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africans feeding africa

Introduction Our partners Fusion farming 3 4 5 6

Part one
Soil, cover crops, bed preparation & crop rotation

Part two
Water management


Part three
Pesticides & crop protection


Part four
Pests & diseases: Aphids, mites, white flies, boll worms, blight & antracnose.


Part five
Plant stress, are your crops tired?


Part six
The harvest & record keeping


Part seven
The organic goodies


Part eight
Sanitation & health


Our daily lives are intertwined around food and water but access to these fundamental man human rights continues to be a challenge for the majority of citizens in East and Sub-Saharan Africa. As a result, we have created a dependency on international food affecting more than 14 million people in the Horn of Africa. Simultaneously, current global food production is insufficient to provide an alternative to international food aid and global food prices continue to increase. The world needs to grow more food! The solution exists in the fertile earth of East and Sub-Saharan Africa with the potential not only to feed itself but the world. Developing the agriculture sector is essential to the continual establishment of peace and security in the region. Kofi Annan stated during the 2010 World Food Conference, "improving the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of smallholder farming is the main pathway out of poverty in using agriculture for development." The team working behind the scenes at the Backpack Farm Agriculture Program (BPF) enthusiastically agrees. The BPF program provides not just biological farming supplements and training but a complete 5 phase program ensuring smallholder farmers to increase their harvests and improve their qualities of life. In combination, it is possible to achieve sustainable linkages in food production, value chains, credible finance, income generation, social and ecological domains. We are committed to supporting smallholder farmers with innovative, green agri-tech, training and extension services to enhance both the quality and quantity of agriculture production during an annual growing season, to mirror semi-commercial rates of production. Our New Campaign, Kuza (Cultivate / Grow in Swahili) is committed to finding farming solutions to growing food, communities and children in Africas rural agriculture communities. The first step to alleviating hunger and accomplishing global food security is to share information. We hope by sharing this agriculture (TOT) training manual, we will inspire other organization whether non profit, academic, donor funded or commercial social enterprise to connect with each other and incubate sustainable and scalable production models to leverage Africas most underutilized resources, its farmers! I and my team look forward to sharing ideas and incubating new solutions to feed the world!

Rachel Zedeck Managing Director & Chief Catalyst

Our partners
The Backpack Farm's partners are all leading technical experts in the Kenya agriculture and manufacturing sectors representing the project teams commitment to investing in local capacity and social enterprise "to make money doing good." Irrico International Ltd. ( Founded in 2002 by Mr. Bilu Vadera, a Kenyan owned and operated firm specializing in water technologies. The organization currently operates in seven (7) African countries: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Zambia, Mozambique and South Sudan. The Irrico team incubates, designs, implements and monitors a variety of unique water-based platforms, including commercial irrigation systems, water distribution facilities and land-based irrigation schemes, leveraging a unique understanding and respect for both blue and green water management systems.

Lachlan Kenya Limited ( Founded in 2001, Lachlan actively educates and encourages environmentally intelligent farming that meets and exceeds competitive expectations. The Lachlan team is actively supporting commercial agricultural projects in nine (9) countries in Africa, including Ethiopia, Burundi, Kenya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Southern Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.

Sandstorm Kenya ( Sandstorm Kenya originally established in Nairobi to make luxury tents for East Africa's leading safari camps. Their reputation has grown both in Kenya and overseas as has their range of products. Sandstorm Kenya designed and is responsible for the production of each backpack. Sandstorm Kenya is a Kenyan registered and managed firm. Their employment policies ensure recruitment based on skill, but actively and positively discriminate in favour of local women ensuring a trickle-down local enterprise.

AgriQ Quest Ltd. ( is part of AgriQ, a global network of Independent Laboratories formed by a joint venture between two leading Dutch research and assessment organizations of Food Quality and Safety - TNO and BLGG. Both organizations have over 80 years of experience. AgriQ Quest Ltd offers high end residue analyses in Kenya and East Africa to support expert production of vegetables and fruits geared for export to Europe. They support a new high quality pesticide residue laboratory in Nairobi and is now in the process of accreditation. The AgriQ laboratory also covers a wide range of Environmental tests demanded by NEMA, is working for International Research Projects to eliminate Malaria and covers a wide range of soil, water and plant tests for nutrients and microbiology.

fusion farming
Backpack Farm (BPF) partner Lachlan Kenya Limited actively educates and encourages environmentally intelligent farming that meets and exceeds competitive expectations. We at BPF use their fusion farming concept taking the best of synthetic chemical and bagged fertilizer products combining their application with superior organic products and holistic farming methods. This holistic fusion of seed treatment and foliar application enables sustainable, environmentally friendly farming increasing smallholder crop yields and crop quality at reduced cost while increasing economic yields in adverse conditions while ensuring ecological viability for future generations. Principals of Fusion Farming 1. Seed dressing using Phosphorous, Humic acid and trace elements like Zinc. 2. Reduce basal bagged fertilizer, mixed with Humic acid. 3. Stabilized NH2 Nitrogen with Nitrogen fixation 4. Soil-bio and plant stimulation 5. Foliar applications of P, K + other elements; application(s) determined by soil/moisture conditions, driving and crop yield potential 6. Reduced Disease and Insect pressure with specialized nutrition and biologicals/botanicals inputs. Stage 1 ensures fertility and seed germination with a unique combination of seed dressing and eco-friendly fertilizers. Seed dressing includes Phosphorous, potassium, trace elements like Zinc, Biostimulants (Vitazyme) and Trichoderma. Together, they reduce DAP requirement ; the fertilizer being both heavy, expensive and counter-productive to long term soil fertility. Twinn N replaces Nitrogen Nitrate with stabilized NH3 and supplement up to 50% N requirement by Nitrogen fixation reducing CAN rates.

part one

soil, cover crops, bed preparation & crop rotation

To be able to grow strong crops, it is important to keep your soil fertile and make sure soil is healthy. There are easy ways to sustaining your soil and keeping it healthy. By taking soil samples to examine, crop rotate, green manure and cover crops strong fertilizers are not always needed and organic ways such as compost and manure will ensure your soil is just as healthy as if you where using fertilizers. LEARNING ABOUT SOIL
To farm sustainably do not only grow crops, grow fertile soil that has the nutrients plants need. Take a soil sample and examine. Look closely for differences in color, texture, structure, smell and the presence / absence of worms and insects. Soil that has good texture, structure and fetrility allows air, water, nutrients and plant roots to move through it, this improves the soils ability to grow crops and resist erosion. Perhaps taste the soil to compare pH (sweet / sour) Take a small amount in the hand and mix with water. Is it sticky, rough, smooth or falls apart? Discuss which of these differences may have been caused naturally by wind and weather or by how the land was used.


Soil testing service is provided by AgriQ Quest Soil testing bags are available at Backpack Farm Franchises PLAN to test your soil 3-4 weeks before planting. Return your soil test bag to Backpack Farm Franchise Results will be returned within 2 weeks Pay via MPESA or Equity Bank


The soil pH is designed to measure hydrogen ions in soil (or H+.) A low H+ reading is reflective of a high soil pH, and that means that the soil pH is above 7.0. This type of soil is alkaline/sweet. A medium H+ reading is reflective of neutral pH - or a pH level of right around 7.0. A high H+ reading indicates a low soil pH or a pH reading that is below 7.0, meaning the soil is acidic/sour. Knowing if the soil pH is acidic or basic is very important, if soil is to acidic the applied pesticides will not be absorbed and held in the ground. If pesticides are not absorbed there is a risk of them eventually becoming pollutants in rivers, lakes and ground water.


When soil pH needs to be lowered, it has too great an alkaline content and needs to be adjusted so that it will become more acidic. If dried leaves or pine needles are added the soil becomes more acid. To lower the pH, it is necessary to amend the soil with something that will add hydrogen ions. To make soil less acid add limestone, wood ash, ground animal bones ad seashells. There aren't really any chemicals that can lower pH levels safely and substantial quantities must come from organic matter as it gets broken down and decomposed by soil bacteria. How fast the organic matter breaks down varies according to soil type, temperature and the amount of available bacteria to break it down.


Compost - you will need to dig roughly 14 pounds of compost into every square yard of soil. Manure Requires 2.7kg of manure into every square metre of soil. Peat Moss N/A in Kenya Use DAP/ Urea fertilizer Use fertilizers that contain Sulphur e.g. ammonium sulphate.


Green manures are plants that help fertilize the soil and adds nutrients and organic matter to the soil. Green manure crops are grown for a specific period, then plowed and incorporated in the soil. These plants work as cover crops to choke out weeds and eliminate need for herbicides. Many green manures are from the legume family; plants with seed pods such as peas, beans and tamarind trees which also add nitrogen to the soil making soil more fertile. Cover crops are crops who's main purpose is to benefit the soil or the other crops. They are not intended for feed or sale. Crop Covers: Runner Bean, Sorghum, Pigeon peas, cowpeas, green grams, millet The best cover crop is a mix of plants, a grain that grows fast and tall will add organic matter to the soil, while a bean crop will add nitrogen and will cover the ground


Grow them together with primary crops such as maize, millet and cassava. Plant them when the land is going to be left to rest (fallow). A one year fallow with green manure will improve soil, kill weeds just as well as a five year fallow with no green manure. Grow them during the dry season after the main crop is harvest as a break crop!

CROP Tomato Onion Melons Courgettes Cucumber Green Leafy Vegetables (Cabbage, Kale, Sukuma Wiki) Maize Beans Potatoes Sorghum 30cm x 75 cm 20 cm x 30 cm 30 cm x 50 cm 30 cm x 90 cm SPACING 30cm -60cm x 60cm 8cm - 12cm x 20cm 60 - 100cm x 150cm - 200cm 100cm x 100cm 30 - 60cm x 50cm - 60cm 40cm x 40cm

PRIMARY CROP Onion Melons Courgettes Cucumber Green Leafy Vegetables (Cabbage, Kale, Sukuma) Maize Beans Potatoes Sorghum Tomato ROTATED CROP Green leafy vegetables Beans Sorghum Pigeon peas Maize/sorghum TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION Disease control Nitrogen fixing Disease control Disease control/ nitrogen fixation For disease control

Beans Maize Beans Pigeon peas Maize

Nitrogen fixation To make use of nitrogen from bean Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen fixation Disease control


Rotate crops after each planting season. 2 ways to prevent disease and pests are to rotate and plant a variety of crops Crops in the same family can get the same pests and diseases. Example: If you always plant potatoes, potato beetles may come to live in the field. But if every 3 years you plant something they can not eat, the beetles will die. Also improves soil quality by adding different nutrients . Some strong smelling herbs and vegetables keep pests away. Some flowers attract predators that eat pests Some plants trap pests.

Irrigation and fertigation. Daily irrigation recommended. Several intervals in the day. Media & crop age dependent. Young Plant would require 0.25litres/day. Mature plant would require 250mls/day. (250mls x 550plants = 140lits) 9

Irrigate 2 times/day of 15minutes each time. Total = 30mins/day Remember dripper rate 0.5mins/Hr. Avoid over-irrigation

Acre is 1,000 SQM Width: 1m wide with 1/2m path. Height: 15- 20cm high. Beds should be oriented to follow the same direction as wind to avoid lodging of crops.
70cm 15 - 20 cm 30 - 50 cm

Double Dig Some crops require direct sowing in the main field other require sowing in nursery before being transplanted Crops that go directly to the field include; beans, maize, sorghum, peas, green grams, carrots etc. Crops that require a nursery include; tomatoes, passion, spinach etc. Double digging to a fine tilth is required. Plant crops in the shade of trees to protect crops and soil from drying out. Some trees bring water up from deep in the ground for shallow rooted plants to use. Apply compost / fertilizer and incorporate it into the soil to fine tilth. Fresh manure not suitable for crops, May burn crop. Application should be 1ton/120sq M. Initial irrigation: Irrigate the plot until you achieve a full wetted strip along the drip line. It is especially important in light soils. Plant or sow in wet soil. Irrigate the plot after planting/sowing (young plants/seeds are very sensitive to dry soil). Short irrigation intervals (6times/day) of 10 mins for 1-2 wks. Lengthen intervals to allow for deep rooting. During the rainy season it is very important to continue with the irrigation. If the rainfall is effective (not just a drizzle) start irrigating 1 day after the rain has stopped (it is recommended especially in light soils).

They cover the soil, protecting it from erosion and helping it hold water. They add organic matter to the soil, making it more fertile. After using green manures for several years, the soil becomes easier to work. There are no costs for labor or transport because green manures grow right in the field where they are used. Cover crops can attract beneficial insects. Many cover crops can suppress weed growth by altering light and temperature, and create a barrier for emerging weed seedlings. Planted with other crops, they control weeds and insects. When trees are used as green manure it can provide firewood. MANY provide food or fodder for animals!


Too Much fertilizer can burn the crop. If chemical fertilizers are used it is very important to add natural fertilizers along with them. Do not apply fertilizers close to the plant stem. Incorporate into the soil Too much animal manure can burn the crop. Too much animal manure will cause too many nutrients to build up in the soil and can pollute waterways. Fresh manure carries germs that can cause illness, do not place fresh manure near drainage ditches or waterways and always wash hands after handling manure. Too Much water can starve the plants of oxygen. Root airs die and nutrients uptake strained.



part two
water management


Water is one of the prime elements responsible for life on earth, with out water we can not live. Water circulates through the human body just as it does through land, transporting, dissolving nutrients and organic matter. In developing countries where water is a scares source, it is of extremely important matter that each drop of water obtained is used to its full capacity. Where it be for human use or crops, there are ways of using your water sources in a sustainable way. By harvesting rainwater and with the use of drip irrigation lives of many people have changed for the better and that number will increase with the help of education and knowledge of the procedure. DRIP IRRIGATION HOW DOES IT WORK?
Drip irrigation is a method which allows you to irrigate and fertigate your plants in the most water sufficeint way. Through a network as shown, right, the system lets water drip slowly to the roots of the plants, either on the soil surface or directly on the root zone. Gravity Fed Irrigation 0.5-0.6lit/hr 700 m2 8mm commercial hydrogoal with drippers Simple installation & maintenance


Even though there is an initial cost, and may need special training, drip irrigation will increase yield and quality of your crops. Drip irrigation is also a good opportunity for landless farmers, who have to consider labor costs. With the drip irrigation there is no need for as much labor as without drip irrigation. Controlled irrigation: no stress to plants. Uniform water distribution: maximum efficiency. Easy fertigation: effective fertilizer application. Low cost suitable for small farmers. Water distribution throughout the field No water leaching below root system Prevention of evaporation from surface. No wind effect on water distribution Good soil aeration No wetting of foliage Reduced weed control expenses The system is suitable for all types of soils, climates and water. Its suitable for use in flat land or slight slopes. Water source should be close to the plot. Brings water directly to the plant roots. No wastage through off-target- applications. Plant uses its energy to develop production and not searching for water. Fertilizers (plant food) can be brought directly to the roots (fertigation).

If your decide to use drip irrigation, you will have to maintain your tank and look after you system. Clean water tank of all sediments and residues & fill to top. Connect the system and leave distribution pipe and laterals ends open! Clean (Flush) the filter daily (Demonstrate). Flush the drip lines on weekly basis: Open the main valve to flush distribution pipe for 5-10 minutes (until clear water flows out!). Fold pipes end and tie it up.



When water is scarce the burden to collect and travel long distances to provide for their families often fall on the women and children in the community. This leads to a series of consequenses in the community. The women and children suffer injuries to their necks, backs and hips. Which will come to effect them later on in life. Collecting water from far away places is also not safe, women and young girls may encounter sexual abuse, with no way of screaming for help. The search for water and the long treck to collect, can lead to children missing school and women not having enough time for other chores in the home. Crops may not be looked after as they should and caring for children will not be done. It is therefore very important that if there is a water issue in the community, that everyone is involved in solving and collecting. The best way to avoid water scarcity is to make sure you preserve the water you have. To harvest rainwater and look after your water sources close to home and keep them uncontaminated and safe.


With the help of drip irrigation, crops will increase, which will lead to a better chance of families meeting their nutrient requirement. Adult women are less likely to reach her requirements then her male counterparts. Women will often eat left over or wait until the rest of the family is fed, which leaves her with insufficient left over's. Reducing women's workload, will have significant positive impact on the family food and nutritional intake. Women play a predominant role by contributing a large amount of the total labor use. Apart from seed and bed preparation and to some extent sowing, women are found to be the dominant role in all aspects of the production Drip irrigation will help small scale farming women and have an impact generating opportunities for female labor. Womens workload will be reduced with the adaption of the dripsystem. Apart from the women not having to travel far to fetch water, enbountering dangers such as sexual abuse and causing their bodies to strain, women now have time for other activities like Childcare, socializing, rest, tending livestock


Green water is the rainfall that infiltrates and remains in the soil, this is the largest freshwater resource and basis for rain-fed agriculture. With a change of focus from the down stream blue water to upstream green water, this will provide opportunities to produce more food per drop of water. It is critical for plant growth to maintain a water balance and absorbing water through roots. By focusing on green water both directly for food production and indirectly to support ecosystem services, water productivity will be improved. It is necessary to improve crop production with less water, this is done by reducing evaporation and increasing transpiration.

Grey water is wastewater thats has been used washing clothes and other household chores, but do not contain human waste or bleach and strong toxics. This water can provide irrigation for your food crops, with only simple treatment. One way to use your grey water is to construct a wetland, the greywater is filtered through layers of plants, soil and rocks. Grey water contains nutrients which feed the plants and the plants add oxygen to the water which helps clean it.


A key to upgrading smallholder farming systems in Kenya is harvesting and storing rainwater. 95% of Sub-Saharan Africas agriculture is rain fed.


PE or metal barrels can be used to collect. Barrels can be placed next to the house. Gutters; either homemade or PE on the roof Roofs made of lead or tar have toxic chemicals in them making water unsafe to drink or use in your farm! Make sure your rain barrel is clean and water was never used to store toxic chemicals, such as oil or pesticides.

Can collect surface runoff and rainwater. To make a simple catchment, dig a depression into the ground the press (COMPACT) the earth or line it with clay, tile, concrete or plastic sheeting. Water from ground catchments must be cleaned before drinking.


Keep roof clean. Clean tank, entrance pipe, roof and gutters before the rainy season. Never collect water in containers that have been used for oil, pesticides or other toxic chemicals Allow the first rains of each year to run through the tank to clean it. Cover the tank and place a filter or screen over the inlets to keep out insects, leaves and dirt. This is important for mosquitoes! Take our water through taps. If possible, attach a water filter to the tanks tap. Do not stir or move the water.


Saline water contains significant amounts of dissolved salts. About 2.5 percent of the total global waters is fresh water and the salt water is about 97.5 percent. Saline water will most likely not be adapted by farmers who have an adequate amount of fresh water available to them, but rather by farmers around the coastal areas of Kenya. It is possible to drip irrigate with the use of saline water The rooting zone has the lowest possible salinity and the leaching is not needed, except of the harvest and before the next crop is sown. Water salinity in Kenya is well within accepted quality standards for fodder crops and other forage crops but there is enough sodium for a slight to moderate sodification hazard.



Crop Soil Requirement (ph) Plant Spacing (metres) Plant Pop./ Acre Altitude (metres above sea level) Days to Maturity Water Requirement (mm/growing season) (litre) 1200 - 2200 300 - 500 Approximate (min) water requirement per plant/day

Bananas Beans

5.0 - 7.0 5.5 - 6.0

3x3 0.3 x 0.2

450 66000

0 - 1800 1000 - 2000

300 - 365 Fresh 60 - 90 Dry 90 - 100 100 - 150

35 0.25

Cabbage Maize

6.0 - 6.5

0.45 x 0.50


800 - 2000 Short 0 - 1000 Medium 1000 - 1800 Long 1800 - 2400 0 - 1900 500 - 2000 1800 - 2300

380 - 500


5.0 - 7.0

0.75 x 0.30


90 - 150

600 - 900

Onion Garlic Garden Peas

6.0 - 7.0 5.5 - 6.8 5.5 - 6.5

0.3 x 0.1 0.3 x 0.15 0.6 x 0.1

133000 88000 66000

100 - 140 120 - 180

350 - 550 350 - 550

0.1 0.13 0.3 0.25 0.5 0.7 1

Fresh 65 - 100 350 - 550 Dry 85 - 120 120 - 150 100 - 150 90 - 140 Plus 35 in nursery 80 - 110 600 - 900 500 - 700 400 - 600

Pepper Potato Tomato

5.5 - 7.0 5.0 - 6.0 5.0 - 7.0

0.6 - 0.4 0.6 x 0.25 0.9 x 0.4

16600 26000 11000

Above 1500 1800 - 2900 0 - 2300

Water Melon

5.8 - 7.2

1.0 x 1.5


0 - 1000

400 - 600


















part three
pesticides & crop protection

INSECTICIDES Chemicals that control insects MITICIDES Agro-chemicals that control plant ticks (Mites)


Spray application & timing, maintenance of sprayer Pesticides not only poison people and pests but also harm parts of the environment. Human beings just like insects and mites have a central nervous system. Observe safety when handling pesticides: Wear correct PPE (Personal protective equipment) Pesticides poison the soil killing insects, worms, fungi and bacteria which create nutrients that keep soil alive & fertile. Pesticides poison water when they run off into streams. They kill fish and harm animals and people that drink the water. Pesticides poison air when they drift in the wind. Pesticides can travel many miles from where they are used. Children should be kept away from pesticides Do not let children play with, use or touch old pesticide containers. Do not let children play with farm equipment that is used to spray pesticides Do not let children enter or play in recently treated fields. There are things you as an adult can do to protect your children Wash work clothes, shoes and your hands before entering the house and before touching children Wash fruits and vegetables very well before anyone eats them Avoid the use of pesticides at home, especially indoors. Store pesticide containers and equipment out of children's reach


Not every pest is killed by a pesticide and new generations become resistant to chemicals, more and more pests are born with resistance. Which leads to a whole new population of resistant pests that can no longer be killed with the same chemicals. Stronger chemicals are then needed each season increasing the amount of poison we use in the environment. Farmers also have to spend more money on new pesticide each new season. Methods of ensuring that there is no resistance Crop rotation Proper use of pesticides


A good ad safe way to apply pesticides is to use a sprayer which is portable, held pressure and operated by a lever. Top quality materials resistant to all treatment products. Machine reversible either for right or left handed people.

Correct nozzle choice. Adjust nozzle to get fine droplets. Keep nozzle 20-30cm away from the target to get best fine droplets and to control drift. Spray in the cool of the day. Avoid spraying when sunny & windy. Drift may lead pesticide off target and may compromise spray operative safety. Avoid pesticide overuse by using exact amounts of products (as re-packaged in each Backpack Farm) Know and identify the target pest clearly in order to ensure proper coverage and achieve best results. Direct the spray where to reach the target pest e.g. Underside of leave (Mites. whiteflies), flowers (Thrips), young shoots and stems (Aphids) flower buds and fruits (Caterpillars)


Start early application in the season before or just when disease symptoms are seen Ensure thorough coverage Repeat at 14 - 28day interval during rainy season depending on final crop variety.

Keep children & unauthorized people out of spraying area The sprayer should not to be used for drinking or storing water. Use water screens provided. After each working day, its very important to clean the sprayer carefully. Wash the filters with clean water.


Pour directly into sprayer and apply immediately. Apply thoroughly to each plant, but do not over do it. Dispose of waste materials responsibly! Try not to wipe your eyes, face and neck while you handle pesticides. Keep fingernails and toenails short so pesticides can not collect under them. Clean and store spray equipment & chemicals in a safe and secure place!

Always use Gloves, Mask & Sprayer Protective clothing may be uncomfortable, but it can save your life. To make wearing protective clothes more comfortable spray early in the morning or late afternoon when the sun is not so hot.


Chemicals should be stored in a safe, dry place. Observe pesticide shelf life. Pesticides often left for a long time cause containers to leak killing animals, children and contaminating soil. Keep chemicals in their original containers not in water bottles, buckets or feed sacks! Label pesticide containers with: DANGER! Transport carefully NEVER use for drinking, washing or storing food Containers should be stored for recycling and never be reused!


Most pesticide poisoning comes from contact with pesticides over weeks, months or years, not from using them only once, people may not get sick from pesticides until many years later. Signs of chronic illness are; weight loss, constant weakness, constant or bloody cough, loss of vision, very fast or very slow heartbeat, confusion, memory loss and trouble concentrating. People exposed to pesticides may get a cough that never goes away, this can be signs of bronchitis, asthma or other lung diseases. If you have any signs of lung damage, DO NOT smoke, it makes the lung disease worse. Pesticides damage the brain and nerves, longterm exposure can cause anxiety, mood changes and trouble concentrating.


Pesticides have many of the same reproductive health effects as other toxic chemicals, they can harm peoples ability to have babies or for babies to grow up healthy. Many male farm workers around the world have become unable to have children after they worked with certain pesticides because they can no longer make sperm. When a pregnant woman is exposed to pesticides the baby inside of her is also exposed and the risk of the baby having birth defects increases. Defects such as, learning difficulties, allergies and other health problems.


PRE-HARVEST INTERVAL This is the amount of pesticide traces that are allowed present in harvested fresh produce. Above certain levels they may pose danger to consumers.


MAXIMUM RESIDUE LEVEL 1. Once spray is done, harvest should not BE started until the period that is shown on the label elapses. 2.Harvesting before the PHI is over is a risk and can cause food poisoning



part four
pests soil, cover & diseases crops, bed preparation & crop rotation aphids, mites, white flies, boll worms, blight & anthracnose

Farmers all around the world daily encounter pest and plant disease. Although the first thought might be pesticides and chemicals, it is important to know what pest/plant disease that has infested your crop and what treatment is correct. Strong chemicals are not always needed and the best way to prevent and manage pest/disease is to keep crops, pests, weeds and soil life in balance. MANAGING PESTS AND PLANT DISEASES
Pests, plant diseases and weeds can be a serious threat to crops.. Sustainable farming works with nature to keep crops, pests, weeds and soil life in balance. Natural pest management prevents problems with pests and plant diseases and keeps harmful chemicals out of our bodies. Natural pest management also avoids problems of chemical dependence and pesticide resistance. Before you think about using pesticides, It is important to know if the pests are harming your crops, how much damage is being done and whether creatures in the fields are already controlling the pest. Once this is done, you can decide if and when to use chemicals and what kind to use. Best way to prevent and control pests and diseases Make sure plants and soil are healthy, healthy soil attracts and provides a home to friendly insects who help prevent many plant diseases. Plant crops you know are resistant to common pests and diseases Make sure you plant your crops with the right space measurements, planting crops to close limits the sunshine and air that reaches the leaves, which allows diseases to thrive. Planting crops to far apart leaves room for weeds, dries the soil and may reduce the harvest. Plant a variety of crops and change crop patterns. Large areas with only 1 kind of plant attract pests who like that plant. Water from below using drip irrigation, watering from above can cause diseases that live in soil to splash onto plants.


Not all dudus (insects) are pests! Bees pollinate plants and make honey. Ladybugs attack insects (Aphids) that damage crops. Lacebugs attack insects (Aphids) that damage crops. Worms are important for healthy soils. Watch the insects in you field to determine whether or not the friendly. One way to find out if they are friendly, is to collect them in a container together with plant parts, and watch them for a few days


Both adults and nymphs pierce plant tissues to feed on plant sap. Their feeding may cause rolling, twisting or bending of leaves. Heavily attacked leaves can turn yellow and eventually wilt. Aphids feeding on flower buds and fruits may cause malformed flowers and fruits. Aphids excrete a sugary, sticky liquid called honeydew that accumulates on leaves and branches. Sooty moulds (a fungal growth) grow on honeydew deposits turning leaves and branches black. Heavy coating with honeydew and sooty moulds may reduce photosynthesis, affecting plant growth and yield. Black ants are commonly found on plants with aphid infestations. These ants protect the aphids from natural enemies and are therefore considered indirect pests. Ants may even transport aphids from plant to plant. Many species of aphids have been implicated as major vectors of plant viral diseases. Affected plant stages: Seedling stage, vegetative growing stage and flowering stage. Affected plant parts: Growing points, stems, leaves, inflorescences, fruits and whole plant. Symptoms on affected plant part : Curled leaves, abortion of flowers, stunted growth and dieback. Sooty black mould becomes evident in heavy infestations. Black ants are very common in plant with aphid infestations.


Injury caused as they feed Bruise the cells with their small whip-like mouth parts. Ingest plant sap Damaged area has small light flecks In severe damage leaves become discolored, scorched, have webs and drop prematurely Webbing gives mites and their eggs protection from natural enemies and environmental fluctuations. Mites destructive pest in production of Vegetables especially tomatoes, beans, Ornamentals and the most difficult to control: High reproduction potential Ability to co-exist in overlapping generations High adaptation potential World wide distribution Females lay eggs on under side of leaves Single female can lay over 100 eggs. Eggs hatch to larvae (3 pairs of legs). Larvae develop into nymphs ( 4 pairs of legs) Nymphs finally develop into adults. A single generation may require as much as 26 to 5 days depending on temperatures. The higher the temperature the shorter the cycle. Very active during the warm months.



2-3 days Adults 26 days 18 days
17 days 15 deg C 5 days 9 days 25-30 deg C 20 deg C



In optimum temp Two days Nymph

Whiteflies cause direct damage to plants by sucking plant sap and removing plant nutrients, thereby weakening the plants. Damage may be more severe when plants are under water stress. In addition, they often produce large quantity of honeydew that leads to the growth of sooty mould on the lower leaves, blocking or reducing the photosynthetic capacity of the plants. Infested plants may wilt; turn yellow in colour, become stunted or die when whitefly infestations are severe or of long duration. Whiteflies are also serious indirect pests as vectors of virus diseases. Bemisia tabaci transmits serious virus diseases on cassava, cotton, tobacco, tomato, beans, chillies, and sweet potatoes. Feeding of whiteflies causes yellowing of infested leaves. Whiteflies excrete honeydew, a clear, sugary liquid which covers the lower leaves and supports the growth of black sooty mould, Where plant viruses are transmitted plants show the typical symptoms of the virus diseases. Presence of whiteflies can also be recognized by a cloud of tiny whiteflies flying up when the plants are shaken. The whiteflies resettle soon on the plants.


Its preference for the harvestable flowering parts of high-value crops including cotton, tomato, sweet corn, and cut-flowers. Crop losses at farm level in Kenya have been estimated at over 50% on cotton and pigeon pea, over 20% on sorghum and millet, and over 2 million stems on cut flowers. The African bollworm is a quarantine pest. This is important for export crops. If a caterpillar of this pest is detected in a consignment of an export commodity shipped to Europe, the whole consignment may be rejected. Caterpillars of the African bollworm feed on leaves, buds, growing points, flowers and fruit reducing leaf area, which can slow plant growth & fruit formation. Caterpillars usually bore clean, circular holes through fruits/pods. The holes serve as entry points for secondary infection by diseases causing fruit decay. One caterpillar can damage several fruits/pods. Once they burrow into the fruits/pods they are difficult to reach and control with insecticides. Often caterpillars feed with the head and forepart of the body inside the fruit/pod and the rest of the body outside. Excrements (faeces / waste) of the feeding caterpillars are evident on damaged plant parts.



Plant diseases are best prevented through maintaining healthy soils. Plant diseases can be recognized by their effects on plants, such as making leaves change in colour, cause wilt. Plant diseases may be caused by a fungus, a bacteria or a virus. All plant diseases can be treated with natural methods. If plant is diseased destroy it, infected plants can pass diseases or pests to future crops, do not compost it, some plant diseases can survive composting. Clean tools that have been used on diseased plants. Plant diseases can spread when your body, tools and clothing touch healthy plants. Planting ashes together with seeds can prevent some fungus, mixing milk with water can be used to kill fungus diseases, caterpillar eggs and spider mites.

Cereals, grasses, vegetables, ornamentals, weeds, shrubs, fruit trees, and forest trees. Notable exceptions include maize, celery and carrots. Infected leaves curl and become distorted. Diseased flowers fail to open and drop from the panicle without fruit forming. Mildew causes skin cracking on fruits that have started to form. The diseased fruit drops. Infected seedlings will eventually die. Mature leaves and fruit are not susceptible to mildew.


Causes leaves necrosis, wilting and death.


Affects Africa Nightshade, Bananas, Eggplant, Groundnut, Peppers, Potato, Tomato All branches wilt at about the same time: causes rapid wilting and death of the entire plant without any yellowing or spotting on leaves. When the stem of a wilted plant is cut across, the pith has a darkened, watersoaked appearance. There is a greyish slimy ooze on pressing the stem. In later stages of the disease, decay of the pith may cause extensive hollowing of the stem. Bacterial wilt causes no spotting of the fruits.

Beans, eggplant, peas, pepper and cucumber. Attacks all plant parts at any growth stage. The symptoms are most visible on leaves and ripe fruits on leaves as small and irregular yellow, brown, dark-brown or black spots. The spots can expand and merge to cover the whole affected area. The colour of the infected part darkens as it ages. The disease can also produce cankers on stems.


part five
soil, cover plant stress, crops, are your bed crops preparation tired? & crop rotation

Insects Nematodes Diseases Drought Freezing Metal element toxicities Salinity Mineral Deficiency


Increased resistance to insects Increased resistance to nematodes Increased resistance to diseases (Powdery mildew)


In higher plants it polymerises to glass-like platelets Places : cell walls (in and between), and below the cuticle Also laid down in epidermal cells, especially around trichomes and guard cells


Increases yield Increases resistance to all stress factors Increases stalk strength Increases shelf life (fruit and flowers)


partsix part one

soil,harvest the cover crops, & record bedkeeping preparation & crop rotation

By recording and documenting your success, looking back and planning your next crop cycle becomes much easier. By documenting previous profits, losses and risks it makes it easier for you to go back and see what benefitted you or what brought you down during the last crop cycles. These documents will encourage you as a farmer, to be able to go back and see your success and know that you can do it again.
Establishing sustainable and scalable value chain should be the final goal in smallholder farming production models, working from the bottom up to impact production as well as social, economic and ecological domains by enhancing the total value chain. Starting in the field to increase the quantity and quality of production whether it may be beans, sweet potato or maize but ideally focusing on growing more nutritionally dense food. Crops must be stored and transported to local and regional markets. Construction of new roads and access to more cost-positive storage technologies are essential to smallholder farmers improving income through to better markets Mobile technologies have the potential to empower the most marginalized farmer with payment tools to both receive and send money. In addition, mobile phoes allow farmers to access ecological and reliable training materials, even market data. The expansion of ICT4D (ICT for Development) will continue to provide tools to enhance rural value chain development.



Have you planned to harvest at the right stage of maturity ? What percentage of your crop is grade 1? Where are you selling your crops? Do you know your market? What are your yields in KG per acre? How will you transport your crop? Do you need to package your crop? Where are you storing your crop? How much are your crop losses? Why did you lose your crop?


Crop rotation plans. Block labels (Block number, Farm number, planting date, expected harvest date, pests & disease control records Spray justifications (Crop monitoring/scouting,number of pest counts. Irrigation records (water usage, application justifications) Calibrations Harvesting & sales Environment, safety & health

Nimepanda viazi tamu za mufirongo na nimepata faida nzuri kuliko alie panda mahindi

Viazi tamu piya inauza zaidi kuliko mahindi

Ninafikiria piya kupanda viazi tamu kwa sababu ina soko nzuri.


part seven
soil, the organic cover crops, goodies bed preparation & crop rotation all the extras we think are important for smallholder farmers learning to be better farmers!

Working for a sustainable and better life style, it is important for you as a smallscale farmer to take care of the environment and surroundings around you. Just by making healthy compost and saving good seed, this will help and improve your yield during the next crop cycle and sustain good soils. By preserving trees and minimizing devastation of forests in your area you will have a better chance of a healthy life style. As trees preserve water and provide homes for beneficiary insect, prevents soil from erosion, there is unlimited importance to why persevering trees are important. MAKING FAST COMPOST
1. 2. Compost is an organic way to provide nutrients to your soil and provide Encourages infiltration and increases soil retention capacity. Ex: As an example, a 1" compost blanket on a 20 degree slope can completely absorb a 3" per hour rain event without eroding and minimal runoff, even before it becomes vegetated. Loosen soil up to 30 cm helping drainage and allowing worms to enter. If soil is dry, water it. Put 2 sticks ( 2 meters high) in the center. Mark lines on post: - 20 cm from ground - Then 5 cm - Then 2 cm - REPEAT design Make pile of food and plant waste covering entire area. Put a layer of animal manure up to next line (5 cm mark). Add layer of soil on top of manure (2 cm mark). Continue to build layers adding water to each layer Build pile to height (UP TO) 2 meters After 2 5 days remove sticks. Leaving holes for air. After 3 weeks, turn and mix the pile with shovel and repeat 1 x week. After 1 month, you will have sweet smelling, dark, fertile soil

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.



Compost needs both wet & dry waste (food vs straw). If the pile smells bad and does not shrink, it needs more air: TURN the pile! If the pile does not heat up, it can be because there is too much or too little water. Turn and check water content. It should be moist but not sludge! If compost has ants, add water! If it attracts flies, it needs to be covered with more soil.


NO plastic NO metal NO aluminum cans NO glass NO Eucalyptus NO Bones; the attract pests and break down slowly. NO domestic animal waste (dogs / cats)

Not for drinking Compost tea is a liquid extraction of organic compost materials. Wrap compost in a piece of cloth and tie it up. Put the cloth in a bucket of water for 7 to 14 days. When the water turns brown, take the cloth sack out. Spread the leftover compost in your field. Only use on crops to be harvested soon(2-4 weeks) Spray or sprinkle the compost tea on the leaves of your plants. WASH hands after use. Other materials can be added to change the soil pH and add nutrients to the soil. Limestone, wood ash and ground seashells make soil less acidic. Ground up animal bones also add phosphorous and the wood ash adds potassium. Dried leaves and pine needles make soils more acidic. Molasses can that has rotten for at least a year and coffee pulp that is ground and dried add nutrients to the soil, turning crop waste into fertilizer.


Cornmeal( maize bran), contains a beneficial fungus that can kill or prevent the growth of destructive fungi. Corn meal contains organisms that are every bit as powerful and/or beneficial as chemical fungicides. Cornmeal attracts a type of good fungus that belongs to the Trichoderma family capable of killing the disease causing fungus in no more than just a few weeks. Dry application Cornmeal can be applied directly to the soil. Most recipes recommend using 2 pounds of cornmeal for every 100 square feet of soil. The cornmeal needs to be worked well into the soil, making sure to that it gets entirely mixed with all of the soil. Once the soil has been broken up and the corn meal is evenly distributed, it is necessary to give it a thorough watering. This is necessary even if nothing is planted yet. Water is necessary to activate the fungus killing properties. It is believed that a single application prior to planting will prevent the fungus from destroying the crop, but because it is completely organic, additional applications can't be harmful. 51


Trees, crops and soil interact mutually for a healthy and vibrant land. In agro forestry trees and crops are selected in a way that ensures the whole system, apart from improving soils, agro forestry is a key component in conservation. During floods, important nutrients can be carried away. But trees ensure that they don't get washed away with their root system. A hill with no trees is like a house with no roof. Trees preserves water in the ground and prevents soil from erosion Trees also provide shade for plants grown beneath Trees help prevent flooding, the rainwater is spread across the ground because of first hitting the tree. If planted correctly with crops, they will not compete for water and nutrients but complement one another. Bees and other insects that live in trees pollinate crops and help the production of healthy flower and fruit, where as bats and birds that live in the trees, eat mosquitoes that spread malaria, yellow fever and other diseases. Forests have important effect on the weather and climate, they help make weather less extreme by making warm air cooler and wetter and making cold air warmer and drier. Forests and trees protect water sources, they filter the water when pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals pollute surface water and groundwater. It is often women and children who carry the burden of collecting and carrying wood for fuel, this can in the long run lead to health issues. As forests and trees are cut down, the distance increases. This gives them less time to do other necessary work and to go school. By planting and maintaining good firewood trees close to home, the people collecting wood, can stay save and healthy. Areas where it is necessary to cut down trees in order to get room to plant, it is important to preserve and save as many trees possible.


Wet Application-Liquid spray Liquid spray that is referred to as a "cornmeal juice. The juice is made by soaking one cup of cornmeal in one gallon of water. The mixture must soak for at least 24 hours, after which the liquid is drained off of the wet cornmeal. It can then be used as a spray on plants. The spray can be used as a fungicide for any type of plant that is prone to contracting some type of fungal disease. Both the liquid and dry forms of cornmeal can be used on vegetables at any type during the growing season.


To make sure you have good seed, collect them from: Strong plants, free of pests and disease Indigenous plants or those adapted to the area Plants with the qualifies you want such as size, taste, resistance to drought and so on. Do NOT collect seeds that have fallen to the ground by themselves. Shake plant to remove fresh seeds. Sort to remove rotten or damaged seeds. Saving seeds allows farmers to grow plants with the qualities they want.

To judge how long each kind of seed can be stored, think about the conditions they need to grow. Seeds from cold or dry seasons usually can be stored for months or years because they need special conditions to sprout. Seeds from areas that are hot and rainy most of the year will not store well because they can sprout any time. Seeds with hard shells can be stored easily and for longer times than seeds with soft shells. TEST: Put hard coated seeds in a glass of water. The seeds that float will not sprout. Most seeds should be storied in a cool, dry, dark place with some air flowing through them or they will rot.

Sometimes called zero tillage. A way of growing crops from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage. Technique can increase the amount of water held in the soil and decrease erosion. It may also increase the amount and variety of microbial life in and on the soil. It may but may not always require increased herbicide usage. Ideal for smallholder, manual farming (non-mechanized) farming models.


A greenhouse increases overall plant production. Growing crops in a green house enables controlled irrigation, tempretures and humidity. A higher humidity helps slow the rate of evaporating from soil and plants, as the air already has a large amount of water in it. Suitible crops for green houses include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, melons A green house lets light in, which is later on absorbed by objects inside the greenhouse. The heat is turned into energy, which will stay inside the greenhouse. The tempreture inside the greenhouse will exceed the outside tempreture, but if it gets to hot, you can open the door or venteation panels, and the tempreture will drop. It is harder for pests to acces the crops compared to when they are grown in the open. The same applies for unwanted seeds and pollen from plats such as weeds. The greenhouse protects crops from different weather conditions, such as heavy rain or storms. A greenhouse enables the farmer to grow seasonal crops any time through out the year.


Sustainable Use of forests and trees: Replant after cutting, by doing this you ensure that there will be new trees and seeds to replace the ones that where cut down. Cut only some trees and save young and healthy older trees, to hold soil and provide seed for the future. Advantages of direct seeding: Cost effective as there is no nursery and planting expenses, there is also hardy any transport cost as packet of seed can fit in your pocket No risk of transplanting shock, as there is when moving nursery-raised seedlings that are transplanted. Tree seeds can be planted at the same time as your agricultural crop, which will suppress aggressive weeds and enrich the soil.


Not all fuel has to come from firewood, there are many alternatives to make sure you dont have to use firewood all the time. Crop wastes which are dried, such as rice, maize and coconut shells are a good alterative to wood. It may cause smoke, so it is better used outside. It is also possible to chopp the material and press it into briquettes which will burn longer. When using firewood, use it wisely, use dry wood which are cut into small pieces and try not use more than required.


part eight
soil, sanitation cover crops, and health bed preparation & crop rotation

Many illnesses spread through germs that pass on from one person to another. By keeping your community and home clean, there is a better chance of preventing getting sick. Health and prosperity are link together, if you are not healthy you will not be able to provide for your family or enjoy your daily life. SANITATION IN THE COMMUNITY
Many health problems are best solved in the community, when the community works together everyone benefits. Work together as a group to make sure your water source is kept as clean as possible. Do not let animals go near the water source, and if necessary build a fence to keep them away. Do not bathe or wash your clothes and other things in the water source, collect the water and them wash. DO NOT throw garbage or waste in/close to the water source. Make sure that you and your neighbours get rid of your garbage in a safe way. You can use this manual to create a compost for your community and prevent diseases spread through waste. When planning a latrine, either for the community or personal use, to be safe it should be at least 20 meters from all houses, wells, springs, rivers or streams. If it must be anywhere close to where people go for water, make sure to put the latrine downstream.


Family members are naturally in close contact with one another, which makes it very easy to spread germs between family members. To protect your loved ones and prevent illness to the whole family, here are some helpful easy tips. When you cough or sneeze cover your mouth with your arm or with a cloth and if possible wash your hands after. Clean your living space often, sweep and wash the floors, clean the walls and under your furniture. Hang your bedding and sheets out in the sun to kill parasites and bugs. Do not spit on the floor. Make sure your get ride of body waste in a safe way. Make sure you led your children with good example as they will take after their parents. Look after your babies and your young children pass stool near the house clean it up at once. Make sure the people in charge of cooking, wash their hands before preparing food. Also make sure you and your family wash hands before eating and after been in contact with waste. It is important to protect your teeth, people who do not look after their teeth are more likely to loose them when they get old and suffer tremendously. Cleaning your teeth should be done twice a day, with the help of a soft brush, tooth stick or a finger wrapped in cloth. Toothpaste is good but it is not necessary, salt, a little bit of charcoal or just plain clean water will help you keep your teeth healthy.


Children have a higher risk of falling ill from poor sanitation then adults. Diseases which adults can live with, such as diarrhea or worms, can actually kill a child. You as a parent must help your young child in teaching them the importance of sanitation and make sure they have facilities such as safe toilets. If children have toilets they feel safe using and that are clean, they will not as easily get sick. Long drops can be frightening for a young child, because of the darkness and the hole . Just by letting sunlight in which will also help in keeping the toilet clean, the child will feel safer. With your babies and young children it is important to wash them after they defecate and also make sure you was your hands throughouly after handling your childs feces, Teach your girls to wipe from front to back, as wiping forward can spread germs into the urinary opening and vagina. This can cause bladder infections and other health problems.

Falling sick with malaria can have devastating effects on your families health andalso effect what is going on in your field. If the person who usual looks after the fieldfalls ill, who will look after the crops and make sure the family gets food? Malaria kills millions of people every year and many millions more live with the disease. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is passed on to people through a certain mosquito. This mosquito bites mostly at night, that is why it is so important to sleep with a mosquito net. Children under the age of 5, pregnant women and people living with HIV/AIDS are especially sensitive to malaria.


Signs to look for

A malaria attack usual has 3 stages: First signs are usually headaches and chills along with fever. The fever then increases and the person infected might act delirious and not in his right mind. This might go on for hours or even days. The person will start sweating and the fever might go down. Once the fever starts dropping the person infected feels week and very tired. If any of these signs occur to you or any of your family members, you must go to the hospital and have a blood test for malaria. If the test is positive get treatment right away.


Mosquitoes lay there eggs in standing water, often during the or just after the rainy season. It takes about 7 days for the mosquito eggs to hatch, so by making sure there is no standing still water around your house and community, you can partly prevent malaria. Malaria mosquitoes mainly bite at night, so the best way to protect you and your family from being infected, is so sleep under a well looked after bed net. It is very important to look after the net daily to make sure there are no tears or holes where mosquitoes can come in.


Women and men have different needs, that's the way we were created. One big difference lie in the sanitation area, where men by nature may be more comfortable relieving themselves in public or in open space. As a woman she has a greater share of family work such as caring for the children, collecting water, firewood and cleaning the home. This effects the women's access to toilets that are safe, clean and private. If women are left out of the sanitation planning being done in the community, there will be great health risk to the women, which will indirectly effect the men. So if sanitation changes are being done in your community to benefit everyone, include everyone in the planning, men, women and children. Make sure meetings that concern the community are being held at times when women can participate and ensure that the women feel welcome and feel comfortable speaking out. If necessary have a separate meeting for women if this makes it easier for them to speak out.

Things do discuss
Is the toilet located to far away from the house? Do the women feel safe and comfortable going to the toilet? Is there anyway of washing hand after using the toilet? Do the women feel comfortable when people can see them entering and leaving the toilet?



Gender is an important aspect when referring to agriculture, especially in developing countries where more than 60% of women are directly involved in agricultural work. Looking at sub-Sahara alone, women grow as much as 90% of the regions food and the conditions they work in leave much to be desired. Most of the work is done with rudimentary and basic tools, making the essential work for women such as planting, hoeing, weeding and harvesting a heavy burden. Looking at the gender aspect, the working day of women is at least 50% longer than that of men. But little consideration is put into this, because it is the man coming home with the main income, his work is seen as more important than the womens, therefore men are left out of household chores and work around the home. It is important to include women in developing countries when it comes to training and education, as women daily around the world are exposed to dangerous pesticides and chemicals without knowledge on how to protect themselves and their loved ones. Women and men play different roles in the community. These roles might be satisfying to both the men and women in the sense of belonging, routines and what is to be expected from both parts. The roles set out by the community may limit the woman's activities and choices which can make her feel less valued then a man and when this happens, everyone, the woman herself, her family and her community suffers. In most communities women are expected to be mothers and wives. This is more then a fulltime work and in many cases more hard work then the man does. Most communities will value the work that men do more then than women's work. A woman will work all day at home, in the field, cooking, cleaning, caring for her children and collecting water and firewood. But because the mans work is considered more important and may bring the main income for the family, his rest and health is more important then the one of the woman. Because of this, children growing up in communities with these interpretations, will grow up thinking that men's work is more important then women's, and will value the women less. Women are generally discourage to speak at community meetings if they are at all allowed to attend. This leads to a male dominated and adapted community. When men are discussing problems effecting the community, women would in most cases have better solutions then men, because the women have more knowledge and experience of the daily life. So the whole community suffers when women are not included to discuss problems and offer suggestions to change.



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