What is a Project?
• A project is a multitask job with performance, cost, time, and scope requirements and is done only one time.

• one-time job • definite starting and ending time • having a budget of costs • clearly defined scope or magnitude
work to be done • specific performance requirements


Why Manage Projects?
• Need to optimize project resources • Need to maintain times and schedules • Manage increased complexity of the business • Need to have a competitive advantage • time-based and cost-based competition get the product or service to market faster than anyone else – at least cost

Project Failures
The Standish Group has found: • Only 17 percent of all US software projects meet the original performance, cost, time, and scope (PCTS) targets • 50 percent must have the targets changed—as they are late and overspent • 33 percent are actually canceled amounting to a loss of $80 billion per year on canceled projects – 1994 figures. • In 2001, Loss is $140 billion on canceled and over-budget projects each year.

Why Projects Fail?
• Project management is facilitating the planning, scheduling, and controlling of all activities that must be done to achieve project objectives. • These objectives include the PCTS targets • Performance(P) • Cost(C) • Time(T) • scope (S) • we cannot control all four simultaneously!

Why Projects Fail?
• Client demands of a project to finish by a certain time, within budget, and at a given magnitude or scope, while achieving specific performance levels. • In other words, Dictating all four project constraints does not work! • We know that: C = f(P, T, S) • The client can assign values to any three variables, but the project manager must determine the remaining one.

How project management can help?
The project Manager cannot plan the project for the team - attempts to do that result in entire project plans falling apart! The project manager should: • Be an enabler • Help team members completing work • run interference for them • get scarce resources that they need • buffer them from disruptive forces • Plan, Schedule, Control, and lead!

Project Management is Not Just Scheduling
What needed is: • Shared understanding of what the project is supposed to accomplish • Constructing a good Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to identify all the work that is to be done. Without project management, a detailed schedule only allows one to document the failures with great precision!

Steps in Managing a Project
• • • • • • Define the Problem Develop Solution Options Plan the Project Execute the Plan Monitor & Control Progress Close Project

The Planning Step
Plan the Project
• What must be done? • Who will do it? • How will it be done? • When must it be done? • How much will it cost? • What do we need to do it?

The Steps in Managing a Project
Monitor & Control Progress
• Are we on target? • If not, what must be done? • Should the plan be changed?

Close Project
• What was done well? • What should be improved? • What else did we learn?

The Project Management Body of Knowledge Areas
i) Project integration management • ensures that the project is properly planned, executed, and controlled includes the exercise of formal project change control. ii) Project scope management • authorizing the job, developing scope statement defining project boundaries, subdividing the work, verifying the achievement of the scope, implementing scope change control procedures.

The Project Management Body of Knowledge Areas
iii) Project time management • developing a schedule that can be met, then controlling work to ensure that it is! iv) Project cost management • estimating the cost of resources, including people, equipment, materials, and travel and support details. Costs are budgeted and tracked.

The Project Management Body of Knowledge Areas
v) Project quality management • Meet deadlines while meeting Quality • Quality assurance - planning to meet quality requirements • Quality control - steps to monitor results to see that they conform to requirements. vi) Project human resource management • identifying people needed – define roles, responsibilities, reporting relationships. • acquiring people and managing them.

The Project Management Body of Knowledge Areas
vii) Project communications management • Plan, execute, control the acquisition and dissemination of information to all project stakeholders • Status, accomplishments, events. viii) Project risk management • Systematic process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. • Maximize probability and consequences of positive events - Minimize for adverse events

The Project Management Body of Knowledge Areas
ix) Project procurement management • manage the logistics • decide what must be procured, issue request, select vendors, administer contracts, and close them when required.

Key Points to Remember
• A project is a one-time multitask job that has definite starting and ending points, a well-defined scope of work, a budget, and a temporary team that will be disbanded once the job is finished. • A project is also a problem scheduled for solution. • Project management is facilitation of the planning, scheduling, and controlling of all activities that must be done to achieve project objectives.

Key Points to Remember
• All projects are constrained by Performance, Time, Cost, and Scope requirements. Control only 3 of them – the project team must determine the fourth. • Projects tend to fail because teams do not take time to ensure that they have developed a proper definition of the problem being solved. • The major phases of a project include concept, definition, planning, execution and control, and closeout.



• Planning the project work. • Planning the manpower and organization. • Planning the money. • Planning the information system project monitoring and control. for

Different levels of project planning
• Project Plans
• State Plans • Detailed Plans • Individual Work Plans • Exception Plans

The Project Manager
• Special skill sets required • Leadership • Communication Capability • Problem Solving Capability • Negotiating Capability • Influencing the Organization • Mentoring • Process and technical expertise

The Project Management Process
• 9 Knowledge areas:• Project integration management • Scope • Time • Cost • Quality • Human resource • Communications • Risk • Procurement

Project Management Process
Things to remember
• Each project is a unique with respect to its requirements, size and complexity. • Project management needs rigour and it should be formal • A project manager has to juggle between faster delivery, reduced risk, increased visibility to the costumer, cost and quality.

The Four Critical Project Dimensions
People • “Its always a people Problem” - Gerald Weinberg, “The Secrets of Consulting”. • Employee Productivity • Team Selection • Team Organization • Motivation • Matching people to tasks • Career development • Clear communication environment.

The Four Critical Project Dimensions
Process • Management Perspective and Technical Perspective – a middle path is required. • Quality assurance and risk assessment • Lifecycle planning • Avoidance of abuse • Customer orientation • Process maturity improvement • Rework avoidance.

The Four Critical Project Dimensions
Product • Product size management • Product characteristics and requirements • Avoid “requirement creep” Technology • Tool selections and choice of language of implementation • Obsolescence, Value and Cost of reuse • Scalability and interoperability

Project Team Organization
Centralized-control team organization • Hierarchical organization structure • Works well with tasks that are simple and success depends on heroism. • Useful when finishing the project is more important than team morale. • Chief programmer team – Chief programmer- design & technical – Project manager- administrative matters – Software librarian & other programmers – Specialists as consultants

Project Team Organization
Decentralized-control team organization • Egoless programming - Consensus and group work • Team members review each other's work and are responsible as a group • No hierarchy • Higher morale and job satisfaction • Suited for long-term, less understood and more complicated projects • Not suited for large teams because of communication overhead • futile search of a perfect solution to please everyone!



Project Definition
• A "Project" is a set of unique activities ending with specific accomplishment having nonroutine tasks, distinct start/finish dates, and resource constraints (time, money, people). • Tasks have start and end points, have a duration, and are significant (not "going to library", but rather, "search literature") • Milestones are checkpoints for a project used to catch scheduling problems early. • Work breakdown structure (WBS) is a categorized list of tasks with an estimate of resources required to complete the task.

Project Network Diagram
2. Analyse 4 wks 2 5. Constraints 1 wk

4. Database 4 wks 1 1. Find Needs 3 wks



3. Define 3 wks 4 0 wk

Case Study: A Project Management Example
Activity 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Activity name Find information needs
Analyse store operations

Time 3 weeks 4 weeks 3 weeks 4 weeks 1 week 10 weeks 10 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks


Define subsystems Develop database

1 1 2 3,4,5 2 6 7,8

Identify constraints
Develop programs

Write manual
Integration and test Implementation

Project Network Diagram
2 2. Analyse 4 wks 5. Constraints 1 wk 7 9. Implement 2 wks 8 8. Int. & Test 3 wks 7. Manual 10 wks


4. Database 4 wks 3


6. Program 10 wks

1. Find Needs 3 wks

3. Define 3 wks 0 wk 4


Project Network Diagram
Define Subsystems Find Infromation Needs 1 6/16/03 3w 7/4/03 Develop Database 4 7/7/03 4w 8/1/03 Integration and Test Analyse Store Operations 2 6/16/03 4w 7/11/03 Idnetify Constraints 5 7/14/03 Write Manual 7 7/14/03 10w 9/19/03 1w 7/18/03 Implementation 9 11/3/03 2w 11/14/03 8 10/13/03 3w 10/31/03 3 7/7/03 3w 7/25/03 6 8/4/03 10w 10/10/03 Develop Programs

Early and Late Schedule
Activity No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Activity Name Activity duration 3 weeks 4 weeks 3 weeks 4 weeks 1 week 10 weeks 10 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks Early Start (ES)wks 0 0 3 3 4 7 4 17 20 Early Finish (EF)wks 3 4 6 7 5 17 14 20 22 Find information needs Analyse store operations Define subsystems Develop database Identify constraints Develop programs Write manual Integration and test Implementation Late Start (LS) wks 0 2 4 3 6 7 10 17 20 Late Finish (LF) wks 3 6 7 7 7 17 20 20 22

ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Task Name Find Information Needs Analyse Store Operations 4w Define Subsystems 3w Develop Database 4w Identify Constraints 1w Develop Programs 10w Write Manual 10w Integration and Test 3w Implementation 2w 6/8 3w 6/29 Jul 7/20 8/10 8/31 Sep 9/21 10/12 11/2 Nov 11/23 12/14

The complete Case
Activity Number A B C D E F G H I Name Find information needs Analyse store operations Define subsystems Develop database Identify constraints Develop programs Write manual Integration and test Implementation Duration 3 weeks 4 weeks 3 weeks 4 weeks 1 week 10 weeks 10 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks Precedence Relationships A A B C,D,E B F G,H

The complete Case
a) Draw the project network. Find Early and Late Schedule for each of the activities. Find out the project completion time and the critical path. b) If only one analyst is available to carry out the activities 3 and 4, i.e. activity 4 cannot be started until activity 3 is completed, will there be any change in the network? If so, find out the new project completion time. c) If the activity 7, i.e. write manual, cannot be started unless the programs are developed (i.e. activity 6 is completed), will there be a change in the project completion time ? If so, then by how much ?

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful