Document No.

Applicability Date

GP 12-05 Group 10 November, 2003

Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors

GP 12-05

BP GROUP
ENGINEERING TECHNICAL PRACTICES

10 November, 2003

GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors

Foreword
This is the first issue of Engineering Technical Practice (ETP) GP 12-05. This Guidance on Practice (GP) is based on the following heritage documents from merged BP companies:

Amoco (ACES)
A EL-TR-00-G A EL-TR-00-E A EL-TR-LI-P A EL-TR-OH-P A EL-TR-PM-P Electrical—Transformer—Guide Electrical—Transformers—Engineering Specification Electrical—Transformers—Liquid-Immersed—Supply Specification Electrical—Transformers—Overhead Type—Supply Specification Electrical—Transformers—Pad-Mounted—Supply Specification

Arco (APCES)
ES 407-93 Outdoor Power Transformer

BP GOMDW
1400-20-EL—SP-4018 Liquid Filled Power Transformers

BP Chemicals US
CP 17-4-1 Power Transformers

BP (RPSE)
RP 12-9 GS 112-5 Electrical Systems and Installations – Transformers and Reactors Guidance for Specification GS 112-5 Transformers and Reactors

Copyright © 2003, BP Group. All rights reserved. The information contained in this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the agreement or contract under which the document was supplied to the recipient’s organization. None of the information contained in this document shall be disclosed outside the recipient’s own organization without the prior written permission of Manager, Standards, BP Group, unless the terms of such agreement or contract expressly allow.

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........................ 7..........................................................................1..............................3................................. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors Table of Contents ..................2........................................2...........................................................................4.........6............................6................................................................................................................................................................... Insulation medium............................... 6 3.................. 13 6................................................ Earthing/Grounding requirements................2.............................................3................... Special tests .......................... Scope............. 9 5...................... Audible noise............... Voltage rating ..................................................................................................................... 18 8........... Type tests ..................................................5.......................................................... 18 Testing ...............1.. 6 3.................................................. Voltage taps ........................................2............................................................................................................................................ 2............................... 18 8..9.............................................4.... Distribution and power transformers.................... Type and location of termination facilities........ 6 Transformer ratings .............................................1............................................9.............................................................................. Page Foreword ............................. 11 5... Accessories .................................2................... 6............. 18 8................ Windings................................................................................. Impedance (base rating) ...................................................................................................................................................1...........................................................................................................................................8......... 9............................................................... 2 1...................... 13 6........................................................ 12 Construction details ......... Type of transformer. Ambient temperature................................................................................ 5 General transformer classification.................. Page 3 of 21 ...................10 November............. Padmount (distribution) transformers .......................................................................... 5.............. 15 6.... 19 9...........5....................................................................... 15 6.............................................. 9 5................. Winding hotspot............. 21 4........................................................................................ 8........................ Liquid immersed transformer cooling............................................................................................... 9 5.............. 13 6....................... 9 5.................7.......2............................................................................ 3............ 12 5............................................................ 5 Normative references ..................................................................... 10 5............................... Altitude....................................................................................................19 Special transformer types..1............................................... 9 5............................. Distribution (overhead) transformer ................. 17 6..................... 7 4..................... Standard ratings ....................................................3......................................... Basic impulse insulation level (BIL) ........ 7 4................... 10 5................................. dry or liquid type .......................................... General.................................7.... Energy conservation ...... Radiators ...............................................................................................................................................8.. 16 6............. Medium and large power transformers .................................................................................................................................................... 16 6. 14 6................................. 8 Design considerations ................................................................ Tank Design ..........1.... 17 Hazardous locations ................................. Existing systems...................................................................................... 19 9.........................................

10 November. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors Page 4 of 21 .

Self-Cooled. subsequent amendments to. For Transformers-230 kV and Below. 2500 kVA and Smaller High Voltage. 480 Volts and below C57. Normative references The following normative documents contain requirements that.12. For Transformers-Standard for Overhead Type Distribution Transformers. 34 500 GRD Y/19 920 Volts and below Low Voltage. dielectric tests and external clearances in air Power transformers – Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit Power transformers – Part 10: Determination of sound levels Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers Dry-type power transformers Page 5 of 21 . constitute requirements of this technical practice. 240/120 Volts and smaller American National Standard. However.22 BP GIS 12-051 GIS 12-052 GP 12-60 Guidance on Industry Standard for Power Transformers (IEC) Guidance on Industry Standard for Power Transformers (ANSI) Guidance on Practice Hazardous Area Electrical Installations International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) IEC 60076-1 IEC 60076-2 IEC 60076-3 IEC 60076-5 IEC 60076-10 IEC 60354 IEC 60726 Power transformers – Part 1: General Power transformers – Part 2: Temperature Rise Power transformers – Part 3: Insulation levels. operation. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors 1. Single-phase Distribution Transformers with High-Voltage Bushings. For Transformers-Pad-Mounted.10 American National Standard. any of these publications do not apply.12. For dated references. Three-Phase Without Load Tap Changing. For Transformers-Pad-Mounted. parties to agreements based on this technical practice are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Compartmental-Type. For undated references.21 C57. 500 kVA and Smaller High Voltage. 34500/19920 Volts and below Low voltage. 833/958 through 8333/10417 kVA.20 C57. 7970/13800Y Volts and Below American National Standard. or revisions of. Self-Cooled Distribution Transformers with HighVoltage Bushings. through reference in this text. and maintenance of power transformers and reactors. and 3750/4687 through 60 000/ 80 000/ 100 000 kVA with Load Tap Changing-Safety Requirements American National Standard. Single-Phase.12. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C57. 2. and 750/862 through 60 000/ 80 000/ 100 000 kVA. Scope This GP document provides guidance for engineering design.12. installation.10 November. 34500 Volts and below Low voltage. Compartmental-Type. High Voltage.

b.22 Medium Power – C57. IEC classifies power transformers into three categories based on ratings described in Table 1A.12.12. Power. Both IEC and ANSI classify single-phase and three-phase transformers with ratings up to 2 500 kVA and a high voltage rating up to 36 kV as “distribution transformers”.C57. Classification (IEC 60354) Distribution Medium Power Large Power b. These classifications are not recognised as specific types in IEC but are roughly equivalent to pole-mounted and ground-mounted types.10 November. Medium power transformers – above 2 500 kVA up to 100 000 kVA Large power transformers – above 100 000 kVA c.10 Large Power Rating (kVA) 500 and Smaller 2 500 and Smaller Above 2 500 up to 100 000 100 000 and above ANSI transformer categories with their rating limits are given in Table 1B.1. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) C57. 3.12. 2. 2.2. and Regulating Transformers IEEE Standard General Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers including those with Solid-Cast and/or ResinEncapsulated Windings National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) NFPA 70 National Electrical Code (NEC) 3. Table 1A – IEC Classifications Category Rating Sr (kVA) (IEC 60076-2) I Sr ≤ 2 500 II 2 500 < Sr ≤ 100 000 III Sr > 100 000 Table 1B – ANSI classifications Transformer Type Overhead . Overhead transformers .01 IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed Distribution.00 C57.up to 500 KVA Pad-mounted . respectively.up to 2 500 kVA Transformers above 2 500 kVA are classified as “power transformers” and are also subclassified into two specific groups: 1.20 Pad-mounted – C57. General transformer classification Distribution and power transformers a. 3. Page 6 of 21 . Medium and large power transformers a. ANSI further classifies distribution transformer into two specific groups: 1.12.12.

150. 112. When determining transformer kVA rating. 75. 2 000.3 63 630 6300 800 etc. 150. 2 500.12. 225. 225. 225. 1 500. Transformer ratings Standard ratings a. 500 Pad-mounted C57. 3 750.22 75.5. 300.5 125 1250 16 160 1600 20 200 2000 25 250 2500 31. IEC and ANSI standard kVA ratings for transformers. 45. 8 80 800 8000 12. are shown in tables 2A and 2B. For the larger ratings consideration should also be given to transformer efficiency in order to minimise the cost of losses over the lifetime of the plant. 5 000. 7 500. 2 000. 750. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors 4.20 30. 1 500. It will be necessary to select a rating appropriate to the particular standard area. 2nd stage forced air (ONAF2) or forced oil and air (OFAF) cooling ratings allow for future load growth while meeting the temperature limits. where the more conservative ONAN rating is considered to be unduly costly. is to use transformers equipped for future forced-air cooling. 45. where the rating should be selected on economical basis. and load is firm. A consideration for load growth.10 15. Winter/summer load variations on transformer should be considered.5. It may also be specified that winding temperature rise should not exceed 55°C when the transformer is loaded to base kVA rating (ONAN). 1 000. 150. 500.12. 4. a minimum of 125% of connected load should be specified as an ONAN rating.1. up to 10 MVA. 1 000. Table 2B Standard ANSI ratings (3-phase) TYPE Standard Rating (kVA) Overhead C57. Forced air (ONAF1).12. 30. 500. 300.5 300 3000 40 400 4000 50 500 5000 Bold Values are preferred for Distribution Transformers in CENELEC countries (to HD 428 Standards). Table 2A Standard IEC ratings R10 Power (kVA) 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 5 10 100 1000 10 000 R10 numbers and rating (IEC 60076 & CENELEC) 630 6. For Industrial purposes there may be merit in adopting common practices.12.5. 2 500 Oil-immersed C57. Summer electrical loading at ambient temperature conditions is most often the primary factor in sizing a transformer.10 November. b. 112. 10 000(1) Note: C57. This ‘dual rating has in the past been used to allow for additional load growth without replacing transformers or having a negative impact on insulation life. 750. 300. An additional 12% of load can be added resulting in the winding temperature rising to 65°C. Transformers should be rated for continuous operation. 75. 112. Page 7 of 21 .10 includes transformers rated up to 60 000 kVA (ONAN) and 100 000 kVA (ONAF).

each stage of forced-air cooling provides 33. Where a plant. 2. However. ANSI standards generally indicate that forced air-cooling provides an additional 15% capacity on ratings of 750 kVA through 2 000 kVA and a minimum of 25% additional kVA on ratings 2 500 kVA through 10 000 kVA. This percentage increase in transformer capacity continues to the 60 000 kVA transformer limit of this specification and results in up to a 67% (1) increase over base rating. Where a seasonal high ambient temperature would cause transformers or reactors to be de-rated. The two stages of forced air-cooling allow the transformer to handle additional load growth. Forced cooling or provision for forced cooling should only be considered under the following circumstances: 1. Where transformers for use on a triple radial system could under certain operating conditions experience higher-than normal rated loads. Where it is anticipated that there could be a future plant load increase. ANSI specifies that each stage of forced-air cooling will provide an additional 15% capacity on ratings of 750 kVA through 2 000 kVA and 25% on ratings 2 500 kVA through 10 000 kVA.2. Forced cooling allows a substantial increase in rating of a transformer compared with natural cooling. For transformers above 10 000 kVA. Note-1: A general ‘rule-of-thumb’ within IEC for medium and large transformers for rating of a base transformer is as follows: ONAN OFAN ONAF OFAF b. Source circuit loading Future load growth Voltage drop on motor start Voltage droop on feeder circuits Economic evaluation of equipment required for each choice Liquid immersed transformer cooling a.3% additional capacity above the base rating. c.e. 100% 130% 160% 200% (These rating increases are approximate and require verification with the manufacturer. 4. this represents the highest cost cooling arrangement. Page 8 of 21 . Over the installed life of the transformer it is probable that the load will increase significantly. Above 10 000 kVA.10 November. Natural cooling methods are preferred since these provide high reliability with minimum maintenance. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors Consideration in determining loadings should include: • • • • • 4. self-cooled/forced-air stage 1/ forced-air stage 2) unless otherwise approved.) Natural cooling (ONAN) methods are the preferred methods of transformer and reactor cooling. 3. the transformer cooling class should be ONAN/ONAF1/ONAF2 (i. which usually runs as a base load has occasional periods of high load demand that would be outside the normal cyclic loading capabilities or the transformer or reactor.

Type of transformer The basic plant load will be three-phase in nature. b. but is most often dictated by existing electrical system voltage.05 times nominal when on zero tap. An additional accessory for liquid immersed transformers may be a key interlock on the off circuit tap changer and the transformer primary breaker to assure transformer is deenergized before the taps are changed.1. Note that on load tap changing should be provided at HV intake points in order that voltages lower in the system will remain within specified tolerance limits (normally ± 5% but for some applications ±6% is often used) for load swings between 0 and 100%. 5. However. Should the voltage swing not be a problem nor be expected to be a future problem. On-load tap-changers fitted to site distribution transformers should be provided where if it is anticipated that plant non-transient voltage variations of greater than ± 5% could occur as a result of normal process operations (maximum to minimum load conditions) and where an off circuit tap change operation would cause unacceptable disruption.2. control and plant auxiliaries. a manual off circuit tap changer would be satisfactory. 5. This is often not specified because historically padlocks have been used and procedures reflect the need for the circuit to be deenergised. Single-phase transformer installation should be distributed evenly on the three-phase supply circuit(s) to avoid a loading unbalance the three-phase primary. An on-load tap-changer has a much more difficult duty than an off-circuit type. Voltage taps a. there have been cases where mal-practice has occurred and a simple mechanical interlock offers a foolproof way of achieving a safe practice. c. very large motor. there will be no further requirement to alter the tapping except under exceptional circumstances such as after plant modifications which result in a significant load change. Off circuit tap-changers (i. a tap-changer operated with the transformer de-energised) with a tapping range of ± 5 % in 2½ % tap steps should be fitted to all transformers where it is anticipated that after the optimum tapping is selected. however. Off-circuit tap-changers should be specified where it is acceptable for tap-changing to be carried out when the transformer is not energised.e. instrumentation. Note that it is common practice to specify the secondary voltage rating of a transformer as 1. i. 5.e. single-phase transformers may be used for lighting. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors 5.3. Design considerations Existing systems When a transformer will be paralleled with an existing transformer. Voltage rating Primary voltage may be determined by connected load. all rating information should be obtained from the existing transformer nameplate. This accounts for transformer regulation on full load. 5. A photocopy of existing transformer nameplate should be attached to data sheet for new transformer. Experience shows that on-load tap-changers are a significant source of transformer faults and hence careful consideration should be given to the use of such devices. Page 9 of 21 .4. To increase safety it is recommended that access to an off circuit tap change mechanism be limited by mechanical interlock with the HV circuit breaker.10 November.

Note*: Table 2 in the 2000-03 (2nd edition) of IEC 60076-3 should be used with caution as the reduced impulse levels at Um 145 kV and 170 kV appear incorrect at 450 kV and 550 kV respectively. Nonstandard (special) impedance can be specified to provide reduced short-circuit current or less voltage drop on motor starting. A disadvantage of non-standard impedance is the possibility of reduced inter-changeability.00). Where automatic voltage control of transformer on-load tap-changers is provided.3 kV to 2. Basic impulse insulation level (BIL) a. Minimum BIL rating for bushings should be as follows for ANSI standards: Nominal System Voltage (kV) BIL (kV) 1. 5.1 kV to 36 kV------------------145 kV b. In this case the Rated Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage should be selected from the increased impulse values. To conform with IEC standards. The automatic voltage control scheme should incorporate a built-in adjustable time delay to prevent tap-changing under transient voltage fluctuations. It is recommended that the minimum LI values to be used at these Um are 550 kV and 650 kV respectively.25%. The control system should also prevent paralleled transformers operating with greater than two step positions apart. f.1 kV to 8. However non-standard impedances can be specified to provide an economical solution to high fault current. except where a transformer or reactor is to be directly connected to overhead lines which do not incorporate surge arrestor equipment. Impedance (base rating) Transformers generally conform to “standard” impedance ratings. Similarly. Standard impedance for a given kVA rating of an overhead. On-load tap changers should be automatic voltage control type and manually operable either at the transformer or from a remote servomechanism control located in the appropriate substation or control room. On-load tap changers should have a tapping range of +10% to -10% with 8 tap-steps of 1. 5.0 kV-------------------75 kV 5. Phase bushings shall be rated for line-to-line voltage. e.6 kV to 5.10 November. The term 'hunting' in this context is defined as the action of two or more control systems failing to reach an equilibrium state and as a result acting in opposition. pad mount or liquid immersed transformer is specified in IEC 60076-5 (ANSI/IEEE C57.6. the controls should be compatible to prevent 'hunting' and to prevent circulating currents due to inconsistent taps.5 kV-------------------60 kV 2. where transformers with automatic voltage control of on-load tap-changers are required to work in parallel.7 kV-------------------95 kV 8. above and below nominal unless voltage variations dictate that a wider range is required.5. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors d. Impulse voltages due to lightning or switching activity appearing at the terminals of the Page 10 of 21 . the Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage should be selected from the reduced values of Table 2 of IEC 60076-3 (See Note* below). the method of control should be compatible with the automatic voltage control of any in plant generation or synchronous motors to prevent 'hunting'.2 kV and below----------------45 kV 1.12. and means for preventing parallel transformers having a disparity of more than one tap-step during any tapping operation.8 kV to 15 kV------------------110 kV 15. The amount of insulation applied to the winding conductors is usually influenced by the impulse voltage rating of the winding rather than by the power-frequency voltage rating.

) Annual average = 28oC. It is preferred that current ANSI/IEEE standards are referred to when specifying transformers for use in these countries.e. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors transformer stress the winding insulation and this effect may be reduced by the application of surge arrestors. (This is 10oC in excess of IEC normal value. Older transformers using non-thermally upgraded paper are restricted to 55 K rise. i. which is the present industry standard in the USA. (This is 8oC in excess of IEC normal value.10 November. cooling water temperature (water-cooled transformers) Average cooling water temperature in any 24 hour period Top-oil rise Average winding rise (ON or OF cooling class) Average winding rise (OD cooling class) o o o o o o o Standard ANSI -20 40 N/a 30 N/a 30 25 65 (1) (1) (1) C C C C C C C -25 40 30 N/a 20 25 N/a 60 65 70 K K K 65 65 Note-1: These ANSI temperature rise values are based on thermally upgraded paper. Note*: The North American Practice Tables given in the IEC Standard are no longer fully in accordance with the latest revisions of the ANSI/IEEE Transformer Standards and should be used with caution. Average winding rise reduced from 65K to 55K Page 11 of 21 . (see Note * below). The table continues with the standard temperature rises applicable to the particular standard. Table 3 of IEC 60076-3 gives LI co-ordination for areas of the world where North American practice is applied to power systems.e.) Average ambient of hottest month = 35oC. Example: An IEC outdoor ONAN cooled transformer operating in a region with higher than normal ambient temperatures: • • • Maximum ambient = 50oC. in which case the value should be selected from the column headed 'Class II Transformers'. These rises should be reduced by the most dominant ambient temperature factor.) It is apparent that the dominant correction to be applied in this case is that arising from the maximum ambient temperature. unless the transformer or reactor is directly connected to an overhead line which has no surge arrestor equipment. Ambient temperature Table 3A gives the reference ambient temperatures for Both IEC and ANSI standards. c. 5. 10oC. i. On systems up to 15 kV the value should be selected from the column headed 'Distribution Transformers'. that which exceeds the standard normal value by the greatest amount. (This is 5oC in excess of IEC normal value. This requires an equivalent reduction of 10K in the allowable temperature rises: • • Top-oil rise reduced from 60K to 50K.7. Temperatures are given in degrees Celsius (oC) whereas temperature rises are in degrees Kelvin (K) Table 3A Ambient temperature and permissible temperature rise (Outdoor oil-filled transformers) Rating factor IEC Minimum ambient temperature Maximum ambient temperature Monthly average of hottest month Average of any 24 hour period Yearly average Max.

Dielectric correction a. The corrections are summarised in Table-3C.9. IEC and ANSI offer different methods and the necessary correction appropriate to the standard employed should be selected.91-1995 standard is based on the use of thermally upgraded paper. Page 12 of 21 . The differences in hotspot rating philosophy between the two standards emphasise the need for caution when employing this factor. the value is approximate and should be employed with caution. 5.8. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors 5. Note-2:The previous ANSI standard was based on non-thermally upgraded paper. switching impulse (SI) withstand voltages. With increasing altitude. such as the terminal bushings of the transformer. These factors are: Reduced dielectric performance Reduced power rating 5. The higher hotspot value assigned by ANSI should not be used when this grade of paper is used in IEC countries.10 November.1. it is increasingly common to specify the winding hotspot limit. lightning impulse (LI) and where applicable. No increase in creepage distance is required. b. For operation at altitudes above 1000 m the insulation length will require increasing to maintain the power frequency (AC). As with the average winding rise discussed previously (Table 3A). the allowable hotspot rise must be decreased accordingly when the transformer is intended for operation with abnormally high ambient temperatures. It should be remembered that with the indirect methods used in existing rating guides to estimate the hotspot temperature. The hotspot values are different for IEC and ANSI standards and are given in Table 3B. the reduction in air density reduces the withstand strength of external insulation.9. Note-3:IEC 60354 does not recognise thermally upgraded paper. This factor is particularly important for estimating the ageing of transformer insulation subjected to periodic operation above nameplate rating and/or ambient temperature. Altitude When transformers are to be operated at altitudes above 1000 m (3300 ft) an allowance must be made for a reduction for two key performance aspects because of the reduced air density. Winding hotspot Although not directly a factor in the rating of the transformer. Table 3B Hotspot limits Factor IEC Average ambient temperature Hotspot rise Hotspot temperature o (3) Standard ANSI Existing C C 20 78 98 30 80 110 K o (1) Previous 30 65 95 (2) Note-1:The existing ANSI C57. These figures must be used for transformers manufactured to the previous standard or for new transformers made with non-thermally upgraded paper for use in countries using the ANSI loading guide.

5% per 100 m over 1000 m Note Data is given here for only AN and AF cooling. IEEE Std C57. Clearly the ANSI advice is a more practical guide for an application involving standard transformers that may be located in elevated altitudes. Page 13 of 21 . 6. Construction details Windings Copper windings are generally acceptable for power transformers. Where these may offer cost advantages. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors Table 3C Dielectric withstand correction for altitudes > 1000 m Standard IEC 1% per 100 m over 1000 m ANSI See Table-1 of IEEE Standard C57. IEC specifications require manufacturers declaration concerning the relationship between temperature rise and rating. Table 3D Rating correction for altitudes > 1000 m Liquid-immersed transformers Cooling IEC 60076-3 Average winding temp rise to be reduced by: Unforced cooling (AN) Forced air cooling (AF) 1K per 400 m over 1000 m 1K per 250 m over 1000 m Standard ANSI (IEEE Std C57. is invalid for a transformer that is to be operated at an altitude above 1000 m. However the possible effects of corrosion or other deterioration should be taken into consideration. 5. Where aluminium will be used special provision should be made for terminations. The reduced air density at high altitude reduces the cooling efficiency of the transformer such that a rating test at nominal kVA. Alternatively he may offer a prorata increase in insulation length. see the appropriate standard.91 Table E1 (Annex E) gives data for maintained power rating at altitude with reduced ambient temperature. including watercooling and those involving heat-exchangers. For other methods. to ensure that the transformer is capable of supplying rated power at altitudes above 1000 m.4% per 100 m over 1000 m 0. Transformers and reactors for use outdoors in onshore locations should be of mineral oilimmersed type.1. carried out in a laboratory located between sea level and 1000 m.00-2000 The bushing manufacturer may have test data to demonstrate a higher than standard dielectric capability to meet this altitude requirement. The corrections are summarised in Table-3D. their use should not be precluded.91) KVA rating to be reduced by: 0.2.10 November. 6.12.9. Power rating correction It is necessary to demonstrate a power rating above nominal nameplate rating in the laboratory. The correction is different for unforced and forced cooling and the methods are also different within IEC and ANSI standards. dry or liquid type a.2. In general the manufacturer needs to demonstrate that these effects will not be an issue for the application and environment envisaged. 6. Insulation medium. There are many instances of aluminium wound transformers offered by reputable manufacturers. ANSI also provides data for maintaining rated power at altitude with a standard transformer if the ambient temperature is below certain values. Mineral oil has good dielectric strength and thermal conductive properties.

3 and 4 clockwise as viewed from top. Mineral oil immersed transformers present a potential fire hazard. Dry type transformers or reactors of the non-encapsulated winding type to IEC 60726 may be used for dry indoor locations requiring operation at ambient temperatures above those suitable for the manufacturer’s standard encapsulated products. the neutral end of the winding is connected to the transformer tank. 6. For certain conditions accessories additional to those implied by design considerations may be required as specified in GIS 12-051 and GIS 12-052. This type of transformer bushing flashover can be minimized by extending the bushing's creepage distance. In sensitive locations. Bushing locations can be on cover or sidewall and in two of four transformer segments. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors Its insulation level is however highly sensitive to the level of impurities. may require bushing with extended creepage distances. dust etc. This relates to conventional dry type transformers with Class H or Class C insulation temperature limits. It is typical industry practice not to fit winding temperature indicators on transformers rated up to 5 MVA. Winding temperature indicators should be provided on liquid-immersed transformers and reactors rated 10 MVA and above. Relatively simple assemblies. For a transformer with star (wye) secondary and secondary bushings. High thermal time constant and superior short-circuit withstand giving good overload performance. Accessories should be reviewed and justified before including on data sheet. Segment 1 is front of transformer and other segments are numbered 2. such as those referred to. using few insulating materials and less prone to electromagnetic stress. Page 14 of 21 . the contaminant (salt in coastal areas) builds up on the transformer bushings and this condition combined with condensation causes bushing/insulator flashover.3. dry-type construction or non-flammable oilcooled transformers should then be used. Another example is a nitrogen blanket to take the place of dry air in the space above the oil in an oil filled transformer. Therefore regular checks on oil quality are necessary in order to assure satisfactory performance. often better than conventional air-cooled types. Unaffected by humidity. b. Transformers with external bushings. and on dry type transformers and reactors rated 2 MVA and above. In contaminated areas. when a neutral bushing is not specified. Creepage distance is the surface distance of the bushing or insulator from energized connection to transformer tank or earth/ground. Fully cast-resin encapsulated transformer units have the following advantages: • • • c. b.10 November. Accessories a. High voltage bushings are located in one segment and the low voltage bushings in another segment. An example of additional accessories is the requirement for contacts on temperature indicator for remote alarm indication. Transformers and reactors for use indoors or for use offshore should be of the encapsulated winding dry type construction in accordance with IEC 60726. or of the synthetic liquid immersed type where the synthetic liquid is of the flame retardant type having a fire point in excess of 300ºC. c. located in contaminated areas. such as coastal locations. the economy of employing only oil-temperature indicators is usually adopted. At these low ratings.

In the past some sites have found it advisable to have desiccant provisions for the cable box to prevent the effects of condensation. In this way a dual rated transformer with a cooling classification of. Normally air terminated cable boxes should be specified in order that cable termination and future maintenance is eased.10 November. for example. Transformer manufacturers may have standard throats for bus duct connection. 6. an important feature of the winding temperature indicator is to initiate automatic switch-on and switch-off of cooling fans and oil circulation pumps.4. The transformer manufacturer may require a dimensional drawing. bus duct. the transformer noise should be considered as part of the overall plant layout design. Heat-shrink or factory-made fully-insulated cable terminations should be used in air filled cable termination boxes. c. Winding temperature indicators with alarm and switching contacts should be specified for ONAN transformers which have provision to be up-rated at some future date by conversion to ONAF. When someone other than the transformer manufacturer supplies bus duct. d. Voltage stress relief. It is recommended that transformers. Notwithstanding this. However particular attention needs to be paid to the possible ingress of water into cable boxes. ONAN/ONAF will automatically switch from ONAN to ONAF (and back) according to the transformer loading conditions. switchgear and motor control centres be supplied by a single manufacturer to eliminate problems with bus duct fit. Where these are used particular care should be taken to avoid the effects of circulating currents and to ensure that any filling is quality controlled. Transformers must have audible sound levels equal to or less than those described by IEC 60076-10 (NEMA TR1). Liquid immersed transformers rated 20 000 kVA and below are considered unit substations and can be equipped with enclosed bushings. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors Apart from the facility to monitor temperature. if the transformer primary or secondary is connected to an existing bus duct or others supply a bus duct. by addition of fans. 6. and where applicable sufficient space should be provided by the manufacturer to allow for stress relieving terminations. higher ratings can be supplied with cable terminations onto enclosed bushings. multiple single core cable arrangements and the relative merits of bus ducting and multiple single core cable installations need to be considered for the larger ratings involving enclosed bushings. are generally considered station-type and usually have open or exposed bushings. Audible noise Where the site installation has a need for sound limitation. Phase-segregated or phase-separated air filled cable termination boxes or compoundfilled cable boxes should be used only under exceptional circumstances.5. the bus duct supplier should also be provided a dimensional drawing of transformer throat to achieve lowest cost connection. There is concern about sound level because constant audible noise can be annoying and at high enough level can damage hearing. Air filled cable termination boxes should be of phase-insulated fault pressure relieving type. Transformers rated above 20 MVA. d. e. b. This generality reflects the manufacturers zone of reliable experience. Type and location of termination facilities a. Page 15 of 21 . In all cases sound data should be available for the transformer.

Radiator headers and panels should be painted with the same process and number of coats as the transformer body. Earthing/Grounding requirements a. the zero sequence impedance and rated short time current should be selected to match the earthing/grounding and protection practice adopted for the installation. the zero sequence impedance and short time current rating should depend on an externally connected resistor. Plate Corrugated Fin-Fold Welded tubular Where shipping could be an issue. three phase power system for deriving a neutral. Except where a system is to be solidly earthed/grounded via the earthing/grounding transformer. Various winding connection configurations are possible. Carbon steel or 304 SS have not been found to offer an acceptable performance in the past. b. All radiators should be removable and furnished with flanged shut off valves. Where an earthing/grounding transformer is required in a three wire. Page 16 of 21 . Radiator headers should be No.. Radiators a. The selection of earthing/grounding transformer impedance. c. 12 gauge minimum. capable of sealing with radiator removed and transformer tank filled. and radiator panels No. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors 6. Where system loads comprise a considerable proportion of non-linear load e. Where radiators are removable from sealed tank designs.6. Where an earthing/grounding transformer is required in a three wire. short time current rating and value of externally connected resistor are determined from the results of phase to earth/ground fault calculations. will be influenced to a considerable extent by the nature of the system load. there should be provision and an identified procedure for tank refilling. 11 gauge minimum. it should be continuously rated at 110% of the nominal neutral current rating of the system. Such factors should therefore be taken into consideration when determining earthing transformer rating. the system neutral may be provided by an earthing/grounding transformer. 6. It should be noted that neutral rating. radiator design should include detachable (removable) tubular types. Nothing (including fans) should be mounted on the radiators. and hence earthing/grounding transformer rating.10 November. The following radiator types are considered to offer an acceptable performance: • • • b. switchedmode power supplies this can result in a considerable increase in neutral current. each presenting different impedances to fault current.7. When considering resistance earthing/grounding.g. seal welded to the tank. In situations where the supply is derived from a distribution transformer having a delta connected secondary. for earthing/grounding resistors and to assure their location does not interfere with other equipment mounted on transformer. three phase power system for deriving a system earth/ground. transformer manufacturers may need to provide mounting brackets etc. Offshore transformer radiators should be 316 SS. 316 SS.

All sealed tank transformers and reactors should be fitted with a resetting type stainless steel pressure relief device complete with alarm contacts. 6. Generally.9. the manufacturer should be consulted for advice. All liquid immersed transformers or reactors should either be of the sealed tank type or conservator type. All conservator type transformers or reactors should incorporate a Buchholz relay complete with alarm and trip contacts. f. The advantages of sealed tank designs over the general alternative of breathing type are their almost maintenance-free operation and with certain designs there is a space saving because of the absence of external pipe work. as sampling may disturb the internal pressure. d.10 November. e. Where efficiency is of concern. b. It should have alarm and trip settings. These are protective devices and designed to: • • • detect a sudden surge movement of oil due to an internal transformer fault detect free gas being slowly produced in the main tank provide a chamber for collection and later analysis of evolved gas The breathers and pressure relief devices fitted to conservator type transformers or reactors should be positioned where they will not constitute a danger to personnel should there be a sudden gas or liquid expulsion. Tank Design a. The Qualitrol device is a sealed unit which fulfils the same function as the Buchholtz unit in a conservator type. several cost-analysis techniques can be used to formalize procurement with the goal of maximizing efficiency or minimizing overall life-cycle cost. Buchholz relays are considered mandatory for conservator type transformers. All transformers must have explosion protection either by Qualitrol pressure relief or some other means. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors 6. However the limitation relates to tank size and sealed tank designs of higher ratings have been used where the tank dimensions have been sufficiently small. Consideration should be given to energy conservation features. and at 2 MVA and above the use of sealed tank designs should be based on an economic assessment. are recognised as having potentially long service-life due to the oil remaining moisture-free during the life of the unit and are not usually specified with a sampling valve.8. Below 2 MVA all liquid-immersed transformers and reactors should be of the sealed tank design. manufacturer’s standard products for sealed type designs have a maximum rating in the range 1. The single pressure/vacuum unit equipped with the pressure settings and alarms/trips and which also has a pressure relief function is often faster than a bursting disc. Energy conservation a. If oil sampling is being considered for this type of transformer. the outlet of the sealed tank pressure relief device should be arranged to direct any liquid surge away from personnel access ways. Page 17 of 21 . c. The internal pressure characteristics of the sealed-type design limit the ratings available and eventually there is a need to employ conservator types. Conservator type transformers should be fitted with an oil-sampling valve suitable for condition monitoring applications. Where there is a possible danger to personnel.6 – 2 MVA. Sealed-type transformers used within their rating and temperature limits.

Type tests in accordance with the National or International standard should only be performed on a transformer or reactor when the manufacturer is unable to supply evidence of successful type tests on similar designs. Area classification must be determined before accessory classification can be defined. Library of Congress catalogue card number 81-50169 ISBN 0-939320-00-2. The following information about the transformer should be supplied to the prospective vendors based on annualised operation projections: 1. Testing General A full range of transformer tests is listed in IEC 60076 (Section 8 of ANSI/IEEE C57. Distance to an unclassified area may be so great that cost of cable. Gas in oil analysis should be completed after manufacturer’s testing is complete. The objective of type testing is as follows: • • • verify the basic design concept. These requirements should be followed in respect of the unusual application of power transformers being located in hazardous areas. b. b. but related accessories could be a problem and very expensive. This record should be kept in a manner that is readily extracted by the maintenance management system. D. 8. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors These techniques can be used to prepare an economical evaluation of several transformer design options. Page 18 of 21 . When $/kW is low. Cost in dollars/kW at which losses are valued Percentage of the transformer rating at which load losses will be evaluated during any comparison process. Hazardous locations a. Transformers should be located in unclassified areas. Myers. confirm the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the transformer.10 November. conduit/tray/underground ducts may exceed cost of classified area equipment. $/kW for a location should be obtained to determine operational costs. a more economical transformer design (higher transformer losses) may be considered versus what would be offered for a high $/kW number. Where the location for the transformer will be in a classified area there should be a recorded and verifiable analysis of the transformer and its accessories detailing the safety provisions. The cost of electric power varies between plant locations. demonstrate that the transformer meets the requirement of the specification. Therefore. Type tests a. In ANSI applications NFPA 70 can offer guidance. 2.2. 8. Transformers may be inherently suitable for a Zone 2 (Class 1. 7. 8.1. Special provisions may be required to ensure that surface temperatures and auxiliary devices are suitable for installation in hazardous locations. Division 2) location. For more information on the insulation power factor test and oil analysis refer to “A Guide to Transformer Maintenance” copyright 1981 by Transformer Maintenance Institute division of S.12.00). The requirements for electrical equipment for hazardous areas are detailed in GP12-60.

Special tests a. 3. 9. It is possible therefore assess the design by reviewing this analysis and requesting details of the validation of computer models used. no-load harmonic measurement. Page 19 of 21 . If the design of a transformer or reactor involves a new construction concept a short circuit test may be justified if the equipment is to be used where there is a high system fault level.1. 9. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors b. Special transformer types Distribution (overhead) transformer General a. Impulse. Nowadays manufacturer’s carry out detailed analysis of short circuit conditions generally based upon the use of finite element techniques. simulation of an incoming surge. Special tests may include the following: 1. c. If however. with verification based on actual short-circuit tests on transformers of similar construction and rating. Short circuit tests should not be requested because of the severe cost implications. c. The following tests should have previously been made on a sufficient number of transformers and ratings to demonstrate compliance. all remaining items should be type tested. 3. Short-circuit withstand testing of (in particular) large transformers is a very expensive undertaking and not common practice.1. The short circuit rating of the transformer should be at least in accordance with IEC 60076-5. Special tests would constitute an unusual application. These values may be inadequate for some applications and it is always necessary to establish the local fault levels at the transformer service location: It is usual to appraise the calculations provided by the manufacturer to verify the theoretical mechanical and thermal margins in his design.3. Pressure on tank. a major programme involving a new supplier requires additional verification of performance and build quality and some special testing may be considered appropriate. b. 9.10 November. 2. It should be noted however that carrying out these may result in some overstressing of the transformer with possible reduction in plant life. 8. 1. type tests should only be performed on one item. 2. Distribution transformers are designed outdoor pole mounted installations. the item tested fails. Where more than one transformer or reactor of the same design is purchased. d.1. 4. short-circuit withstand testing. Alternatively. These tests should not need to be repeated unless the transformer design has substantially changed from the tested one. A noise test should be performed when there is an onerous plant noise specification and where this has not been already been the subject of a type test. Temperature rise. zero sequence impedance measurement. Such tests would only be undertaken following a special request to the manufacturer.

the increased cost may be justified when distribution transformers are installed in areas of high lightning activity. There are situations where an additional ground pad may be necessary due to number or size of ground connections. g. Transformer manufacturers should be consulted to determine the bushing arrangement. however delta/delta. c. which a transformer is required to withstand without failure. Overhead (pole-mounted) transformers are limited in size to 167 kVA single-phase and 500 kVA three-phase. h. Rating considerations a. Overhead transformers should be sized at 125% of connected load to allow for future load growth.1. Therefore. cost to manufacture a special impedance overhead transformer probably warrants a different solution. Overhead transformers information is available in manufacturer’s catalogue but approval drawings should be reviewed to assure manufacturing changes have not changed overall dimensions. Page 20 of 21 .3. Fabrication and accessories a. 9. e. accessory locations or mounting requirements. Distribution transformers are single-phase units but can be mounted in clusters of three to provide three-phase service. Two. An overhead transformer should be specified with aluminium windings.10 November. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors b. Modifications to mounting arrangements may be required when additional accessories have been specified.4. The Basic Impulse Level (BIL) is crest value of impulse voltage. f. To specify a BIL level that is “non-standard” will increase cost of a distribution transformer. Testing Since overhead transformers are such a standard item it would be unusual to require additional testing over the manufacturer’s standard tests.1. Spade type secondary bushings should be specified to reduce connection resistance over installed life of transformer. primary & secondary transformer connections need to be determined for specific location when specifying a three-phase transformer or making a three phase bank from single-phase overhead transformers. Standard BIL levels are a function of primary transformer voltage. Economic evaluations and specifying special impedances are not recommended for distribution transformer selection because size limitations make these factors negligible.2. c. high voltage bushing is suitable for a solidly grounded distribution system. Delta primary and wye secondary are the most common transformer connection. Also. A ground pad is a steel pad attached to transformer tank to allow for a low resistance ground connection to transformer housing. An additional accessory that may be specified is a secondary breaker for secondary fault and overload protection. b. fully-insulated. high-voltage bushings are required for application on either wye or delta distribution systems. 9. b. 9. However. One. fully-insulated. wye/delta or wye/wye may be used to meet specific site requirements.1. d. Secondary protection schemes vary by location and it is important to duplicate these schemes for maintenance and training requirements.

b. However. Page 21 of 21 .12. Single-phase pad mount transformers are not recommended due to unbalancing effect on distribution system. IEC 60076 (ANSI/IEEE C57. Pad mount transformers can be either single-phase or three-phase units. plant use of pad mount transformer will be three-phase applications. underground systems. There are no exposed electrical conductors. Transformer costs are greater for a live-front unit because of space requirements between primary bushings for air insulation and an insulating barrier is required between phase bushings and ground to assure adequate electrical clearance. fan blades.2. d. e. b. Pad mount transformers are utilized in applications where load growth is stable. Pad mount transformers may be served by either radial or looped primary feeders. Forced-air cooling (ONAF) should not be used in public access areas due to the additional protective equipment required to meet public safety requirements. a looped feeder doubles the service reliability to the transformer and/or the second bushing on a radial fed transformer will permit plant expansion by extending the primary feeder at a later date. f. Padmount (distribution) transformers General a. A 65°C rise is standard offering and is sufficient for most applications. screws. c.2. 2003 GP 12-05 Guidance on Practice for Power Transformers & Reactors 9. 9. Pad mount transformers are designed for indoor or outdoor installation. bolts or other fastening devices. Overcurrent protection should be considered for pad mount transformers. Reviewing application and job requirements may determine that a 55/65°C rating is a better choice than moving up to next kVA size. Copper windings are required for padmount transformers. c.10 November. Pole mounted primary switches should be provided to isolate underground feeders serving radial and/or loop fed pad mount transformers. e. Bushing requirements double when a loop feeder is utilized. It is recommended that dry-type transformers be used for indoor installations. Dead front transformers have no exposed energized parts and thereby provide an extra margin of safety from accidental contact. Pad mount transformers provide a secure. d. Although ratings higher than 2 500 kVA are available.3. b.2. Four or two hole connectors can be provided.2. However.22) limits rating to 2 500 kVA. but may limit the addition of secondary conductor in the future. They can be used with an overhead distribution system by installing a pole with a conduit drop. Ratings of three-phase pad mount transformers fall between 500 kVA to 2 500 kVA. d. g. tamper-proof installation without fencing. c. 9. Pad mount transformers meet tamper-resistant requirements for equipment used in public access areas. 9. Ratings considerations a.1. Fabrication and accessories a.2. They are constructed for step down. These switches are ordered separately from the transformer. Six-hole spade connectors should be specified on secondary bushings.

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