In partial fulfillment of the requirement For the award of the degree of B.A. (Hons.) Digital Media


Table of Content



Page number

01 02

Introduction History of Typography Classification

04 06 09 10 12 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 27


Use Fond examples Album – Fond


Album – Fond 01 Album – Fond 02 Album – Fond 03

05 06 07 08

Typography Tips and Techniques Conclusion Bibliography Appendix

The act or art of expressing by means of types or symbols; emblematical or hieroglyphic representation. Typography is the design and use of typefaces as a means of visual communication from calligraphy to the ever-developing use of digital type. Typography is sometimes seen as encompassing many separate fields from the type designer who creates letterforms to the graphic designer who selects typefaces and arranges them on the page. Typeface is a specific size and style of type within a type family. The two main styles of typeface used on the web are serif and sans serif. Times New Roman is a common example of a serif font often used in print and the typeface used in this paper. Serifs are the decorations or small lines on each of the letters that in theory help the flow of the letters as the eye moves across the text. Serif fonts are most often used in print. There are many ongoing debates as to whether serif or sans serif fonts are more legible on the screen; this writer believes that sans serif fonts are the best option for the screen. Verdana was designed for use with the screen and is the most common sans serif typeface used today on the web. “Each typeface has a unique tone that should produce a harmonious fit between the verbal and visual flow of your content”. The art of printing with types; the use of types to produce impressions on paper, vellum, etc. The design and use of typefaces as a means of visual communication from calligraphy to the ever-developing use of digital type is the broad use of the term typography. However, the art and practice of typography began with the invention of moveable type and the printing press. Typography is sometimes seen as encompassing many separate fields from the type designer who creates letterforms to the graphic designer who selects typefaces and arranges them on the page.

Principles of Typography

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Type Size - Type is measured by its vertical height, in points. There are approximately 72 points in an inch, so 72-point type is approximately 1 inch in height on a printed page. 36-point type is approximately ½ inch in height, and 18point type is approximately ¼ inch in height. Text on a printed page is usually 10 -12 points in size. Any type below 9 points in size is very hard to read. Weight - Weight refers to the density of letters, the lightness or heaviness of the strokes in a typeface. It is described as a continuum: light, regular, book, demi, bold, heavy, black, and extra bold. These weight descriptions are used in font names to describe the thickness of their lines. Light fonts are composed of the thinnest lines and extra bold fonts are composed of the thickest lines. Not all weights are available for all typefaces and the continuum occasionally varies in some typefaces. Style - Style refers to options such as bold, italic, underline, and reverse, that you can choose as part of your type specifications. Leading - Leading is the vertical space between lines of type. It is measured in points and is expressed as the sum of the type size and the space between the two lines. Generally, it is at least the size of the type. Type with a generous amount of space between lines is said to have open leading and type with relatively little space between lines is said to have tight leading. Some software programs, including all desktop publishing programs, allow users to adjust leading. Alignment - Alignment refers to the shape of the text block in relation to the margins. Most software programs allow left alignment (sometimes called flush left), right alignment (sometimes called flush right), center alignment, justified alignment, and force justify alignment. The Color of Type - Even when printed in black and white, all type has a color on the page. Color here means the overall tone or texture of the type and the lightness or darkness that varies among typefaces and spacing of type.

History of Typography

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1450 Johann Gutenberg invests movable type. By 1455, He had completed his fortytwo line bible. 1465 Sweynheym and Panartz create the first typeface designed in Italy. 1490 Claude Garamond is born.

Claude Garamond was born in 1490. A French punchcutter working mainly in Paris , he authored many typefaces in renaissance Roman styles, as well as two italics. Many of his punches survive today and are kept at the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp and at the Imprimerie National in Paris. Though most of today's Garamonds are actually based on the work of Jean Jannon, there are a few bearing Garamond's name that are based directly on his work, and countless others were including Jan Tschichold's Sabon that owe large elements of their design to Garamond.

1950 Francesco Griffo creates the first italic typeface. It is based on chancery handwriting.

Francesco Griffo, an Italian punchcutter who worked for the book publisher Aldus Manutius, was born in 1450. He designed several Roman typefaces, the first of which was used in Pietro Bembo's "De Aetna". In 1501 Griffo designed and cut the first Italic typeface which was based on chancery style hand writing. All of Griffo's original punches are either lost or destroyed, however, some of his typefaces have been carefully reconstructed from the printed books in which they were used.

1580 Jean Jannon was born.

The French punchcutter and printer Jean Jannon was born in 1580. He authored a series of Baroque Romans and italics. A good deal of Jannon's original material survives today at the Imprimierie Nationale in Paris, where his typefaces are known as the Character’s de l'universite. Most of today's Garamond typefaces are based on the work of Jean Jannon rather than his Predecessor Claude Garamond.


William Caslon creates OLD STYLE TYPEFACES which are the model for several typefaces in use today.

1706 John Baskerville

Born in 1706 in Worcestershire, England, John Baskerville began engraving tombstones and working as a calligrapher at an early age. By 1750 Baskerville had built up a reasonable personal fortune working outside the typographic fields. At this time he took up printing and typefounding as a hobby. In an effort to improve on the designs of William Caslon, Baskerville created transitional typefaces as he bridged between oldstyle typefaces and what would become modern typefaces.

1740 Giambattista Badoni

In the year 1740, Giambattista Bodoni was born into a printing family in Saluzzo, Italy. At the tender age of 18, he was hired by the Vatican printing house, and in 1768 at the age of 28 he was appointed Director of the Press of Ferdinand, the duke of Parma. There he produced books for the wealthy aristocrats. While these books were greatly admired for their beauty and craftsmanship, the content was often inaccurate and difficult to read. His collection of typefaces was printed after his death in 1813 in a two volume set called Manuale Tipografico.

1750 John Baskerville creates transitional typefaces. . 1791 Giambattista Bodoni creates revolutionary modern style typefaces. 1799 Nicholas-Louis Robert invents the paper-making machine. . 1916 William Caslon IV designs the first san serif typeface. 1882 Eric Gill

Born in 1882, was one of the master craftsmen of the twentieth century. Renowned as a sculptor and wood engraver, Gill spent most of his adult life working in various Catholic crafts communes. Though throughout his life he wrote many essays on such wide-ranging subjects as God, typography and the glory of the male sexual apparatus. Eric Gill also executed a large number of erotic drawings and prints. Oddly enough he did not see these as a contradiction to his Catholic belief system, but an extension of it. In 1928 Eric Gill designed Gill sans, a sans serif typeface with a humanist feel. Although Eric Gill designed eleven typefaces of great beauty he did not consider himself to be primarily a typographer, but a craftsman.

1902 Jan Tschichold

Jan Tschichold was born in Leipzig Germany. Though he was sent to school for letter painting, which had been his father's profession, he got a taste of typographic design and fell in love. His interest in avant-garde design started with his trip to the 1924 Bauhaus exhibition. In 1928 he published Die Neue Typographie (The New Typography) which advocated asymmetric layouts and sans serif typography. At the time these views were considered very controversial, particularly the advocacy of sans serif typography, which people thought to be illegible. In 1935, he published Typographic Gestating, in which he reversed on many of his positions, calling for a return to the traditions of formal typography and advocating the golden section. After World War Two, Tschichold moved to England, where he redesigned the entire Penguin paper back collection. In 1960, Tschichold was commissioned by a group of German printers who needed a typeface that would reproduce the same way using three disparate metal-casting. Tschichold named his new typeface after Jacques Sabon, a sixteenth century typefounder.

1928 Adrian Frutiger

Adrian Frutiger was born in 1928 in Switzerland. Frutiger has built a reputation for creating type for new technologies, including Univers, created for the Lumitype machine, and OCRB, which was designed to be read by computers. In addition to being one of the greatest type designers of the twentieth century, Adrian Frutiger is also a sculptor.

1937 Mathew Carter

Mathew Carter was born in 1937. Carter is a type designer and scholar who work primarily in America. His text faces include Auriga, Charter, Galliard, and Bell Centennial. He designed the Snell Roundhand script based on the hand writing of Charles Snell, the English writing master and author of 'The Pen-man's Treasury Open'd'. Carter also designed the ground-breaking Walker type concept for the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis. Mathew Carter designs Walker for the Walker Art center The Walker type concept was initiated in 1996 as the Walker Art Center's identity. The idea behind the typeface was to create a family of letterforms with variant horizontal rules and "snap on" serifs. The typeface is capable of being sans serif or serif, offers five different types of serifs, and allows you to mix and match these options in any way. Walker has roman and italic variants. • 1985 Adobe

Adobe introduces the postscript format.

Kinds of Typefaces

Sans Serif Typefaces - Sans Serif typefaces do not have finishing strokes at the ends of the letterforms. The name comes from the French word sans, which mean "without." Sans Serif typefaces are also referred to as Gothic. Avante Garde, Helvetica, and Arial are the most common Sans Serif typefaces. Serif Typefaces - Serifs are lines or curves projecting from the end of a letterform. Typefaces with these additional strokes are called Serif typefaces. They are also referred to as Old style typefaces. Times Roman, Palatino, Bookman, and New Century Schoolbook are common Serif typefaces. Script Typefaces - Script typefaces simulate handwriting, with one letter connected to another visually, if not physically. Script typefaces emulate several different types of hand-lettering, including calligraphic, drafting, and cartoon. Zaph Chancery and Brush Script are common Script typefaces. Character Fonts - Character fonts are extended character sets packaged as fonts. To view the character font sets on a personal computer, open the Character Map file in the Accessories folder to view a grid of all of the characters for a specified typeface. Click on the character you want to use and either note the keystroke displayed in the box in the lower right corner of the window or copy and paste it into the publication where you want to use it. Wingdings and Dingbats are common Character fonts. Decorative Fonts - Decorative fonts are fonts that do not fit into any other group. These typefaces are reserved for novelty, for special effect, or a special approach. Because they are different, they are usually harder to read than standard fonts, so use them sparingly and always as display type - never as text. Bees knees, Curlz, and Snap are examples of decorative fonts. Typography in print - Long time ago, newspapers was typeset before they went to cold type composition.

Sans Serif
The serif sans is used to type on screens, whereas serif is good for such type on paper. Serif fonts for headings work well either way. Sans serif faces don't have serifs; crosslines at the end of a stroke. The appearance of the letters is reduced to the essential figures. Research has unveiled that we grasp words as a whole by comparing with the acquired samples in our brain. Serifs help us recognizing these samples. A sans serif text has to be read letter by letter. Well, long texts are unfavorable. It is recommended that you use sans serif faces for small (smaller than 8pt) and very large sizes. Therefore, sans serif faces are used for footnotes and headlines. Generally one serif (used for body text) and one sans serif are a good mixture.

Small decorative strokes that are added to the end o f a letter's main strokes are called serifs. These cross-lines at the end of a stroke are either: slab, wedge or hair. And they are bracketed or unbracketed.

Script Typefaces
Script typefaces were created to mimic handwriting and indeed some, such as Pushkin, were based on the handwriting of a specific person. Many have extended termination strokes so that they link together, much like the handwriting they are intended to resemble. They are neither classified as Roman or Gothic, as they may share attributes of each. As Script typefaces are difficult to read in large text blocks, their usage is usually confined to providing supplementary decorative details such as brand names or captions.

Typefaces that defy pigeonholing. Decorative Typefaces: Aftershock, Airstream, Mo Funky Fresh (font shown), Tremor, WacWakOoops!

Typography in print

Above are some pictures of type sets made from metal pieces and some other display pictures of the newspaper composing room.

Fond Examples Arial Arial is a versatile family of typefaces which can be used for text setting in reports, presentations, and magazines and for display use in newspapers, advertising and promotions.

Andale Mono font Monotype's Andale Mono is a highly legible mono spaced font. This font was originally distributed as part of the Internet Explorer 4.0 add-ons. It was decided to revert to the font's original name, Andale.

Times New Roman font Times New Roman first appeared in 1932 in The Times of London newspaper, for which it was designed. It has subsequently become one of the world's most successful type creations.

Impact font A bold condensed font designed by Geoffrey Lee, first issued in 1965 by Stephenson Blake. The mid-1960s marked the height of a fashion for bold condensed faces that probably originated when Paris Match cut up prints of the Schmalfette Grotesk font, which had been drawn by Walter Haettenschweiler.

Crass font A sans serif stencil font by Faizal Reza.

Matrix vs Miltown font Another font based on the M, A, T, R, I, and X forms of "The Matrix" movie title. The capital letters of this font actually constitute the alphabet, while the lowercase characters are variations of possible fillers.

Mobsters font A sans serif font dedicated to The Sopranos movie series, starring James Gandolfini. The lowercase "r" and capitals "J" and "L" spell out a gun for your viewing pleasure.

Gas font A pixilated font with a digital texture.

Beachman Script font A script font by David Rakowski.

Brandy Script font A calligraphic script font by Rick W. Mueller.

Scream font A sans serif font based on the Scream movie logo. It includes filled and outlined versions

Lexia font A sans serif script font similar to Comic sans MS, but with a simpler, more serious look.

News paper fond A newspaper typeface must have good readability and display faces. The examples below have been in the middle of the development of several hundred newspaper designs and redesigns.

Typography Tips and Techniques
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Determine the image you want to project with your publication and choose fonts with personalities that will fit that image. Limit the number of typefaces you use in a publication. Many experts say to use a limit of two typefaces, but occasionally this will vary. Too many typefaces can create an unprofessional, jumbled image. Look at various publications for ideas about which typefaces work well together and the images they project. When using two typefaces, make sure they are very different. One typeface will probably be used for display type, such as headings, and the other for text. Strive for definite contrast between the two. When choosing only one typeface family, choose one with a lot of variations, so you will have some flexibility with your text design. The typeface Helvetica has many variations such as Helvetica Bold, Light, Regular, Condensed or Narrow, Outline, and Black. If you are unsure about which typeface to select, choose a common and reliable one such as Garamond, Palatino, Helvetica, Goudy, or Times Roman. When using a display type that has very strong characters (type that is bigger and bolder than regular type), use a typeface for text that looks more neutral. Very elaborate typefaces can be hard to read. Limit their use to only a few words and make sure the words are legible. All caps are harder to read than upper and lower case letters. Try to limit the use of all caps to two or three words. Some typefaces, such as Old English, are not designed to be used for all caps. Use bold and italic type for just a few words. Avoid setting large blocks of text in bold or italic type. Both styles are generally more difficult to read than regular type. A block of bold type tends to darken a page.

The art of printing with types; the use of types to produce impressions on paper, vellum, etc. The design and use of typefaces as a means of visual communication from calligraphy to the ever-developing use of digital type is the broad use of the term typography. However, the art and practice of typography began with the invention of moveable type and the printing press. Typography is sometimes seen as encompassing many separate fields from the type designer who creates letterforms to the graphic designer who selects typefaces and arranges them on the page. Typography, not as in 'the art of printing', but as in 'design and structure of visual communication using written language' remains the most effective way to communicate. Especially on the Internet. Many websites mainly use text and therefore typography. The balance between visual and textual based content is very important. As is the balance between style and design. This balance is ideally based on a concept and the main target audience. If designers were more involved in the concept they wouldn't feel the need as much too just 'copy-paste' a text in after the design is completed. Hopefully, redefining typography will make its role in new media design more prominent and less conventional. The form would follow the function more often. The result would be more usable and it would communicate more efficiently. After the 'shakeout' that destroyed the hype surrounding the Internet, it is even more important to find the real value and communicative strengths of the Web. Efficient use of type is vital for the success of the Internet as a global medium that communicates to a large target audience besides designers or technology minded people. So this is not merely a design issue; it is a social one as well. To create effective and usable sites, specially trained 'new media typographers' are required. They have to be educated in the principles of (new media) typography, interaction design and the usability guidelines. Graphic design becomes 'typographic communication design' with graphic styles applied to it.

http://www.redsun.com/type/classification/ www.typenerd.com/goods/images/takeshi2/tmurata_01.jpg http://simplythebest.net/fonts/fonts/arial.html http://www.tomcin.com/rawisfresh/worksimages/MMESS_WWW/history.html http://www.dynamicgraphics.com/dgm/Article/28549 http://www.19.5degs.com/element/474.phps

Hieroglyphic Character used in picture-writing Occasionally time of an occurrence Craftsmanship - skill; cunning; manual art; deceit; Advocacy act of pleading for Sculptor an artist in carving Novelty quality of being new; new or unusual occurrence Mimic person skilled in ludicrous imitation Vellum fine parchment of skin