EN CULTURAL HISTORY NOTES WEEK 8 19.02.2008 17.36 – 18.

10 Session #7 – will be part of exam Seminar: Russell Clark on “Youth Cultures” Monday 7th of April 17.30 – 19.30 Teacher e-mail: David.chan@ugent.be *book of Kells *Boudicca on her chariot *Iceni *Colchester, London, St. Albans *battle of Wattling Street *Caledonians (Scottish tribes) *Hadrian’s Wall and A*-wall (that didn’t last) *Picts *Saxons *St. Augustine *Beowulf *Old English (language) *Edward “The Confessor” *Battle of Hastings *King Harold *King William “The Conqueror” *Feudalism *Domesday Book (1086) *William II “Rufus” *Henry I *Order of the Garter *Tudor period *Act of Supremacy (1534) *Renaissance Man *Elizabeth’s speech on imminent Spanish invasion from the Armada *Elizabeth I *Mary I *Movie on Elizabeth I’s life *Church of England *King Philip of Spain *The Golden Age *sir Francis Drake *Defeat of the Armada SEE SLIDES For more information on all notes! Britain wasn’t always an island. The island was format at about 6,000 – 5,000 B.C. The Neolithic peoples left many Marks in Britain, such as Stonehenge. The henges were probably of ritual use.

Beaker people > name comes from the pottery they left behind. Celts arrived in 700 B.C. > many centuries of tribal rule in Britain their culture of art and song is still in use today bards were extremely important, as there was no written tradition. They were responsible for orally passing down tradition Romans had a very big influence on the culture, trade and infrastructure of Britain. Julius Caesar wanted to invade Britain, but failed. Claudius annexed Britain in 43 A.D. He started with the South East of England, then proceeded towards the west and the north. Boadicea, born queen of the Iceni (her father was the king of the Iceni), offered resistance to the Romans, but was defeated. The Iceni was a tribe who lived in the South East of England, near Norfolk. After the death of the king of the Iceni, Romans annexed the Iceni bit of land. They also flogged Boudicca and raped her daughters. Boudicca and the common people rebelled. At the time of the rebellion, the Romans were involved in a campaing in Wales. Boudicca and a tribe from the west took their chance to join forces. The battle of Wattling Street. Although the Boudicca’s army outnumbered the Romans’, they managed to lose. The Romans had employed a special formation and had taken advantage of the hilly landscape, by which the rebels could not use their full forces at once. After her defeat, Boudicca poisoned herself. Boudicca’s story was forgotten for a long tmie. It was only during the reign of Victoria, that she became a symbol for victory (her name means Victory). Boadicea (or: Boudicca) on her chariot > statue in London near Westminster The Romans could never defeat the Scottish; something the Scottish are still very proud of. Caesar spreaded propaganda on the British. He said people from Kent were civilised, but the inlanders were savages. The “savages” used chariots in battle and actually defeated the Romans. Hadrian’s Wall was built to keep out the Picts. Places ending in –chester/-cester/-caster were all Roman cities. The Romans ended up leaving Britain, because they were being attacked too much. ? Several waves of invasions saw different tribes settling in, such as: the Saxons, the Angles and the Jutes. St. Augustine spreaded Christianity (end 6th century) Monks from Ireland were the first to bring Christianity to Britain.

Dane & Viking invasion – held control over Northern England. The Northern accents are derived from this. Beowulf > no one single author, orally passed down, then written down in a variant of Old English in the alliterative tradition. Very first text of what we now know as English literature. Edward “The Confessor”, seen as a good king who was very pias (devout), had a stable reign. After his death a there was a power vacuum . 1066 – Battle of Hastings > Danish were making incursions in the North but were beaten by the self-crowned King Harold. William “The Conqueror” grabbed his chance to claim the throne when Harold was fighting the Danish, and has Harold killed. Feudalism: lords appointed by the king rule different regions of the country. Anglo-Saxon lords were “fired” and replaced by Norman lords. Normas started centralising power, bureaucracy, Domesday Book (1086) = record of all the county’s lands and their owners. Henry I: reunited England and Normandy and refined administrative processes. French influence on English? > somehow English didn’t die out, even though the language of the powers in Britain had become French. This can be explained by the separation of three languages (a trilingual situation): French was the language of the aristocracy and the administration. Latin was the language of the church. English was the language of the “lower classes” Another reason is intermarriage, as not many French women moved to England. The Order of the Garter originates in the 14th century. This is a select group of the queen with no more than 24 people. “Honi soit qui mal y pense” - Shame on the person who thinks evil of it In 1348, the plague killed around 50 million people. (how many in England?) The 14th century was a period in which the church tried to establish its rules. This lead to people being “disenchanted”. Heretics were put to death, but not by the church. The church sent the heretics to be killed by … ? In the Tudor Period, the tradition of English literature was continued > Canterbury Tales by Chaucer The Tudors: Henry VIII, Elizabeth I (father & Daughter), Mary I Henry Tudor defeated Richard III and became Henry VII. Son Henry VIII did not like the power of the church. He wanted the church’s power for himself and fought with the pope in a fist-fight to the death (may or may not be an historical fact). Monasteries were disbanded by Henry VIII..

Young Henry VIII was though of as a bully. He was however, highly educated under the influence of the Renaissance (15th c). He was a scholar, linguist, musician and athlete. During the first two years of his reign as king, he wasn’t that interested in ruling the state. Instead his attentions went out to sports and women. Eventually though, he developed a strong navy and became Britain’s foremost shipdesigner. He wanted to divorce his wife, but could not get permission from the pope to do this. As a reaction, he split the Catholic church into two branches: The English Catholic Church and the Roman Catholic Church. He made himself head of the English Church and promptly filed for divorce. All in all, he had 6 wives and divorced all of them, though his very first marriage still counts in the Roman church. Elizabeth I was good at rhetoric. She was the “unwanted daughter” of King Henry the 8th, as she was a girl. Later on however, she used her gender to her benefit. She supported the arts and opposed the puritans in her court who were trying to close theatres. The puritans were of the opinion that people should not enjoy their lives in any way whatsoever. Mary I: Elizabeth I’s half sister. Was married to King Philip of Spain. She was imprisoned by Elizabeth I, and finally executed. Therefore, Spain had reason to attack England. King Philip of Spain believed Mary I should have been queen of England, as Elizabeth was a “bastard child”. Church of England:: form of Protestantism. Elizabeth I consolidated them. Next week: *Shakespeare and the English language *Republic of Britain *Victorian Britain *WWI *WWII

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