, coverage of requirements etc.

61

(ncident management tools :tore and manage incident re"orts, facilitating "rioriti3ation, assessment of actions to "eo"le and attribution of status etc. Configuration management tools :tore information about versions and builds of software and testware@ enable traceability between testware and software work "roducts etc. 6eview tools :tore information, store and communicate review comments etc. 0tatic anal!sis tools -#) !he enforcement of coding standards, the analysis of structures and de"endencies, aiding in understanding the code etc. 1odeling tools -#) 6alidate models of the software, find defects in data model, state model or an object model etc. Test design tools (enerate test in"uts or executable tests, generate ex"ected out comes etc. Test data preparation tools Ire"aring test data, Dani"ulate databases, files or data transmissions to set u" test data etc. Test execution tools 1ecord tests, )utomated test execution, use in"uts and ex"ected outcomes, com"are results with ex"ected outcomes, re"eat tests, dynamic com"arison, mani"ulate the tests using scri"ting language etc. Test harness4unit test framewor. tools -#) !est com"onents or "art of a system by simulating the environment, "rovide an execution framework in middleware etc. Test comparators 4etermine differences between files, databases or test results "ost,execution com"arison, may use test oracle if it is automated etc. 62

Coverage measurement tools -#) Deasure the "ercentage of s"ecific ty"es of code structure +ex0 statements, branches or decisions, and module or function calls' 0ecurit! tools 5heck for com"uter viruses and denial of service attacks, search for s"ecific vulnerabilities of the system etc . #!namic anal!sis tools -#) 4etect memory leaks, identify time de"endencies and identify "ointer arithmetic errors. Performance4?oad40tress Testing tools Deasure load or stress, Donitor and re"ort on how a system behaves a variety of simulated usage conditions, simulate a load on an a""lication8a database8or a system environment, re"etitive execution of tests etc. 1onitoring tools 5ontinuously analy3e, verify and re"ort on s"ecific system resources@ store information about the version and build of the software and testware, and enable traceability. Tool support using other tools :ome tools use other tools +2x0 ;!I uses excel sheet and :;7 tools'

Potential benefits and ris.s of tool support for testing


5enefits+ o 1e"etitive work is reduced o (reater consistency and re"eatability o Ebjective assessment o 2ase of access to information about tests or testing 6is.s+ o Hnrealistic ex"ectations for the tool o Hnderestimating the time and effort needed to achieve significant and continues benefits from the tool o Hnderestimating the effort required to maintain the test assets generated by the tool o Ever,reliance on the tool 63

0pecial considerations for some t!pes of tools $ollowing tools have s"ecial considerations !est execution tools Ierformance testing tools :tatic testing tools !est management tools

(ntroducing a tool into an organi9ation


The following factors are important in selecting a tool+ o )ssessment of the organi3ation maturity o &dentification of the areas within the organi3ation where tool su""ort will hel" to im"rove testing "rocess o 2valuation of tools against clear requirements and objective criteria o Iroof,of,conce"t to see whether the "roduct works as desired and meets the requirements and objectives defined for it o 2valuation of the vendor +training, su""ort and other commercial as"ects' or o"en,source network of su""ort o &dentifying and "lanning internal im"lementation +including coaching and mentoring for those new to the use of the tool' The ob<ectives for a pilot pro<ect for a new tool o !o learn more about the tool o !o see how the tool would fit with existing "rocesses or documentation o !o decide on standard ways of using the tool that will work for all "otential users o !o evaluate the "ilot "roject agonist its objectives 0uccesses factors for the deplo!ment of the new tool within an organi9ation o 1olling out the tool to the rest of the organi3ation incrementally o )da"ting and im"roving "rocess to fit with the use of the tool o Iroviding training and coaching8mentoring for new users. o 4efining usage guidelines o &m"lementing a way to learn lessons from tool use. o Donitoring tool use and benefits.

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*uestions+
1' !he "lace to start if you want a +new' test tool is0 a' )ttend a tool exhibition b' &nvite a vendor to give a demo c' )nalyse your needs and requirements d' $ind out what your budget would be for the tool 2' (iven the following ty"es of tool, which tools would ty"ically be used by develo"ers and which by an inde"endent test team0 i. static analysis ii. Ierformance testing iii. !est management iv. 4ynamic analysis v. test running vi. test data "re"aration a' develo"ers would ty"ically use i, iv and vi@ test team ii, iii and v b' develo"ers would ty"ically use i and iv@ test team ii, iii, v and vi c' develo"ers would ty"ically use i, ii, iii and iv@ test team v and vi d' develo"ers would ty"ically use ii, iv and vi@ test team &, ii and v e' develo"ers would ty"ically use i, iii, iv and v@ test team ii and vi ' ) ty"ical commercial test execution tool would be able to "erform all of the following 2Y52I!0 a' generating ex"ected out"uts b' re"laying in"uts according to a "rogrammed scri"t c' com"arison of ex"ected outcomes with actual outcomes d' recording test in"uts e' reading test values from a data file #' Which of the following tools would you use to detect a memory leak? a. :tate analysis b. 5overage analysis c. 4ynamic analysis d. Demory analysis %' !he software engineerSs role in tool selection is 65

a' !o identify, evaluate, and rank tools, and recommend tools to management b' !o determine what kind of tool is needed, then find it and buy it c' !o initiate the tool search and "resent a case to management d' !o identify, evaluate and select the tools ?' Which tool store information about versions and builds of software and testware? a. !est Danagement tool b. 1equirements management tool c. 5onfiguration management tool d. :tatic analysis tool A' :tatic analysis tools are ty"ically used by a. !esters b. 4evelo"ers c. <usiness analysts d. 5ustomers B' What ty"e of tools to be used for 1egression testing? a. configuration management b. 1ecord8Ilayback c. test management d. incident management tool C' Which of the following is an objective of a "ilot "roject for the introduction of a testing tool? a' 2valuate testers/ com"etence to use the tool. b' 5om"lete the testing of a key "roject. c' )ssess whether the benefits will be achieved at reasonable cost. d' 4iscover what the requirements for the tool are. 1*' Which of the following tools is most likely to contain a com"arator? a' 4ynamic )nalysis tool. b' !est 2xecution tool. c' :tatic )nalysis tool. d' :ecurity tool. 66

11'. When a new testing tool is "urchased, it should be used first by0 a. ) small team to establish the best way to use the tool b. 2veryone who may eventually have some use for the tool c. !he inde"endent testing team d. !he vendor contractor to write the initial scri"ts 12' Which one of the following statements, about ca"ture,re"lay tools, is GE! correct? a' !hey are used to su""ort multi,user testing. b' !hey are used to ca"ture and animate user requirements. c' !hey are the most frequently "urchased ty"es of 5):! tool. d' !hey ca"ture as"ects of user behavior. 1 ' Which tools hel" to su""ort static testing? a' :tatic analysis tools and test execution tools b' 1eview "rocess su""ort tools, static analysis tools and coverage measurement tools c' 4ynamic analysis tools and modeling tools d' 1eview "rocess su""ort tools, static analysis tools and modeling tools 1#' Which test activities are su""orted by test harness or unit test framework tools? a' !est management and control b' !est s"ecification and design c' !est execution and logging d' Ierformance and monitoring 1%' Which of the following are advanced scri"ting techniques for test execution tools? a' 4ata,driven and keyword,driven b' 4ata,driven and ca"ture,driven c' 5a"ture driven and keyhole,driven d' "layback,driven and keyword,driven 1?' What is a "otential risk in using tools to su""ort testing? a' Hnrealistic ex"ectations, ex"ecting the tool to do too much b' &nsufficient reliance on the tool, i.e. still doing manual testing when a test execution tool has been "urchased 67

c' !he tool may find defects that aren/t there. d' !he till will re"eat exactly the same thing it did the "revious thing 1A' Which test activities are su""orted by test data "re"aration tools? a' !est management and control b' !est s"ecification and design c' !est execution and logging d' Ierformance and monitoring 1B' Which of the following are benefits and which are risks of using tools to su""ort testing? 1 over reliance on the tools 2 greater consistency and re"eatability objective assessment # unrealistic ex"ectations % underestimating the effort require maintaining the test assets generated by the tool ? ease of access to information about tests or testing A re"etitive work is reduced a' <enefits0 , #, ? and A. 1isks0 1, 2 and % b' <enefits0 1, 2, and A. 1isks0 #, % and ? c' <enefits0 2, , ? and A. 1isks0 1, # and % d' <enefits0 2, , % and ?. 1isks0 1, # and A 1C' Which of the following is a goal for a "roof,of,conce"t or "ilot "hase for tool evaluation? a' 4ecide tool to acquire b' 4ecide on the main objectives and requirements for this ty"e of tool c' 2valuate the tool vendor including training, su""ort and commercial as"ects d' 4ecide on standard ways of using, managing, storing and maintaining the tool and the test assets 2*' Which success factors are required for good tool su""ort within an organi3ation? a' )cquiring the best tool and ensuring that all testers use it b' )do"ting "rocess to fit with the use of the tool and monitoring tool use and benefits c' :etting ambitious objectives for tool benefits and aggressive deadlines for achieving them. d' )do"ting "ractices from other successful organi3ations and ensuring that initial ways of using the tool are maintained. 68

21' Which of the following factor is Got im"ortant in selecting a tool? a' 5ost of the tool b' evaluation of tools against clear requirements and objective criteria c' )ssessment of the organi3ation/s maturity d' &dentifying and "lanning internal im"lementation 22' Which of the following are not strictly testing tools? a' !est execution tools b' 5onfiguration management tools c' Hnit test framework tools d' &ncident management tools 2 ' 5overage measurement tools are useful to a' 1ecord tests and )utomated test execution b' !est com"onents or "art of a system by simulating the environment c' Deasure the "ercentage of s"ecific ty"es of code structure d' 5heck for com"uter viruses and denial of service attacks 2#' 4etermining differences between files, databases or test results are objectives of a' :ecurity tools b' !est data "re"aration tools c' !est com"arators d' Donitoring tools 2%' Which of the following ty"es of tools haven/t s"ecial considerations? a' :tatic analysis tools b' Ierformance testing tools c' !est management tools d' !est design tools

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Examples+ 0ummar! 0et 1

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1 8hen what is visible to end-users is a deviation from the specific or expected behavior; this is called+ a' an error b' a fault c) a failure d' a defect e' a mistake 2 6egression testing should be performed+ v' every week w' after the software has changed x' as often as "ossible y' when the environment has changed 3' when the "roject manager says a' v = w are true, x > 3 are false b' w, x = y are true, v = 3 are false c) w = y are true, v, x = 3 are false d' w is true, v, x y and 3 are false e' all of the above are true (EEE @2A test plan documentation standard contains all of the following except+ a' test items b' test deliverables c' test tasks d' test environment e) test s"ecification " Testing should be stopped when+ a' all the "lanned tests have been run b' time has run out c' all faults have been fixed correctly d' both a' and c' e) it de"ends on the risks for the system being tested $ =rder numbers on a stoc. control s!stem can range between 1,,,, and AAAAA inclusive/ 8hich of the following inputs might be a result of designing tests for onl! valid e3uivalence classes and valid boundaries+ a' 1***, %***, CCCCC b' CCCC, %****, 1***** c) 1****, %****, CCCCC d' 1****, CCCCC e' CCCC, 1****, %****, CCCCC, 1**** % Consider the following statements about earl! test design+ i. early test design can "revent fault multi"lication ii. faults found during early test design are more ex"ensive to fix iii. early test design can find faults 71

iv. early test design can cause changes to the requirements v. early test design takes more effort a) i, iii = iv are true. &i = v are false b' iii is true, &, ii, iv = v are false c' iii = iv are true. i, ii = v are false d' i, iii, iv = v are true, ii us false e' i = iii are true, ii, iv = v are false & >on-functional s!stem testing includes+ a' testing to see where the system does not function "ro"erly b) testing quality attributes of the system including "erformance and usability c' testing a system feature using only the software required for that action d' testing a system feature using only the software required for that function e' testing for functions that should not exist @ 8hich of the following is >=T part of configuration management+ a' status accounting of configuration items b) auditing conformance to &:EC**1 c' identification of test versions d' record of changes to documentation over time e' controlled library access A 8hich of the following is the main purpose of the integration strateg! for integration testing in the smallB a' to ensure that all of the small modules are tested adequately b' to ensure that the system interfaces to other systems and networks c) to s"ecify which modules to combine when and how many at once d' to ensure that the integration testing can be "erformed by a small team e' to s"ecify how the software should be divided into modules 1, 8hat is the purpose of test completion criteria in a test plan+ a' to know when a s"ecific test has finished its execution b' to ensure that the test case s"ecification is com"lete c' to set the criteria used in generating test in"uts d' to know when test "lanning is com"lete e) to "lan when to sto" testing 11 Consider the following statements i. an incident may be closed without being fixed ii. incidents may not be raised against documentation iii. the final stage of incident tracking is fixing iv. the incident record does not include information on test environments v. incidents should be raised when someone other than the author of the software "erforms the test a' ii and v are true, &, iii and iv are false b) i and v are true, ii, iii and iv are false c' i, iv and v are true, ii and iii are false 72

d' i and ii are true, iii, iv and v are false e' i is true, ii, iii, iv and v are false

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12 Civen the following code; which is true about the minimum number of test cases re3uired for full statement and branch coverage+ 1ead I 1ead ; &$ IO; Q 1** !92G Irint -7arge. 2G4&$ &f I Q %* !92G Irint -I 7arge. 2G4&$ a' 1 test for statement coverage, for branch coverage b) 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage c' 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage d' 2 tests for statement coverage, for branch coverage e' 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage 1 Civen the following+ :witch I5 on :tart -outlook. &$ outlook a""ears !92G :end an email 5lose outlook a' 1 test for statement coverage, 1 for branch coverage b) 1 test for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage c' 1 test for statement coverage. for branch coverage d' 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage e' 2 tests for statement coverage, for branch coverage 1" Civen the following code; which is true+ &$ ) Q < !92G 5P)>< 27:2 5P)O< 2G4&$ 1ead 4 &$ 5 P 4 !hen Irint -2rror. 2G4&$ a' 1 test for statement coverage, for branch coverage b) 2 tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage c' 2 tests for statement coverage. for branch coverage d' tests for statement coverage, for branch coverage e' tests for statement coverage, 2 for branch coverage 1$ Consider the following+ Iick u" and read the news"a"er 74

7ook at what is on television &f there is a "rogram that you are interested in watching then switch the the television on and watch the "rogram Etherwise 5ontinue reading the news"a"er &f there is a crossword in the news"a"er then try and com"lete the crossword a' :5 P 1 and 45 P 1 b' :5 P 1 and 45 P 2 c' :5 P 1 and 45 P d' :5 P 2 and 45 P 2 e) :5 P 2 and 45 P 1% The place to start if !ou want a -new) test tool is+ a' )ttend a tool exhibition b' &nvite a vendor to give a demo c) )naly3e your needs and requirements d' $ind out what your budget would be for the tool e' :earch the internet 1& 8hen a new testing tool is purchased; it should be used first b!+ a' ) small team to establish the best way to use the tool b) 2veryone who may eventually have some use for the tool c' !he inde"endent testing team d' !he managers to see what "rojects it should be used in e' !he vendor contractor to write the initial scri"ts 1@ 8hat can static anal!sis >=T findB a' !he use of a variable before it has been defined b' Hnreachable +-dead.' code c) Whether the value stored in a variable is correct d' !he re,definition of a variable before it has been used e' )rray bound violations 1A 8hich of the following is >=T a blac. box techni3ue+ a' 2quivalence "artitioning b' :tate transition testing c) 75:)N d' :yntax testing e' <oundary value analysis 2, 5eta testing is+ a) Ierformed by customers at their own site b' Ierformed by customers at their software develo"er/s site c' Ierformed by an inde"endent test team d' Hseful to test bes"oke software e' Ierformed as early as "ossible in the lifecycle 21 Civen the following t!pes of tool; which tools would t!picall! be used b! 75

developers and which b! an independent test team+ i. static analysis ii. "erformance testing iii. test management iv. dynamic analysis v. test running vi. test data "re"aration a' develo"ers would ty"ically use i, iv and vi@ test team ii, iii and v b) develo"ers would ty"ically use i and iv@ test team ii, iii, v and vi c' develo"ers would ty"ically use i, ii, iii and iv@ test team v and vi d' develo"ers would ty"ically use ii, iv and vi@ test team &, ii and v e' develo"ers would ty"ically use i, iii, iv and v@ test team ii and vi 22 The main focus of acceptance testing is+ a' finding faults in the system b' ensuring that the system is acce"table to all users c' testing the system with other systems d) testing for a business "ers"ective e' testing by an inde"endent test team 2 8hich of the following statements about the component testing standard is false+ a) black box design techniques all have an associated measurement technique b' white box design techniques all have an associated measurement technique c' cyclomatic com"lexity is not a test measurement technique d' black box measurement techniques all have an associated test design technique e' white box measurement techniques all have an associated test design technique 2" 8hich of the following statements is >=T true+ a' ins"ection is the most formal review "rocess b' ins"ections should be led by a trained leader c' managers can "erform ins"ections on management documents d) ins"ection is a""ro"riate even when there are no written documents e' ins"ection com"ares documents with "redecessor +source' documents 2$ ' t!pical commercial test execution tool would be able to perform all of the following EDCEPT+ a) generating ex"ected out"uts b' re"laying in"uts according to a "rogrammed scri"t c' com"arison of ex"ected outcomes with actual outcomes d' recording test in"uts e' reading test values from a data file 2% The difference between re-testing and regression testing is a) re,testing is running a test again@ regression testing looks for unex"ected side effects b' re,testing looks for unex"ected side effects@ regression testing is re"eating those tests c' re,testing is done after faults are fixed@ regression testing is done earlier d' re,testing uses different environments, regression testing uses the same environment 76

e' re,testing is done by develo"ers, regression testing is done by inde"endent testers 2& Expected results are+ a' only im"ortant in system testing b' only used in com"onent testing c' never s"ecified in advance d) most useful when s"ecified in advance e' derived from the code 2@ Test managers should not+ a' re"ort on deviations from the "roject "lan b' sign the system off for release c) re,allocate resource to meet original "lans d' raise incidents on faults that they have found e' "rovide information for risk analysis and quality im"rovement 2A 7nreachable code would best be found using+ a) code reviews b' code ins"ections c' a coverage tool d' a test management tool e' a static analysis tool , ' tool that supports traceabilit!; recording of incidents or scheduling of tests is called+ a' a dynamic analysis tool b' a test execution tool c' a debugging tool d' a test management tool e) a configuration management tool 1 8hat information need not be included in a test incident report+ a' how to fix the fault b' how to re"roduce the fault c' test environment details d' severity, "riority e) the actual and ex"ected outcomes 2 8hich expression best matches the following characteristics or review processes+ 1. led by author 2. Hndocumented . Go management "artici"ation #. 7ed by ) trained moderator or leader %. uses entry exit criteria s' ins"ection t' "eer review u' informal review 77

v' walkthrough a' s P #, t P , u P 2 and %, v P 1 b) s P # and %, t P , u P 2, v P 1 c' s P 1 and %, t P , u P 2, v P # d' s P %, t P #, u P , v P 1 and 2 e' s P # and %, t P 1, u P 2, v P 8hich of the following is >=T part of s!stem testing+ a' business "rocess,based testing b' "erformance, load and stress testing c' requirements,based testing d' usability testing e) to",down integration testing " 8hat statement about expected outcomes is F'?0E 0 a) ex"ected outcomes are defined by the software/s behavior b' ex"ected outcomes are derived from a s"ecification, not from the code c' ex"ected outcomes include out"uts to a screen and changes to files and databases d' ex"ected outcomes should be "redicted before a test is run e' ex"ected outcomes may include timing constraints such as res"onse times $ The standard that gives definitions of testing terms is+ a' &:E8&25 122*A b) <:AC2%,1 c' <:AC2%,2 d' )G:&8&222 B2C e' )G:&8&222 A2C % The cost of fixing a fault+ a' &s not im"ortant b) &ncreases as we move the "roduct towards live use c' 4ecreases as we move the "roduct towards live use d' &s more ex"ensive if found in requirements than functional design e' 5an never be determined & 8hich of the following is >=T included in the Test Plan document of the Test #ocumentation 0tandard+ a' !est items +i.e. software versions' b' What is not to be tested c' !est environments d) ;uality "lans e' :chedules and deadlines @ Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing+ a' Go, because they a""ly to develo"ment documentation b' Go, because they are normally a""lied before testing c' Go, because they do not a""ly to the test documentation d) Res, because both hel" detect faults and im"rove quality 78

e' Res, because testing includes all non,constructive activities A 8hich of the following is not part of performance testing+ a' Deasuring res"onse time b' Deasuring transaction rates c) 1ecovery testing d' :imulating many users e' (enerating many transactions ", Error guessing is best used a' )s the first a""roach to deriving test cases b) )fter more formal techniques have been a""lied c' <y inex"erienced testers d' )fter the system has gone live e' Enly by end users 0et 2 1/ 8hich of the following is trueB a. !esting is the same as quality assurance b/ !esting is a "art of quality assurance c. !esting is not a "art of quality assurance d. !esting is same as debugging 2/ 8h! is testing necessar!B a. <ecause testing is good method to make there are not defects in the software b. <ecause verification and validation are not enough to get to know the quality of the software c/ <ecause testing measures the quality of the software system and hel"s to increase the quality d. <ecause testing finds more defects than reviews and ins"ections. / (ntegration testing has following characteristics &. &t can be done in incremental manner &&. &t is always done after system testing &&&. &t includes functional tests &6. &t includes non,functional tests a. &, && and &&& are correct b. & is correct 79

c/ &, &&& and &6 are correct d. &, && and &6 are correct "/ ' number of critical bugs are fixed in software/ 'll the bugs are in one module; related to reports/ The test manager decides to do regression testing onl! on the reports module. a. !he test manager should do only automated regression testing. b. !he test manager is justified in her decision because no bug has been fixed in other modules c. !he test manager should only do confirmation testing. !here is no need to do regression testing d/ 1egression testing should be done on other modules as well because fixing one module may affect other modules $/ 8hich of the following is correct about static anal!sis toolsB a. :tatic analysis tools are used only by develo"ers b/ 5om"ilers may offer some su""ort for static analysis c. :tatic analysis tools hel" find failures rather than defects d. :tatic analysis tools require execution of the code to analy3e the coverage %/ (n a flight reservation s!stem; the number of available seats in each plane model is an input/ ' plane ma! have an! positive number of available seats; up to the given capacit! of the plane/ 7sing 5oundar! 2alue anal!sis; a list of available seat values were generated/ 8hich of the following lists is correctB a. 1, 2, ca"acity ,1, ca"acity, ca"acity "lus 1 b/ *, 1, ca"acity, ca"acity "lus 1 c. *, 1, 2, ca"acity "lus 1, a very large number d. *, 1, 1*, 1**, ca"acity, ca"acity "lus one &/ 8hich of the following is correct about static anal!sis tools a/ !hey hel" you find defects rather than failures b. !hey are used by develo"ers only c. !hey require com"ilation of code d. !hey are useful only for regulated industries @/ (n foundation level s!llabus !ou will find the main basic principles of testing/ 8hich of the following sentences describes one of these basic principlesB 80

a. 5om"lete testing of software is attainable if you have enough resources and test tools b. With automated testing you can make statements with more confidence about the ;uality of a "roduct than with manual testing c/ $or a software system, it is not "ossible, under normal conditions, to test all in"ut and "reconditions. d. ) goal of testing is to show that the software is defect free. A/ 8hich of the following statements contains a valid goal for a functional test setB a. ) goal is that no more failures will result from the remaining defects b/ ) goal is to find as many failures as "ossible so that the cause of the failures can be identified and fixed c. ) goal is to eliminate as much as "ossible the causes of defects d. ) goal is to fulfill all requirements for testing that are defined in the "roject "lan. 1,/ (n s!stem testing/// a/ .. <oth functional and non,functional requirements are to be tested b. ... Enly functional requirements are tested@ non,functional requirements are validated in a review c. ... Enly non,functional requirements are tested@ functional requirements are validated in a review d. ... Enly requirements which are listed in the s"ecification document are to be tested 11/ 8hich of the following activities differentiate a wal.through from a formal reviewB a. ) walkthrough does not follow a defined "rocess b/ $or a walkthrough individual "re"aration by the reviewers is o"tional c. ) walkthrough requires meeting d. ) walkthrough finds the causes of failures, while formal review finds the failures 12/ 8h! does the boundar! value anal!sis provide good test casesB a. <ecause it is an industry standard b/ <ecause errors are frequently made during "rogramming of the different cases near the Jedges/ of the range of values c. <ecause only equivalence classes that are equal from a functional "oint of view are considered in the test cases d. <ecause the test object is tested under maximal load u" to its "erformance limits 81

1 / 8hich of the following list contains onl! non-functional testsB a/ &ntero"erability +com"atibility' testing, reliability testing, "erformance testing b. :ystem testing, "erformance testing c. 7oad testing, stress testing, com"onent testing, "ortability testing d. !esting various configurations, beta testing, load testing 1"/ The following list contains ris.s that have been identified for a software product to be developed/ 8hich of these ris.s is an example of a product ris.B a. Got enough qualified testers to com"lete the "lanned tests b. :oftware delivery is behind schedule c/ !hreat to a "atient/s life d. rd "arty su""lier does not su""ly as sti"ulated 1$/ 8hich set of metrics can be used for monitoring of the test executionB a. Gumber of detected defects, testing cost@ b. Gumber of residual defects in the test object. c. Iercentage of com"leted tasks in the "re"aration of test environment@ test cases "re"ared d/ Gumber of test cases run 8 not run@ test cases "assed 8 failed 1%/ 8hich of the following statements is correctB a. :tatic analysis tools "roduce statistics during "rogram execution b. 5onfiguration management systems allow us to "rovide accurate defect statistics of different configurations c/ :tress testing tools examine the behaviour of the test object at or beyond full load d. Ierformance measurement tools can be used in all "hases of software life,cycle 1&/ 8hat ma.es an inspection different from other review t!pesB a/ &t is led by a trained leader, uses formal entry and exit criteria and checklists b. &t is led by the author of the document to be ins"ected c. &t can only be used for reviewing design and code d. &t is led by the author, uses checklists, and collects data for im"rovement 1@/ 8hich of the following is a valid collection of e3uivalence classes for the 82

following problem+ 'n integer field shall contain values from and including 1 to and including 1$ a/ 7ess than 1, 1 through 1%, more than 1% b. Gegative numbers, 1 through 1%, above 1% c. 7ess than 1, 1 through 1#, more than 1% d. 7ess than *, 1 through 1#, 1% and more 1A/ 8hich of the following is a valid collection of e3uivalence classes for the following problem+ Pa!ing with credit cards shall be possible with 2isa; 1aster and 'mex cards onl!/ a. 6isa, Daster, )mex@ b. 6isa, Daster, )mex, 4iners, Feycards, and other o"tion c. 6isa, Daster, )mex, any other card, no card d. Go card, other cards, any of 6isa > Daster > )mex 2,/ 8hich of the following techni3ues are blac. box techni3uesB a. :tate transition testing, code testing, agile testing b/ 2quivalence "artitioning, state transition testing, decision table testing c. :ystem testing, acce"tance testing, equivalence "artitioning d. :ystem integration testing, system testing, decision table testing 21/ ' defect management s!stem shall .eep trac. of the status of ever! defect registered and enforce the rules about changing these states/ (f !our tas. is to test the status trac.ing; which method would be bestB a. 7ogic,based testing b. Hse,case,based testing c/ :tate transition testing d. :ystematic testing according to the 6,model 22/ This part of a program is given+8E(?E -condition ') #o 5 E># 8E(?E Eow man! decisions should be tested in this code in order to achieve 1,,F decision coverageB a/ 2 b. &ndefinite 83

c. 1 d. # 2 / 8h! can be tester dependent on configuration managementB a/ <ecause configuration management assures that we know the exact version of the !est,ware and the test object b. <ecause test execution is not allowed to "roceed without the consent of the change control board c. <ecause changes in the test object are always subject to configuration management d. <ecause configuration management assures the right configuration of the test tools 2"/ 8hat test items should be put under configuration managementB a/ !he test object, the test material and the test environment b. !he "roblem re"orts and the test material c. Enly the test objects. !he test cases need to be ada"ted during agile testing d. !he test object and the test material 2$/ 8hich of the following can be root cause of a bug in a software productB -() The pro<ect had incomplete procedures for configuration management/ -(() The time schedule to develop a certain component was cut/ -((() the specification was unclear -(2) 7se of the code standard was not followed up -2) The testers were not certified a. +&' and +&&' are correct b/ +&' through +&6' are correct c. +&&&' through +6' are correct d. +&', +&&' and +&6' are correct 2%/ 8hich of the following is most often considered as components interface bugB a/ $or two com"onents exchanging data, one com"onent used metric units@ the other one used <ritish units b. !he system is difficult to use due to a too com"licated terminal in"ut structure c. !he messages for user in"ut errors are misleading and not hel"ful for understanding the in"ut error cause 84

d. Hnder high load, the system does not "rovide enough o"en "orts to connect to 2&/ 8hich of the following pro<ect inputs influence testingB -() contractual re3uirements -(() ?egal re3uirements -((() (ndustr! standards -(2) 'pplication ris. -2) Pro<ect si9e a. +&' through +&&&' are correct b/ )ll alternatives are correct c. +&&' and +6' are correct d. +&', +&&&' and +6' are correct 2@/ 8hat is the purpose of test exit criteria in the test planB a/ !o s"ecify when to sto" the testing activity b. !o set the criteria used in generating test in"uts c. !o ensure that the test case s"ecification is com"lete d. !o know when a s"ecific test has finished its execution 2A/ 8hich of the following items need not to be given in an incident reportB a. !he version number of the test object b. !est data and used environment c. &dentification of the test case that failed d/ !he instructions on how to correct the fault ,/ 2-1odel is+ a/ ) software develo"ment model that illustrates how testing activities integrate with :oftware develo"ment "hases b. ) software life,cycle model that is not relevant for testing c. !he official software develo"ment and testing life,cycle model of &:!;< d. ) testing life cycle model including unit, integration, system and acce"tance "hases 1/ 8h! is incremental integration preferred over Gbig bangH integrationB a/ <ecause incremental integration has better early defects screening and isolation ability 85

b. <ecause -big bang. integration is suitable only for real time a""lications c. &ncremental integration is "referred over -<ig <ang &ntegration. only for -bottom u". develo"ment model d. <ecause incremental integration can com"ensate for weak and inadequate com"onent testing 2/ 1aintenance testing is+ a. !esting management b. :ynonym of testing the quality of service c/ !riggered by modifications, migration or retirement of existing software d. !esting the level of maintenance by the vendor / 8h! is it necessar! to define a Test 0trateg!B a/ )s there are many different ways to test software, thought must be given to decide what will be the most effective way to test the "roject on hand. b. :tarting testing without "rior "lanning leads to chaotic and inefficient test "roject c. ) strategy is needed to inform the "roject management how the test team will schedule the test,cycles d. :oftware failure may cause loss of money, time, business re"utation, and in extreme cases injury and death. &t is therefore critical to have a "ro"er test strategy in "lace. 0et 1/ 'n input field ta.es the !ear of birth between 1A,, and 2,," The boundar! values for testing this field are a. *,1C**,2**#,2**% b. 1C**, 2**# c/ 1BCC,1C**,2**#,2**% d. 1BCC, 1C**, 1C*1,2** ,2**#,2**% 2/ 8hich one of the following are non-functional testing methodsB a. :ystem testing b. Hsability testing c. Ierformance testing d/ b = c both / 8hich of the following tools would be involved in the automation of regression testB a. 4ata tester b. <oundary tester c/ 5a"ture8Ilayback 86

d. Eut"ut com"arator. "/ (ncorrect form of ?ogic coverage is+ a. :tatement 5overage b/ Iole 5overage c. 5ondition 5overage d. Iath 5overage $/ 8hich of the following is not a 3ualit! characteristic listed in (0= A12% 0tandardB a. $unctionality b. Hsability c/ :u""ortability d. Daintainability %/ To test a function; the programmer has to write a IIIIIIIII; which calls the function to be tested and passes it test data/ a. :tub b/ 4river c. Iroxy d. Gone of the above &/ 5oundar! value testing a. &s the same as equivalence "artitioning tests? b/ !est boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of in"ut and out"ut equivalence classes c. !ests combinations of in"ut circumstances d. &s used in white box testing strategy @/ Pic. the best definition of 3ualit! a. ;uality is job one b. Lero defects c/ 5onformance to requirements d. Work as designed

A/ Fault 1as.ing is a/ 2rror condition hiding another error condition b. creating a test case which does not reveal a fault c. masking a fault by develo"er d. masking a fault by a tester

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1,/ =ne Je! reason wh! developers have difficult! testing their own wor. is+ a. 7ack of technical documentation b. 7ack of test tools on the market for develo"ers/ c. 7ack of training d/ 7ack of Ebjectivity 11/ #uring the software development process; at what point can the test process startB a. When the code is com"lete. b. When the design is com"lete. c/ When the software requirements have been a""roved. d. When the first code module is ready for unit testing 12/ (n a review meeting a moderator is a person who a. !akes minutes of the meeting b/ Dediates between "eo"le c. !akes tele"hone calls d. Writes the documents to be reviewed 1 / 'cceptance test cases are based on whatB a/ 1equirement b. 4esign c. 5ode d. 4ecision table 1"/ GEow much testing is enoughBH a. !his question is im"ossible to answer b. !his question is easy to answer c/ !he answer de"ends on the risk for your industry, contract and s"ecial requirements d. !his answer de"ends on the maturity of your develo"ers 1$/ ' common test techni3ue during component test is a/ :tatement and branch testing b. Hsability testing c. :ecurity testing d. Ierformance testing 1%/ (ndependent 2erification : 2alidation is a. done by the 4evelo"er b. done by the !est 2ngineers c. 4one <y Danagement d/ done by an 2ntity outside the Iroject/s s"here of influence 1&/ Code Coverage is used as a measure of whatB a. 4efects b. !rends analysis c/ !est 2ffectiveness d. !ime :"ent !esting 88

0et " 1 8e split testing into distinct stages primaril! because+ a) 2ach test stage has a different "ur"ose. b' &t is easier to manage testing in stages. c' We can run different tests in different environments. d' !he more stages we have, the better the testing. 2 8hich of the following is li.el! to benefit most from the use of test tools providing test capture and repla! facilitiesB a) 1egression testing b' &ntegration testing c' :ystem testing d' Hser acce"tance testing 8hich of the following statements is >=T correctB a' ) minimal test set that achieves 1**T 75:)N coverage will also achieve 1**T branch coverage. b' ) minimal test set that achieves 1**T "ath coverage will also achieve 1**T statement coverage. c' ) minimal test set that achieves 1**T "ath coverage will generally detect more faults than one that achieves 1**T statement coverage. d) ) minimal test set that achieves 1**T statement coverage will generally detect more faults than one that achieves 1**T branch coverage. " 8hich of the following re3uirements is testableB a' !he system shall be user friendly. b' !he safety,critical "arts of the system shall contain * faults. c) !he res"onse time shall be less than one second for the s"ecified design load. d' !he system shall be built to be "ortable. $ 'nal!9e the following highl! simplified procedure+ )sk0 -What ty"e of ticket do you require, single or return?. &$ the customer wants Jreturn/ )sk0 -What rate, :tandard or 5hea",day?. &$ the customer re"lies J5hea",day/ :ay0 -!hat will be U1102*. 27:2 :ay0 -!hat will be U1C0%*. 2G4&$ 27:2 :ay0 -!hat will be UC0A%. 2G4&$ Gow decide the minimum number of tests that are needed to ensure that all the questions have been asked, all combinations have occurred and all re"lies given. a) 89

b' # c' % d' ?

% Error guessing+ a) su""lements formal test design techniques. b' 5an only be used in com"onent, integration and system testing. c' &s only "erformed in user acce"tance testing. d' is not re"eatable and should not be used. & 8hich of the following is >=T true of test coverage criteriaB a' !est coverage criteria can be measured in terms of items exercised by a test suite. b' ) measure of test coverage criteria is the "ercentage of user requirements covered. c) ) measure of test coverage criteria is the "ercentage of faults found. d' !est coverage criteria are often used when s"ecifying test com"letion criteria. @ (n prioriti9ing what to test; the most important ob<ective is to+ a' find as many faults as "ossible. b) !est high risk areas. c' Ebtain good test coverage. d' !est whatever is easiest to test.

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A Civen the following sets of test management terms -v-9); and activit! descriptions -1-$); which one of the following best pairs the two setsB v > test control w > test monitoring x , test estimation y , incident management 3 , configuration control 1 , calculation of required test resources 2 , maintenance of record of test results , re,allocation of resources when tests overrun # , re"ort on deviation from test "lan % , tracking of anomalous test results a' v, ,w,2,x,1,y,%,3,# b' v,2,w,%,x,1,y,#,3, c) v, ,w,#,x,1,y,%,3,2 d' v,2,w,1,x,#,y, ,3,% 1, 8hich one of the following statements about s!stem testing is >=T trueB a' :ystem tests are often "erformed by inde"endent teams. b' $unctional testing is used more than structural testing. c' $aults found during system tests can be very ex"ensive to fix. d) 2nd,users should be involved in system tests. 11 8hich of the following is falseB a) &ncidents should always be fixed. b' )n incident occurs when ex"ected and actual results differ. c' &ncidents can be analy3ed to assist in test "rocess im"rovement. d' )n incident can be raised against documentation. 12 Enough testing has been performed when+ a' time runs out. b) !he required level of confidence has been achieved. c' Go more faults are found. d' !he users won/t find any serious faults. 1 8hich of the following is >=T true of incidentsB a) &ncident resolution is the res"onsibility of the author of the software under test. b' &ncidents may be raised against user requirements. c' &ncidents require investigation and8or correction. d' &ncidents are raised when ex"ected and actual results differ. 1" 8hich of the following is not described in a unit test standardB a' :yntax testing b' equivalence "artitioning c) stress testing d' modified condition8decision coverage 91

1$ which of the following is falseB a' &n a system two different failures may have different severities. b) ) system is necessarily more reliable after debugging for the removal of a fault. c' ) fault need not affect the reliability of a system. d' Hndetected errors may lead to faults and eventually to incorrect behavior. 1% 8hich one of the following statements; about capture-repla! tools; is >=T correctB a' !hey are used to su""ort multi,user testing. b) !hey are used to ca"ture and animate user requirements. c' !hey are the most frequently "urchased ty"es of 5):! tool. d' !hey ca"ture as"ects of user behavior. 1& Eow would !ou estimate the amount of re-testing li.el! to be re3uiredB a' Detrics from "revious similar "rojects b' 4iscussions with the develo"ment team c' !ime allocated for regression testing d) a = b 1@ 8hich of the following is true of the 2-modelB a' &t states that modules are tested against user requirements. b' &t only models the testing "hase. c' &t s"ecifies the test techniques to be used. d) &t includes the verification of designs. 1A The oracle assumption+ a' is that there is some existing system against which test out"ut may be checked. b) &s that the tester can routinely identify the correct outcome of a test. c' is that the tester knows everything about the software under test. d' &s that the tests are reviewed by ex"erienced testers. 2, 8hich of the following characteri9es the cost of faultsB a) !hey are chea"est to find in the early develo"ment "hases and the most ex"ensive to fix in the latest test "hases. b' !hey are easiest to find during system testing but the most ex"ensive to fix then. c' $aults are chea"est to find in the early develo"ment "hases but the most ex"ensive to fix then. d' )lthough faults are most ex"ensive to find during early develo"ment "hases, they are chea"est to fix then. 21 8hich of the following should >=T normall! be an ob<ective for a testB a' !o find faults in the software. b' !o assess whether the software is ready for release. c' !o demonstrate that the software doesn/t work. d) !o "rove that the software is correct. 22 8hich of the following is a form of functional testingB a) <oundary value analysis b' Hsability testing 92

c' Ierformance testing d' :ecurity testing 2 8hich of the following would >=T normall! form part of a test planB a' $eatures to be tested b) &ncident re"orts c' 1isks d' :chedule 2" which of these activities provides the biggest potential cost saving from the use of C'0TB a' !est management b' !est design c) !est execution d' !est "lanning 2$ which of the following is >=T a white box techni3ueB a' :tatement testing b' Iath testing c' 4ata flow testing d) :tate transition testing 2% #ata flow anal!sis studies+ a' "ossible communications bottlenecks in a "rogram. b' !he rate of change of data values as a "rogram executes. c) !he use of data on "aths through the code. d' !he intrinsic com"lexity of the code. 2& (n a s!stem designed to wor. out the tax to be paid+ )n em"loyee has U#*** of salary tax free. !he next U1%** is taxed at 1*T the next U2B*** is taxed at 22T any further amount is taxed at #*T to the nearest whole "ound, which of these is a valid <oundary 6alue )nalysis test case? a' U1%** b' U 2**1 c) U %*1 d' U2B*** 2@ 'n important benefit of code inspections is that the!+ a) enable the code to be tested before the execution environment is ready. b' 5an be "erformed by the "erson who wrote the code. c' 5an be "erformed by inex"erienced staff. d' )re chea" to "erform. 2A 8hich of the following is the best source of Expected =utcomes for 7ser 'cceptance Test scriptsB a' )ctual results b' Irogram s"ecification c) Hser requirements 93

d' :ystem s"ecification , what is the main difference between a wal.through and an inspectionB a' )n ins"ection is lead by the author, whilst a walkthrough is lead by a trained moderator. b' )n ins"ection has a trained leader, whilst a walkthrough has no leader. c' )uthors are not "resent during ins"ections, whilst they are during walkthroughs. d) ) walkthrough is lead by the author, whilst an ins"ection is lead by a trained moderator. 1 8hich one of the following describes the ma<or benefit of verification earl! in the life c!cleB a' &t allows the identification of changes in user requirements. b' &t facilitates timely set u" of the test environment. c) &t reduces defect multi"lication. d' &t allows testers to become involved early in the "roject. 2 (ntegration testing in the small+ a' !ests the individual com"onents that have been develo"ed. b) !ests interactions between modules or subsystems. c' Enly uses com"onents that form "art of the live system. d' !ests interfaces to other systems. 0tatic anal!sis is best described as+ a' !he analysis of batch "rograms. b' !he reviewing of test "lans. c) !he analysis of "rogram code. d' !he use of black box testing. " 'lpha testing is+ a' "ost,release testing by end user re"resentatives at the develo"er/s site. b' !he first testing that is "erformed. c) Ire,release testing by end user re"resentatives at the develo"er/s site. d' Ire,release testing by end user re"resentatives at their sites. $ ' failure is+ a' found in the software@ the result of an error. b) 4e"arture from s"ecified behavior. c' )n incorrect ste", "rocess or data definition in a com"uter "rogram. d' ) human action that "roduces an incorrect result. % (n a s!stem designed to wor. out the tax to be paid+ )n em"loyee has U#*** of salary tax free. !he next U1%** is taxed at 1*T the next U2B*** is taxed at 22T any further amount is taxed at #*T which of these grou"s of numbers would fall into the same equivalence class? a' U#B**@ U1#***@ U2B*** b' U%2**@ U%%**@ U2B*** c' U2B**1@ U 2***@ U %*** d) U%B**@ U2B***@ U 2*** 94

& The most important thing about earl! test design is that it; a' makes test "re"aration easier. b' Deans ins"ections are not required. c) 5an "revent fault multi"lication. d' Will find all faults. @ 8hich of the following statements about reviews is trueB a' 1eviews cannot be "erformed on user requirements s"ecifications. b' 1eviews are the least effective way of testing code. c' 1eviews are unlikely to find faults in test "lans. d) 1eviews should be "erformed on s"ecifications, code, and test "lans. A Test cases are designed during+ a' !est recording. b' !est "lanning. c' !est configuration. d) !est s"ecification. ", ' configuration management s!stem would >=T normall! provide+ a' linkage of customer requirements to version numbers. b) $acilities to com"are test results with ex"ected results. c' !he "recise differences in versions of software com"onent source code. d' 1estricted access to the source code library. 0et $

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1/ 0oftware testing activities should start a. as soon as the code is written b. during the design stage c. when the requirements have been formally documented d. as soon as "ossible in the develo"ment life cycle 2/Faults found b! users are due to+ a. Ioor quality software b/ Ioor software and "oor testing c. bad luck d. insufficient time for testing /8hat is the main reason for testing software before releasing itB a. to show that system will work after release b. to decide when the software is of sufficient quality to release c. to find as many bugs as "ossible before release d. to give information for a risk based decision about release "/ 8hich of the following statements is not true; a. "erformance testing can be done during unit testing as well as during the testing of whole system b. !he acce"tance test does not necessarily include a regression test c/ 6erification activities should not involve testers +reviews, ins"ections etc' d. !est environments should be as similar to "roduction environments as "ossible $/ 8hen reporting faults found to developers; testers should be+ a. as "olite, constructive and hel"ful as "ossible b. firm about insisting that a bug is not a -feature. if it should be fixed c. di"lomatic, sensitive to the way they may react to criticism d. )ll of the above %/(n which order should tests be runB a. the most im"ortant tests first b. the most difficult tests first+to allow maximum time for fixing' c. the easiest tests first+to give initial confidence' d. the order they are thought of &/ The later in the development life c!cle a fault is discovered; the more expensive it is to fix/ wh!B a. the documentation is "oor, so it takes longer to find out what the software is doing. b. wages are rising c/ the fault has been built into more documentation, code, tests, etc d. none of the above @/ 8hich is not true-The blac. box tester a. should be able to understand a functional s"ecification or requirements document b. should be able to understand the source code. c. is highly motivated to find faults d. is creative to find the system/s weaknesses 96

A/ ' test design techni3ue is a. a "rocess for selecting test cases b. a "rocess for determining ex"ected out"uts c. a way to measure the quality of software d. a way to measure in a test "lan what has to be done 1,/ Test-ware -test cases; test dataset) a. needs configuration management just like requirements, design and code b. should be newly constructed for each new version of the software c. is needed only until the software is released into "roduction or use d. does not need to be documented and commented, as it does not form "art of the released software system 11/ 'n incident logging s!stem a only records defects b is of limited value c is a valuable source of "roject information during testing if it contains all incidents d. should be used only by the test team. 12/ (ncreasing the 3ualit! of the software; b! better development methods; will affect the time needed for testing -the test phases) b!+ a. reducing test time b. no change c. increasing test time d. can/t say 1 / Coverage measurement a. is nothing to do with testing b/ is a "artial measure of test thoroughness c. branch coverage should be mandatory for all software d. can only be a""lied at unit or module testing, not at system testing 1"/ 8hen should !ou stop testingB a. when time for testing has run out. b. when all "lanned tests have been run c/ when the test com"letion criteria have been met d. when no faults have been found by the tests run 1$/ 8hich of the following is trueB a. 5om"onent testing should be black box, system testing should be white box. b/ if u find a lot of bugs in testing, you should not be very confident about the quality of software c. the fewer bugs you find, the better your testing was d. the more tests you run, the more bugs you will find. 1%/ 8hat is the important criterion in deciding what testing techni3ue to useB a. how well you know a "articular technique 97

b/ the objective of the test c. how a""ro"riate the technique is for testing the a""lication d. whether there is a tool to su""ort the technique 1&/ (f the pseudo code below were a programming language; how man! tests are re3uired to achieve 1,,F statement coverageB 1. &f xP then 2. 4is"layMmessageY@ . &f yP2 then #. 4is"layMmessageR@ %. 2lse ?. 4is"layMmessageL@ A. 2lse B. 4is"layMmessageL@ a. 1 b. 2 c/ d. # 1@/ 7sing the same code example as 3uestion 1&; how man! tests are re3uired to achieve 1,,F branch4decision coverageB a. 1 b. 2 c/ d. # 1A which of the following is >=T a t!pe of non-functional testB a/ :tate,!ransition b. Hsability c. Ierformance d. :ecurity 2,/ 8hich of the following tools would !ou use to detect a memor! lea.B a. :tate analysis b. 5overage analysis c/ 4ynamic analysis d. Demory analysis 21/ 8hich of the following is >=T a standard related to testingB a. &222B2C b/ &222?1* c. <:AC2%,1 d. <:AC2%,2 22/which of the following is the component test standardB a. &222 B2C b. &222 ?1* 98

c. <:AC2%,1 d/ <:AC2%,2 2 which of the following statements are trueB a. $aults in "rogram s"ecifications are the most ex"ensive to fix. b. $aults in code are the most ex"ensive to fix. c/ $aults in requirements are the most ex"ensive to fix d. $aults in designs are the most ex"ensive to fix. 2"/ 8hich of the following is not the integration strateg!B a/ 4esign based b. <ig,bang c. <ottom,u" d. !o",down 2$/ 8hich of the following is a blac. box design techni3ueB a. statement testing b/ equivalence "artitioning c. error, guessing d. usability testing 2%/ ' program with high C!clo-metric complexit! is almost li.el! to be+ a. 7arge b. :mall c. 4ifficult to write d/ 4ifficult to test 2&/ 8hich of the following is a static testB a/ code ins"ection b. coverage analysis c. usability assessment d. installation test 2@/ 8hich of the following is the odd one outB a. white box b. glass box c. structural d/ functional 2A/ ' program validates a numeric field as follows+ values less than 1* are rejected, values between 1* and 21 are acce"ted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected which of the following in"ut values cover all of the equivalence "artitions? a. 1*,11,21 b. ,2*,21 c/ ,1*,22 d. 1*,21,22 99

,/ 7sing the same specifications as 3uestion 2A; which of the following covers the 1=0T boundar! valuesB a. C,1*,11,22 b/ C,1*,21,22 c. 1*,11,21,22 d. 1*,11,2*,21 0et % 1/ C=T0 is .nown as '/ 5ommercial off the shelf software <. 5om"liance of the software 5. 5hange control of the software 4. 5a"able off the shelf software 2/ From the below given choices; which one is the KConfidence testing / ). Ierformance !esting <. :ystem testing C/ :moke testing 4. 1egression testing / K#efect #ensit!L calculated in terms of '/ !he number of defects identified in a com"onent or system divided by the si3e of the com"onent or system <. !he number of defects found by a test "hase divided by the number found by that test "hase and any other means after wards 5. !he number of defects identified in the com"onent or system divided by the number of defects found in a test "hase, 4. !he number of defects found by a test "hase divided by the number found by the si3e of the system, "/ K5e buggingL is .nown as ). Ireventing the defects by ins"ection <. $ixing the defects by debugging C/ )dding known defects by seeding 4. "rocess of fixing the defects by the tester $/ Expert based test estimation is also .nown as ). Garrow band 4el"hi 5/ Wide band 4el"hi 5. <es"oke 4el"hi 4. 1obust 4el"hi %/ 8hen testing a grade calculation s!stem; a tester determines that all scores from A, to 1,, will !ield a grade of '; but scores below A, will not/ This anal!sis is .nown as+ 100

'/ 2quivalence "artitioning <. <oundary value analysis 5. 4ecision table 4. 9ybrid analysis &/ 'll of the following might be done during unit testing except ). 4esk check 5/ Danual su""ort testing 5. Walkthrough 4. 5om"iler based testing

@/ 8hich of the following characteristics is primaril! associated with software reusabilit!B '/ !he extent to which the software can be used in other a""lications <. !he extent to which the software can be used by many different users, 5. !he ca"ability of the software to be moved to a different "latform, 4. !he ca"ability of the system to be cou"led with another system A/ 8hich of the following software change management activities is most vital to assessing the impact of proposed software modificationsB ). <aseline identification <. 5onfiguration auditing C/ 5hange control 4. 6ersion control 1,/ 8hich of the following statements is true about a software verification and validation programB &. &t strives to ensure that quality is built into software. &&. &t "rovides management with insights into the state of a software "roject. &&&. &t ensures that al"ha, beta, and system tests are "erformed. &6. &t is executed in "arallel with software develo"ment activities. ). &, &&=&&& <.&&, &&&=&6 C/&, &&=&6 4.&, &&&=&6 11/ 8hich of the following is a re3uirement of an effective software environmentB 101

&. 2ase of use &&. 5a"acity for incremental im"lementation, &&&. 5a"ability of evolving with the needs of a "roject, &6. &nclusion of advanced tools '/&, && =&&& <.&, && =&6 5.&&, &&&=&6 4.&, &&&=&6 12/ ' pro<ect manager has been transferred to a ma<or software development pro<ect that is in the implementation phase/ The highest priorit! for this pro<ect manager should be to ). 2stablish a relationshi" with the customer 5/ 7earn the "roject objectives and the existing "roject "lan 5. Dodify the "roject/ s organi3ational structure to meet the manager/ s management style 4. 2nsure that the "roject "roceeds at its current "ace 1 / 8hich of the following functions is t!picall! supported b! a software 3ualit! information s!stemB &. 1ecord kee"ing &&. :ystem design &&&. 2valuation scheduling &6. 2rror re"orting ).&, &&=&&& <.&&, &&& =&6 C/&, &&& =&6 4.&, && = &6 1"/ #uring the testing of a module tester KDL finds a bug and assigned it to developer/ 5ut developer re<ects the same; sa!ing that itLs not a bug/ 8hat KDL should doB ). 1e"ort the issue to the test manager and try to settle with the develo"er. <. 1etest the module and confirm the bug 5. )ssign the same bug to another develo"er #/ :end to the detailed information of the bug encountered and check the re"roducibility 1$/ The primar! goal of comparing a user manual with the actual behavior of the running program during s!stem testing is to ). $ind bugs in the "rogram 5/ 5heck the technical accuracy of the document 5. 2nsure the ease of use of the document 102

4. 2nsure that the "rogram is the latest version 1%/ ' t!pe of integration testing in which software elements; hardware elements; or both are combined all at once into a component or an overall s!stem; rather than in stages/ ). :ystem !esting 5/ <ig,<ang !esting 5. &ntegration !esting 4. Hnit !esting 1&/ 8hich techni3ue can be used to achieve input and output coverageB (t can be applied to human input; input via interfaces to a s!stem; or interface parameters in integration testing/ ). 2rror (uessing <. <oundary 6alue )nalysis 5. 4ecision !able testing #/ 2quivalence "artitioning 1@/ There is one application; which runs on a single terminal/ There is another application that wor.s on multiple terminals/ 8hat are the test techni3ues !ou will use on the second application that !ou would not do on the first applicationB ). &ntegrity, 1es"onse time <. 5oncurrency test, :calability C/ H"date = 1ollback, 1es"onse time 4. 5oncurrency test, &ntegrity 1A/ Mou are the test manager and !ou are about the start the s!stem testing/ The developer team sa!s that due to change in re3uirements the! will be able to deliver the s!stem to !ou for testing $ wor.ing da!s after the due date/ Mou can not change the resources-wor. hours; test tools; etc/) 8hat steps !ou will ta.e to be able to finish the testing in time/ ). !ell to the develo"ment team to deliver the system in time so that testing activity will be finish in time. <. 2xtend the testing "lan, so that you can accommodate the sli" going to occur C/ 1ank the functionality as "er risk and concentrate more on critical functionality testing 4. )dd more resources so that the sli""age should be avoided 2,/ (tem transmittal report is also .nown as ). &ncident re"ort 5/ 1elease note 5. 1eview re"ort 103

4. )udit re"ort 21/ Testing of software used to convert data from existing s!stems for use in replacement s!stems ). 4ata driven testing 5/ Digration testing 5. 5onfiguration testing 4. <ack to back testing 22/ 5ig bang approach is related to ). 1egression testing <. &nter system testing 5. 1e,testing #/ &ntegration testing 2 / GThe tracing of re3uirements for a test level through the la!ers of a test documentationH done b! '/ 9ori3ontal traceability <. 4e"th traceability 5. 6ertical traceability 4. 9ori3ontal = 6ertical traceability 2"/ ' test harness is a ). ) high level document describing the "rinci"les, a""roach and major objectives of the organi3ation regarding testing <. ) distance set of test activities collected into a manageable "hase of a "roject C/ ) test environment com"rised of stubs and drives needed to conduct a test 4. ) set of several test cases for a com"onent or system under test 2$/ KEntr! criteriaL should address 3uestions such as &. )re the necessary documentation, design and requirements information available that will allow testers to o"erate the system and judge correct behavior. &&. &s the test environment,lab, hardware, software and system administration su""ort ready? &&&. !hose conditions and situations that must "revail in the testing "rocess to allow testing to continue effectively and efficiently. &6. )re the su""orting utilities, accessories and "rerequisites available in forms that testers can use '/ &, && and &6 <. &, && and &&& 5. &, &&, &&& and &6 4. &&, &&& and &6. 2%/ GThis life c!cle model is basicall! driven b! schedule and budget ris.sH This 104

statement is best suited for ). Water fall model <. :"iral model 5. &ncremental model D. V-Model

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