MySQL Interview Questions

How we can count duplicate entry in particular table against Primary Key ? What are constraints? • we can count the number of duplicated rows by using the following condition Here vFirstName is not primarykey. SELECT count( * ) FROM member GROUP BY vFirstName HAVING count( vFirstName ) >1 LIMIT 0 , 30

select count(*) from tablename where count(*) >1 group by empno;

( jst checkin for to count duplicate records if not jst send reply to me)
• want to know how u will find primary key in duplicate data .can we find a primary key in duplicate data.....

Every table should have a primary key defined. If that is the case the RDBMS will not allow a duplicate row to be inserted. The INSERT statement will fail and the table will never have a duplicate (neither will the unique index). The syntax in the previous answer (where count(*) > 1) is very questionable. suppose you think that you have duplicate employee numbers. there's no need to count them to find out which values were duplicate but the followin SQL will show only the empnos that are duplicate and how many exist in the table: Select empno count(*) from employee group by empno having count(*) > 1

Generally speaking aggregate functions (count sum avg etc.) go in the HAVING clause. I know some systems allow them in the WHERE clause but you must be very careful in interpreting the result. WHERE COUNT(*) > 1 will absolutely NOT work in DB2 or ORACLE. Sybase and SQLServer is a different animal.

What are the advantages of mysql comparing with oracle?

MySql has many advantages in comparison to Oracle. 1 - MySql is Open source, which can be available any time 2 - MySql has no cost of development purpose. 3 - MySql has most of features , which oracle provides 4 - MySql day by day updating with new facilities. 5 - Good for small application. 6 - easy to learn and to become master. 7 - MySql has a good power these days. even though MySql having so many advantages, Oracle is best database ever in Software development.
compared to Oracle MySql is easy to install as MySql takes split of second to install and it has other features like case insensitivity MySql has query browsers and those can also be used for Oracle

How to display nth highest record in a table for example? How to display 4th highest (salary) record from customer table? select max(salary) from tablename where salary not in (select salary from tablename order by salary desc limit n q)

What are the limitations of mysql in Comparison of Oracle?
Every column in a database table is assigned a data type. The data type maybe native to the database management system or may be a custom data type. Each Oracle9i Database native data type belongs to one of six categories: character number date large object (LOB) raw and row identifier. Oracle date data types only store valid dates support automatic time zone conversion and store sub-second precision. MySQL categorizes data types into string numeric and date and time types. Unlike Oracle MySQL date data types can store invalid dates do not support time zones and the precision of time values is limited to one second. MySQL supports six different types of tables four of which do not support transactions (MyISAM MERGE ISAM and HEAP) and two of which support

transactions (InnoDB and BDB). The multiple table types are a result of the initial MySQL design where fast non-transactional tables were the only option. Because non-transactional tables do not support referential integrity transactions and hot backups no mission-critical application development could utilize these tables. How can i store images in database? • • you need to work with LOB / BLOB / CLOB large object datatypes. In practice for MySQL the images can be stored onto hard dirve directly and the path is stored as string in mysql

How many drivers in MYSQL? • There are eleven drivers in MYSQL .Six of them from MySQL AB and five by MYSQL Communities.They are1.PHP Driver 2.ODBC Driver 3.JDBC Driver 4.ado.net 5.mxj 6.CAPI 1.PHP DRIVER 2.PERL DRIVER 3.PYTHON DRIVER 4.RUBY DRIVER 5.C++ WRAPPER

1. How to create the stored procedures in mysql and it will be write on where? 2. Difference between SQL stored procedures, MYSQL stored procedures, SQL Server stored procedure How are triggers created in MySQL? CREATE TRIGGER `tgr_name` AFTER UPDATE ON `addresses` FOR EACH ROW begin update products set countryName = new.countryName where products.shippingAddressId = old.id; end;

What are the data types available in MySQL?
DATA TYPES in mysql varchar => A variable section from 0 to 255 characters long. tinyint => A string with a maximum length of 255 characters. text => A string with a maximum length of 65535 characters. date => YYYY-MM-DD. smallint mediumint int => -2147483648 to 2147483647 normal 0 to 4294967295 UNSIGNED. bigint => -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807 normal 0 to 18446744073709551615 UNSIGNED. float => A small number with a floating decimal point. double => A large number with a floating decimal point.

decimal => A DOUBLE stored as a string , allowing for a fixed decimal point. datetime => YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS. timestamp => YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. time => HH:MM:SS. year char => CHAR( ) A fixed section from 0 to 255 characters long. tinyblob tinytext blob => A string with a maximum length of 65535 characters.BLOB stands for Binary Large OBject. mediumblob => A string with a maximum length of 16777215 characters. longblob => A string with a maximum length of 4294967295 characters. longtext enum => Short for ENUMERATION which means that each column may have one of a specified possible values. set => Similar to ENUM except each column may have more than one of the specified possible values. bool binary

What is RELOAD privileges in MySQL used for?
• Reload privileges are mainly used when a new user is created and you want to apply the changes without re starting Mysql syntax to use: mysql -u username -ppassword -e"flush privileges"; Reload privileges are used to apply any changes on settings related to privileges without re starting Mysql's current session syntax to use: mysql -u username -p password -e "flush privileges";

How is sub queries handled in MySQL? Sub queries in MySQL handled nested way You can see the example and understand yourself SELECT name headofstate population FROM Country WHERE population (SELECT MAX(population) FROM Country);

What are the Performance and Scalability characteristics of MySQL?
How is Sequences handled in MySQL? • Sequences are handled by primary key or by unique in which primary keys don't allow any duplicate rows and null values are not accepted. Sequences and unique allows multiple NULL values and duplicates values are not allowed

sequence handle is a concept by which we can provide a auto a auto genrated key to database like we have to provide primary key that is unique then we can use the sequence

What are the vital advantages of MYSQL?
It is opensourse sw easy to download and install and very easy forsall application

What is Query Cache in MySQL? Query Cache stores both SELECT statenment and its result; if any similar query recives later it will retrive result from query plan; Query Cache is not use full for server side Prepared Statement What are the levels of triggers supported by MySQL? MySQL 5.1 triggers only support each-row level How is Exception Handling hanled in MySQL? In MySQL exception handling is done through Declare {Continue|Exit} handler set <error variable> <some value> So whenever an error has occured the error variable is set a value and then depending upon continue or exit handler the next statement is executed or the procedure exits. RE: How is Exception Handling hanled in MySQL? Most programming languages have some type of error handling that allow the programmer to deal with errors or exceptions that are raised within the program. It’s likely you will have at some time encountered errors within SQL statements. It’s these errors that can be handled within the handlers section of a stored procedure. An error warning or exception is handled using the following syntax. DECLARE handler_type HANDLER FOR condition_value[ ...] sp_statement The handler type is the action that will happen if the handler is called. This can be either continue to carry on processing the procedure exit to leave the procedure and rollback (which as yet is unsupported) but likely to be useful when dealing with transactions. Errors can be handled on a number levels which can be categorized in the following groups. This is defined in the condition_value section. The different categories are as follows. 1. SQLSTATE 2. SQLWARNING 3. NOT FOUND 4. SQLEXCEPTION 5. mysql_error_code 6. condition_name

Error numbers within MySQL are grouped by SQLSTATE so a handler defined with SQLSTATE will handle all of the conditions raised under a particular SQLSTATE code. The next levels are SQLWARNING which groups SQLSTATE codes beginning with 01. NOTFOUND is for errors with an SQLSTATE beginning with 02. SQLEXCEPTION which is any SQLSTATE outside of these 2 groups. Mysql_error_code is for individual errors and exceptions. If you wanted to deal with 2 not found errors in a different way you could do this using the particular error code in two separate handlers. Condition_name allows us to define our own names for an SQLSTATE or error code. The final part of the handler is the set condition which is an area used to define code to be performed if the handler is called. It’s likely you would set a variable in this are which could be used later to determine if the handler has been called. What is the command for counting all the rows in a table in MySQL? Select count(*) from table_name How to view all Stored Procedures in MySQL? show procedure status; What are the Platforms supported by MySQL? 5.1 5.0 4.1 Active Active Extended • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Operating System Red Hat Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Novell Novell - SuSE Enterprise Linux 10 Novell - SuSE Enterprise Linux 9 Debian Debian GNU/Linux 4.0 Debian GNU/Linux 3.1 Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 Microsoft

Architecture x86, X86_64 x86, x86_64, Intel IA64 x86, x86_64, Intel IA64 x86, x86_64, Intel IA64 x86, x86_64, Intel IA64 x86, x86_64 PowerPC, x86 PowerPC

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Microsoft Windows 2008 Server Microsoft Windows Vista Microsoft Windows 2003 Server Microsoft Windows 2003 Server Microsoft Windows XP Microsoft Windows XP Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Sun Sun Solaris 10 Sun Solaris 9 Sun Solaris 8 OpenSolaris 2008.11 OpenSolaris 2008.05 HP HP-UX 11.31 (11i v3) (Note: please read bug #38549 before installation.) HP-UX 11.23 (11i v2) HP-UX 11.11 (11i v1) IBM IBM AIX 5.3 i5/OS V5R4 i5/OS V6R1 Apple Apple Mac OS X v10.5 Apple Mac OS X v10.4 Apple Mac OS X v10.4 Apple Mac OS X v10.3 SCO SCO OpenServer 6.0 FreeBSD FreeBSD 7 FreeBSD 7 FreeBSD 6

x86, X86_64 x86, X86_64 x86 X86_64 x86 X86_64 x86

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SPARC (32 and 64 bit), • x86_64, x86/32-bit SPARC (32 and 64 bit), x86/32• bit SPARC (32 and 64 bit), x86/32• bit x86, x86_64 • x86, x86_64

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Intel IA64

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Intel IA64 • PA-RISC 2.0, 64-bit; PA-RISC • 1.1 and 2.0 IBM VisualAge C++, 64-bit • POWERPC_64, POWERPC_32• POWERPC_64, POWERPC_32• x86, x86_64, PowerPC_64, PowerPC_32 x86, PowerPC_64, PowerPC_32 x86_64 PowerPC_32 x86 x86 AMD64 / Intel EM64T x86 • • • • • •

FreeBSD 6 Various

AMD64 / Intel EM64T x86_64 dynamic glibc-2.3 x86_64, dynamic glibc-2.3, icc IBM/Motorola PowerPC, IBM/POWER, glibc-2.3 IBM/Motorola PowerPC, IBM/POWER S/390 x86, dynamic glibc-2.3 x86, dynamic glibc-2.3, icc x86, static glibc 2.2 IA64, glibc-2.3, dynamic, gcc

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Other Linux: Fedora, openSuSE, CentOS, Redhat, Ubuntu

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How to view all Triggers in MySQL? show triggers; How MySQL helps in reducing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of database? Mysql is a open source so u can get the source code and complie ur self or get pre compiled setups based on the OS for free And if we consider other leading Database sources mysql is much cheper and easy to manage

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