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Maxillary Central Incisor (#8 And #9)

Chronology: Eruption of deciduous: 10 months Eruption of permanent: 7-8 years Calcification initiation: 3-4 months Interproximal contacts: (And heights of contour) mesial: incisal 1/3 distal: junction of incisal 1/3 and middle 1/3 All contacts are centered faciolin ually! %o!es: 4 lo#es 3 facial mesial: mesial mar inal rid e and mesial part of la#ial surface distal: distal mar inal rid e and distal part of the la#ial surface la#ial: la#ial rid e $not %ery prominent& 1 lin ual lin ual: cin ulum

Heights of contour: "uccal / la#ial / facial: junction of incisal 1/3 and middle 1/3 $one source claims Cer%ical 3 rd& lin ual: cer%ical 1/3 m!rasures: Em#rasures #et'een the t'o (a) central incisors is smaller than #et'een (a) central and laterals! "oot: *in le root+ sin le pulp canal+ root is lon er than cro'n! ,(ost li-ely tooth to ha%e 1 root canal. /acial %ie': pulp cham#er 'ith 3 pulp horns+ cone-shaped 'ith #lunt ape) pointin sli htly distal 0in ual %ie': cone-shaped1 tapers distally sli htly Cross-sectional %ie': $trian ular& mesial aspect lon er 2ulp ca%ity is flattened mesiodistally #acial $ la!ial $ !uccal: 3utline is trape4oidal 0a#ial surface is smooth and con%e) in the cer%ical 3rd anatomical cro'n is lon er than 'ide $also 'ider at incisal ed e& mesial outline is relati%ely strai ht or only sli htly con%e) distal outline is more con%e) than mesial outline incisal outline is strai ht mamelons present on ne'ly erupted teeth $rounded terminations of 3 la#ial lo#es& mesioincisal an le is a ri ht an le+ 5istoincisal an le is more rounded CE6 cur%ed ,con%e). to'ard ape) *li ht de%elopmental depressions and rid es $distola#ial and mesiola#ial depressions& %ingual: 7hese teeth are 'ider mesio-distal than #ucco-lin ual! 3utline is trape4oidal (esial and distal mar inal rid es are present 0in ual fossa is present1 and is #ounded #y incisal rid e1 mesial and distal mar inal rid es1 8 cin ulum 3ccasionally a lin ual pit is present Mesial: 3utline is trian ular or 'ed e-shaped /acial outline is cur%ed sli htly1 flat incisally 0in ual outline is conca%ocon%e) $conca%e at incisal and con%e) at cer%ical& 7ooth #isects lon itudinally Cer%ical line is conca%e to'ard root $con%e) to incisal& Mesial curvature of the CEJ is greater than the curvature on the distal aspect the CEJ on the MESIAL surface is has the GREATEST cervical curvature of any tooth in the outh! &istal: *imilar to mesial e)cept: Cro'n appears thic-er in the incisal 1/3 $due to arch shape& CE6 cur%ature is less the mesial Incisal: 7rian ular outline 7ooth is 'ider facially than lin ually 9ncisal ed e #isects the faciolin ual diameter ,on line 'ith root center. 9ncisal surface slopes to'ard the lin ual 2oint of con%e)ity is at cin ulum : distal to it;s center mesial and distal contact points centered la#iolin ually mesiofacial and distofacial line an les are more prominent than (0 and 50 line an les 5/ is more rounded than (/ 5e%elopmental depressions and rid es seen on la#ial surface (esial and distal mar inal rid es are present

Maxillary %ateral Incisor (#' And #())


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: 11 months eruption of permanent: 8-< years calcification initiation: 10-1= months Interproximal contacts: (esial-distal contact points mesial: junction of incisal and middle 1/3 distal: middle 1/3 $"oth are centered facio-lin ually& Heights of contour: facial: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: cer%ical 1/3 "oot: sin le $similar to ma)! central incisor&+ 1 pulp canal+ 1 cham#er+ pointed to'ard distal+ = pulp horns -root is as lon or lon er than the ma)! central incisor and CE6 is con%e) to'ard ape) cross-section of root: o%oid shape >oot is cone shaped and tapers apically : root tip pointed and e?ually as lon as central m!rasures: The incisal e "rasure "et#een Ma$ lat and canine is the largest incisal e "rasure! *eneral: %aries in for ore than any other tooth &e$ception 'rd olars( )e$* peg+shaped laterals, dens in dente, t#isted roots, etcMost fre.uently congenitally a"sent anterior tooth *imilar to ma)! central incisor e)cept smaller in dimensions1 $e)cept root len th&1 (ore rounded1 more pronounced mesial 8 distal mar inal rid es1 lin ual fossa is deeper! $3ne te)t states this tooth has the largest lingual fossa) 7ooth is 'ider (5 than "0! %a!ial: 3utline is trape4oidal Compared to (a) Centrals: la#ial surface more con%e)1 smaller in dimensions1 and incisal outline is more rounded $than ma)! central incisor& (esial outline is sli htly con%e)+ mesioincisal an le is sli htly rounded 5istal outline is more rounded than the ma)! central incisor+ 59 an le is more rounded than (9 One text states the DI line angle of max lat incisor is the most convex of any max perm teeth. 0a#ial surface is more round or con%e) than the ma) central! %ingual: 3utline is trape4oidal! 0in ual fossa is deeper than ma) central $often et a pit in depth of fossa&! $9s actually deepest of all anterior teeth& 2rominent mesial and distal mar inal rid es pronounced cin ulum 5eep de%elopmental roo%es $@as a distolin ual de%elopmental roo%e& : distal to cin ulum 7ooth tapers lin ually Mesial: 3utline is trian ular! la#ial outline is sli htly con%e) lin ual outline is conca%ocon%e) most mar-edly conca%e on the lin ual surface $of all incisors& Areatest cur%ature / hei ht of contour of the la#ial / lin ual outline B cer%ical 3rd 9ncisal surface/ed e is an led lin ually cer%ical cur%ature cur%es incisally $less than ma)! central incisor& line throu h center of root #isects the incisal surface &istal: 3utline is trian ular! appears 'ider than the mesial %ie' 5istal aspect cur%es more lin ually than the mesial to conform to occlusal arch shape! cer%ical line cur%ature is less than mesial $C 1mm less& A de%elopmental roo%e may #e present on the distal of cro'n e)tendin do'n root! Incisal: 3utline is o%oid! Contour is more con%e) #ecause cin ulum is so much #i er Crest of the cin ulum is sli htly distal to the center of the tooth! 50 line an le is more rounded than (0 an le "oth of these line an les more rounded than the ma)! central incisor (esial and distal contact areas are centered la#iolin ually 9ncisal surface/ed e is an led lin ually

Mandi!ular Central Incisor (#+, And #+-)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: 8 months eruption of permanent: D-7 years calcification initiation: 3-4 months Interproximal Contacts: mesial-distal contact points are at same le%els mesial: incisal 1/3 distal: incisal 1/3 Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: cer%ical 1/3 "oot: *in le $%ery narro' mesiodistally&+ cur%es distally in some cases+ $o%oid or round& >oot is lon er than cro'n len th Esually 1 pulp canal $may ha%e = - called /acial and 0in ual pulp canals& "roader /0 $than (5& >oot may ha%e #road de%elopmental depression alon its len th $deeper on distal than on mesial& >oot tapers apically near the middle 3rd *eneral: /nly sy etrical tooth in outh 1st succedaneous =th to erupt! S allest adult tooth S allest M0 di ension of any cro#n1 *ets in ja' 'ith root apices facial and cro'ns lin ual Fider /0 than (5 %a!ial: 3utline is trape4oidal! incisal outline is strai ht $mamelons present 'hen first erupt& cro'n appro)imately t'ice as lon as 'ide mesial and distal outlines are strai ht to the contact point and then taper $narro'& to cer%i) mesioincisal and distoincisal line an les are sharp $<0& no de%elopmental depressions la#ial surface is flat in incisal 1/3 and #ecomes more con%e) cer%ically %ingual: 3utline is trape4oidal! *li htly conca%e incisally #ut no distinct lingual fossa (esial and distal mar inal rid es are only minor ele%ations Cin ulum is much less distinct than in the ma)illary incisors no de%elopmental roo%es Mesial: 3utline is trian ular! 0a#ial outline is con%e)1 hei ht of contour is cer%ical 3rd Incisal edge lies lingual to line "isecting the root (esial CE6 cur%es incisally a#out 1 mm more than on the distal "roader la#iolin ually than mesiodistally Upon wearing of the tooth, the incisal edge will angle to the facial. 7he cer%ical line e)tends 1mm more apically on the lin ual $than the la#ial& : lo'er in the #ac7he cro'n may ha%e a conca%ity #elo' the middle 3rd a#o%e the cer%ical line! &istal: differs from mesial: cer%ical lines cur%es incisally 1 mm less than on mesial+ de%elopmental depression on distal of root is more mar-ed than on mesial Incisal: 3utline is o%oid! symmetry of tooth is o#%ious $mesial G and distal 1!= are almost identical& incisal ed e is at ri ht an les to a line #isectin the cro'n la#iolin ually $incisal ed e lies lin ual to center of tooth& tooth con%er es lin ually : the (5 'idth of facial #i er than (5 'idth of lin ual contact areas centered /0-ly

Mandi!ular %ateral Incisor (#+. And #+/)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: 13 months eruption of permanent: 7-8 years calcification initiation: 3-4 months Interproximal contact points: mesial: incisal 1/3 distal: incisal 1/3 $more cer%ical& Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: cer%ical 1/3 "oot: $o%oid or round& 1 pulp canal similar to mand! central incisor #ut sli htly lar er depression on the distal is deeper than on the mand! central incisor *eneral: Larger than central incisor $'ider cro'n (5 than the central incisor& ll extra width appears to !e added to the distal aspect of the tooth 0on a)es are positioned 'ith root apices facially and cro'ns lin ually! 0ar er than the mandi#ular central incisor (ost li-ely $alon 'ith mand central& of all incisors to ha%e #oth mesial and distal conca%ities! %a!ial: incisal edge slopes do#n#ard distally distal cro'n hei ht is often shorter than the mesial cro'n hei ht (esioincisal an le is sharp $<0& 5istoincisal an le is rounded %ingual: 0in ual aspects match the lin ual surface of the mandi#ular central incisor! Mesial and &istal: 3utline is trian ular! (esial and distal aspects are ?uite similar 5istal de%elopmental depression on the root is more mar-ed than on the mesial 9ncisal ed e is lin ual to a line #isectin the root incisal ed e slopes la#ially more of facial surface of tooth is %isi#le from the distal due to lingual t#ist of the distal part of the cro#n from the mesial1 the distoincisal tip is %isi#le Incisal: incisal ed e lin ual to the center of the tooth tooth is not symmetrical: distal part of the cro'n appears to #e cur%ed lin ually as if the distal part is t'isted on the root 5/ line an le is positioned more lin ual

Maxillary Canine (#/ And #(()


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: 1< months eruption of permanent: 11-1= years calcification initiation: 4-H months Interproximal contact points: mesial: junction of incisal 1/3 and middle 1/3 distal: middle 1/3 Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: cer%ical 1/3 m!rasures: 7he incisal em#rasure #et'een ma) canine and lat incisor is the largest incisal e "rasure! "oot: *in le root 'ith 1 pulp canal+ narro' (51 'ide /0 /acial %ie': Conical+ lon and narro' mesiodistally+ ape) cur%es in apical 1/3 $mostly distally&1 root is con%e) on la#ial surface 0in ual %ie': Iarro'er than facial+ smooth and con%e)+ de%elopmental depressions on the mesial and distal $more prominent on distal& (esial %ie': Conical+ #road /0 from cer%i%cal line to $1/= : =/3& len th1 (esial de%elopmental depression present+ cusp tip la#ial to root #isect! 5istal %ie': 5efinite conca%ity #et'een contact and cer%ical line1 Cer%ical line is flatter than mesial;s #ut it cur%es to'ards the incisal ed e+ distal mar inal rid e is hea%ier and more irre ular in outline+ de%elopmental depression on root is more pronounced than mesial;s! Cross-section: o%oid+ ets more o%oid as you et closer to ape) $ha%in only one pulp horn& The a$illary canine is the tooth #ith the longest single root! *eneral: 0ar er than mandi#ular canine 0on est tooth in arch $=7J mm& 7hinner (5 and thic-er /0 than the mandi#ular canine! This is "roadest &2L( single rooted tooth1 7he a)is is nearly %ertical! eometric form is trape4oidal %a!ial $ #acial: 9s a H sided fi ure $#ut is called trape4oidal& from the facial! Cusp hei ht of cro'n is 1/3 of cro'n hei ht $incisal mar inB1/3 total cro'n hei ht& Cusp tip is on line 'ith the center of root $'ell-centered tooth& 7he mid-facial lo#e includes the cusp tip! (esial cusp rid e is shorter and less sloped than the distal cusp rid e! (esioincisal an le is more incisal and less rounded than distoincisal an le Cer%ical line cur%es apically (esial and distal outline is conca%e cer%ical to contact point *mooth 'ith no de%elopmental roo%es *hallo' mesiofacial and distofacial depressions 'here the 3 la#ial lo#es joined $(/ and 5/ depression& >elati%ely prominent facial rid e : of middle la#ial lo#e (esial surface of cro'n is nearly parallel to lon a)is of root! 7he mesial to facial rid e is ,con%e). relati%e from facial to mesial 7he distal to facial rid e : tconca%ity in cer%ical 3rd $'hen %ie'ed from the incisal aspect& %ingual: Cro'n and root narro'er lin ually than la#ially Areater CE6 cur%ature on lin ual side than la#ial! 5istinct mesial and distal mar inal rid es 2rominent con%e) cin ulum : more pronounced than the mandu#ular canine! 0in ual rid e---rid e from cusp tip and #lends into incisal portion of cin ulum (esiolin ual and distolin ual fossa are present #et'een the lin ual and mar inal rid es! (esial and distal mar inal rid es are more #ul-y than the mandi#ular canine! Mesial: $trian ular or 'ed e-shaped& E)tremely 'ide faciolin ually in cer%ical 1/3 of #oth cro'n and root 0a#ial outline is sli htly con%e)1 'ith hei ht of contour in the cer%ical 3rd lin ual outline is con%e) in cin ulum area and sli htly conca%e in incisal portion Cer%ical line cur%es to'ard the incisal ed e All mesial surface profile is con%e) e)cept the part cer%ical to contact point prominent mesioincisal an le Fhen %ie'ed from the mesial aspect1 the cusp tip is facial to the center line! &istal: *imilar to mesial aspect e)cept: 5e%elopmental depression on root $more pronounced& 5efinite conca%ity #et'een contact point and cer%ical line+ *li htly flatter cer%ical line : cer%ical line e)tends more incisally on mesial side! 5istal mar inal rid e is hea%ier 8 more irre ular in outline Incisal: la#iolin ual dimension is reater than mesiodistal dimension mesial and distal contact points centered faciolin ually cusp tip is la#ial to center of cro'n prominent facial and lin ual rid e1 and distolin ual and mesiolin ual fossae ,cornerstone of the arch. %ery important from an esthetic and functional aspect often last remainin tooth in the arch uide mandi#ular mo%ements canine eminence $#one under ums& helps support the facial musculature lon roots : sta#le: support #rid es1 dentures1 etc! thic3est 2L root

Mandi!ular Canine (#++ And #+')


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: =0 months eruption of permanent: <-10 years calcification initiation: 4-H months >ecall: root de%elopment is 1/= at time of eruption! Interproximal contact points: (heights of contour) mesial: incisal 1/3 distal: middle 1/3 Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: cer%ical 1/3 "oot: *in le root often cur%ed to mesial $typically& 1 pulp horn+ mostly 1 pulp canal1 sometime has =+ sometimes #ifurcated root #ecause de%elopmental depression splits at apical end+ >oot cur%ature -if present- is mesial $unusual& -more prounouced distal root conca%ity than that on mesial -root is shorter #y 1-= mm than ma)! canine cross-section: o%oid+ ets more o%oid as you et closer to ape) - in cross section1 the root is flattened in a mesiodistal direction Most li3ely anterior tooth to have 4 roots or 4 root canals5"ifurcation *eneral: Compared to ma) canine: narro'er (51 mesial 8 distal rid es are not as #ul-y1 cusp hei ht is shorter! more symmetrical cro'n than ma)! canine eneral shape 'hen %ie'ed from the facial or lin ual aspect is a penta on /0 measurement is reater than (5 measurement 5e%elops from 4 lo#es : 3 la#ial $middle #est de%eloped : formin cusp& and one lin ual %a!ial $ #acial: Cusp hei ht is 1/H of cro'n hei ht1 as opposed to 1/3 in ma)illa Cro'n is narro'ed (5 than the ma)illary canine! $9s #roader /0 thou h& Cro'n is as lon or lon er inciso in i%ally than ma)! canine (esial cusp arm is shorter than distal cusp arm (esial outline is strai ht and in line 'ith mesial outline of the root 5istal outline is con%e) and o%erhan s the root $cro'n appears #ent distally on root& %ingual: *imilar to ma)! canine e)cept not as pronounced/de%eloped 0in ual aspect is relati%ely flat 8 smooth+ 0ess de%eloped $relati%e to ma)illary& cin ulum and mesial 8 distal mar inal rid es and mesiolin ual 8 distolin ual fossa! Cro'n and root narro' lin ually $Fed e shape1 and much surface can #e seen!& Mesial: Cer%ical 1/3 narro'er $'here is #ase of cro'n&1 incisal portion is thinner $(5&1 la#ial is less cur%ed than ma)! canine $cin etc& 0in ual outline is more conca%e than ma)! canine due to less prominent cin ulum Cusp tip is lin ual to line #isectin root from pro)imal %ie' $5uh& Continuous con%e) facial surface from incisal to apical end1 'hen %ie'ed from the pro)imal aspect 'hen %ie'ed from the a pro)imal point1 a line #isectin the root 'ill pass #uccal to the cusp tip &istal: cur%ature of CE6 is less on distal than on mesial distal de%elopmental depression is deeper than on mesial Incisal: la#ial outline is less con%e) and facial rid e is less de%eloped than ma)illary canine $does not #ul e out as much& mesial and distal mar inal rid es are less de%eloped than ma)! canine $(ar inal rid es are lin ual structures& Cusp tip is sli htly lin ual (esial cusp arm is inclined sli htly lin ual 7he cusp tip of the mandi#ular canine de%elops from the middle la#ial lo#e!

Maxillary Cro'n is lar er (ar-ed con%er ence to'ard cer%ical area 9ncisal mar in B 1/3 of cro'n hei ht All anatomical features -rid es1 fossae etc more prominent (ar-ed asymmetry 'hen %ie'ed from incisal

Mandi!ular Cro'n is smaller 9ncisal mar in B 1/H cro'n len th 0in ual *urface is flatter 0ess prominent anatomical features (ore symmetrical cro'n

Maxillary #irst 0remolar (#- And # (+)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: $>eplaces ma) 1st molar eruption of permanent: 10-11 years calcification initiation: 1!H - =!H years Interproximal contact points: mesial: middle 1/3 $9nterpro)imal contacts are offset #uccal& distal: middle 1/3 $9nterpro)imal contacts are offset #uccal& : 0ocated just a #it more cer%ical than the mesial! Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: middle 1/3 "oot: sin le root $H0K& only premolar 'ith #ifurcated roots $H0K---= canals fused to ether& $"uccal and lin ual& 7he root trun- is lon 1 a#out 1/= to =/3 total len th of root! $recall root trun- is root #et'een #ifurcation and CE6& #road #uccolin ually1 narro' mesiodistally mesial de%elopmental depression #uccolin ual section: = pulp canals1 = pulp horns $#uccal is lar er& (5 section resem#les canine trans%erse section: -idney-shaped $cer%ical C*& #ecause of mesial conca%ity 1uccal: 3utline is rou hly trape4oidal1 and is enerally con%e)! only permanent tooth 'here mesial cusp arm is lon er and strai hter than distal cusp arm $shorter and more cur%ed& mesial conca%ity #elo' contact point prominent #uccal rid e associated 'ith de%elopmental depressions 7he mesial and distal lo#es are ,less de%eloped. %ingual: cro'n tapers lin ually $lin ual part narro'er than #uccal1 and is smoothly con%e)& lin ual cusp located mesially and is 1 mm shorter 8 more pointed than #uccal cusp1 so the #uccal cusp is %isi#le from this aspect! (0 cusp arm is shorter than 50 cusp arm1 so it ,2oints to'ard mesial. Io de%elopmental depressions %isi#le on the lin ual side! Mesial: 3utline is trape4oidal! Cusp tip is located 'ithin confines of root surfaces mesial cusp rid e is lon er than its distal cusp rid e - only tooth 'here mesioincisal is lon er than the distoincisal "oth cusps are %isi#le1 and the #uccal cusp is 1 mm taller1 strai hter1 8 less pointed than lin ual cusp $more con%e)& mesial conca%ity is #elo' contact point $middle 1/3& allo's easy distin uish from distal mesial de%elopmental depression / conca%ity present1 note ma)illary second premolars don;t ha%e this mesial mar inal rid e de%elopmental roo%e is present! $7his distin uish from ma)! second premolar& &istal: fe' differences from mesial $a#sence of mesial conca%ity1 mesial de%elopmental depression1 mar inal rid e de%elopmental roo%e& 0ess cur%ature of the cer%ical line $'hen compaed to mesial& is o#ser%ed 2cclusal: 3utline is he)a onal! "0 dimension is reater than the (5 7he #uccal and lin ual cusps are each composed of 4 rid es cro'n 'ider on the #uccal than on the lin ual (esial and distal de%elopmental pits and trian ular fossa are present mesio#uccal cusp rid e is lon er than disto#uccal cusp rid e mesiolin ual cusp rid e is shorter than distolin ual cusp rid e mesial and distal mar inal rid es are present1 central de%elopmental roo%e is present on occlusal surface (esial mar inal de%elopmental roo%e located on occlusal surface #uccal trian ular rid e and lin ual trian ular rid e #oth end at central fossa1 and they are not ,an led strai ht. mesio#uccal cusp rid e 8 mesial mar inal rid e form almost a <0 an le+ distal: acute an le $<<0& Fhen compared 'ith the ma)illary second premolar1 the central roo%e is lon er 'ith less supplemental roo%es! (" and 5" supplemental de%elopmental roo%es are present!

Maxillary 3econd 0remolar (#, And #(.)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: 5eciduous =nd ma)illary molar replaces eruption of permanent: 10-1= years calcification initiation: =-= L years Interproximal contact points: (same as height of contour) mesial: middle 1/3 distal: middle 1/3 Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: middle 1/3 "oot: *in le root is typical+ 40K ha%e = canals >oot len th is same as in ma) 12( #road "01 narro' (5 no de%elopmental roo%e depressionM #uccolin ual section: = pulp horns of e?ual hei ht $usually 1 canal& mesiodistal section: resem#les canine $same as ma)! first premolar& trans%erse section: o%al shaped1 ci ar shaped pulp ca%ity *eneral: >esem#les ma)illary first premolar---more rounded1 less an ular1 more %ariation1 sin le-rooted 1uccal: similar to ma)! first premolar 0ess prominent than 12(: (" and 5" line an les1 #uccal cusp rid e1 #uccal de%elopmental depressions less prominent than 12( (" cusp rid e is shorter than 5" cusp rid e "uccal cusp not as lon as in 12(: #uccal cusp rid e is not as o#%ious! 7he #uccal de%elopmental roo%es are not as 'ell de%eloped as in the 12(! %ingual: 0in ual cusp is lon er than that of ma) 12(1 so as a result1 less of #uccal cusp is %isi#le 'hen %ie'ed from the lin ual $compared to the 1 st premolar& Mesial: "uccal and lin #uccal and lin #uccal and lin no mesial mar &istal: similar to mesial! CE6 is more strai ht! 2cclusal: *hape is rounded or o%al (" and 5" line an les are more rounded 0ess lin ual con%er ence 7he central roo%e is shorter $mesial and distal mar inal rid es are 'ider& @as more supplemental roo%es than the 1st ma)illary premolar $'rin-led appearance& ual cusps are appro)imately e?ual in si4e ual cusps are shorter than ma)illary first premolar ual cusp tips are further apart inal rid e de%elopmental roo%e1 no mesial de%elopmental depression : this is ma) 12( stuff!

Mandi!ular #irst 0remolar (#+( And #+8)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: I3 5EC95E3E* eruption of permanent: 10-1= years calcification initiation: 1!H : =!H years Interproximal contact points: mesial: middle 1/3 distal: middle 1/3 $#roader than mesial& Heights of contour: #uccal: junction of middle 1/3 and cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: middle 1/3 "oot: *in le root rounded1 cur%es distally roo%ed lon itudinally $mesial roo%e more mar-ed& may #e #ifurcated1 #ut rare 1uccal: *hape is trape4oidal prominent #uccal rid e 'ell-de%eloped middle #uccal lo#e mesial cusp arm is shorter than distal cusp arm mesial outline is strai ht/sli htly conca%e distal outline is sli htly conca%e cer%i) is much narro'er mesiodistally than the cro'n 'idth at the contact points %ingual: lin ual cusp is small and may resem#le canine cin ulum cro'n and root taper from #uccal to lin ual occlusal surface slopes lin ually in a cer%ical direction mesial and distal outlines are conca%e from cer%ical mar in-contact areas only premolar that has a mesiolin ual de%elopmental roo%e $demarcates lin ual lo#e from mesiofacial lo#e---separates mesial mar inal rid e from lin ual cusp& root tapers to pointed ape) more de%elopmental depressions or roo%es mesially on root Mesial: *hape is rhom#oidal! #uccal outline is %ery cur%ed/con%e) lin ual outline is much less con%e) #uccal cusp tip is centered o%er the midline of the root lin ual cusp tip on a line 'ith lin ual #order of root distance from CE6 to lin ual cusp tip is =/3 distance from CE6 to #uccal cusp tip &istal: only tooth in 'hich the mesial mar inal rid e is at a lo'er le%el than the distal mar inal rid e $slopes cer%ically from #uccal to lin ual 8 not perpendicular li-e most other teeth& distal mar inal rid e almost at ri ht an les to the lon a)is of tooth root shallo' de%elopmental depression #ut not roo%e 2cclusal: mesio- and disto- #uccal line an les prominent yet rounded mesial and distal contacts centered la#iolin ually #uccal and lin ual trian ular rid es joined to ether to form a sin le rid e called the trans%erse rid e Nseparates mesial occlusal fossa from distal occlusal fossaO $#uccal trian ular rid e lar er than lin ual trian ular rid e& distal occlusal fossa is lar er than mesial occlusal fossa cusps separated #y a central roo%e as in ma)illary premolars

Mandi!ular 3econd 0remolar (#+) And #+9)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: I3 5EC95E3E* eruption of permanent: 10-13 years $usually erupt after the ma)illary canine #ut may occur alon 'ith it& calcification initiation: 1!H : =!H years Interproximal contact points: mesial: middle 1/3 distal: middle 1/3 Heights of contour: #uccal: junction of middle 1/3 and cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: middle 1/3 "oot: *in le root that cur%es distally root ape) is more #lunt and lon er than mandi#ular first premolar *eneral: = types of (andi#ular =nd premolar e)ist: ()3 cusp type N1 facial 8 = lin ualO $H lo#es& --- most common #uccal cusp > mesiolin ual cusp > distolin ual cusp +)= cusp type $4 lo#es& 1uccal: resem#les mandi#ular first premolar #uccal cusp is shorter and less pointed than that of mand! first premolar %ingual: differs from cro'n of mand! first premolarlin ual lo#es are #etter de%eloped 3 cusp type---= lin ual cusps $mesiolin ual and distolin ual cusps& are separated #y lin ual roo%e Mesial: *hape is rhom#oidal differences from mand! first premolar -cro'n and root are 'ider #uccolin ually than mand! first premolar -#uccal cusp tip is not as lin ually placed -lin ual and #uccal cusps are more e?ual in si4e -mesial mar inal rid e is at ri ht an les to the lon a)is of the tooth -no mesiolin ual de%elopmental roo%e can only see = cusps from this %ie' &istal: *imilar to mesial e)cept that distal mar inal rid e is at a lo'er le%elcan see all 3 cusps 2cclusal: . cusp type $most common1 formin a P-shape more common& = lin ual cusps and 1 #uccal de%elopmental roo%es separate cusps to form a P-shape on occlusal $mesial1 distal1 8 lin ual& central pit---'here the 3 roo%es meet mesial trian ular fossa and distal trian ular fossa lar e mesiolin ual roo%e that separates the mesial mar inal rid e from the lin ual cusp! + cusp type $@-shaped and E-shaped---E-shaped is least common& outline is rounded lin ual con%er ence of mesial and distal mar inal rid eslin ual cusp 'ell de%eloped mesiolin ual and distolin ual line an les are rounded central de%elopmental roo%e1 mesial and distal de%elopmental fossa may or may not ha%e mesial and distal de%elopmental pits

*eneral Characteristics of MA4I%%A"5 C 67"A% I6CI32" (em#er of incisal classification of teeth Esed to cut or incise food *ho%el-shaped = in ma)illary arch *uccedaneous teeth $replaces primary tooth& 4 lo#es $3 facial and 1 lin ual---mesiola#ial1 middle la#ial1 distola#ial1 and lin ual lo#es& Erupts at 7-8 years of a e *eneral Characteristics of MA4I%%A"5 %A7 "A% I6CI32" supplements the central incisor in function %aries in form more than any other tooth in the mouth e)cept for 3rd molars -pe -shaped laterals1 dens in dente1 t'isted roots1 etc! most fre?uently con enitally a#sent anterior tooth rou hly same anatomy as ma)illary central incisor e)cept thin s more pronounced *eneral Characteristics of MA6&I18%A" I6CI32"3 used to incise or cut food 4 in num#er: = central and = laterals ha%e smaller mesiodistal diameters than any other teeth $mandi#ular central incisor is the smallest tooth& mandi#ular incisors are #roader #uccolin ually than mesiodistally $opposite to ma)illary incisors& 4 lo#es $3 la#ial and 1 lin ual& *eneral Characteristics of CA6I6 3 sin le pointed cusp $,cuspids.& desi ned to tear1 pierce1 and hold food teeth 'ith lon est and thic-est $faciolin ually& roots---sta#le teeth form ,cornerstone. of arch %ery important teeth from an esthetic and functional aspect often last remainin tooth in arch prominent rid e of #one on the la#ial aspect---canine eminence help support facial musculature loss of canine teeth chan es shape of face in this area uidin teeth: mandi#ular canine slide alon lin ual surface of ma)illary canine and uides mandi#le lon roots: ood anchors or support for prostheses de%elops from 4 lo#es $3 la#ial and = lin ual& Nmiddle la#ial lo#e is #est de%elopedO

*eneral Characteristics of MA4I%%A"5 0" M2%A"3 4 in ma)illary arch occlusal surface = cusps: lin ual $,functional. cusp& and facial $,non-functional. cusp& do not refer to as #icuspids succedaneous teeth $replace deciduous molars& de%elop from 4 lo#es $"1 ("1 and 5"& and $1 lin ual& N'ell de%eloped middle facial lo#efacial cuspO central de%elopmental roo%e is demarcation #et'een lin ual and facial lo#es ma)illary first premolar is #i er than ma)illary second premolar ma)illary premolars are more similar than the mandi#ular premolars cusps are appro)imately the e?ual in si4e cro'ns are centered o%er the root 'ith a sli ht if any lin ual inclination ma)illary first premolar normally has = roots hei ht of contour of lin ual profile is at midportion of cro'n ma)illary first premolar: mesial mar inal rid e de%elopmental roo%e

*eneral Characteristics of MA6&I18%A" 0" M2%A"3 succedaneous teeth $replace deciduous molars& misleadin to refer to them as ,#icuspids. mandi#ular first premolar de%elops from 4 lo#es $3 facial and 1 lin ual& = cusps mandi#ular second molar de%elops from 4 or H lo#es $3 facial and 1-= lin ual&=-3 cusps mandi#ular second premolar is #i er than mandi#ular first premolar lin ual cusp$s& are less prominent than the #uccal cusp cro'ns are mar-ed 'ith lin ual inclination mandi#ular first premolar has one root hei ht of contour of lin ual profile is closer to cusp tip mandi#ular first premolar: mesiolin ual de%elopmental roo%e = cusp premolar 4 lo#es 1&lin ual =&mesiofacial 3&middlefacial 4&distofacial 3 cusp premolar H lo#es 1&mesiolin ual =&distofacial 3&mesiofacial 4&middlefacial H&distofacial

*eneral Characteristics of MA4I%%A"5 M2%A"3 3 roots----= #uccal1 1 lin ual $the lar est& 4 cusps----3 major cusps1 1 smaller cusp $1st molar has Hth cusp& (0 cusp is the lar est (01 ("1 and 5" cusps form a trian le----tri on or primary cusp trian le 5" cusp is the smallest and decreases in si4e from the first to the third molar cro'ns are #roader "0 than (5 5" cusp is connected to (0 cusp #y an o#li?ue rid e cro'n relati%ely short occluso-cer%ically

*eneral Characteristics of MA6&I18%A" M2%A"3 lar est mandi#ular teeth %ariations in num#ers of cusps - enerally H cusps in 1st1 4 cusps in =nd teeth #roader mesiodistally than #uccolin ually 1st molar has H lo#es and H cusps =nd molar has 4 lo#es and 4 cusps

7H 7I&91I73

All teeth are trape4oidal in shape from the #uccal aspect 9n most teeth1 the distal contact point is positioned more cer%ically than mesial contact point $e%en if it is located in the same 1/3 of tooth& All teeth are #road on facial and narro' on lin ual All teeth ha%e a reater #uccolin ual dimension than mesiodistal dimension 4C 07: mandi#ular molars ma)illary incisors $central and lateral& All teeth are shorter as you o anterior to posterior #ecause distal mar inal rid e is usually shorter than mesial mar inal rid e 4C 07: mandi#ular first premolar (esial mar inal rid e is usually perpendicular for most teeth 4C 07: mandi#ular first premolar $slopes cer%ically from #uccal to lin ual& A00 ma)illary molars $permanent 1-3 and primary 1-=& ha%e o#li?ue rid es

&eciduous &entition Chronology:


/irst si n of tooth de%elopment: D-7 'ee-s $in utero& Calcification #e ins: 13-1D 'ee-s $in utero& Calcification of all teeth ha%e #e un: 18-=0 'ee-s 2rimary dentition completed: =!H - 3 years Completion of root de%elopment for primary dentition: 1!H yr after eruption mandi#ular central incisorQQQQQQ!8 months ma)illary central incisorQQQQQQQ10 months ma)illary lateral incisorQQQQQQQ!11 months mandi#ular lateral incisorQQQQQQ13 months ma)illary first molarQQQQQQQQQ!1D months "generally !efore mandi!ular first molar) mandi#ular first molarQQQQQQQQ1D months (a)illary canineQQQQQQQQQQQQ!!1< months mandi#ular canineQQQQQQQQQQQ!=0 months mandi#ular second molarQQQQQQ!!=7 months ma)illary second molarQQQQQQQQ=< months

0ermanent &entition Chronology:


Calcification initiation: $1st part to calcify is the cro'n& Incisors - 3-4 months e)cept: ma)illary lateral incisor: 10-1= months Canines: 4-H months 0remolars: 1!H : =!H years ma)! 1st : 1 G - 1 R years ma)! =nd : =- = L years mand! 1st: 1 R - = years mand! =nd: = L - = G years (st molars: "9>7@ +nd molars: =-3 years ma)!: = G - 3 years .rd molars: 7-10 years ma)!: 7-< years

mand!: = G - 3 years mand!: 8 : 10 years

Calcification complete: :1/= time of eruptionOJ1 year "oot de;elopment complete: =-3 years after eruption mandi#ular first molarQQQQ!!D years ma)illary first molarQQQQ!QQD years mandi#ular central incisorQQ!!D-7 years ma)illary central incisorQQQ!!7-8 years mandi#ular lateral incisorQQ!!7-8 years ma)illary lateral incisorQQQQ8-< years mandi#ular canineQQQQQQQQ<-10 years "often erupts at same time as or earlier than mandi!ular #st premolar) mandi#ular first premolarQQ!10-1= years ma)illary first premolarQQQ!!10-11 years "mandi!ular first premolar erupts !efore maxillary first premolar) ma)illary second premolarQQ!10-1= years mandi#ular second premolarQ11-1= years ma)illary canineQQQQQQQQQ!11-1= years mandi#ular second molarQ!!Q!!11-13 years ma)illary second molarQQQQ!!1=-13 years "usually erupt after maxillary canine, !ut may occur along with it) mandi#ular third molarQQQQ!!17-=1 years "mandi!ular third molar erupts !efore maxillary third molar) ma)illary third molarQQQQQQ!!17-=1 years

Maxillary #irst Molar (#. And #(,)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: 1D months $ enerally #efore the mandi#ular first molar& eruption of permanent: D years $ enerally after the mandi#ular first molar& calcification initiation: "9>7@ Interproximal contact points: mesial: middle 1/3 $offset to #uccal& distal: middle 1/3 $offset to #uccal& Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: middle 1/3 "oot: 3 roots: = #uccal and 1 lin ual $(esio#uccal1 5isto#uccal1 0in ual& >oots are splayed $'ider than cro'n 'idth& 0 $13 mm& S (" $1= mm& S 5" $1=mm& 0in ualB1 canal ("B1 $or = canals H0K of time& 5"B1 canal #uccal %ie': 3 roots %isi#le---(": strai ht cur%es distally at ape)+ 5": smallest+ 0: lon est root trun- is 1/3 len th of root+ point of #ifurcation is 4 mm apical CE6+ roots t'ice as lon as cro'n $'hole root is 1= mm& lin ual %ie': 3 roots %isi#le---lin ual root is lon est and in line 'ith lin ual roo%e+ shallo' depression on lin ual aspect from terminus of lin ual roo%e to the center of the lin ual roo%e to the center of the lin ual root until the middle 1/3 of root 0e%els of #ifurcations: mesial : 3 mm apical to CE6 #uccal: 4 mm apical to CE6 distal: H mm apical to CE6 1uccal: *hape is rou hly trape4oidal! parts of the 4 major cusps are %isi#le mesial profile: con%e) and flat+ distal profile: con%e)1 spheroidal $o#tuse perspecti%e& (" cusp S 5" cusp 5" cusp is more pointed that (" cusp (" and 5" cusp are separated #y #uccal de%elopmental roo%e can #e difficult to remo%e calculus and restore tooth #ecause of conca%ity at the cer%ical area on the distal surface of the 5" cusp %ingual: = %isi#le cusps $(0 and 50& (0 and 50 cusps separated #y lin ual roo%e $ends in the middle of the lin ual surface& (0 cusp B 3/H mesiodistal 'idth of tooth -(0 #roader and the lon est and the lar est -(0 cusp has Cusp of Cara#elli -50 is spheroidal

&istal: *hape is trape4oidal! tooth con%er es occlusally $ma)imum "0 'idth is at cer%i)& only (" and (0 cusp are %isi#le cer%ically to contact area1 shallo' conca%ity 'hich e)tends to the mesial area of the root trunmesio#uccal and lin ual roots %isi#le -(" root is #road "01 hides 5" root -lin ual root is narro' "0 $#anana-shaped& H0K cur%es #uccally -le%el of #ifurcation B 3 mm apical to CE6 2cclusal: *hape is rhom#oidal! acute an les B (" and 50 o#tuse an les B (0 and 5" cro'n 'ider #uccolin ually than mesiodistally mesial aspect S distal only tooth 'hich #roadens to'ard the lin ual (0 cusp lar est S (" S 5" S 50 S fifth cusp of Cusp of Cara#elli (01 ("1 and 5" cusps are from the primary molar trian le $tri on& o#li?ue rid e B distolin ual cusp rid e of the (0 cusp and the trian ular rid e of the 5" cusp -o#li?ue rid e is the same le%el in center as the mar inal rid es = major fossae -central fossa lies in the center of the tri on mesial to the o#li?ue rid e1 rou hly trian ular -distal fossa distal to o#li?ue rid e1 rou hly linear = minor fossa -mesial trian ular fossa -distal trian ular fossa central pit: central de%elopmental roo%e1 #uccal roo%e1 trans%erse roo%e of the o#li?ue rid e distal pit: distal o#li?ue roo%e1 lin ual roo%e Mesial:

cro'n constricts to'ard distal $#uccal aspect is %isi#le from distal& 3 roots %isi#le #ifurcation is a#out H mm apical to CE6 distal root smoothly rounded 5" conca%ity around the cer%ical area

Maxillary 3econd Molar (#+ And #(-)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: =< months eruption of permanent: 1=-13 years calcification initiation: = G -3 years Interproximal contact points: mesial: middle 1/3 $offset to #uccal& distal: middle 1/3 $offset to #uccal& Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: middle 1/3 *eneral: cro'n is smaller1 shorter1 more rhom#oidal than ma)illary 1st molar = occlusal types: 1& rhom#oidal $resem#les 1st molar&---most common =& heart-shaped $resem#les 3rd molar&---'hen 50 is a#sent roots are as lon or lon er1 distally inclined 50 cusp is smaller 5" cusp is less de%eloped Io cusp of Cara#elli 1uccal: cro'n is shorter and narro'er mesiodistally 5" cusp is smaller roots are more parallel and inclined to distal (" root ape) is in line 'ith #uccal roo%e %ingual: 50 cusp is much smaller lin ual root is narro'er mesiodistally lin ual root distal inclination -ape) lines up 'ith 50 cusp tip no Cusp of Cara#elli Mesial: similar to ma)! 1st molar #ut shorter cro'n hei ht same "0 'idth as the ma)! 1st roots do not di%er e as much----confined 'ithin cro'n 'idth &istal: cro'n con%er es to'ards the distal 5" and 50 cusps are smaller and much of the occlusal surface and (0 cusp %isi#le all 3 roots %isi#le 2cclusal: *hape is more rhom#oidal! ("1 (0 cusps are 'ell-de%eloped "0 dimension similar to 1st1 (5 smaller 5" and 50 cusps less de%eloped ---tooth constricts to'ards the distal cro'n con%er es to'ards the lin ual more %aria#le pit and roo%e anatomy some ha%e no 50 cusp---heart-shaped

Maxillary 7hird Molar (#( And #(/)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: I3 5EC95E3E* eruption of permanent: 17-=1 years $ enerally after ma)illary 3rd molar& calcification initiation: 7-< years *eneral: most %aria#le tooth anatomy in dentition smaller (5 and cer%ico-occlusally1 less de%eloped than the ma)! =nd molar may resem#le 1st or =nd molar 50 cusp is poorly de%eloped or a#sent 1 lin ual cusp usually heart-shaped occlusal usually roots are shorter and usually fused $3&

Mandi!ular #irst Molar (#(9 And #.))


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: 1D months $ enerally after the ma)illary first molar& eruption of permanent: D years $ enerally #efore the ma)illary first molar& calcification initiation: "9>7@ Interproximal contact points: mesial: middle 1/3 distal: middle 1/3 Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 lin ual: middle 1/3 "oots: = roots---mesial root cur%es distally and the distal root points in a distal direction $roots are #road la#iolin ually& #uccal %ie': = roots $mesial and distal& -#ifurcation is 3 mm apical to CE6 -roots are 'ider (5 on #uccal than on lin ual -de%elopmental depressions on mesial and distal aspects of each root and #uccally on root trun- from CE6 to furcation $hour- lass shape& 1uccal: *hape is trape4oidal! H cusps %isi#le $lin ual cusps is taller than the #uccal cusps& (" cusp S 5" cusp S distal cusp = roo%es -(" de%elopmental roo%e shorter and terminates in middle 1/3 of tooth1 mesial to the #ifurcation -5" de%elopmental roo%e terminates in cer%ical 1/3 near 5" line an le cer%ical line cur%es apically mesial outline is con%e) and conca%e+ distal outline is con%e) and strai ht conca%ity is small at the CE6 %ingual: 3 cusps %isi#le $(01 501 and distal& (0 S 50 $'ider and taller& lin ual de%elopmental roo%e separatin (0 and 50 cusps mesial and distal aspects of the cro'n %isi#le due to lin ual con%er ence = roots: lon er on lin ual than #uccal $J 1mm& #ecause CE6 is more coronal CE6 is 4mm from #ifurcation $#ifurcation is in line 'ith lin ual roo%e& root narro's faciolin ually Mesial: *hape is rhom#oid! = cusps $(5 and (0& and 1 root $mesial& are %isi#le distal portion of tooth is I37 %isi#le -mesial of tooth is #roader "0 than distal -mesial cusps are taller/hi her than distal cusps tooth con%er es distolin ually cro'n has a lin ual tilt in relation to its root a)is (" cusp in line 'ith #uccal 1/3 mesial root lin ual cusp tip in line 'ith lin ual 1/3 of the root #lunt root ape) that lies under (" cusp+ sli ht mesial de%elopmental depression on root cer%ical line cur%es occlusally----1 mm+ cer%ical line is hi her lin ually than #uccally &istal: more tooth %isi#le---can see all cusps $tooth is shorter and narro'er to distal& distal mar inal rid e is shorter and dips cer%ically 5" de%elopmental roo%e ends on distal surface at disto#uccal line an le---can see 5" roo%e distal cusp ma-es up the distal contact 2cclusal: *hape is he)a onal or D sided! (5 'idth of cro'n is reater than "0 cro'n is 'ider "0 on mesial aspect $tapers distally& cro'n is 'ider (5 on #uccal aspect $tapers lin ually&---#ecause the 3 rd cusp is on #uccal (" S (0 S or B 50 S 5" S 5 most #uccal surface %isi#le tooth narro's mesiodistally 1 major fossa B central fossa----circular1 centrally placed #et'een cusp rid es #oundaries of central fossa -distal slope of (" cusp -mesial and distal slopes of 5" cusp -mesial slope of distal cusp -distal slope of (0 cusp -mesial slope of 50 cusp = minor fossae B mesial trian ular fossa and distal trian ular fossa $#ase of trian le at mar inal rid e& de%elopmental roo%es -central de%elopmental roo%e $mesial mar inal rid e1 distal mar inal rid e& -mesio#uccal de%elopmental roo%e $(" from 5" cusp& -disto#uccal de%elopmental roo%e $5" cusp from distal cusp& -lin ual de%elopmental roo%e can ha%e central pit at #ase of fossa -mesial and distal pit

Mandi!ular 3econd Molar (#(8 And #.()


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: =7 months eruption of permanent: 11-13 years calcification initiation: = G -3 years Interproximal contact points: $more cer%ical than mand! 1st molars& mesial: middle 1/3 distal: middle 1/3 Heights of contour: #uccal: cer%ical 1/3 $not as pronounced& lin ual: middle 1/3 *eneral: smaller than mandi#ular 1st molar 4 cusps $("1 (01 5"1 50&----no distal or Hth cusp = roots $mesial and distal root&---roots are not as #road #uccolin ually $narro'er& roots are not as 'idely separated as in the 1st mandi#ular molar 1uccalal: *hape is trape4oidal! cro'n is shorter and narro'er than the first molar 4 cusps %isi#le $("1 5"1 (01 and 50& -lin ual cusps are taller and more pointed than #uccal cusps #uccal de%elopmental roo%e separates = #uccal cusps cer%ical line points to'ard #ifurcation roots closer1 more parallel1 inclined distally root trun- is shorter %ingual: *hape is trape4oidal! cro'n con%er es to lin ual #ut less than the 1st molar CE6 hi her on lin ual than on #uccal can only see = cusps $lin ual cusps& Mesial: similar to 1st molar e)cept: #uccal cur%ature and #uccal cer%ical rid e are less pronounced cer%ical line is less cur%ed mesial root more pointed ape) #uccal hei ht of contour $cer%ical 1/3& is not as pronounced &istal: no distal cusp can see more of occlusal surface 2cclusal: *hape is rectan ular! no distal cusp---rectan ular 5" cusp is more prominent all 4 cusps relati%ely e?ual in si4e cross-shaped de%elopmental roo%es $central1 lin ual1 and #uccal roo%es& -central roo%e runs mesiodistally more supplemental roo%es---'rin-ly appearance

Mandi!ular 7hird Molar (#(' And #.+)


Chronology: eruption of deciduous: I3 5EC95E3E* eruption of permanent: 17-=1 years $ enerally #efore ma)illary 3rd molar& calcification initiation: 8-10 years *eneral: ma)illary and mandi#ular 3rd molars are most %aria#le teeth in mouth-----mandi#ular 3rd molar is the second most %aria#le tooth in mouth usually similar to other mandi#ular molars anomalies: -most of mandi#ular 3rd cro'ns are o%ersi4ed -most ma)illary 3rd molars are undersi4ed mandi#ular 3rd molars are commonly impacted cro'n tends to #e lar er and ha%e more cusps -4 cusps---cross-shaped -H cusps---P-shaped -D cusps 1uccal: = cusps and = roots $shorter& %ingual: *imilar to #uccal Mesial: root shorter and more tapered &istal: similar to mesial #ut narro'er 2cclusal: more rounded

&eciduous (0rimary) 7eeth


=0 in num#er erupt from 8-30 months and complete at =!H years pattern of eruption: Central incisors: $mand1 ma)& 0ateral incisors: $ma)1 mand& /irst molars: $ma)1 mand& Canines: $ma)1 mand& *econd molars: $mand1 ma)& pattern of e)foliation: 9ncisors /irst molars Canines *econd molars - hi hest caries ris- #ecause of anatomy of occlusal 8 are present the lon est 7eeth e)foliate #et'een D-1= years >esorption #e ins 1-= years after root formation is complete and initiates at ape)! Anterior permanent teeth de%elop lin ual to the primary teeth $lin ual is resor#ed #efore the facial& 2osterior permanent teeth de%elop #et'een roots of primary teeth 1= permanent teeth erupt distal to the primary second molars! 7hese are referred to as accessional or nonsuccedaneous teeth! Importance of primary teeth: 1! (echanical preparation of food =! (aintenance of space: Early loss may cause se%ere cro'din 2rimary teeth maintain space for permanent teeth 3! *peech 4! Appearance H! *timulate ro'th of mandi#le and ma)illary 0rimate space: A space that e)ists mesial to the primary ma)illary canine and distal to the primary mandi#ular canine in some deciduous dentitions+ named after similarity found in primate dentition %ee<ay space: Com#ined (5 'idths of permanent canine and premolars is less than the com#ined (5 'idths of the primary canine and molars $the surplus space& : #/c permanent premolars are smaller than the primary molars 0rimary 7ooth ma)illary first molar ma)illary second molar mandi#ular first molar mandi#ular second molar 0ermanent 7ooth It "esem!les permanent premolar permanent ma)illary first molar does not resem#le any other tooth permanent mandi#ular first molar

Comparison of 0rimary and 0ermanent 7eeth


1! =! 2rimary teeth are smaller in o%erall cro'n si4e and dimensions than correspondin permanent teeth 2rimary cro'ns are more #ul#ous prominent/pronounced cer%ical rid es #uccal surface of primary molars la#ial and lin ual surfaces of the anterior primary teeth ha%e a prominent #ul e in the cer%ical third 3! 2rimary teeth ha%e pronounced cer%ical constriction constricted nec- to the tooth due to prominence of cer%ical #ul e/rid es primary cro'ns ha%e #ul-y cer%ical rid es follo'ed #y constricted nec-s to the teeth at the CE6 4! 2rimary teeth are li hter/'hiter in color H! Enamel of primary teeth is thinner and has a consistent thic-ness $1 mm& D! 2rimary teeth ha%e lar e pulp cham#ers 'ith prominent pulp horns pulp horns tend to #e relati%ely taller root trun- is shorter 7! 5entin thic-ness of primary teeth is thin o%er pulp horns 8! Enamel rods of primary teeth are in a different direction to primary teeth the rods at the cer%i) slope hori4ontally or occlusally instead of in i%ally as in the permanent teeth <! 3cclusal con%er ence of primary teeth: the occlusal surfaces are relati%ely smaller than in the permanent teeth #uccal and lin ual surfaces con%er e mar-edly to'ard the occlusal 10! >oots of primary teeth are proportionately lon er and more slender (olar teeth ha%e a short root trun>oots of posterior teeth are %ery flared #ecause permanent premolars de%elop in #et'een the roots of the primary molars 11! Anterior teeth cro'ns of primary teeth are 'ider mesiodistally in comparison 'ith their cro'n len th than are the permanent teeth

0rimary Maxillary Central Incisor ( And #)


*eneral: de%elops from 4 lo#es $3 facial and 1 lin ual& root: cone-shaped1 lon and slender dimensions: -(5 S "0 -(5 S 9A -cro'n tapers from facial to lin ual -root tapers from facial to lin ual %a!ial: Fider (5 than tall $/0& (5 diameter $D!H mm& of cro'n is reater than the inciso in i%al len th $D!0 mm& opposite to the permanent central incisors only incisor in either dentition 'ith this feature root len th is proportionately reater than permanent central incisor root/cro'n for primary central B 10/D root/cro'n for permanent central B 10/13 %ingual: anatomy is similar to permanent central incisor mesial and distal mar inal rid es %ery 'ell de%eloped cin ulum is %ery pronounced $%ery tall& cin ulum e)tends up to'ard incisal ed e1 partially di%idin the lin ual fossa into (0 and 50 fossae more rounded distoincisal an le Mesial and &istal: e)tremely 'ell-de%eloped lin ual and facial cer%ical rid es in the cer%ical third of the tooth much more #ul-y tooth than the permanent central incisor CE6 cur%ature reater on mesial than on distal Incisal: mesiodistal diameter is reater than faciolin ual diameter facial of tooth is #roader than lin ual

0rimary Maxillary %ateral Incisor (& And *)


*imilar to primary central incisor #ut smaller1 ETCE27: inciso in i%al $9A& len th is reater than mesiodistal $(5& distoincisal an le is more rounded than the central incisor o%erall the cro'n is smaller cin ulum doesn;t e)tend to incisal ed e prominent cer%ical rid es on mesial and distal

0rimary Maxillary Canine (C And H)


#acial: resem#les permanent canine---sin le1 'ell de%eloped sharp cusp %ery pronounced cer%ical constriction mesial slope of the cusp is lon er than the distal slope of the cusp cusp hei ht is reater percenta e of cro'n hei ht $H0K& than in the permanent tooth mesial and distal contact points are at the same le%el root loo-s t'ice as lon as len th of cro'n %ingual: same anatomy as ma)illary permanent canine mesial and distal mar inal rid es lin ual rid e---tu#ercle at the cusp tip (0 and 50 fossae cin ulum root is %ery lon ---almost t'ice as lon as cro'n+ root tapers from facial to lin ual Mesial and &istal: %ery 'ide in cer%ical area CE6 cur%ature is reater on mesial Incisal: diamond shaped cusp tip is distal to midline

0rimary Mandi!ular Central Incisor (2 And 0)


*mallest tooth in the mouth 0oo-s li-e permanent mandi#ular incisors >oot is lon and slender >oot is t'ice the len th of cro'n 2ronounced cer%ical #ul es on facial and lin ual aspects

0rimary Mandi!ular %ateral Incisor (6 And =)


Cro'n is similar to the central incisor #ut is sli htly lon er 0in ual anatomy may #e more pronounced (ore prominent mar inal rid es 5eeper lin ual fossa 59 an le is sli htly rounded (9 an le is reater than <0

0rimary Mandi!ular Canine (M And ")


canine does not loo- as constricted at the nec- as the ma)illary canine $thic-er nec-& cer%ical rid es not as pronounced as ma)illary deciduous canine not as 'ide faciolin ually as the ma)illary canine distal cusp slope is lon er than mesial cusp slope

0rimary Maxillary #irst Molar (1 And I)


7ooth cro'n resem#les a premolar 3 roots: = #uccal and 1 lin ual : li-e ma)illary molar 7rian ular shaped occlusal surface 3 or 4 cusps 3 cusps: = facial $(/ and 5/&1 1 lin ual $0& 4 cusps: = facial $(/ and 5/&1 = lin ual $(0 and 50& 1uccal: %ery narro' cer%i) relati%e to 'idth of cro'n cusps poorly defined much smaller tooth than primary ma)illary second molar---almost premolar-li-e (" cusp S 5" cusp roots are lon 1 slender1 and 'idely spread $all 3 roots are %isi#le& = #uccal roots $#uccal roots are 'ider mesiodistally& root trun- is %ery short $CE6 to furcation& %ingual: cro'n con%er es to'ards the lin ual 1 or = cusps $(0 S 50& (0 cusp the lar est and lon est cusp on this tooth 50 cusp small or a#sent 1 lin ual root---the lar est root narro' #uccolin ually #ut 'ide mesiodistally Mesial and &istal: cro'n is 'idest in the cer%ical third cro'n is narro'er on the distal $#uccolin ually& than on the mesial %ery prominent con%e)ity on the (" aspect of this tooth----outstandin characteristic 2cclusal: $rou hly trian ular---'ith #road #ase #uccally& (0 cusp is lar est1 lon est and sharpest 50 cusp is smallest and may #e a#sent central fossa mesial trian ular fossa1 distal trian ular fossa central1 #uccal1 and distal de%elopmental roo%es mesial pit and central pit o#li?ue rid e connectin (0 and 5" cusps

0rimary Maxillary 3econd Molar (A And >)


*eneral: >esem#les permanent ma)illary first molar >hom#oidal outline (01 ("1 5"1 50 cusps $(" S 5"& @as accessory cusp 7u!ercle $ Cusp of Cara!elli o#li?ue rid e same fossae and roo%es as permanent ma)illary first molar 3 roots----("1 5"1 and 0 Comparison <ith 0ermanent Maxillary #irst Molar: trifurcation %ery close to CE6 $short root trun-& cer%i) is much narro'er (5 compared to the (5 diameter at the contact points these teeth may #e confused clinically1 #ut the deciduous ma)illary second molar is smaller

0rimary Mandi!ular #irst Molar (% And 3)


*eneral: does not resem#le any other tooth---primary or permanent : 86I=8 4 cusps $("1 (01 5"1 50& = roots $mesial and distal& li-e permanent mandi#ular molars roots are slender and 'idely splayed short root trun1uccal: cro'n hei ht on mesial is t'ice that of distal---C > dips apically on mesial mesial contour is strai ht or flat distal is mar-edly con%e) = distinct #uccal cusps1 not de%elopmental roo%e #et'een cusps e)tremely prominent (" con%e)ity prominent (" line an le %ery prominent (" cer%ical #ul e/rid e %ingual: (0 and 50 cusps (0 cusp is centered in the tooth ----in line 'ith mesial root $%ery pointed& mesial mar inal rid e is %ery 'ell de%eloped and loo-s almost li-e another cusp Mesial and &istal: e)treme con%e)ity #uccally on the (" cusp flattened #uccal surface especially 'hen %ie'ed from the mesial rectan ular appearance of the mesial root distal root tapers at the ape) 2cclusal: *hape is rhom#oid! 4 cusps $(01 ("1 501 5"& (0 cusp is lar est and centered in the lin ual aspect mesial and distal trian ular fossae joined #y central de%elopmental roo%e lin ual and #uccal de%elopmental roo%es mesial pit and central pit

0rimary Mandi!ular 3econd Molar (? And 7)


Closely resem#les the permanent mandi#ular first molar H cusps---3 #uccal and = lin ual 3 #uccal cusps are more e?ual in si4e distal cusp is relati%ely lar er compared to the permanent mandi#ular first molar = lin ual cusps e?ual in si4e = roots---mesial and distal slender and splayed Comparison 'ith 2ermanent (andi#ular /irst (olar "ifurcation of root close to CE6 >oots flared 3 #uccal cusps e?ual in si4e: distal1 5"1 and (" = lin ual cusps: (0 and 50 Cer%ical constricition