A Scene from the Hypnero-Tomachia in a Painting by Garofalo Author(s): F.

Saxl Source: Journal of the Warburg Institute, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Oct., 1937), pp. 169-171 Published by: The Warburg Institute Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/750055 . Accessed: 18/03/2011 09:42
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43. P. which are closely related to each other but which differ from the other three." MS. dated instancesof this . deletionsand corrections of BI. 6795. give the word " coniecture. or translators? I hope to attempt a reply to some of these questions in a forthcoming book. which as we have seen are very frequent. Several questions suggest themselves : what is the extent of the difference between A and B ? are they two different translations. As this is a carefully prepared copy. there have been intermediate I may copies). --Machiavelli's Discourse of Principalities. The word " coniecture " 1 Studi sul Rinascimento Italiano in Inghilterra. fol. I do not think that Dacres was aware of any previous English translation. which the writer had before him. or A2. Harl. Storicadel Rinascimento. did not like the word " coniecture. fol." in " a sacrifice of thanksgiving. London. in the Biblioteca Vol. there is a very instructive which has been passage in chapter xxiii of the Prince. Richter.ELIZABETHAN MSS. very close together: in fact. but no table of chapters. and in meane. which is an entirely independent effort. 1526 (P1. line deleted it. I must content myself with a correction in chapter xxv. 95). of Group A to each other ? What was the Italian text used by the translator. In fact. followed by the text. 364." the gods themselves appear as participants ? . 54). but the rest of the sentence follows the Italian more closely : " quite beyond the compasse of all humaine coniecture" (Harl. "di fuori d'ogni humana coniettura. TRANSLATIONS There is also a fly-leaf at the beginning with the short title : " Princeps M. There is none (at NAPOLEONE ORSINI least. it looks very much as if Bi were the rough TOMACHIA IN A PAINTING BY GAROFALO draft and B2 a fair copy (of course. II. (Harl. in measure. Vol.-all in the Elizabethan hand-it is the most easily read.' Meanwhile one thing seems certain: there is no connection between these MSS. with hardly a correction: obviously a fair copy. whoever he was. Also. have not the space here to give many The Mondbequestin the NationalGallery includes a picture by Garofalo. The Mond Collection. 56. Anglice." The repetition of this curious rhymed couplet (but without the initials) immediately places 103 numbered leaves. viz. or merely variants? Also. B2 has consequently " beyond their expectation " (fol. togetherwith the precedingone in a classapart. This seems to bring A SCENE FROM THE HrPNEROthe two MSS. the text of Group A rather differs from that of Group B. one of which has no symbolic indication apart from the fact that it is a nude child ? And how can we explain that in" a paeanof praise to the Gods. 1910. How does this passage compare with the text of Group A? It so happens that A MSS.where BI (fol. 21Ie) fancifully described as a sacrifice to Ceres2 or even as literally translates "coniettura " of the Italian original: Wolfe's edition. what is the connection of the three MSS. Welcome to mee." io- i)." although the rest of the phrase is differently rendered. fall into two groups. and wrote above it instead "expectation. pp. the second of which includes two MSS.to be published by Sansoni at Florence. have been incorporatedin B2. consisting of the phrase " beionde their coniecture " (BI. the omissionseems due not to haste or oversight. 91) follows all corrections faithfully. complete in itself. none now) in the precedingMS. 54) has undergone considerable revision and intricate correction. and Dacres' later translation.but to the fact that there was no table of chaptersin the MS. Too much is nought. How can we explain the allegorical figures of five seasons and the fact that Winter is only represented by a half figure in the background. but it is too long to quote. To sum up: the five MSS. Translated out of Italian into English. We shall see that the texts are also closelyrelated." which agrees with the first choice of BI and the Italian original . XII. But the reviser of BI. The title runs : " The Prince of Nicholas Machiavill Citizen and Secretarie of Florence dedicated to the noble Prince Lawrence sonn of Peter de Medices. fol. yet do not leave me cleane. B2 OF MACHIAVELLI I69 written with great care and a very clear hand. The contentsalso differ from ClassA : thereis Machiavelli's dedication. 2292) is a bound folio of this MS. 558-567. 2 J. whereas there are two figures for Spring. Of the five MSS." MS. and B2 (fol. I am afraid the puzzles set by Richter's interpretation are still more difficult to solve than those of Garofalo.

and Minch. On either side is a child.) . Cameron Taylor. 41. Altmann. A. deutsch. 6 Gronau in Thieme-Becker's Kiinstlerlexikon. Furtwdnglers gew. How could a classical sculptor repre. IV. Arret.7 The intention of the fifteenth-century author and illustratorwas to stir the imagina. 19o9). 21d). 1933). cit. It has been suggested that the woodcut allegorical gesture has become a ritual action.inspiration from one of the Roman grave head was meant to be honoured by this altars3 with a sacrificial slab on the top. the traditional symbol of death. humanistic) with the basket as a peasant woman. when the victim is a 'rural' ram. . Reconstructing the genesis of the woodcut. p. camillus. For a sacrifice on such an altar. reading the inscrip. Reliefgefasse (Id. i6 ff. Religion und Kultus der Rdmer 1912). . 22o. P. Valeria. and details. Wissowa. who pours out the libation . the flute player." furt. lean carelessly against an old tree instead of of the double flute. And finally. admiring their form. So does the text tells us she is weeping. Cf. full of sympathy with the miserable fate of the dead. VIII (1893). . 7. in the " Et in Arcadia ego. see Jahrb. una sepultura features ? Why does one child dance.The flute player. and when silvanocaprone." An old man and a hand ? A figure similar to this woman with basket youth are performing the sacrifice on it. thou the best basket (a cista) on her head and a flask in her lover of all. Grabaltare The figure reminds one more of a late Gothic (Berlin. and a third figure pouring wine rite with the music of a double flute should over it.Poliphilo comes their usual attendant.6 large nude figure of a woman on the left is The satyr also belongs to the realm of turning downwards the torch of life. p.170 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES Augustus' Sacrifice to that goddess.a Hypnerotomachia helper. Arch.. An sentimental one. the woman wandering lover with modern (i. his Poliphili (P1. 6. farewell.Inst. Thus various antique motifs have helped might be a reproduction of a classical model. the rite being performed to the accompaniment Arch. the child.' to the cemetery of those who died for love's Children also used to take part in sacrifices. The Dionysian ritual and revelry. why historiata. PP.. My lost one. No. 1905) and Would particularly a Roman p.or from coins and marbles. Then there are the bucolic characters. so vomRhein (FrankSee A.he strolls along. standing erect and attentive to the sacred And. while a young shepherd accompanies them and flask appears in a group of Arretine vases with the ritual music on a double flute. His readers'feelings are roused.1 But is we may assume that the author. gargoyle than of 4 certain group of Greek vases we see e. 85. a youth holding parts of the priest who the artist that the youth accompanies flesh of the victim. p. as were those who by the woman with the torch held downlived in the great past. The ritual of mourning is. be written above this scene. (Miinchen. 7 They remind one of Theocritus' verses: "0 sweetest Amaryllis. Dear as my goats to me. 1 2 dear wert thou. it not have been shocking to every classical the On a at the altar. he imagined sacrifice ? The one point which is certain about the three persons at least to be needed-the picture is that it cqpies a woodcut in the priest. Stud. Richter (op. d. negligently leaning against tion of his readersby filling the old story of the the tree. Himself filled with exquisiticruciamenti as our author knew from his classical reading5 d'amore. Ox6. But why.g.imaginary classical tomb-sacrifice have been sent wine being offered from a colossal jar ? 0 See W.e." might appropriately mind of the Renaissance artist. took his there any indication that a particular god. Suddenly disposal. Every archaologist will reject such a state. ceremony ? 5 G. n. and In his descensus ad inferos. kais. with all this information at his tions. sake.) to whom the fact was pointed out by Miss A. uno capo di love is sad as it was in Arcadia. 496. reminiscent of Dionysos the life-giver. Die rim. those who weep over the lover's tomb are Quite another association is suggested full of dignity and beauty. d. This explains the dancing of beloved Valeria. and why is there a woman carrying a inscription: "Hail. (Miinchen. who performs the sacrifice. The on which bacchic scenes are represented.to constitute our picture : the features of an ment. J. In the middle of the sepulchral is the other child uno Satyrulo holding a relief is the altar of the dead with the snake. has he-added those other unfamiliar his eye catches something new. Next to her serpent which he is strangling. The connection ward. stands an old peasant woman carrying a where there is a bacchic performance there basket of fruit to honour the manes of the is dancing. is dressed as a shepherd. between romance and archaeology is a The Renaissance artist has transformed the torch-bearerinto a mourning woman.

Wolfgang d-Sacrifice from t (p. Sacrifi . c-Figures fi-om the shaft of a fountain at St.. a-Relief (p. I70) b. 182) from the base of a fountain at St.. Wolfgang (p. 182) e-Garofalo.

the fifteerith century. from the woodcut in the Hypnerotomachia.NachlassGiorgio Vasari's. p. again in exact of postures-these are the essentials. Minerbetti. If his picture was the2 Hypnerotomachia The whole correspondence is published in Karl intended as a commemorative monument. it is their spirit which he machiamore faithfully than did the designer attacks. His shepherd has the girdle general dignified classical behaviour. They give the scene the glamour of a pagan death quarians. A general pagan sacredness. was so eager to own a design the context of the novel-the inscription. not of nostalgic sentimentalists. into an ordinary altar. But it is not impossiblethat to the woman with the torch is in tears. least of an invenzioneof Michelincomprehensible.A SCENE FROM THE HYPNEROTOMACHIA 171 mingled with allegorical elements. In the some scholar in the learned entourage of Alfonso woodcut there is no indication of this..2 'Patience' was Minerbetti's and he wished his friend to tially the same as those of the woodcut there ask emblem. What. to represent a sacrifice to Ceres or any other Bernardetto one of the most ardent admirers of Yet he omitted the one element which deity.as we are this there Against is. 1923. then.an original work.3 advice as to how to Michelangelo's still remains the possibility that it may have served to commemorate the death of a represent this allegory most suitably. on the famous diptych Nicomaand the belt of the shepherd. would he have done so ? His omissions and pp. a of uite nigra. The satyr is characterised by two of its specific contents. If inspired by the great master that he wrote a the altar is not regarded as a tombstone. to be compatiblewith such an explanation. small horns.ted by faced with a rather disquieting situation. is necessarily associated with the sacrifice in Michelangelo. as the text general beauty of plastic form and a variety prescribes it. 3307 ff.as e. as he was not in a position to acquire falo's intention ? As the elements of the painting are essen. Frey. the letter to his intimate friend Vasari. an animal's hide they can be applied-one is almost tempted with the hair turned inside. But d'Este-to which Garofalo belonged-the fact was well known that there actually exist classical repreGarofalo. Following carefully the prescriptions of the HypMICHELANGELO AND BISHOP MINERBETTI Garofalo cannot have intended nerotomachia. cum le foglie sue. 307). bishop of Arezzo. Der literarische . dated October I551. and has transformed the sarcophagus do with the representations artisthad in mind. ritual-a character at once animated and Yet he takes as the model of his sober and sad.wrong to him. SAXL Because of this precise rendering of the text. A few beloved woman. cit. learned 'An Sacrifice' an picture the Antique 'fake' humanism of Turning now to Garofalo's picture. These have nothing to on antique graveswhich too. The text says that the idea of death. . and with the general. and the child's to say with Garofalo. accustomedto connectingthe extinguishedtorch with assumption a decisive objection. He is wearing.early humanistic Venetian original. has omitted it chorum in the Mus6e Cluny. however.g. we are image crea. rightly-to reshape the body is twisted to indicate the dance move. imploring him to get original content of the representationbecomes hold at 4th. Garofalo might have been weeks later Vasari sent a design which has asked by his patron to paint such a picture a remarkable history. who thought it necessary to sentationsof a sacrificewith a womanholdingtorches add such details as the horns of the satyr downwards. and accordance with the text. ledge of the early humanists that seemed He even illustrates the text of the Hypneroto. was Garoangelo's. with less sentimental: as a pagan saerifice in picturesque bucolic details. etc.1 Garofalo's is an age of complacent antiexpressive gestures of Dionysiac ritual. F. It was not the knowGarofalo has copied the woodcut literally. a of the woodcut. In an accompanying letter Vasari told the and the initiated beholder imagined the bishop that in accordance with his wishes he name of a Ferrarese lady on the altar 1 The figure quenching the torch does not seem front. our original question-whether there is any indication that a particular godhead was PATIENCE AND CHANCE: THE meant to be honoured by the sacrifice--can STORY OF A POLITICAL EMBLEM safely be answered in the negative. regardless ment. tells a very touching story of how he alterations rather suggest that he wanted cameMinerbetti choose his impresa(op. and in his this sacrifice not to be understood as an letters to he reiterates stereotyped phrases demonstrating offering for a dead lover but as something how heavily the burden of patience weighs upon him. I.

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