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SI~ilt. -."Jic?!~q!z.. ._.

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1959

8 -

h ."

2.000

, . .

28.

n .

24701


" .

, TeopeTcI)oM


, ,

. .

h, ( )
' .
h,

1957

. uh

,. -

h .

1960

. uh


, U , h :

1)

ljulJ

2)

. .

. , ,

, -,

3)

. .

, ,

5)

lfU/1 .

6)

ult

, ,

7)' UIf

. . -

IClJ .

. ,

9)

ulJ

1, 111' 11:.

i.

Michlgan (U. S.

.),

1952.

1949, 1950,

ll

1948.

1946.

, ,

8)

1.

1948.

Advanced ca1culus. We,ley press,


-

1949.

1948.

lt . .

4) Kaplarz W. -

1, 11.

1950, 1952.

10) CMUpltOB

. .

-,

11) 10 . . -

1, 11,

1948.

, 1~51.

12) UItUf{

1955.

13) u1It . .

.ll.u

l!, ,

1947, 1948.

1, 11.

~ ~

317.
318.

319.

slnus- ,

2
8
10
13

320.

321.

322.
323.

324.

Fnt-

325.
326.

16
18

23
26
41

329.

330.
331.

44
47
53
57

60

332.

327.

328.

8 8

"

67

111

71
75

333.
334.
335.

78

335'.

336.

\l

79
83

IV

\l

339.

85
90
91

340.

Euler,oBa

93

341.
342.

337.

338. Meusnler,oBa

98
102

Gauss-

V
343.
344.

. . .

~ ~

104
109

VIII

345.
346.
347.

VI
348.
349.
350.
351.
352.
353.
354.
355.
356.
357.
358.
359.
360.
360'.

116
120
124


ll


m,
.




-
StokeS-
,

127
128
129
131
135
139
141
146
149
153
156
157
159
162

361.
362.
363.
364.
365.
366.

.
.
t:,k n II
~ .

..
Nwt-
Lgg-

11
367.
368. ~
369.
370.
371.
372.
373.
374.
375.
376.
377.

173
175
179
183
184
185


.
.

.
.
.






111

187
187
188
190
191
191
193
194
195
196
198

I<

378. .
.
.
379.
380. ll
381. .
382:::,
.
383.
384.
385.

198
199
201
203
205
206
207
209

1.

317.

(1)

= r (t) =

(t)

1+ (t) + z (t) k

(2)

= (t) ,

= (t) ,

z = z (t)1)

(2),

(3)

z=q>(x),

Y=f(x),

(4)

=(rp),

(5)

8;: 1(q,


l(,6,rp)=,

(6)

(1), (2), (3), (4), (5),

z(,6,rp)=.

(6)

Oxyz

(t),

1)

(t), z (t)

I, 13].

= (t),

= (t), z = z (t) ,

(t),

(t), z (t)

X=X(t)=fl(t),

y=y(t)=fz(t),

z=z(t)=ts(t)

t,

t [, 13], . (t), (t), z )


13] t

t [,

, d-.

, d- .

d- f'

t [, ] . M~,
t = t =~,
d- . Jordall-0Be
M~ , . -

x(a)=x(~),
d-

y(a)=y(~),

(a)=;::(~)

d- ,

(t),

' (t)

(t), z )

z' )

'2

(t) + '2 (t) +Z'2 ) =!= ,

-.

3. t [,

t [, ~],

13].

[,

13]

(t),

'

t [, ~J


(, ~). d-

(t),

z (t)

[,

, ).

13].

, .

318.

, .

HeKGj

(, ,

z)

44).

(7)

r (t) =

(t) i + (t) + z (t) k

= (t),

= (t), z = z (t) .

(7)

(, ,

dx.

dy

dt

dt

dz k
+-

(8)

r=-I+-

(9)

dr=dx i+dyj+dzk

dt

z)

1.


dr
(, , z) (. 242).
R==Xi+ Yj+Zk

(10)

O~

________________________

)(

-+ 1

(, ,
(, ,

(11)
1.

1 (,

R-r==p.dr

z)

(R - r) r

= ,

(R-r)dr=,

(9)

Z)

(12)

. 1 )

/{/{ u

z),

R - r == 1. r

242

R, r,

(10)

1)

dr

r= -

dt

dr

ds

== - . -

(11)

dr
dr (7), (8),

ds

== t - ,

(12),

ds dt
dt
(R-r)t== t .

1*

(, ,

z-

-
-
zl)
--:=--=--

(13)

dx
(ft

dy

dx dy dz
dt' dt' dt

-
-
--=--==

dz

dx

Z-z

dy

dz

---zit ( j f

z)

(,,

z)

; ,

' ' (, .

dx, dy, dz

z)

(, ,

(, ,

z),

z)

.
. .

r(s):=x(s)i+y(.c;)j+z(s)k,

(14)

(.

dr := dx 1 + dy + dz k

(14').

ds

ds

ds

242).

=t

ds

(, ,

z),

Iddsr I=It I=

1/(dX)2 +( dy )2 + ( dZ)2 = 11 dx 2 + dy + dz 2= 11 dsl


V ds
ds
ds
V
ds"
Vds 2

1.

=
.

(15)
1 BeK'I:Opa 1 ,

t (.N'!! 276)
z). 1 = 1

(, ,

1) ,

(11),

R, r

dx

(-) (- ) j+(Z-z) k:=-I

dt

dy

dz

dt

dt

+ - +

k.

, h

(13).

(13).

1.

, ,
).

ll

dt

(,,

z),

(, , z) (.

242).

(16)
-+

MN

ON1 N j (, , Z)

(, , z),

rflr

R-r=-

(17)

(R-r)

1{1{

M(x,y,z).
d2 r

~=O

ds 2

(R-r)=,

ds 2

(.

242).

R, r,

d 2r

~ -

ds 2

(14), (15)

(16)

(17),

1{

(, , z)

(18)

s,

dr

(18')
,

dr dt

d2 r
ds 2

== - . - ,

d2 r (dt)2
dt 2 ds

+ dr

d2f .
dt ds 2

ds

dt ds

(17),

1{1{ u

R- r

(19)

1)

(1),

[d 2r

(dt
dt 2 ds

d2r I=
I~
ds I
2


(, , z).

)2 + dr

d2t
dt ds 2

t
(d
X)2 + (d
~.
- 2y )~ + (dlZ
~)
ds'
ds 2
ds2

(, , z),

R= -

i10i1u/{

(dt)2 + dx
dt" ds

d2

Z-z

(dt)2 + dy d" t
dt 2 ds
dt ds"

d2

dt ds 2

dt

ds

ds
dt

-::::-,

ds . d2 s
dt
dt 2

:::: dx

. d2 x
dt
df z

d2 y + dz . d 2 z ,
dt
dt2 dt
dtZ

+ dy

dZx (dS)1

(dt)2 + dx d2f
dt2 ds
dt ds2

dt"

dt

(dt
2
dt ds

)2 + dy

d2

t ::::

dt 2

dt

dt ds2

d2 z
d 2 Z (dt

)2 + ~ d

dt 2 ds

dz

(~;)4
dZy (dS)2

d2

N
dx ds d 2s
dy
2
dt dt dt :::: dt

(~:)4

dy ds

d2 S

dt dt

dt 2

(::)4

(dS)2

t :::: dt 2

dt

dz

dx

dt

dt,

(~;)4

dz ds

d2 s

dx

dy

dt dt

dt 2

= dt

dt

(:;)4

(~: )4

dt ds2

dt,

(20)

_ dx d 2
dy d2x
_ dy d2 Z dz d2 N- dz d 2x . dx d 2 z
-,-----, ----------,

dt dt 2

dt dt2

dt dt 2

(19),

(21)

dt . dt 2

dt dt 2

N dz _pdY
dt
dt

Z-z

= pdx _M dz
dt

:::: Mdy _Ndx '


dt
dt
dt

dt dt Z

1.

, N
h

(21')

(20).

Z-z

Ndz-Pdy

Pdx- Mdz

Mdy-Ndx

== dy d2z - dz d2 y,

(20')

= dz 2 -

= dx d2 y-dy d%x

dx d2 z,

(, ,

z)

(, , )

u..

! (, , ) n;

b=txn,
(.
,

(14')

1 d 2r

t= dr
ds'

=--

1 ds 2

= _~ (d r d2

(22)

242).1)

(15)

ds

'

r) .

ds 2

.}

dr

-,
ds

d2 r

ds 2

R=Xi+ Yj+Zk

(23)

-+

081 81 (, , Z) (, , ) (22) llll

u .. , (, , )

R_r=l(dr d2r)

{24)

ds

ds 2

(R - r)

ds

ds 2

=,

1)

(R_r)x(dr d2r) ==0

dr

R, r, -

ds

d2 r'
ds 2

(14), (14'), (15) (23) (24), h ll,

',.

u u (,. , z)

Z-z

dz d 2 x

dx d 2 y

dx d 2 z

ds

ds

ds 2

ds

ds

dr
ds

d r = (dr
ds z
dt

ds

ds 2

s,

(24')
,

ds 2

ds 2

ds ds 2

(1),
(18'),

d2r)

dy d 2x

--~---~

-------~

ds2

(!!i)3.

dt 2

ds

u' u.

(24), Be1(ll1opC1(a

1 }11 .

Z-z

--=
,

(21")

(20);

Z-z

'

--=--=--

319.
-

sinus-

(20').1)

r (s) = (s) i

(25)

+ (s) + z (s) k .

dr
ds

(26)
1)

= t.

R).11

ds

r.

dr
dt

dy
ds

+ dz k
ds

8 h

(;,. )

= dx i +

d2 r
dt 2

=r

..

r,

dr
dt

r l

= r,.

r = 1 (.

'-

8 8

(21)

(21').

, :n 8

1.

(25)

1dr 12 = dx 2 +dy 2 +dz2 =ds2

(26)

dy.

dz

ds

ds

-dx = t.
'1=08 ,
- =f'J=c0813, -

(27)

ds

13

=fk=c08Y,

(25)

d 2r
d~x.
d2y
- - = - - 1+
ds"
ds"
ds 2

_ (28)

=-

(25)

d2 z
--k=
ds!

1 = ,

1 d2
--=nj=cos
1 ds 2

(27')

1 d2 z
- - =nk=cos
1

fJl

ds 2

~1>

(25)

= _1 (dr d 2r)
1

(26)

(25)

(28),

dsds 2

. i = 08 2 = _1_ (dY . d 2z _ dz . d 2 y)
1

(27")

ds

ds 2

ds

ds 2

1 (dZ

d2 x

dx

d 2 Z)

. = 8 ~2 = 1 ds . ds2 - ds . ds" '

10

({2'

~2' 2

(27), (27')

(25)

(27")
(25)

cosinus-e

,
.

r (/) =

(27), (27') (27")

)+

(t)j+z(t) k,

s ,
s

320.

r==r(s)=x (s) + (s) j+z (s) k,

(29)

s.

dr
ds

()

= dx i + dy + dz k = t ,
ds

ds

ds

,(31.)

(32)

R,

t,

(, ,

z).

t'

t,

;:.:.----------,1..) (, , z).

243

R2

R1 , t /
t /uu/u

R (, ,

(.

243).

z)

(, , z)

, .

11

1.

(, , )

. .

dr
(R-r)t=(R-r) ds ==-0,

(29),

(R-r)dr=,

(, , )

+ + Zk

R == i

(34)

(33),

(29), (30),

N 1 (,
(34),

Z)

(.

244).

{X_x)dx+(y_y)dY +
ds
ds

dz
=0,
ds

+(Z-z)~

- ) dx+(Y - ) dy+

+(Z -

dz=O.

r=r (t) = (t) i

(35)

+ (t) + z (t) k

O~------------------

,.1(

. 244

dr == dr

ds

.!!!-. = (dX i + _dy +

dt ds

dt

dr

(R-r)~

dt

(33)

=0

dt

dx

( -x)~

dt
(

dz

dt

k)!!i.
ds

(R-r)dr=,

{33')

_____

dy
. dz
+ (Y-y)~
+ (Z-z)~
=
dt

dt

- ) dx+(Y -) dy+(Z - ) dz=O

12

(, ,

z)

lIi . 1 )

(36)

(29),
(.

r
R
245)

(R - r) = (R-r) (t )

= (R-r). ( -dr

(, ,

ds

d2r)
-

ds 2

= ,

z)
N2 (, , Z)


X--Z-z

dx

dy

dz

ds

ds

ds

= .

d2 x d 2 d 2 z
ds 2 ds 2 ds 2


O~~=-----~

(35).

__________

dr

dr

dt

ds

dt

ds

d2 r = d2r(~)2 + dr !f!
.

ds 2

245

dl 2

ds

dt ds 2

~; ~:~ = (~~ .~ -~;n (~;),


(36)

(R __ r).(dr
dt

d2 r) =0
dt 2

(R-r) (dr

d 2 r)=0.

(36')

dx

dy

dz

dt

dt

dt

d2 x

d2 y

d2 z

dt 2

dt 2

dt 2

--

1)

Z-z

dx

dy

dz

d2 x

d2 y

d2 z

= ,

Z-z
=

1.

13

(, ,

z)

uuu .

(R-r). =(R-r). (b~t)=(R_r).[(dr xd2r)xdr]=0

(37)

ds

(29),

ds 2

ds

r (, , z)
R N (, , Z)
(. 246).
-

Z-z

dyd 2 z _ dzd 2 y

dz d 2 dxd 2 Z
----ds ds z ds ds 2

dx d 2 _ dy d 2

dx

dy

dz

ds

ds

ds

ds ds 2

ds ds 2

(R_r).[(dr x d2r
dt

dt 2

ds ds 2

ds ds 2

(35),

(37)

=0.

)x dtdr] =0

(R -r) [(d r

d2

r)

d r]

- Y-Z-z

{37')

dx

dy

dz

dt

dt

=0

dt

Z-z

dx

dy

dz

321.

246

(20),

(20').
I<.

r = r (s) = (s) 1+ (s) + z (s) k,

(38)

=0,

--?

== t,

--?

1 1

= t + t,

= 11 s.

14

f).

( . 227).

= f). s

iiii. = f). s

(38).

, .

1-- 1"11:: 1f). ts

(39)

= dx i + dy + dz k = t
ds

ds

ds

(38).

(, , z).

(38)
dr
ds

- 1"
I f). t 1_1 dt
- As1~ f). s - ds

(38)

(, , z).

(38)

Ul

(38)

(, ,

z),

(39')

(39),

f(

(38)

(, ,

z).

(, ,

(38)

z) (NQ 318).

(40)

(39")

dr

dr

dt

ds

dt

ds

-=---,

(41 )

= r (t) = (t) i + (t) + z (1) k ,

(22)

(24'),

K 1 b=dr x d2r =(dr


ds d<;2dt

x~~).
dt 2

(dt)3,
ds

1.

---

(42)

(40)

[. dr x!!~ 1
! dt
dt 2

(42),

dr d2 r i
! dt
dt 2 I
:

1 == - - - - - 1

(41)

~; 18

[(

~;Y]2


'2

1 ==

V2 + N2 + 2

3==

V2 + NZ + 2

ds'

(20)

'

(20').

(38)

-;..

==

-;..

1 1

"'"

t +.1 t

1 ,

ONN1 (. 247).

2 ON sin ~ep

-;..

Itl'=lt+~tl==l,

I ~ t I ==

(dx~+dy2+dz2) 2

2
3

1 ==

[(*)2 +(~Y+(~;)2]2

(43)

+ N2

~t=NNl
=

N,

2 sin ~'P ,
2

I!!! I == 1 ~t I =
I ds I L:.S -+ ~s
.

~'P

2)

sl~-

==.

Idq>
1 -~-_1
~s t.q>--+o
~.p
-

t.s-+O

dq>
ds .

OL-........- - - - - - _ - - . , l N
.

247

, (39'), (38) (, , z).


, u (38) (, , z)
dr ~
ds ds

2) 6. -+

= (~!)2 == t . t
ds

6.( -+

== t2 == 1 .

16

(44)

.

= I dCPI
ds'

dcp , k
(38),

ICuu.

(, ,

z).

(44) (38)

Llcp


fb

TaH~e
1

IiPUBUHY

1 =

-+

== t

=Lls

-+

1 ...

=Ll s.

t+Ll t

jLlCPI
ds

I Llcp
I = Id I
Lls
ds

As-+

IipUBUHa llu (38) (, , z).

322.

. ~


, .

(, ,

(45)

z)

== - ,
1

' ,

(39') (43),

(46)

(46')

J:l '=
-

1)

(20').1)

MN (, , z)

R , h '
z).

Il (, ,

'

(20)

R=

',

, Il Il (, , z).

17

1.

(. 247').

, '

Zo

(, ,

' ( ,

z)

' ( , '

zo)

zo).

r, =r+Rn

r 1 == i + + Zo k,

r == i + + z k,

== i cos

(, )

+ cos (, i) + k cos:Cn, k) = i COS!X

' ( , '

zo)

(, ,

z)

+ COS ~1 + k cos l'

(45).

yo==y+Rcos~"

xo==x+Rcos!X"

247'

(27')

(45),

zo=z+RCOSY1'

{47)

O'~(x~, ,

d2z

==z+R%-ds 2

zo)

r (s) == (s) i + (s)

+ z (s) k.

r (t) = (t) i + (t) i + z (t) k,


'

.( 47)

t s ,

ds
dt

11 (dX)2 + (d y )2 + (dZ)2
V dt

dt

dt

18

' ( , .

NdZ _pdY
=

Zo)

pdx _Mdz

dt
dt
+ R2 - ---,

Yo~ +

(;;)4

dt

dt

R2 - - - - ' - -

;)4

(47')

=+

R2 Ndz-Pdy ,
ds"

Pdx-Mdz

=y+R2 - -.ds4.

( 47")
DtA

zo=z+,,

(20)

323.

Mdy-Ndx

ds. 4

"

(46').

(20').

(48)

r(s)=x(s)i+y(s)J+z(s)k,

, ---t

---t

1 ,=

M 1 B 1 =b+db

MM 1 =ds.

(48)

w -.+
(48). ~b =

1 = Lls , .

248

(.

248).

2 = db = l ~b = Iim d.b 1 )
ds

As

~-)o() ~s.

D.b
1) li1 N cpJe/l:.ltJe iU; ir =t1s (48}.
D.S

1.

t,

19

(, ,

(48)

z).

==t ,

dt

db
I t.
ds....L

db
-.-

db

dt

dn

dn

ds

ds

ds

ds

- = - xn+tx -=tx-,

(49)

ds

. ,

. db

ds ~

'
. I I =.
1 '
,

ds

-db = - 2 n,

(50)

ds

o/l 2 ,

ds

>

db
ds

db

ds

. 2 (48) M(x,y,z).
2 ,

t,

(48)

, .

ds> . , ,
t, s .

(, ,

(48)

z)

n=,

dn

-=

ds

(15)

ds

ds 2

db

- nds

= 2

(22),

1 d2 r
d2 r
n=--=R-,
1

db

ds

(50),

(51)
,

dn

-+n-=

ds 2

=_1 (dr
1

ds

r) =R(dr
d r)
ds
ds

d2
ds 2

2Q

(51),

2 = (R d8r + dR d2r)'R(dr d2 r) =R2[dS r .(~~ dZr)]~I)


ds

ds ds 2

ds

ds

ds 2

R" [d r (d 2 r d3 r )] ,

ds s

ds 2

ds ds z

ds s

dr . (d 2 r

dr )

(46),

ds

ds

ds 8

(52)

.-

Id r 12
2

ds 2
, ,
8
-d r

ds 3

'

l.

(52)

dx
ds

dy
ds

d2
ds 2

d2
ds~

dz
ds
dZz
ds z

dS '
ds

d3
ds 3

d8 Z
ds'

(53)
1

2 =

dr

-,

ds

d't.r
ds l

-,

(d Z )2 +(d2 / +(d2 Z)2


ds 2
ds 2
ds 2

(. ,
uuu/{ mu

(48),

z)

(48)

=-.

(54)

h
.

(52)

(53).

r (t) = (t) i

(55)
1)

+ (t) + z (t) k ,

(54),

21

1.

dr dr dt
-=_.-

ds

dt

ds

dr (dJr dr )=-=(dr
ds

ds2

ds'

dt

d 2 r). dr
ds 2
ds'

= [dr (d 2r
dt
dt'

R,

d8r
dt 8

(41),

[(dr
dt

dJr ). d8 r (dt)6 ==
df J

dt l

ds

)] (dt )6,
ds
h

R'~ ~1 ~ [<!! ~-]'('


dt

. (, ,

.:

(56)

dt 2

ds

z) (55)

dr. (d 2 r ~Sr)"
dt
dt 2
dt l
,
dr d 2 r 12
dt
dtJ

(57)

2-

1::,

M2+N2+p2

dx

dy

dz

dt

dl

dt

d2 x

d2y

d 2z

dt 2

dt 2

dt 2

dSx

d9y

dSz

dt 3

dt 3

dt S

-6.=

(58)

(20),

22

dx

dy

dz

N (20').
(54), (57) (58).

d.r . d 2 r

d3 r

dt

ds

-,

, (5),-

dt 2

dt (;

t ( ds)'

.
,

Ll =

(58)

. u. ,

,
.

,
2

N,

N
db

- = - 2 n =0,

ds

. 2 =0.

249

(48)

M,Bj=b+ilb

1.
i<

23

6 (.

ONN t

249).

~-+

1 1= 1b+f1b 1= 1

/:,.

I /:,. 1 =2 ON:sin
2

= NN

2 sin

2 '
.

/:,.,1.

s-'t'-

I/:,.
1= ~HO
li I/:"
[\. ~r-+
1im '-~ I dt I
Idbds 1= ~HO
s
f1s
r
ds'
=

2
,

(50).

{4$)

(48)

(, ,

(,

z)

y,z).

(59)

dt

(59)

--+

M(x,y,z). r =

ll

(48).
(48)
--+
[ 1 =+/:"

/:,.r

1 =/:"s. s

;:!. m. 1 =/:"s,

u (48) (, , z).

324.

Frt- .

t,

r (s)=x (s) i+y (s) j+z (s) k

()

w: (. y,z). , ,

dt '
- = 1
ds

(61 )
,

dn

-.
ds

!<z

db
ds

=- 2 ,

(, ,

h <.
:=:

xt

z).

24

dn == db t + dt
ds
,

ds

ds

(61),
dn

-. ==
ds

- 2 ( t)+ ()== - t+2;'

dt

-= 1 ==-,

ds

dn
t

-=- 1 t+ 2 =--+-,

(62)

ds

db

-=- ---,

ds

Frenet-

2;

(60)

(, ,

z).t>

---..

:::::=~,
Idnl
ds
Rs

Ra

".

(62)

iiii

(Lt- )

1
R

'

- = -2+ R~

t = i +. + v k,

(62')
1)

= 1 i +}11 + V1 k,

= 2 i+.:i + V 2 k,
.

2 == FreneioBe

dt
-

ds

== 1 =-,

dn
t
-=-Ktt=--.

ds

1.

25

------------------------- Fnt-
d

- = . 1 ,

ds

(62")

~ = - 11'

dv:

= -,. 1 ,

ds

ds

d 1

-----+-

(63)

ds

'

dJ11= - 1
+ 112
ds

- = - - + -2
dVl
ds

d2 =-~

ds

, 1,

2 , 1'

sius-

1 , 11' 1

sius-

(60)

z).

(63)

( d)2 + (. dJ1 )2 + (dV)2 = _1J ,


ds
ds
ds
R
( dl)2 + .(~~)2 + (dV 1 )2 == _1
ds

ds

ds

ds

Darboux-

R~

ds ,

( d2)2 + (d J1 2)2 + ( dVz)2

(63')

~2_

ds

sius-

(, ,

dv z

ds

+ _~,

_1
2

'I.

;,

, ;Ji

'

dxt=-,

' Frt-

dxb = - - .

t,

(62)

dn
-=dxn,

dt
-=dxt

ds

dbi
--dxb;

ds

ds

s,

' t .

325.

K 1 =f(s),

f (s)

(s)

'

(64)

t ~

Ka=cp(s) , '

SE [so, sJ]

, u
u

ui Ft-

(64)

(62).

(62").

,:, : 1 , :
d:

ds

(65)

= 1 1 = I(S) 1

1 = _ 1 + 2 1..2 = - 1 (8) +, (s) 1..2 ,


d:
ds
"

d 2

ds

- 1 1..1 =

(s) 1..1'

, , .

~TeM

(66)

=(s),

S = So

(67)

SE [so, SI]

1.

(66)

1.2(s) + 1.~ (s) +1.~ (s)

(68)
al\O

27

= 1,

(65) }., 1.1' 1.2'

(67),

::::

(68).

(62")

II

SE [so, S1]
.=.

.l =.l

(s),

112 =.2 (s)

(s),

y::::y(s),

. = .

(so):::: ,

= (so):::: ,

?:::: 1 (so):::: ,

.2 (s)+p.~ (s) +p.~ (s);:: 1,

(69)

yg= 2 (so) = 1

2 (s) +Y~ (s)+y~ (s) = 1

(62")

(70)

(68), (69)

(70)

(62")

8::::

.l

.2

::::1

j~
<')2=

.l

.2

Otnb

() =

1.

8=

=1

Oxyz,

28

(62')

t = (s) i
= 1

+ . (s) + v (s) k,
+.l

(s)

= 2 (s)i+f11

dx

(s)

+ 1

dz
ds

-=

-=p.(s),
ds

ds

(s) k,

(s)j+v 2 (s)k.

dy

-=(s),

(62")

(s)

= + f(S)dS,

=+ fP.(S)dS,

<

= = Zo = ,

= so,

8.

(so),

= (S)dS,

(71 )

z=zo+ jV(S)dS.

<

y=IP.(S)dS,

Z=

'.

jV(S)dS
s.

r=i I(S)ds+.(S)dS+k f"(S)dS.


"

$0

$0

(71)
(64)

[So'

SI]'

"-

'"

""
//
,------

--~

+ yS =

+ 2 = 2

h ,
\

--+--:, ....

Oz.

(250).


,
.

250

2 +2= 2

29

1.

-. t ==.

(12)

x=acost,

y=asint,

(72')

r=

i cos t + sin t + bk t ,

21

1 =h=2rt ,

dr

dr dt

ds

dt ds

t = - = - . - =: ( -

1 s t

(, , )

(72')

dt

+ cos t -f; k) - .
ds

dt
ds

. + 2

'

(7.3)

t.k=

+ 2

(, , )

(, , )

cos t
- sin t
-

----

sin t
cos t

(13),

Z - bt

----~-

Z-z

--~--=---.

(, , )

(74)

n= -dt

(7.5)

(73)
ds

d2r

=- =
ds 2

d2r (dt

-)

dt 2

ds

dr d f
+ -.
- 2 = -2 - -2 ( - 1 COS t 2

dt

ds

s (),

30

I(

COS t-j sin t,

= -

(76)

(, ,

-= -
-

z), (21'), h:

Z-z=

yX-=,

Z-z=,

(74)

(75),
.

(, ,

z),

(22), (73),.

(dr - d

2 ,)

=- --

ds

ds

(ist-st+k)

b.k

+ 2 '

(, ,

(, ,

-:'

z)

Oz.

(27), (27')

z)

dx
=

ds

dx dt
-
dt . ds = -;-=:2::=+=='7.2 '

cos

~ =

dy
dy dt
= -.ds dt ds

cos

dz
ds

= -

dz dt
dt ds

= -. -

--;=== 2 + 2

+ 2

cosa~=~d2x =~[d2X (dt)2+dX. d2t]=_~,


1

ds 2

dt 2 ds

dt

ds 2

COS~l == ~ d2 y = ~[d2y (~~)2 + dy d2 t] = _ L,


1

cos

ds 2

dt 2 ds

dt ds 2

= ~ d2 z = ~ [d 2Z (dt)2 + dz d2f

1 ds2

sius- ,

(27")

cos

(24"),

Z-z

(, ,

z),

1 dt2 ds

dt ds 2

.
,

1.

1 (dX d2
l ds' ds 2

.
COSY2=

(33'), (36')

(37'),

dy dl )
ds' ds 2

z)

+b 2

'


( ),

yX--(Z-z)=,
-

Ya

, -

(, ,

31

Z-z

=0

( ),

yX-+ ~(Z-z)=

Z-z
.

( ).

2 =

(, ,

z),

(39")

(74),

:
-d r = ~~(-.st-s
t)

ds 2

2 + 2

aZ +b2

(45)

R=----,

(47/1)

'

32

(49), (73)

(76),

d~=tx dn=tx dndt = (_i_~sint + a~ost +k

)
ds
ds
dt ds
2 + 2
' 2 +!
" 2 + 2

(isint-jcost) __l

....::.;

__ _ (icost-jsint)
V 2 + 2

V 2 + 2

..

2=

- (, ,

d=

2 + 2

'

z),

(63'),

\1 ; -+ 2

'

, .

---~

V2+2 .

3-

, -

Oz.

h Ft- ,

sius-

, , ,

(, ,

z)

Ft-u

.
. ~ h :

10.

Oz

h .

(, ,

z)

1 .
, ,

f (t),

(t),

z = ,

= f (t) ,

(t)

t .

(77)

r (t) = (t) i + (t) + bt k =

f (t) i + (t) + bt k

33

1.

dr ~ dr dt ~ (dX i +- dy j+bk)~,
d s dt ds
dt
dt
ds

1 ,

r 1 (t)

r 1 (t) = (t) f + (t)

I ~!. \2
t

1=

dr 1 = dx f + dy
df

dt

dt

I~; 2 + ~: 12,

1 '

Ids l
dr

= 1= (1

+2) (dt)2,
ds

ds

dt

'11 + 2.

<sius- (, ,

z)

dx

dx

ds

{' (t)

dt

VaZ+b z '

ds

dt

dy
11 =

{77')

dy
-

ds

dt
=

ds

ds
dt
dz
dt

dz
= -

ds

' (t)
--;=:='===

V 2 + = ,

=--===
'1 2 + 2

. dt

(, , z) Oz .

20.

, n i1i i1i

;.

2.

f (t) f + < (t) + ~ (t) k


(t) = f (t) f + < (t) ,

r (t) =

(78)

1
V

rl

t 1
3

34

dr
-

ds

[1' (t) i + Cf' )

dr
I,~

i'I 2 = 1 =

dt

t'

(t) k] -

ds

[1'% (1) + ('2 (t) + t':: (f)](dt)2 ,


~

ds
<l sius

Oz

dz
=

t'(t)
=----- - --------.

(jf

dz

= -

ds

\' 1

ds

+ l' 2 (t)

dt

t' )

z =t (t)= zo'

z=zo

t= 10'

zo= 0,1)

(78)

r(t)=j(t)i, cp(t)i+btk

(77).

Vl

+t =C011st,

Ft-
(

ds
. l = ,

1)

(77')

=1<1

=0,

Ft- (62'f)

u ,

1,

35

~ =

/"2 (t) + ,,2 )

+ bZ)2

(1

= R'J.

/"2(t) + rp"2 (t) =

r 1 ,

R ,~ r (1 + 2 )

1(,,z) 1
1 (, ).

v 2-

1 + 2

, Ft- ,

---,!_-- =

11'1 + 2

__1~

+lJ2

Jt .

K 2 =bK 1 =

(1

+ 2)

"\/-2----2

= 1
3

+ 2 = - _---_--=-=
r 1 + 2

30. ,

ili

, iiili .

2 =.
1

~2

= dP.2 =

dp.

Ft-

dV 2 = _ 2
dv
!

(62")

= _
3

36

/!

l1. ,
2 =-+ 1 ,

1 , :, ,

[12=-[1+ 2 ,

, [1,

h , h

2 +f.1f.12+ VV 2=0,

\1 2 =-v+ ,

1 + 2

+.2+ 2 =1,

+ v =

f.1

-=-=-.
{{ .

40.

, . 1 ;:: .

, Frt- ,

d2 r
ds 2

dt
dr
=0, -=t==a,
ds
ds

r=as+r o

_.=

ro

z-z.

--==--=---.

5~
2

6 2

r(x)=xi+-. j + - k
(, ,

z)

t == dr = dr dx = ( 1+ ~ + _.x_~
ds dx ds

2 2
ds
dx

-=

=--,
+

k) dxds ,
1 + --2 = +
-,
2 2

[1=--,
+

.
.

k
t =dr
- = - - 1+--+-- ,
ds +
+
+

d2 r

1.

-=-+
2

d);!2

1.

37

dr d2 r
dx
dx%

I
I

(~: 13

+ )2

r(x)=xi+
(, ,

z)

-+

--k
2

dr

dx

=1

2
-2

---k,
2 2

dx

70.

2 ! 2

----,

2 4 + 4

=-

-2'

t
= -2'

z=log sin t

38

1t

t:: -

+ = ~ ,
2

~ ,

Z -= .

80.

x=t-sin t,

t=to

"

l-cos t,

ds=2 dt,

Z - Zo
. to

cos to

sin t o

z= 4 sl-

-sl-

90.

1 .
2

= -s1

t=.to

= ~ (t + sin f cos t), z=sin t

t,

= y-~

sin to

cos to

Z-zo

-
-
Zo
- - - -- =Z-- -

cos to

-.! -
100.

-sin t o

1'. -

sin to

cos

= Z - Zo
-1

( ' ,

zo)

(X-)

(Y-)

+ .- + Z -

1 =

1/+6
__
___
1/ (a+b+2z o)S

= _ ~ xozo
+ '

Zo =

Z-zo
1

= _ 3 Zo, Z =+ + 3 Zo
+

1.

] 10.

II

t2

Z = ---

t= 1

120.

(t)

2
Tei +e"::
I)2

1 =

13.

=3'

x=sin/-tcost,

t = {

y=tsint+cost,

z=t+1

-__ =

.!-zn

tocosto
( - ) t o sin 10

14.

+ ( -

) t o cos 10

(Z -20)

~ !

= !

sin 1 ,

cos t ,

,2 =

(t) 2 = 3~!
150.

'

(1, 3 4)

+ l

= 10,

Z2 =

25

X-l=9-3 Y=4Z-16

160.

-12 -

3Z

+ 12

='-

39

40

( ' '

TllaBa

zo)

YozoX-z-Z+.z=

( 2 _ ') X~ + 2 yg -

21 -_

xg + y~ + a1z8
2 2~

2 2

( zo+Xo zo+xo )

xg

2-

17.

r(s) =

(79)

2 )

3 2 2 (a~ - 2 ) Z
(2 _ %)
+ 4 yZ + 04 z~

( 2 - 2 )2

:g Z = 2 2 ( 2

+ y(s)j + z(s)k = {(s) i

(s)1

+ q>(s)j

s = .

I (s),

+t(s)k,
q> (s)

r (s)

(s)

fui-:

r (s) = r

(80)

(s)

() + ~ (dr) + !_~ (d r) + ~ ( dsr) + ... ,


1! ds

21 ds1.

() ()

3! ds 8

r (s)

. ' )

Ft-

(62),

~O) aj~

= to ,
(dr)
ds

=(~l_)+1
( dds r)
s
ds

t o,

(dn)
= (dl)-1'(l,t-2,)'
ds
ds

' " ,

l' 2 , ().

()

= .
(dr)
ds ()

r(O) = ,

2.

(-d3r ) , = - 1,01+ (dK


-

. ds 8

--1)

s=M ()

(s}.

IIYK

ds

1).

1'0 270 1.
1L

()

s=o

].

1.

41

lui-

2)

1) ]

SS

S2
S8 ( dK
r{s)== (s
s--K 1,o + -
j+-t.O~.k+ ... ,
+- - 3!,
2!
3! dso
3!

S9,

S2
y(s)=21

(81)

(s) == s - - 1 0+
3! '

. . ,

(dK,_1 ) + ... ,
+ SB__

3!

ds

S8

z(S)=-3il,~+ .'

(s)

()

(79).
z

60 , ,

(81)

s.

s,

>

s.

2 ,
, z
\s), hh

:!'..l)

s , i
h u. un.

Il.

< ,

KPI1BOj

(s),

hh

h i10 un. nn.


.

,
(0),

\81)

(),

<

2 0 >

. '

s,

n,

,'I ,

326. . - 1 m
v 1 , .
BPHl1la 1 (.

251). r=r (.v)


r 1 =r 1 (s) ~~ ~ I ,
s . ' , 1
,

(82)
) 1 .

-42

/!

-+
' ' =

1.

MNB

~ 1

1 ~ In

(83)

l .,

11=0,

I t , 1"

1
,

MN

r,

(82),

(83), .

O~----__~------------------~

. 251

(84)

dr l
ds

dr
ds

I ,

(84)

dl n n+ln dn
ds
ds

r=r (s)

ln

+ !!J2b+l
ds

db
ds

, Frt- ,

dr = t,
ds

dn
- =
ds

- 1

t+K.,
-

db
-ds

:=-

2,

'

( 8 5 ) dr
-1
~

(1

n
' 1/" ) t+ (dl
- - [ ( 2 1 .)' n+ (dl
--b +

.(86)

2 /"

'.

MNB

, .

l- 1 /" ... 0,

1
I,,=-=R.
1

(83),

(85)

= (dl n _ _ K 2 Io

dr,_
ds

(86')

43

1.

ds

)n+ (dl~+K2In)b.
ds

. , .

' '

- l

dl n
ds

_dlo + 1
ds
2

dlb
dln
2
2
I,. - -Ib == - 2 (ln+ l).
ds
ds

(87)

MN,

(86),
lo=ln tg = R tg

(87)

dcp

(88)

= -

-=- 2 ,

ds

f 2

ds+cpo'

s.
<

(89)

rl

<

"

(88).

1"

UlI

(89)


' '

. ,

r+R + Rb tg .

<
', "

(s>=$o).

(84),

(88),

MNB .

).

(89)

= . 1
--+
MN, , (88), 2 =0.
_ ,
" 1 (

309)

r l =r+Rn. ,

(89)

44

, '

2 =0

.'

Sl 1 ,

12 I C!~
ds

(- dl"

t1

2 I ')2 + (dl
-b
+ 2 I ')2

. (Is

11

ds

(86'),

(87)"

(88),

( dS 1
ds

)2 =( dl,,), z+ (.dlb )2 _2 12,


ds

, ds

(l2=/~+ l~).

, h

1" =

/11

=1

/1 cos =

lcos ,

'

/1:1 si ~ 1sin q>

Ids , I=ldfl

dS t = dl"

l.

(90)

Si

(90)

,,

~.

310),

11.

327.

(1)

(,

V)=X (, v) + (, v) +z (, v) k

45

11.

x=x(u,v),

(2)

y=y(u,v), z=z(u,v),1)

v2 )

(2),

f (, ,

(2')

z)

.,

(3)

1 (, ) ,

2 =

= qJ2 (, z) ,

= ' (, z) .

(, , )

(4)

= 1 (0, )

(5)

= ! (, )

(1), (2), (2'), (3), (4)

<=(,).

(5)

Oxyz

(,

v),

(,

(,

v), z

(,

y=y(u,v),

v) ,

z (, v) ,

v)

Ouv.

(,

v),

(,

v
v)

z (, v) 2 ' .
(, v), (, v), z (, v) 2 '

, dn-. dn-

,/

. 2

dn-

(,

2 '

v),

(,

v), z (, v)

Ouv

1)

(, v)

= 11

(, v) ,

= (, v)

= 12 (, v) ,

z = z (, v) = I (, v) .

2) , ,

_'2J~l:'l

U (, v) ,

lIe.

D (, z)
D (, v) ,

D (z, )
D (, v)

46

(6)

(,

z)

D (z,

(,

v)

(~~~)-

(, )
(,

v)

(1)

u u,

(1)

av

r r

( 7)

D
D

.I'.'

(8)

ar

--=

:.:

av

dv

(, v), z (, ).

ar

(, ',

(7) h lI, ,

(8),
(5) .
(2'), (2')

[i u,

t (, , z)

ar

( )2 ~

( t )2+( t )2 ,

az

'

1' ,

. ,

(2')

f (, , z)::= t[x

(,

v),

(,

v), z (, v)] =

11.

47

d-

ii,

'

(, v), (, v), z (, v) J~.


ii.

328.

(9)

(,

v)=x

(,

v) i+y
r

h
( 1 ,

(,

(9).

(9).

Il

ll

(9).

'll .

r
--=r
v

const.,
v = const. = const.

ar

v = v1 = const."

v 1)

v) v = 1 =const.
(9). II h

v) j+z (, v) k.

v Gauss-ll ii. LU llllQ

(,

v = const.
...

(9)

, . h

rr .

ll= 11

(t), ~'= I: (!)

(10)

(1), v (t)]=x [ (t), v (t)] i+y [ (t), v(t)]j+z [u(t), v (t)] k

ar
dr=-du+
-ar dv

(11 )

[r
ll

(9).

(11)

(9),

r ['2 (t) ] dt
1'1 (t)+v

(10)

,
(9),

(9).

dr, ::

~:' '

. ,

, .

r
v

[fl

(9).

48

. ,

(9)

(9),

(,

v)

(, , )

(9),

R=Xi+ Yj+Zk
---->-

. !, ,

Z)

(, , )

(9)
(252).


(,, z)

(9)

(12)(R -) (

252

) =

Z-z

=0

(-) ~(y, z)

.(a~

(,

+ ( _ )

v)

(9)

1)

(, ) +
(,

(Z _

v)

(, ) =

(9')

i +

+ z (, ) k 2),

II

R-r,

I<.

2) . (9) =, = .

D
.D

(x~=o .
(,

v)

')

49

11.

(, ,
-

z)

Z-z
z

="0

z
z
(-)-+(-)- -(Z-z)=

(13)

(Z=, Z=q).

( -)+(-)q-(Z-z)=,

!(, ,

(9")

z)=O

!+!z=,

(13),

()

( -)

. !

(, ,
R-r=

(14)

+(Z - z) --.

li.

(9)

+( - ) -

( -r

z)

r)
1
-- ,)
v

R=X

-+

(.

1)

Yj+Zk,

ON

252).

(, ,

z)

(14)

(, ,

(9),

Z)

:.

(R-r)x ( -r

R-r

1:

-r) =0,
v

-.
v

50

(9)

-
(,

D
D

(,

Z-z
D (, )
D (, v) -

------

~---~.

(')

D (z, )
D (, v)

z)
v)

(9'),

X-=-=Z-z

- q

(9"),

h
-

(')

(9)

D(y,z)
D(u,v)

(15)

Z-z

f-=

D (, ) =0
D (11, v)

D(z,x)
D(u,v)

UJt ill

(9),

() ('),
,

(12)

(14),

,
.

(15)

r r =0.

(15')

(9)

(15'),

(15)

. , ,1IQ

(16)

(,

v)=i sin

cos v+jr sin

7t

r
- = t. cos

h = =

s s\v+ s

2 rr,

k
'
cosv + '
cos s v s

'

rr, -

sin v+k cos

= U=1t

(16),

r(O,v)=rk,

cos v,

(15')

r(7t,v)=-rk,

()

11.
(')

(16)

f (, , Z)_X 2+y2+Z2_ r 2=O.


-

(15')

(9)

(, ,

(9).
r

51

-,

z),

r r _'r r/ No

No

ii

(, , z) h, (),

(X-x)~
~

+ (- ) L +
2

(z- z) ~=O
~

, ,

('),
a 2 (X-)

c2 (Z-z)
-.
z

= .

fb. -

10.

h :

xyz=a 2

- +- +

-= -

20.

(17)

yz

xz

(,

v) = i sin

M(x,y,z)

=Z-z

cos v+i sin

sin v+k

,
4

52

r = 1 cos cos v + cos sin v + k,

r =

l Sl
' Sl
. v +'
Sl

cos v

, =, r =0, (15') . =, v

(,

h () ('),

r
(17).

v) = ,

(17)

t (, , z)=x + y2-sin2 z=O.


l

30.

+ +3 Z -

3 ( -1) =3

l (

50.

xy2+z8=12

) =

- -

bl

( -

2) =Z -2.

= Z + Zo

( - ) =

(Z - zo)

(17')

r(u, v)=iu cosv+ju.sin v+auk

( ,

vo)

cos Vo + sin Vo = Z

-
-
- '- = - . - - =
cos Vo Sl Vo

= h
(,

9=

(1,2,2)

v)

r(O, v)=O,

(Z -zo)

r =0,
v

(15')

(, , ) h

(17'),

(17') 2 +
60.

2 -4 2+2z 2 -=0 (2,2,

+ 4 +3 Z =

12 - 24= - 3

3)

+ 6=4Z -12

=:...
.

329.

r=r (, v, )= (, v,

(18)

53

11.

S
i +

(,

v,

) +z (,

v,

= (,

),

v,

= (,

v, ),

z = z(u, v,

1 , 2

SI' S2"

8, . u S. ,

(18),

u=u(t),

[ (t),

81

SI


'

(t)

dv.
dt

SI

(t)

du

dv

i'

da

dt- + v dt + dt '

.
h , .

(r r). r =

(18)

1 ,
SI

(22)

(18).

+ r

dr
dt

(to, t 1)

(/)],

dr = r du
dt
dt

(21)

v (t),

=F ,

(18),

(t)=const.,

(20)

1 ,

r=r (, v, ) = r

(19)

=(!)

v=v(t),

. r
-

(20)

(21)

=0.

'v

54

(18) .
(22) (18).
(22) = (, v) (18),
h (18)

(18)

r=r [, v,

(,

v)]=r1 (, v)=x1 (, v) i +\

(,

v) +Z1

r=r (, ") =

+ + Z

(23)

(, , )

(,

v) k.

k 1)

Z~Z(x, , )

(24)

(22)

(25)

==0.

(24)

(25)

f
(24)

(25)

(23)

(25)

(, , Z, )==,

(25),

f [, , z (, ,
.

(26)
,

)]=,

(27)

(26)

t27)
z) =0.

(26)

, (, ,

(),

1) . (18) =u, = v.

')

const.

38

, .

'

-dx+-dy+

dy

-dz=
z

-dx+- dy+- dz+

f
-d=,

da

-=0.

S1'

(26),

11.

55

ll

S ,

f(x,

z,

= ,

, ,

(28)

(, ,

z,

=0,

=0,

(, ,

(29)

(28)

:)=0.

(28)

(29),

S. ,

S,

cra ()

(28)

S.

(, ,

z,

, ) =0,

if> (), ,

f
.

(, ,

z,

, )=! [, ,

z,

, q> ()]=/ (,,

z,

)=.

(30)

-"2 z +6=0,

. h

(31 )

7.

az+- =
2

(30) (31) (30).


(30) (31) h

(30).

h :

10.

. 1l1l0

reoMeIllpucKO

S.

f(x,y,z,a)=O,

t(x,y,z,a+~a)=O

{) .

56

{(, ,

z,

)=, ! + ~~ {"(, , z, +)=.

/:). ~ , . .

! =0. ,

f(x,

, z, )=,

I ,

:; =0

20.

S.

ll () "llllll

fl.

" ".

2 + 2 = ! ,
( = , =

r ). ,

)2

+ ( -

)2

R.

+ Z2 = R2

2
2
,2.
,

(-)2+ (- "y~-a2)2 +z2=RZ.



h

=---==

,/X~

+ 2

(v 2

+ 2 -

liiopyc

r)l+z2=R2,

Oz (N!!

141,

20.).

, " u

( ), . ,

, ,
It

11.

30.

57

l+

n+

m+

( )

(x+y+z)2+4 (mx+ny+lz)=O.

40.

y~+Z2

- +

== 1,

2 + 2 =

+ '': -t

50.

k%

Z2 =k.

2
-2

(x_a)2+ y 2+z2=

(m 2 - 2 ),

,
2

2+

---+

+ n2

330.

(32)

f = f (,

v,

, ) = (,

Z2

=1.

n2

v, .) i

f- (,

, )

v,

+ z (, v, ,

x=x(u,v,a,b),

y=y(u,v,a,b),

z=z(u,v,a,b),

(32),

v = v (t),

(t),

(to,

(32)

(33)

v,

v,

, ) =f [ ),

(t),

(t),

(32).

f = f (,

(32).

(t) ~ const.,


= )

df
dt

v ),

= const.,

(t), )]

SI ( S)
1 SI

= f . du + f. d v

dt

dt

58

llII

'

(t)

=f= ,

'

=f= ,

(t)

dr
dt

du
audt

SI

(t),

(t)

ar dv

vdt

dt

da

db

-=--+--+--+--

(34)

,

Sj

1 ,
r

dt

(33)

(34)

r,

(r r). r =

(35)

(r r). r =

(36)

az

;;::

=0,

=0.

(32)
(32), (35) (36)
(32). (35) (36) = (, v),
= (, v) (32), h (32)

(35)

(36)

r=r [, v,

(,

v),

(,

v)]=r l

z=z (,

(38)

(39)

v).

r~r(u,v,a,b)=xi+yj+z(x,y,a,b)k

(37)

(,

(35)

(36)

, , )

z =0

'

-=0.

11.

(38)

59

(39),

(37)

(39)

f(x,y,z,a,b)=O

(40)
,

(38)

(39),

f [x,y,z (,,, )] =.,


.

+ !

f =0,

+ z

t =0,

(40)

f =0.

(40)

(39)

(41 )

! = ,

(41)

F (,

(42)

(40)

(41)

z)=O.

z),
S. , 06
. (, , z)
(40) (41) /{: : S,

uu

(, ,

:::

S.

,
. ,

.
.

10.

f u

+ by+z+ab=O.

+=,

+=.

( )

z=xy, 'l .

!" .

20.

, .

60

h , ,
.
, ,

-+-+-=1,

( 43)

, ,

(44)

(43),

(44),

27 xyz=k 2

331.

N (a)r+D

(45)

()=,

() + () +()

(45')

z+D ()=,

N=A i+Bj+Ck

(45),

r=xi+yj+zk
(, ,

z)

(45),

N () r+ iJ () ==0

(46)

(45)

(45) (46)
(45) .!)
(45).

1u/{

u. u uu un.

(45)

(46)

1)

(45) (46) g

, . (45) (46)

11.

61

Nr +D=O,
(47)

Nr+D=O,

N.r+D=O,
,

(47')

A:-=N (N N)=

+0

r=r(a)=x(a)i+y(a)j+z(a)k

(48)

(48),

(45).

(47),

(49)
, ,

(48).

(48).

(45)

(46)

(49)

, h

Nr+N .r=O,
,
.

(48),

(45)

(45)

(45)

N '.'= .

lIi

(48).

(45)

(48).
(48).

lIi 1 .

il lIi 1
...

(48),

(45)

(45)

(48). , 1
. lIi 1 .1 .
1 1 .

1) N N (45) (46)
(48). , (45) (46) (48), .
(48).
(47). (47).

62

r=ro=const., , (48),
r o, , h r o ,

uu.

~=O, ,

(47'),

N=N + l1N,1)

11

1 2 ,

.

, .

(45)

(45)

u uu.
,

(45)

(45')

(45')

' ()

( 45")

+ ' () + ' () z + D' () =

(45').
(45'). (45') (45")

"()

(45"')

+ " () + C"(a)z

(45')

(45')
(45"'),

(45")

+D"(a) =

(45').

(45'),

(45'),

. .
.

ax- y -

(50)

z+ 6 =0,

. h

(51 )

(2

az+- =0.
2

1) N .
,1 N,

N N.

(N

N)=O,

11.

63

(50)

u.

(50)

(51)

(51)

(52)

-z

(50), (51)

+ =.

(52)

(53)

z=a,

=-,

(53).

20.
,

( u)

/{ , .

r=r (s)=x (s) 1 + (s)

(54)

i + z (s) k

(.NQ 320)
(R-r)=.

(55)
h

, h

. h

(55)

s,

db dr
db
db
(R-r)-- -=(R-r)---t= (R-r)--=O,
ds
ds
ds
ds
, Ft-

(56)

(R-r)n

(55)

(56)

(54)

(54) (.NQ 320).

(55).

(55)

R=r

(56')

+ t,

., )1,

1)

+ ,

+ )1,

Z = z + ,

v sius- t s . 1 )

, ,

z,

1., !1 .

R=r (s)

(56'),

u =.

(55)
(55) (56).

( ),

(56)

s
dn

(R-r). - -

dr

-=

ds

ds

(R-r) -=0,
ds

Fnt- ,

(R - r)
,

( 2

(R- r) . t =

(57)

t) = ,

(55),

(57)

(56)

(54) (.NQ 320).

(55),

R=r (s) ,

(58)
.

(54).

30. u li liolipaBe , li ( li)

li .

(R~r)

(59)

(54)

t=O,

t.

s
dt

dr

ds

ds

(R-r)---t=(R-r)

dt

--tt=

ds

l Fnt- , h

(60)

(R-r).n-~=
I

(R-r) n-R=O

(R-r-R)=.
, ()

(54).

(59)

(60)

65

1/.

(59)
(54). (59)
(59) (60). , (59) (60),
( )

(54)

(59)

R=r+Rn+ub

(60')

=+R1. 1 + 1. 2,

Y=y+R}11

+}12'

Z=z+RY 1 +U'/ 2 ,

1.1'

111' 1.2' !L2' 2 sius-


s .!)
(54) : un
(54). , (59)
u (54). R=r (s) !
(60'),
. (60), s
,

dn

dR

ds

ds

(R - r)-- -t n- -

dn

=(R-r) -

ds

dR
- - =0.
ds

, Fnt- ,

(59),
(R - r) . = _1_ dR

(61 )

(60'),

(59), (60)

(61)

ds

dR
(R-r) = -.
ds

dR

(62)

R=r+Rn+Tds

1)

(54) (.N'2 326).


(62) (54)

(60')

(62)

Z, 1.1'

111' l.

1.2' )12' 2'

(60').

s r, R, , , ,

66

40.

( Du- ) ,

. . .

(54)

(R-r) =,

(63)

dn
dr
d
(R-r)- - -=\R-r)- -t=
ds'

ds

ds

, nt-

(R-r) . (~ -

(64)

~) =0.
R

(63) (64) n (63),


' .

(54).

(63),
t

1 - R

(63.).

!'~

(64)

~
R

= -(~+!.)
( . -~)
R

R
Du-

(.N2 324)

-(~+!.)
=-d

R
.

--

(63)

(64).

(63),

l(l(U

(64)

(65)

u .

(63)

! t
R=r+ut+ -) =r + ud
,
R

iiu,

11.

67

).2) '
( ). +/i

Z=Z

(54)

=+

(65),

2 )
-+-

( v

R'

=.

332.

r=r (t,

(65)

)=

) +

(t,

(t,

j+z(t,

k,

u .

1\'

()

/()

a=fP(U),

! ()

[, 1 ], t

(65).

(65)

r=r (t,
1 (, ,

z)

1 .

, 1 (, ,

a)~r [/ (), ! ()].

z) 1 , a=fP (u)=const.,

dr = r dt = r [' )
dt ! du !

(66)

a=fP () 19' (} ,

(67)

dr = ~r dt
du t du

+ r

da =

du

!
.Q.

r [' () + r !' (),


t

-!

(66)

iJr

--

, .

r r =.0
!

(67)

68

ll

(65),

2 '

=0

D (z, ) =0,
D (t, )

(68)

(65)

(65)

(68)

[1 ).

(68)

(65),

(68)

D( , ) =0,
D ( t, )

(68).

(65)

(65)

, .

(65)

2)

r=r(t,a)=xi

+ y(x,a)j+z(x,a)k,


=(,)

(69)

z=z(x,a)

(68)

z = .

-=0,

(70)

:.

(69),

(70).

(70)

(69).

(69)

(69)

(70)

(69)

1)

, ,

z,

(69)

2) =f, =}'(,), z=z(x,a).

6h

(70)
(69) .

69

11.

f (,

(71)

z, 0)=0,

(, , , )=,

(69),
),

t[x,y(x,

(,(, ),

z(x,a),a]=O,

z(x,a),a]=O

(70)

f + f + ! z = f = ,

+ + z = ~O

f =0

(72)

(71)

=0''

h ,

(71)

(72)

, ,


, .

(, ,

(, ,

z) =0,

z,

= ,

-=0,

= .

1.

1.

(, , , )=,

!(x,y,z)=O,

h :

--

'

=---

2 '

... 2'

z=a

=-

=-.

2 '

20.

- z sin

+ cos + sin ,

z cos

+ sin -

x=coso,

si,

=.

cos

70

30.

=m ()

(73)

(),

z+p

=n ()

z+q

(),

, h .

(73),

x=m(a)z+p(a),

y=n(a)z+q(a),

(74)

0= ' () z+p' (),

=n' ()

z+ q' ().

, ,

(73),

: ,

(74),

=m () z+p (), =n () z+q (), z= _ ' () =

(75)

' ()

(}

'()

(76)

q'(a)

' ()

' ()

(73)

(73)

(78)

(73).

(73)

, ,

' ()

n'(a)p'(a)-m'{)q'()=

(73),

q' () .

().

, .

,
TaHftHTe

(75),

(73)

(73)

(75),

(73)

. ,

40.

(73)

(!!

331).

(77)

x=m(a)z,

y=n(a)z,

= ' ( )

= ' ()

z,

(76)

= =

z = ,

50.
(78)

t77).

=(),

y=q(a)

'-

111.
='(\,

O=q'(a)

71

&

(76) .
(78)

r , .

60.

f (, , z, )=,

(79)

!
-=0.

f(x,y,z,a)=O,

(80)

{( , y,z, ) =

f='
'

! =-0

'

<

f (, , z, ) = , f =0'
h

(80), u (79).

(79)

111.

333.

(.N'2

Ct

313).

2 ( , ' .20)'

MN 1 ( ' ,
1 '

( , ,

zo),

1 2

zo),

1 2

: 1 2

MN1

L 1

n+ 1

, ,

1 2

1 N 1 2

1), MN1 ( ' ,


1)

!f. I 'I.

't8. ( ,

zo)

- .

Oyz.

zo).

72

1 2

y=f(x) ,

= (),

Z=q> (),

F= (),

'

( , '

zo).

1 .

N h
M 1 [x o+h, (+), (+)],

N [+, F (+),. (+)]

(1)

1= (+),

ZI=q>(x o +h),

Y2-l=( +)-( +),

(2)

Z2-Z1=(+h)-q> (+)

, /- ,

F (+)- f (+)= ( ) -

(3)

+ 2
21

f ( ) -

h [' ( ) - '( )] +

["()-"( )] + ... + [()()_<)()]+


!

+ 1

+ - - [F(n+ 1 )(x o)-f<n+t) ( ) +81 (+l)l

( +

h) -

( +) ~ ( )

"
-[" ( )

21

" ( )]

( )

"
+ ... +[() ( ) l

' ( )]

() ( )]

(+l)1 [(+l)( )_(+ 1 )( )+8 . - 84],

8}, 62' 8 , 6,

- ( , ,
I

+ 1

(:1')

+ h ['( ) -

E(xo)-()=,

1
1 ( ) -

( ) = ,

h -+ . 1
zo) , (1), (2) (3)

P(xo)-'()=,

' ( ) - ' ( ) =

... ,

()()-()()=~

(}:, . . . ,

() () - ~(n) ( ) = O~

.
(+ 1) ( )

(+

1) ( )

(+l) ( )

(+1) ( )

73

111.
.

N ==

n +]

+ 1)1

~[(n+1>(

. 1

)-f(n+1>(x )+6 -8

=tp

(),

( , ,

, ,

(4)

]%+[(+i)( )_(+l)(

+1

)+88-84]1 ..

1 2

x=f(t),

=(),

zo)

z=

(t),

(t),

Z-(),

= t = to,

(1),

(to) -

\V

) - ) = ,

(fo) =

' ) - ' )
\V'

(to) - ' )

:::: , ... ,

() )

() ) = ,

= ,

\V(I1)

(n)

... ,

(to) ~ ,


; +1)

(to) -

( + 1)

<(n +1) ),

(fo) -

( + 1)

(to)

f (t),

z=

(t)

2 (, ,

z)

(1),

( 2 )

\ (, ,

z)

F,[t(t),y,z]=O,

. (5)

( 2 ),

F 2 [f(t),y,z]=0,

= (t),

z= ).

),

Cz

= (t),

z = (t)

( 1 )

(2 ) h - ( , , z.) t=to,
(4), (t) (

Fj[x(t),

(t),

(5)

\V(t)]=O,

Fz[x(t),

(t),

(t)]=.

, (,) (),

1 [ (t), ),

'lr (t)] = 01 (t)= ,

(t), (t), t (t)] = 02 (t) ~ ,

74

(.N2 314),

(6)

01 (to)=O,

01')=0,

01 )=,

02' ) =0, ... ,

(n)(to)

... ,

=0,

() ) """,

- ( ' '

2 +2

zo)

1 2

r=r(s),

R=R(s)

(),
-~

()

() =

(.

() = 1>.

252')

s=

fiii.

-~

-~

2 =

=r (s),

R (s).

1 2

. 252'

lii/

(),

pacliiojafbe 1 2 liiu + 1 s.
r(s) R(s) li- ()
/

-~

--+

=r (s)-r () +sr'(O) + .... +

2 -

R (s)= R () +s R' (0)+ ....

sn

-r()()+

sn

+-

sn+l

----- [r(n+1)(0)+8 1 ],
(+1)!

R(n)(o) +

sn+ 1

(+ 1)1

[R(n+l) (0)+8 ],

--+
1 M2

=R(s)-r(s)=R(0)-r(0)+s[R'(0)- r'(O)]+ .... +

sn
+ - [Rln) () -r(n) (0)]+
l

Sn+ 1

,(+1)!

[R(n+l),(0)-r(n+ 1)(0)+81 - E 1].

1) s , =0.

1/1

1 2 h +
()

75

R(O) -r() = ,
RCn) () - r(n) () =

s,

R'(O) - r'(O)=O, ... ,


R(n +1)(O)-r(n +1) ()

, 1 1 - (),

R (s)

r (s)

().l)

r (s) =

(s)

i + (s)

+ z (s) k,

R(s)~~X

dx. dy +~
dz k ,
r '()
S=-I+ds

ds

(s) i+ Y(s)j +Z(s)k,

dX. dY. d Z k ,
R '()
s =~I+~J+~
ds
ds
ds

ds

, , (),

Ct

(),
d()

d<)

------=0'
ds

ds n

d(n)

d(n) Z

-----=0
ds

ds n

(=,

() =

()+Z()k=i+F()+()k

+ () +z () k= i +t () + q> () k

R(x)=xi+

),

1 2

1,2, ... ,

()

(3'),

s=O,

334.

.
=

f (t),

= < ),

z=

'1t (t)

1) () ~ :'l
M(so).

76

2 )

(, ,


( , ,

zo)

z,a,

+2

. .. , 1) =0,

, ,

b, ...

2 (, , 2, , ,

... 1.

.... , ') =

( , , 20)'

'

(6)

, , 1

x=!(t),

y=cp(f),

Z=o/(f)

(, ,
2 (,

z, , p)=x-az - =,

y,z,

, q)=y-z-q=,

, , q.

( , ,

zo)'

(6)

- 0/ (t0) - = ,
q] ~ (() - bt (to) - q = ,

01 (t) = F 1 [), q> ), t(to) , , ] = !)


:

(to) = F:J,[t(to)' (to)'

(to)' ,

Ot' (to) = !'(to) - at' (to) =0,


0'2 (10) =

'

,fo) -

/') = ,

, h

!' (t )
.
-! (to)=-_O [z-o/ (f o)]'
t' (/0)

- (to) =

-! (to)
f' (to)

q>' (/0) [z -

t' (to)

0/ )],

- (to) z - /(fo)
'---'--'--'-=
' (to)
0/' (to)

~-

1 [ = !(to) ,
=

(10), z=o/ (to)].

111.

77

(-)+ (

) + (2'-)=,

(6')
(-)!+(-)2

+ (Z-C)2_r 2=0

, , , , , - ,

1
( ,

20).

1 ( ' ' ZO)


ll 1 ( , ' zo). ,

(.NQ 322).
,


()

N . (r - r 1 )=0,

().

r1

, r ,

(so)'

()

r=r (s),

()

() 1 ,

r=r (s),

(so)'

1 , r~r

(s)

(~o)

(NQ 322).

1) (6').

78

II

. !

fi

(,

) lI1 ,

. ,
, lI1 lI1,

lI1

lI1 1I10, , h
.

N)

(So)

1
- .

Kpyr

fb.
(.

t,

192)

, t
1 , V

=V

r1

) (to)

(Jv (fo).

---- =r (to) = .
dt

1 (to) R-v (to) =


(t-t o) V(fo), 1 , v = V (t) !)'

335. I< . S


( ' ' 20)'

MN 1 ( ' ' ),

( ' ,

20)'

1 2 + 1

.

Nl)

MN1

( , '

L1 ,

Oz

1 2

MN 1

20) .

z = ()

f (),

Z= (, )

1)

lI

(, . zo) 4 tl4 .

I!i

111.

h 1 )

(' ,

+ h, l' Zl)'
l = ! ( + h),

1 (

zo}. 1 N

+ h, l Z2) ,

2 (

Zl =: (

Z2= /( :::: h'Yl)=\j![X O + h,!(x o + h)]=g(xo + ).


1 N

(7)
,

( ' '

Zo)i

(8)

g(x.)-!(xo)=o,
g(n) (.)

g'(xo)-!'()=,

.. .. ,

( ) = ,

- !(n)

g(n+!J ( ) -

(9)

(7), (8)

(9)

!(n+l)

=f= .

( )

+1

. ,

( , '

zo)'
S

( , ' zo)'

= '9

(t) ,

zo)

(, ,

z) =0,


(=.

(10)

= 0/ (t)

F
( , '

(t) ,

t= to ,

G'(to)=O, .... ,

O(n)(io)=O,

(!)

335'.

F [t (t). q> (t),

0/ (]

+1

, , .

.. . 1,

F (, , z, , , .... '/)=0.

( , ,

S
zo).

/{ u .

1)

80

II

x=I(t),

y=cp(t),

z=t(t)

Ax+By+Cz+D=O
.

((" ,

t=to ,

)=I

(10),

(to)+Bcp (to)+Ct (to)+D=O,

I"(to)

zo)'

' (to)= !, )+ ' ) + Ct'


"(fo)

zo)'

( ' '

(to) =0,

+ " (fo) + ct"(fo) =

, ,

, J'l:h /{ ( , ,

zo)

1(to)

(to)

l' )

'

(to)

r'

(to)

111 (to)

"

(/0)

r" (t )

t (to) 1
=0.

1 (to)

--

(to)

z - '1r )

f (to)
f' (t o)

(to)

'lt (to)

q>'(fo)

t' (fo)

1" (to)

"( 10)

'1r"(to)

=0

( ' ,

(t.)

z -t(to)

[' )

ip'

(to)

r' (fo)

1" (to)

"

(to)

r"

l(to)

Z'o) (.N'!! 320).

=0.

(to)

( '

Yo',zo),
'" ) ~ Af'" (to)

+ '" (to) +

r'" (to) =

\11.

81

'

(t) =

"

(to) =

0/11 (to) =

' , ,

D.=

.,

( ' ' zo),

!' (to)

' )

t' )

["(/0)

"(fo)

t")

['" )

'"

t'" (to)

(io)

, .

rjep

(.N'2 323)

D.

M~+N2+P:J.'

=0.

, ,
.

, , ,

( , ,

zo).

(ll)

l< , 1

r (s),

(so),

(11)

= [ (so) - 1 ]' [ (so) -] -

(so)

'

(so)=2

2 =0,

(so) -r 1 ]t (so) ==0,

0"(so)=2+2[r(so)-r1 ]n(so) =0,


R(so)

'" (sQ) = _2_. t (so).n (so) + _2_[ (so) _ 1 . dn (sol_


R~

R~

82

Ft-

0"'(.'10)= _2_[r(so)_r]].(b(So} _ t(so))_


R(so)

. T(so)

- - - - [r (so)-r,]. (so)
R2 (Sg)

R(so)

dR (sn)
.
=0.
ds

r 1 ] [r (so) - r 1 ]

[r (so)

[r (so) - r

j ].

2 =0,

t (so) =0,

[r(so)-rl]~(s)+R(s)=,

[r(so)-r 1 ].(s)+($)

dR(so) =0,
ds

r 1 =r(so)+R(so)n(so) + T(so) dR(so) b(so),

(12)

ds

( 13)

(12) (13)
, r=r ($) (so)' (12) ,

.
.

(R-r)N=

(14)

C,r=r(s)

M(so)

[R-r(s)]N

_ (.'10) N == .

R(so)

(so)'

(14)

(R-r)=.

III.

336.

83

(, '

S1

S2

L,

zoy.

MN-1 ( ' ' zo), SI S2 1


2

S1

S2

I 2 + 1
MN 1 ,

(, '

zo),

I 2

Oz,

N 1

1 N
h = cos q>, k = si q>
( , , zo)

SI 52

(SI)

(S~)

z= f (, )'

Z=P(x,y),

(, ,

Zo)'

h Z )

M1 (x o+h, yo+k, ZI)



zl=f(xo+h, yo+k),

Z2-Z1=F(+h,

(15)

yo+k)-f(xo+h, yo+k),

l- ,

(+,

yo+k)-f(xo+h, yo+k)={F(x o, yo)-f(x o, )}+

~
+k ()]
-- [(a
h - f ) +k (- t) } + ... +
{[h ( )
~~
~~
. ~~
~~

+ -1 {[ h (--F \ +k (---

1 [{ 11 ()
+ --
I!

] ()
- [ h (-

/~g

)~~
+ k ()
-- ]

(n+l)

( [)

[)

, ~~ +k - ~~

61 62

+ 81

k.

h (
- f)

- ( ' '

1)

ZO)

+ k (a- f ) ](n+l) -

2}

y~

SI S2

( ' ' zo),


, F (, )' f (, )
n~Toa

] ()

+ 1

(. , zo) Oz.
2) 1

(15),

84

0=

v 2 + k

on+l{[

Zt- Z =

---

+ 1!

COS

2 ,

h = cos , k = sin Cf,

()
- ,

/,

](n+l) +'1)1 - [

sin (
-)

COS

( - ) +

+Sil1CP ( Y)~~

](n+l)

}
-"1)2'

' 1 '1)2 . ,

+1

. ,

SI S2 -

1 + 2+ ...

,
(+l)(+2)
(+ 1)=---~

, SI

(!Z_~

1L J!1_+~
2

, -

S2. SI
S;j. , SI

uu

Z = ++

S2'

Z=F(x,

) (., '

( !)J~_-~2 = 3,

zo)

= 1.

, h

zo=F

'
q= ( \

( ' )= + +, =() =,

!~~

ft uu S2 (, '

ZO)

(-.) +(-) q=z-zo'

F (, )

(., ' zo)

( ' ,

zo),

SI

S2

( , , '<:0)

!-

( , ,

zo)
( ' , zo)'

SI'

S2 .

SI

SI'

S2.

S2Y

IV.
IV.

337.

85

=(,

(1)
h

(,

v)=x(u, v)i+

v)j+z(u, v)k.

t, '

r=r[u(t), v(t)]

(2)

(3)

+-

dr=- du

(1).

dv

(,

v)1),

(1)

(1),

ds~=dr2 = ()2 du2 + 2 (. ) du dv+ (r)2 dv2 .

(4)

v,

Gauss- ,

_()2_()2
-- +

F = .

(5)

G=
(4)

+ z. z

l'

v,

ds 2 =

(6)

(4),

2
(--)
'Z)2 ,
+ (-

()2 = ()2 + ( )2 + (Z)2 ,

(l)

du 2 + 2 F du dv + G dv 2

(1)

(,

v),

1( li

(1) _ 'l
(1). , F G 'l
li (1), =:(, v)

v.

h Gss-

(1)

1)

dr

(5)
v) (.N'Q 328)

(,

(2)

i N o

,v

Il'l (,

v) .

86

, Lgg-

(5),

)2 == ()2 ()2 _ (. ),2 := _ 2,


v

(.N!! 268)

No

(,

(1)

v)

--

N _

(7)

0-'

1)
-

V-2

1v.

--

h sis-

()

(,

(1)

D (z,

i,

k.

(, v)

(, )

N .k==~~.

N .j=D(u,v) ,
.

z)

.i=~~~-,
V-

d r

Oz

_2

ds

(,

v)

(l),

t No=O

No

(1)

dt N 0_- - t .dN
dr dN o
o_
-----.--,
-

ds
, t-

ds

ds

ds

n.No=_dr.dNo

(8)

R1

(,

v)

(3)

(7),

(1),

ds 2

R1

_ dr. dN o= _( du+ dV)' (N du


\

1)

- 2

(5),

+ N
v

==

A~

+ ' + 2,

- D (, z)
- D(u,v) ,

D(z,x)

B==-~,

(, v)

(,)

=--.

D(u, v)

dV) ,

- dr dN o

IV.

87

(9)

L= _ . N ,

(10)

2=

fl

(l).

= (,

v)

(r. N

(1),

v.

(9)

N ),

+ r.

N= _ r. N

f(

L,

(8),

(4)

(9),

cos No
--=--=

(11 )

L d 2 + 2 d dv + N dv 2
d 2 + 2 F d dv + G dv 2

1 (,

(1)

'

v)

(1)

(, v). - 1) (, v)

(1),

v,

dv
du.

(11)

(, v~

(1)

. .

(1)

L, N

(,

(10)

ar

- . No=O.

v,

--N o +-. -=0,


2

- - . No

+_.

--=0,
v

(12)
2

v).

. l

- . No=O,

(11)

- - N o +- -=0,

88

(10),

2 r

%r

L=---N
2
,

(13)

N=---N
v 2
,

J2 r
M=--N o

(14)

ov

, h

No
(13) (14), h

2 r . (or or)
L==

== - - - V -

V-

2 z

:!.

oz

dv

z
)
2 z

ouJv

::

Jv

Jv

(15)

r)

(Jr

v . du Jv
. EO~P2

--

1
EO-F 2

N~

v 2

V-'

-----

V -

Jv

2 z

v2

v 2

v 2

~.! . (r ar)

OV

rn

(1)

t)

r=r(x.y)=xi

(16)

+ + z(x,y)k .

z=z(x,y),
=.

Y=I>'.

z=z(x,y).

02

2 r

(7)

(1)

ov
(,

v).

89

II

JV.

(5),

=(r)2 = 1 + (Z)2 = 1 +2

rr

z z

F = .

(5')

'

0=(:;)2=1:+

(~~)2 =1+q2,

(6')

= (1 + 2) dx! + 2 pq dx

ds 2

No ,

(7),

= pq,

(6),

dy

+ (1 + q2) dy 2

--

N o =
= -pi-qj+k
V1 +2 + q2 1 + 2 + q~

(7')

sius- , (),

NO ' l

(')

-v 1 + 2 + q2

. ,

L=

1
N o . k = V1 + 2

(15),

+ q2 .

2 Z

v 1 + 2 + q2 '

-v 1 + 2 + q~

( 10')

( 11')
.

fJ-,

dx 2

(11),

+ 2 s dx dy

sius-

(, ,

dx
ds

1)

z),

=
'

(6')

(7'),

+ t dy 2

dy
ds =}1,

dz
ds

, 1 (, , z)

'

(16) .

(16)

90

(11')

cos 0= N = 2 +2 s.+t.2
R1
R1
1 + 1'2 + q2

(17)

(17)

(, , )

lh

(, , ) = , ,

(17)

, S

q,

=0,

(, , ).

(16)

t,

(NQ 89).

~, /fill I ill (, v)
UIl

(1)

uullI{

illu (, v) II 1
1 (,

(1)

1
2 '

(,

(11)

v),

(,

(1)

(,

(,

v)

(1)

v).

usir- .

r=r(u, v)=x(u, v)

(1)

338.

v)
v).

+(,

MN

v)j+z(u, v)k

(, v),
(,

(1)

(1)

MN,
(, v).

. 1

--

N.

MTN 1

(1),

--~

(, v).

(11),

+ N dv%
+ 2 F du dv + dv

L du!l+ 2 du dv

--------

du 2

(1)

1 ,

(, )

(18)

(1)

v). (1) MTN,

./t,

cos 8= 1.

h,

(,

. , h

v),

+,

. -, .

-,

No

(11)

lV.

91

(18) (, v) (1)
v),
(1), (, v) ,
. , (11) (18),

(,

n N o cos
- - =-R1

R1

Rs(1)

R1 =

. si- , , llli "ll


f{ /{ f{

f{

f{

.II

ic f{ 'If{ (, v), af{O .


f{ .
si-

339.

(l)

f{,

v),
l1 f{Q
, , (18),

+ 2 d dv + N dv
+ 2 F du dv t- G dv 2

L du 2

(19)

d 2

(11, v)

(, ):

(19),

(
d

dv
-

(1),

v).

(1).


(,

(,

(19)

ds 2

(1)

Ld 2 +2dUdV+NdV 2 =Nd 2 [((lV + )2+ LN- M2]2).

(20)

N~

h .

1, LN - 2

> ,

(19) (20),

(,) ,

R1

N.


6h, ,

-, G , R

2)

1_ du 2

dU
+ 2 du dv + N dv 2 =L dv 2 [( dv
+ 2
L + __LN-M_J
L2
.

92

. ,

.
(,
(,

20.

v)

fl i1i fi.

v)

LN-M 2 =O,

N ,

(20)

-dv = -
-.
du
N
(, v)

.
.
,

(,

v)

.
dv
du

+,

-,
N

( , v)

, (, v) u U.

30. LN - 2 <: , (20) .


(,

v)

. (, )

(,
u uu.

dv
-,
du

v).

, .

(,

v)

(20)

u . ,

, (,

v)

=,

L=N

-=

du

(du~

(19)

+ dv 2 )

+ 2 F du dl' +

G dv s

. (,

v).
v).

(,

(, v) u .

(19),
(21 )

(17),

(16),

+ 2SA}1 + ifl!
1 + 2 + q2

(16)

IV.

93

+ 2 s ~ + t ~
2

2=

2 [(

~ + -~J + rt ~ S2]

340.

Euler- .

~' (, , z)

Oz,

(16)

(21)

z)

MN

(, ,

rt- S2.1)

fV

..!..= I + 2 S~ + tp.2,

(22)

p=q=O

(.

253).

M~

______

~~

__________

1.=08 ,

(21')

~=8in

(22)

-1 = 8 2 +

(22')

2 S 8
. 8

. 2
+ t 8

1 r+t
-=-R
2

(23)

-'

+ --8

[0,2 1t].

(23).

(16)

2 +S8 2 .

253

211t

(, , )

(23),

{24)

tg2

2s

=-.

r-t

, . -

1) , '; Hel\e
r (

86).

94

(, , )

(I6).1)

4)

~
u,

,0

u ,.

, .

(24),

, h 5-=0, (24) = cp=~ .


2

(22)

1
R

-=

R,

cos

. 2
+ t s
.

'

'!";

= -,
2

q> = ,

R2

-=,

R1
/-

(25)

R
1)

tg2

'l

('I't+~)=tg2tpl'

(24),

""1 +

-"2

) , n

'l'1+k ; ("

2)

(23)

~)' = - (- s;n 2 '+2 s cos 2 ,


, ,

(24).

"

2,20
(-1)" = --

t-r

(24),

flh

[(-t]-4s 2 ].

38 '!

+ -i{

(24)

'! I

(24)

+2'

cos 2

'l

+ '2
"

'I

= - cos 2I' ,

. (~)'

, 8K~ =
llllill /{.

s=

IV.

(16)

10.

(, , ).

/-

95

(16)

(25)

(, , ).

1
R1

=r

1
R

t> ,

1
R2

=t

(, , ) , .

(,,),
. 1 )

2 G

1
R2

, .

rt

< ,

,1 R
tg = V - / '
~- = . u.llilliCl U.
R

(, , ',

30.

(25)

-::::::

R
,

1
-,
R

cos 2
R

1 .
-
Rz

, .

-1

R2

= (=

----

~
= -

= .

' =

1; ,

(, , ),

(, , ) , (, , )

1)

R1 ,

1
-

El

(, , )

!: .

:rr
2"'


(, , ).

, ..-

RI

..- .

(=

R2

t,

(25)

-=~,

RI

(, , )

()

. ,

. /{

10.
= = z = .

(=2,

s=O,

z=

+ 2

=,

(21),

q=O,

(21'),

1
R

-- =
,

t= 2

(:.!+ .2)

-= 2.

20. ./{
) z = = = z = .

.
(


=,

(21),

q=O,

(=0,

(21'),

..R

s= 1,

t=O,

rt-s l = -1

<,

2 ft=2 cos

sin =si 2 .

sin 2 < , q>


1t

31t

2
1t

1t

3!

2'

97

IV.

, ~=O ~=O cp=~.


R

uullllllu UIl uUllr uu z

30.

= 2

1l00ulll.tf

lilllll.

=,

=,

q=O,

(21),

s=O,

t=2, rt-s 2 =0

(21'),

~ = 2112
R

== 2 sin 2 ,

, =. =,

( =

Oxz

= ),

z = 2.

( ).

z == 2

40.

z=

UUllllllU UIl uu z

= 2 -

1l00ulll Ulllll.

q = ,

= ,

1=2,

(21),

= , s =

rt~s2=0,

(21').

_ == 2 .2"", 2 si11 2 .
R

, ~

z = --

Z=y2~x3

Z = -

= .

Oxz

q> =0,

(=).

().

, 2_ 8

> ,

. 254

yZ_x S
7

< .

98

, y%-=,

Z=y2_x 8

(.

(.

1 h

,
. z

254).

. .

2 -

= (),

254).
.

-.- h :

10.

20.

l/

+ 2

[fl.

z=

u ltlt lt

It.

()

upojelcuja

ltll lt.

341.
.

(19)

+ 2 du dv + N dv 2
+ 2 F d dv + dv 2

L du 2
du 2

dv
--,

h R

'

R=

(26)

+ 2 m +

m 2

L+2Mm+Nm 2

dv
m=du

. ,

EM-FL+(EN -

(27)

OL)m+(FN-)

m2 =0

(28)

( -

FL) du 2 + (EN - OL)

dv+(FN -

(28)

dv 2
(29)

-d

dv

d2

=0.

dv 2 =0
(26)

IV.
.

dv
= --

(,

v)

=z (,

), ,

(5')

~~=7==~=

(1

v=y, z(u,v)==

(29)

+ 2) + 2 pqm + (1 + q2) 2

~~~--~--~-~---

r+2sm+m 2 f
-

dx 9

pq

(29')

v),

(26)

(30)

EM-FL=O,

(27'),

(1

(31)

(30)

(31)

EN-GL=O,

(27)

FN-GM=O

(27),

(1 + 2) t- (1 +q2) == ,

+2) s-qr=,

. , ,

(26), (27)

(1 +2) s-pqr+[(l +2) t- (1 + q2) ] m+[pqt-(l +q2) s] ' = ,

(27')

(,

(1)1).

=,

(16),

(10'),

R
Vl+p2+ q2

(26')

99

pqt- s (1 +q2) = 0.2)

(N2 339),

uum

(27').

(26)
(26)

(27)

(NR-G) 2 +2 (MR-F) m+LR- ==0,

(32)
1)

(29)

dv

-d

=/1

dv

(, v ) , - -

du

(1)

=/2 (, v)

(11, v),

ll (1) .

1)
(31')

r
s
---------l+2
pq
1 +qt
7

100

(32)

(32)
(32)

(MR-F)2_(NR-O) (LR-E)=O

(33)

R1

R2

R,
(1)

.
(,

R,

v).

= z (, ),

(33),

(16), =, V=Y, z
(5') (10'),

(, ~,)=

(34)
.

/ uuu

10.

u u

=,

q=x,

=,

(34)

s=l, t=O

(, ,

(27')

z).

1 + 2_(1 + 2 )

z=xy

2 =0, ~ y}~-~.

= z = ,

. (, , ) h

=l,
.

R1 =1,

R2 =-1

H~

IV.

101

---------------20. ilil ll uilu,


2

Z2

(>>).

-+-+-=1,

(34')

= _~(~ + 2),

(35)

(31'),

s=- qp,

(1+p2)t-(1+q2)r=0,
,
2 ( 2 - 2 ) 2

(35),

_ 2 (2-2)

= ,

q.

(l+p2)s-pqr=0,
q2 _ 2 ( 2 -

. -z
-:t:

=0,

pq=O.

= ~ 11 2 - 2
V 2 - 2

2 )

q=O

(34'),

2 =0.

_-_
2 - 2

, . h

1,

llu,

Oxz.

h :

1l0

z=x 2 + 2

1l00

u illl il ll R=~ ,
2

20,

U ililUll IlpUBUHe

UlC z = 2 lC. ilIC.


(, , )

=,

q=O,

=,

s=O,

t=2,

102

(34)

(27')

2=

2 - >, j~

- 2 R+ 1-0,

30.

R2

1
R 1 =-.
2

1i

u1i

342.

(33)

(,

V),

R2 =

u .

UJlu1i

Oauss- .

(1)

.(-2) ~ -(EN - 2 + OL) ~

(36)

R2

1
R2

1
R

~(~ +~)
2 R1
R'l.

Oauss-

(36),

(,

v).

LN -

R 1 R2

~ EN-2FM + OL
2

(38)

+LN-M2 =0

(1)

(37)

40.
z = 4 + 2 1i u1i,

Il1i, uu' u

z= 2_

1
R1

(, v).

(1)

(16),

= ,

v:..=

Z (, v)=z (, )' (36), (37) (38)

(38')

R1 R2

==

rt -

S2

(l+p~+ql)2

,
,

q,

s, t

f (, , z) == ,

JV. ,

, . ,

103

(37),

EN-2 FM+GL <=0,


[iu .. Gauss-
, . ,

(38),

LN-M 2 =O,

(37')

6m.

10.

z= ,

u.

(38'),

(37)

(38)

h :

ftJ ,

(37'),

~(~ +~)
2 R1

= _

R2

: Gauss- ,

(1

+ 2 + 2)3 / 2

'

(38'),

-1

--=----(1 2 2)2
1
2

+ +

R R

20.

ftJ

(, ,

30.

ftJQ

(, ,

1 (,.
2 R1
11

z)

GaUSS-Q

z = 2

t:l Gauss-

z)

1)
+ R2

Z~XI+y2

2+4 +4 !

(1+4 2 +4 2)3/2'

--=
Rj R2

(1 +4

2 +4 2)2

40. ll , , ftJ
z = - u ..

Gauss- iJ

50.

z= 2_ 2

60.

(x+y)z=x-y (1,

1,0)

--=--

R1 R2

104

70.

R'

R"

n 1 )

n.

?, ! ! +~,
2
/- ,

cos z

R'

R1

sin2 ~I

R"

"2( ! +-)

sin2 !

cos 2 !

R1

R2

+--=~--+-~

R" ==

R2

111

Rt

R2

-+-=-+-.
R'

V.

343.

R"

(,

v) i +

(,

v).

(1)

r == r

(,

v) =

(,

v) +z (,. v) k

(1')

x=x(u,v),

y=y(u,v),

z=z(u,v)

!(x,y,z)=O
2

z=cp(x,y).

dr == t 1
ds

=t 2

= + v .

os

du
ds

os

dv ,
ds

v s

t 1 .t2 = (. T)~~ + (. ) (dU v


) dv v
+ ( -.- - =
v v

ds

os

ds
1

ds

+
s

dV)
ds

--[duu+F(du8v+udv)+dv8v].

ds 6s

1) . .

V.

105

1 2 ,

+' F (du lIv + dv) + G dv &v =

du

01)

(1')

(1')

= (,

(2')

v),

= (,

z=

(1')

ov

F 13u+G

, h

+ F 13v

dv
du

(2)

li

v),

z= z

(,

v),

(1')

(1')

z=a,

a=z(u,v)

(3)

.
,

(1')

(3),

z
z
-du+-dv=

(4)

dv
-

du

(1')

. 1

(,

v)

(1')

(1'),

x=x(u,v),

(5)

(1').

y=y(u,v),

a 1 =z(u,v).

2
(, v) (1'), h 2 .

(1')

(1')

,
.

(2)

(,

(4)
v)

1)

(1).

(,

v),

(1'),

1 2 ,

(1'),

II

dv

du

1 2

-,

. lI

106

( Z _Z)8V =Z_Z.

v 8

( z _Z)dV!) = z _ F Z

(6)

. Oll

du

(1')
. (6) (, v, ) =
v (1') .
F (, v, ) =0 (1')
(1') .
(1')
(1').
=, = v, Z =z (, v), . , (1'),

z=z

(7)

(,),

z=

z = z (, )

Q=Z

- dx

(3),

(, ),

(4),

z
+dy=pdx + qdy=O.

nll

, .(6).

(2'),

lli

pdy-qdx

~ ,

(, , )

(7)

(7)

f
1)

dv

du

1)v

(, ,

z)=O

f'(x, , )=

(7).

(8)

(7)

V.

107

ll

(, ,

z)=O,

z=a

(9)

(, , )=.

.h

(9)

?L dx + ! dy==O.

(8)

(, )

dx+Q

(, )

dy=O.

(8)


(, )

dy-Q

F (,

(8)

(, )

dx=O.

, )=

(8)

..

F (,

, )

==

(8).

(10)

+by 2+ CZ 2 == 1

(11 )

+ 2 + cz2 == 1,

z = ,

h
2

+ 2+ 2 = 1,

+'==,

(6),

'-

=0.

( 12)

.

(10)

(12)

(10)

108

(10).

(10), (11)

(10)

(12),

Oz

(10).

,
.
.

h :

10. z =
z=axy, z=a z=axy, 2_ 2=.
20. Z2 = 2
z2=2xy, z=cr, z2=2xy, 2_ 2 =.
30.
2

l1

- - -=2z

2

---=2z,

z=a

---=2z,
40.

xPyq=C.

= u cos ~', = u sin v,

( 13)

z = av,

( =

2:) .

x=ucosv,

(3)

y=usinv,

Z=QV,

z=a.

a=QV

(4)
dv =0.
du

(6)

dv

-=

O=Qdu

dv

du

u=

.
x=UCOSV,

y=USil1V,

Z=QV,

(14)

x=CCOSV,

y=CSil1V,

(13)

Z=QV.

V.

109

(13)

z = arc tg L ,

z = arc tg - , z =

(13')

arc tg -


xdy-d=,

xdx

+ ydy=O.


2 +2= 2

(13')

z=a arc tg.L,

(14')

2 +l= !

(13')

, (14')

344.

(15)

~ r (,

v) ...

(,

' (14).

v) i +

(,

v) +z (, v) k.

(,

(16)

v.

--

No =
I1

r r I

v I

v -

(17)

(18)

dN o= N du

No No = 1

+ N dv.
v

ar

--

-=

v)

(.N!! 337)

110

dN o

(17)

(15)

N
dl1

(15)

dN
__

dl1
v).

dv,

(,

dr

(,

dN o

v).

dN o _
-,
dv

dN o
-dv

(18)

No

(15)

(15)

(15)

(,

(,

(,

(,

v)

v),

v).

v)

dN o

dr

. (15)
dr .
(15). ~ , lta
/ (1) h

dN o

dN o

dr=O.

dN

N du+ ~No dv

dr=-du+ -dv

v'

(19)

(~o r) du2 + (N_ r + N

dr) du dv
l1

+ (~~o r) dv 2 =
v

u-'

(15)

v'

(,

(20)
l ,

--

= 1 -

+ 1

v),
r

171' 2 , :, (N2 337)


N r
.
L
. -=
1 + =

-.

r
-= 1 + 
v

= -,

V.

aN o ar
-_.
-=

av

-.

av

+. =-
2

ar
Jv

-= 2 + 2 =

111

1)
,

-N,

OL

01=----'

W2

FN-
W2

=----

(20)

'

W2 N = ( _ OL) ar + (FL _ ) r ,

W.:! N
av
,

= (FN _ ) r + ( -EN) r

av

(16),

W2 (aN o

r) = ( _ F[) (r r) = ( - FL) W No '

W2 (aN o

W 2 (N
av

W2 (aN o
v

av

ar)= ( - OL) WN o ,
av

ar)= (EN-PM) (ar

r)=(N_F) WN o ,

ar)=

( _ OL) (r

av

ar)= (FN _ ) (ar ar)=(FN_OM) WN o

av

,
(

(19)

- FL) du 2 + (EN - OL) du

dv+(FN-)

dv 2 = ,

dv 2
(21 )

du dv

du 2

=0,

(15).

/{

lU

(21) dv ,
d

1)

, N ~

N ~
v

- -

112

D=(EN - OL)2 - 4 (FN > ,

EOD

+4

2)

=(

(EM-FL)

-> ,

+ 2 (EN -

(EN-OL)2

02 2 -4

OL)2+

(EN+OL) + 4 LN=

(EN - OL)2+[2 EOM-(EN+OL)

]!

> .

(21)

[~: - I1 (, v) ] [~: - 12 (, v) ] = ,
.

dv

-=/1
du

(,

dv

-=/2(u,v)

v) ,

du

(22)

,

(15),

(15).

1 )

dv

OL -EN

du

FN-

-+-=~--~,

dv

du

ov

EM-FL
FN-

---~--

du

~+

F (du

v+8 d~')

+ Odv

(22)

(15) (.N2 343)2).


(15)

(15).

(23)

r=r(x,y)=xi
1)
2)

dv

du

liv

liu

+ + z(x,y)k

(21)

dv

- .

dll

. /! /!

113

. HII

<

(21 )

dy 2
(21 ')

-dxdy

dx 2

1 +2

pq

1 +q2

=0,

fl 1

(23)

(23).

(21')

(23).

f (, , z) =0,
q, , s, t (21')
f (, , z) = h .
,

. -

/ 1 U1 u.

(24)

(,

v)=ui cos v+u sin v+av k

cos v,

= sin'v,

Z=

av

z=aarctg- .

=----

VU2+(l2'

11

(21)

dv 2

-dudv

du 2

2 + 2

- 2

+ ' 2

u=-

ll.

( 2

eV - e- V )

. '

=0

114

l!

=-

(V-V
o

u=

-(V-vo))

v = Vo

(24)

(24).

(V-V o
-
-

-(V-vo)

(24)

u=

10.

=
.

v=

!:.( - . _ - <-
2

h :.

1
z= - -log (cos cos

(25)

q=tg

p=tgax,

=---"

cos:Z

s=O,

(= _ ___

dy

dx
- - - = .

---'--
cos

cos

og g

2
1 t:e - 2
4
og g
4

log

+
t

1t -

1t -

4 g

1t -

=,

-t

1t -

tg n:-2

(25)

(25).

115

V.

20.

= I , v= 2,'

(26)

n- 2 t ,,2 =.1)
4
g
.4
y=-3v Z .+v S -v,

x=-u3 +3uv2 +3u,

(26)

z=3u2 -3v!

du dv =

30.

(26).

(u+v),

z=cuv,

(u-v),

2 = 2 + 2 ,

v+ "'/1 +.v z = ( -l +u 2 ).

40. f '
du dv=O. '
, ,

EM-FL=O,

(21),

h ,

50.

EN-GL.

FN-GM=O,
F=

= .

(27)

=-,

1
s= - ,

=,

q=-,

(=,

_ dy

V 2 + 2

dx

V 2 + 2

(+ 2

1)

+ 2 )( - 2 + %)=

(27)

(27).

----=tg
tg

-2

+2

4
8

116

345.

I< .

r=r

(28)

N o

dr

dr

(, )

(28)

/{

"

(28).

(, ),

dN o

(, ).

(28)

dN o dr

dN o dr
liQ/{

(28)

(, ). , ,

Kpl1Be

i+z (,

(, )= (, ) + (, )

(28)

dN o dr=O
,

(.N2

7),

( 2 9 ) L du 2 + 2 du dv +N dv 2 =0.

dv
du

LN>O.

dv
-'
= 11

dv
.= 12 (,

(, ),

du

),

du

(28)

(28).

fi

r=r

(, )= +

i+z (, ) k,

' (29)
()

fl

/{

li/{

. ()

dp dx+dq dy=O

dp = rdx + sdy,

,
,

1 (, , z) =0.

dq = sdx + tdy.

1(, , z) =

117

. 'I

(28)

. TQra
IC

(dr

d2 r)

dr

(28).

No=O,

d2 r .

dr . No=O

(N2 237)

- dr (No d2 r)=O,
.

No d2 r =0.

No

d2 r
(29).

(28),

f IC IC l11

=(,

(31)

v)=ui+UVj+Z(1')k

z=z(v)

y=uv

- 1
M=-z'(v)
W

N= - uz/l(v)
W

W=YEG-F2 ,

(29)

-2 z' (v) du dv+ uz" (v) dv 2 =0.


(31).

dv=O

v=C,

.
=,

=,

z=z (),

uz" dv-2 z' du .

u2 =Cz'(v),
z=z (v).

118

1tJ,

1,

h :

(32)

Vm ( + (

1)

- 1)

dy
-=,
dx

+ Vmn ( + -1)

= ---n"'-(,-----'-:}'"""'")---'-

- -

Vm ( + fl -

1)

----'-----;-----'--;'-0----'-

n(n-l)

(32)

z=xm,

z=xm ,

= ,
,

Z=xy2

=,

Z=C2,~

=2'

20,

Z=-,
9

= cos v,

z= V2

= sin v,

du 2 - 2 2 dv 2 =O,

vY2"

-vy2"

119

. r" II

'
- .
=

911'2

y-Z

,=_

30.

+ : -

2 2 Z

2 =

-+-=-,
40.

z = sin

=,

50.

z=y sin

---=

cos

= ,

z=y sin

= +)

v,

z~u

y=(l-u) sh v

v=C,

" v + Vsh v


=(l +)

60.

cos v,

z= tg

y=(l-u) sin v,

z=u.

= ,

cos

z=

tg

tg

'

70. f
.

z = tg =

sin

du dv.

(29), L =

N = .

80. Nanu
.

;r=r

(,

v) I(..N!! 343)

du 8u+F(du 8v+ou dv)+ dv OV = ,

120

lI

~~ 1) h

(29)

EN-2FM+OL=0.
346.

I< .

r=r (, v) =

(33)

(,

v)

'

(,

/(

+ (,

(33)

v)

v) j+z (, v) k.

(33).

/(

No.(drXd2r)

(33)

r).(drd2 r)=0

1
(or
or r I

( -r

(34)

dr d2 r

r)
- .(dr x d2 r)=0,
OV

r
i
- =

+-

(33)

(33)

av

'll

:1

ov

+ r d2 + r d2 v,

(34)

dv
du

dx

dy

dz

d 2x

d 2y

d 2z

(35)

1)

(29)

oz'
.r
.
.
OZ
- k , - = -1+ - + - k ,

dv
-

du

+V 2_ LN
N

'

&u =

(33).

2 r
2 r
2r
d2 r= -du 2 +2--du,d.v.+-dv 2-+
'!
dll'
11 2
'

ar
r
dr=-du+-dv,

'

(33)

-M-V M"-LN
N

(34).

v.

121

~ D (y,_zl
D (, v) ,

dx=- du

= D (z,x) ,
D (, v)

+dv,

+- dv,

dy=-du

= D (, ) ,
D (, v)
v

d2 ~ - - du 2 + 2 - - du dv

+ -

d2 = = du 2

+ 2

+ 2~

d2 Z =

du dv

av 2

av

a1z.
a2 z
du 2 + 2 - - du dv

"

v"

2 z

+-

v 2

dv"

z'

dz=- du +-dv,

+ - d2 +
-- 2 V ,

dy 2 + d2

+ d2 v,
av

dv 2 + - d2 + - d2 V
h ,

(35),

f
v

(,

v, du, dv, d 2 , d2 v) =

h
d 2 u=O

(36)

dv
( U,V,-,
du

d'lV)
=0,
du 2

'

(33'.

(,

v,

2 )=0,

(33),

(33).

(37)

r=r(x,y)=xi+yj+z(x,y)k

(36)

(35)

-q

dx

dy

dz

d2 x

d2 y

d2 z

( ,

dy
, dx

=0,

,-,

ull IlU
un

(37)

..

F(x,

, I 2 )=0,

122
,

(37),

(37).

f (, , z) = ,

f (, , z)~O.


. -

(38)

/ lC lC u

(,

v) = cbs v+

sin v+avk

y"~usinv,

x=LIcosv,

z=av

z=aarctg- .

.i

d2 Z

v1 ),

, , ,

(38)

v, du, dv,

(35),

d2 u,

dx, dy, dz, d 2 , d2 ,


h u
,

_2 (dU)2 _( 2 +2) =0.


( + u2 ) d~~
dv
dv
2

dt

(39)
h

<

(39),

V.
.

C1 = ,

123

(40)

=-------

Vo

= 2

=v

(38).

(38)

= ,

(40),

2
= --'------{6-6) -

(6-

60.>

(38)

.
1.

10.

h :

/ u u iI1 .

Oz

(41 )

z=ptga,

. 1 )

(41)

r(u,v)=uisv+siv+uk

(42)

x=ucosv,

y=usinv,

(42)

, v, du, dv, 2

,,

(a=tga),
C,dx,dy, dz, d2 x, d2 y,d 2 z

h u v,

h ,

(35),

z=au,

(1+a 2 )u d%U _2(1+a 2 )(dU)2 - 2 =0,


dv

dv 2

(a=tga).

Cg
cos (v - vo) cos

=---~---

')

If

Oz.

Oz,

124

v-,

(42).

(42)

=.

(42)

=------

cos
20.

(-6 0 )

cos

..

, '

r = i cos v +
h

11

cos v + k

r=aicosv+ajsinv+uk,

u=C 1 v+C2 ,

. .

347.

l\

(,

v), No

: :

No

(,

No t.
r=r (, v)

ll-

v)

,
(,

.
.

=r

v)

N o' t, g

. t ~ - ,
2

(,

v).


(, v)

g,
g

(,

v)

(,

v),

(, v).

(, v),

(,

r =r

v).

~ [(r

v)

g= Noxt=

(,

~(r i!!_)x t=
W

. t) r _ (r . t) r ] .
dv

cr,

du
dv
t= dr =r.
-'-+--,
ds
v ds
ds

125

g= ~ {. [(r)2 du

+ r. ar dV] ar _ [r . ar du + (ar)2 ~~] ar}

ds

ds av

ds

av ds

g=~[(EdU +pdV)ar_(pdU +OdV) ar].


ds

No , t

ds

ds

ds

t-

. ~

=r

(,

v)
255)

(.

(43)

(,

v),

n=gsinG +NocosG,
= - g cos 9 + N o sin

(44)

g=nsin9-bcos6,
N = cos 9 + sin ,

, ,

No


, (, v).

(43)

dt = ~= sil1 6 g+ cos 6 N o,

ds

sin
1
- - = -

--=-

R
(44)

R~

Rg

255

(,

V).l)

dg
-

= (

cos 9 +

ds

+ s10 -dn - cos db


--

d.

810 6) -

ds

, t-

(.NQ 324)

dsds

(44),

d g~ _ sin G t+(~+ dG) N o ,


ds
R
1 ds
1)

cos
II ~

=-

R
r=r (.

(N2

338.

Rn

(.

v)

v)

126

dS

ds

19

-+-= u u u (,

v).

dt
-

(45)

g
No
+,
Rg R,.

ds

No

dg

-=--+-,
ds
Rg ,

= -

Rdigus-

No
Rg

g
Rn

W=---+-,

(46)

dt

dg

-=wxg,

-=wxt,
ds

1tJ.

10.

ds

h :

, Tj~

_1

Rg

= ,

d6
- =

dt

ds

db

dg

1
19

-=--=-,

ds

dN o

dn

ds

ds

--- -=--

ds

Rg

w=

'

. -1=.
.

No="n' g= -

- = - o =-,
ds
Rn R

si =0

+-,

+ -=d.

Rdigus-

-,

10.

dN
- -o
ds

121'

VI.

dg
t
No dN=
g
o
-=--+_._,
--,

Rg

ds

Tg

7g

ds

, No=b. No=b, ' 0= ; ,

g=n

dg

dn

Rn

Tg

ds

ds

-=0,

ds

-=-=--+-

w=- + -=d.

ds

dN

30. t __
. '
ds

dN o xt=-(~+ g)x t=_No=O,

Rn

ds

. Tg

= ,

7g

Tg

dt -_ ~
ds

Rg

+ No ,

dg

Rn

ds

dN o

==

ds

Rn

Rg

o
w=--+-.

VI,

348.

u;
.

, :

10. {, , ,
, .

20. {, , ,
,

128

/{,

30.

<

. ,

(),

349.

U (r),

, ,

, .

U= U
,

(, ,

z, ... ).

, ,

f (r)=O

,
.

Z,

(, ,

z, ... ) =0

()

()

<

IU(M)-U( )I<8

MoM<IJ,

U = U (r)

t (r) = r r- 2 =
20.

1.

U (r),


<

U=U(x,y,z),

X2+y2+ z2_ a <0,

129

VJ.

311

U=U(r)~-

Irl

= -,
r

r = X Z + 2 + ZZ
= = z = fl.

40.

U = U (,

1'\1

-= 11< 1

+ 2

, z) =arc sin '\~=


,

x:l+y 2 _Z 2 >O,

2+ 2

+ y2_ Z2=O

50.

= (,)=-,
+

60.

+ y~O.

=()=~ ,

350. -

=.


=(,),

(1)

+ ( )2=f=- .
( ~~)2

( ' ) 2

n , .

(1)

= ( , )
,

(, )

, .

=(,).
2 , e/{B~

, ,

U (,

130

Lt

2 ,

"

.,

(1)

1 ..

h llUll
,,~U(,)

2' .

ili iIill

J'l.'

=:

--

n= (,),.

(n=O~

2 ll .

1, 2 ... ),

j~
=: (, ,

(2)

z) ,

Oxyz,

( ,

zJ

= ( , ,
'l

= u (,

(2:)

, .

zo)

z) ' J[t

llUll uu,

(, ,

z)

. h

Ut ,

(, ,

z),

= ,

Uz = U

(, ,

z)

'

ji

u (" , Z),

ll

1,2 .. ,),

(2)

h .

...

..

",

= U (, , z),

2 ,

= , - = 0 , - ' =

-10.

= 2 +.,

= 2 _ 2,

2 h
n = X Z

+ 2,

,,= 2

n = , (

2,

=0, 1,2 ...)

. , .

20.

= " '. - 2

Z2

, lluiIi U.

ll u

...

VJ.
.

131

Oxyz h

2 + l + Zl = a l - ~ ,

(:::;:: , 1, 2 ... ) ,

. ., = n .

30.

=rsl,~
, 2

+ :!

4 h

Z2=(X!+yl) sin!

",

. .

40.

=,'

r=V x z+ y2+Z2

, h ~

,351.

r.

= (,

(3)

y,z)

. .

N , (3),

M N = MN = l
(~2

76)

()- (N) = dU = dx

I1Z

.dl=O

dZ

dZ

+ dy + dz

dl

dl

dU
dl

= -cosa+-cos~

+cosy,
z

, ~, 1 ,
, Oz, (3) l).

(3),

(4)

r=r(s)=x(s)i+y(s)j+z(s)k,
1)

(3)

d.
9

132

d = dx

(5)

ds
,

(5)

(4),

(3)

dy

ds

. hJi

(4)

ds

Ji

_ dz ,
az d s

(3)

ds

ds

ds

(3)

ds ,

(4),

Ji (

s.

_~~ = (dX i+ dy + dz k ). ( l+~ +

(6)

_ .. ~.;;O

318),

;:

iJi

k),

grad =- +- + -----k.

(7)

, ~,

(6)

~.

dU

-=

ds

dr

ds

grad

t grad U

dU =dr grad = (t grad ) ds.

(8)

(7),

(3)

11 (()2
()2 + (
)2
; +
~ ,

grad I =
sius- , .,

v ,

, ?

cos

grad

cos . =

Jgrad !

, u

cosv=---

I grad U I

(3)

'lU

l1 110u .

No

-=

dN

N,

No . grad

(8)

133

Vl. i

dr = dN N o
dU
dN> ,

>

dN

h ,

N o grad

> .

dU

. - = N o grad = Igrad 1,

(8')

dN

No

grad

, . hf

1(

u.


=,

grad

. , ,

=0,

_ _

(7)

=0.

=0,

10. grad

= , (

= const.),

20. grad ( V ... ) = grad grad V ...


30. grad kU = k grad

(k = const.),

V = grad V+ V grad

40. grad

50. grad

2 =

grad

60. grad ~ = ~ (1/ grad


V
VI!

- grad

70.

gdf()=f,,'gd ,

80.

gdf(,

grad

V),

V, ... )=fu'gradU+fv'grad V+ ...

=gd

V,

= V +const.

grad f ()

=!!I aL~ +
.dU

dj

j+!!L k

d(l

. dU

df

-=-'--,

dU

-10.

df
dU

-=-'--,

df

-=~.~.

dU

az

=-.

134

, == VxJ+yJ+zJ, '
:; = _ ~

= _

"

ez

1)

----=---=--,


2
.'

gradU:; -i+-j+-k=--(xi+yj+zk):; -

-1.

h,

(9)

2)

1, :;

dN:; - dr.

1:;

1.
.
10' 10:; - , 10
.

1, ,

(9),

-1 grad. ~ 1 r. = -~ r,

grad

, ,

-r.

(8'),

Igrad -l :; No grad -

=-

= - r o grad - = - r 10 = -2 ,

(9).

20. Hahu u :; r , = i
1 = i zk iiQ.

+ +

ll

1)

--

- X2+y2+ZI

1) II N2 350, , 40.

+ +' , k

Vl.

=r

135

. = " + + " z ,

=>

= ,

=a z ,

grad (ra)=axi+ayj+azk=a
.

grad

( ) .

'
(

= ,

1, 2, ... )

". .

10.

h :

Ir!=(= 2 + 2+ z:!,

, ,

grad
40.

grad log I r

=~ = ~ .
11' 12 I l

=i ,

grad

= ',

grad z= k .

=-

50.

grad
h

z),

grad 1 r 1 =~=To,
Ir 1

grad _1 =: _.~= _~,


11' ;1
I r 18 . 1l' 12

30.

(, ,

Z2

:2

= =

+ yj+zk.

+- +- .

r + ,

I r 1= ,

= ( ) ,

, h

grad

r +

grad
\601

)== +~=a+To;

( ) := (

r)grad + grad

( )

(, ) = 2 + i~

= ( r)ro+r .

Oxyz.

136

1,

, h
d

V 2 +2

dl

70.

cos +

V ll +2

N (9, 4, 10)

30

50
=

5YS- ,

1
-

352.

88

di=V125 + V125 + V125


(5, 1, 2)

-8

=--=

m,

v=~i+~j+~k,

""

)'

grad
,

rtU

) =V.

=-i+-+-k= - +-+ - k

\l

grad

grad u \1

10. \1

=, (=

const),

20.

\l(V

... )=\1\1V ...

30.

40.

\1(. )= \1

50.

V f () ;: l' \1

k =k\1 , (k::;

st).

\ ,

V+
I

6. 'Vf(, V, ... ) = - \1

70.

!
+\7

...

Hami/tofl- ,

(
\1'\1:= \1-=
-

\. \

= \1':= l':::.

)2

.J.+-k

W
=-

+-

+ -'+ -- ,

dy 2

Laplace- .

2
02
2 )
02 -I!
'
\2U:=~= ( --+-+- =--+-+-.
'

2 - - 2

80.

grad U = V ,

137

VI.

dU=dr.VU=(dr.V)U,

dU =t.VU=(t.V)U.

ds

h ~ ,

.
.

10.

(10)

(11 )

(, ,

= .

z)

f(U (r) (, ,

(1 ) _

= .

(10)

(11)

(11)

U=f(r)

LO

z).

(11)

U=f(x,y,z),

No

(10)

'N

-- grad f , I ga
r d f 1-1
--,
\ gradfl

{10)

(r) (, ,

(11),

z)

(R-r)Vf=

R-r=Vf

Z-z

==

(10)

(11)

(r)

(R-r)Vf=

(X-x)~ +(-)

+(Z-z) -

(, ,

=0.

z)

138

fi

20.

(10)

(11).

(!!

346),

(10) (11).

'1I(drXd2 r)=0
.

,(10)

~L

.z

dx

dy

dz

d2 x

d2 y

d2 z

(r)

=0,

(, ,

(11).

z)

30.
(12)

l(r)=O.

(r)=O

:n

1 (, , 2)=0,

.,3)

(, .

z) = .

(12)

(13)

. iii (r) (. , z).


.~

v =

(, ,

V;= .
z) (12)

(13),

(r)

(R-r) (vI)=

"

\l 1

R-r ... ('11 '1 ),

'1

Z-z

DJI, qJ)

D (1, qJ)

([,)

(,

D (z. )

z)

(,)

,R - r, R
-

(12)

(13),

'11

'1 !,

, (r) (, ,

(R-r)'('1lx '1 ) ='0

z)

VI.

8 .

353.
,

Z-zl
=0.

139

!8

v.

, .

(14)

v=v(r).

,
,

(14)

(v]J V2 ' V ) == V1 (, , z)i + V2 (, , z) + V (, , z)k,

v~v

(15)

BeKTopcKot

. h ;

, ,

z.

i10

liiI{U

,
:

(16)v

dr

dr=O

v=dr,

(.

(15)

256).

' ,

dx

dy

dz

-== =V1
V2
Vs

).

256

140

, :5.

(15)

~"! = dV j i+_d172 + dv s k,

dl

dl

dl

dl

dV t

dx

V I

dy

dz

dl

dl

dl

::

dl

---=--~+--+---

dV 2

V 2

dx

dy

dz

dl

dl

dl

dl

dv s

dx

dl

d/

2
2
-+-+ ----,

---= -

-=

- 10.

v dy
nv dz
-+---+ --s -.

dl

dl

v dr= (aoxr) dr= (. dr) r- (r dr)

(16),

dr =

r=

r . dr =

(17)

v =

. 1 )

(18)
.

(17)

(18),

20.

ll

v=-i+-j+-k

dx

dy

dz

-=-:::-,

= 1 ,
1) 80

z=C2 x.

=- .

(17).

Vlo

354.

141

II II

v=v 1 (x,y,z)i+v 2 (x,y,z)j+v s (x,y,z)k.

(19)

mn-

'V~~i+~j+~k

oz

, h

.
k) . (V1.1+V2 +V a k) :=--+-+-,
V 1
V 2
aV a
\1'v= ( -1+-+

oz

V 2

aV 1

dlV V = V' . v =

+ -

--- -

oz

+ -v .
z

'V

, .

'V

(19)

, h

V' V=('~i+~j+i.k) (vti+,vzj+vak)=

(~_ V!..)i+(Vl_.~)+(V2 __ ~)k,

oz

ill

2 )i
_(av
-a-OV
+ (V
-1 -V
- ).+ (OV
-2-OV
-1

_'\7
ro t Vv

V-

OZ

aZ

)k

rot v

'V

:=

OZ

V1

V2

Vs

'V

10.

div

\7 = ,

rot

V'

= ,

142

20.

const.

div(Y 1 +Y Z + ... )=\7.(y 1 +y 2 + ... )=


=\7 1 +\7

2 +

... = rot ! + rot 2 + ...

div k = \7 . k = k (\] ) = k div


rot k = \7

.
40. dlV

\7.(

... )=

( 1 + 2 +

rot(y l +y 2 + ... )=\7


= \7 1 + \7
30.

~divYl+divYI+'"

Y2+ ...

k= k(
1

\1

= k rot

(k = const.) ,

2 + d

+--=

=--

i +
=(C 1 i+C2 j+Cs k). ( - j +
- k')

rot

= \7=

grad

\7

( )

=-

= -

grad

=\

i +

2 + k,

. , ,

\],

10.

h :

div()= \7()=(\7')+'\7=diV+'grd ;
rt( )=

\]

(. )= (\7 )

rot

y-yx~rad ,

\1 . ( ) = (\7

20. div ( ) =

rot(a

(\7

) =

)= ( )=( )-( )

+ (6. ) 1) ( .

\7)

\1) = div -

(t . V') r= I t I [(cos -

~'

' (

=1 cos + cos 13 + k cos .

, ~ u

. rot

div - ( . '\7) - ( '7) . 1 )

+ cos ~ - + cos r -)]


r =

. ! -

\7)

cos . -

I I ( \7)

r
+ cos ~+ cos r -r =

(~t) ,
ds

r- 1 +

z k.

143,

== const.

div ( ) = '' ( )= - rot


rot(a )= \7 ( )= div - ( 'V') .
30.

grad(a )=\7( )== (\7 ) +(\7)+( \7)+


+ ( . \7) = rot + rot + ( . 'V') + ( . \7) .

grad(a ) = grad lal"=:; 2[ (\7 )


== const. h grad ( . ) = grad 1 12 =0,

+(.

\7) ] ,

40.

('V'

\1.

\7

( \7)=

== (\7 . \7)

(. \7)= -

rota.

l
2
2
='V'2 = 6.=-+-+ l

z l

>

div grad U == 6.
\1

'V'

;:: (\7

\7)

rot gr:ad

==

, .

50.

\7. ('V'

').

v) = (\7

v == ,

div rot v=O,


, ;

'V'

(\7

v) = \1(\7 . v) - (\7 \7)v==


= grad div v-fj. v,

v (\7

. v) - 6. v=

rot rot v
6".

f urqu

grad div v- 6. v.

'

r=xl+yj+zk.
.

az

dlvr=\7 r=-+- + -==1+1+1=3;

rot r= \7 . r=

=0.

144

.1

=-

70.

Ir I

=-

V ....=

/I

- ...

V . r= _ r o = 2

(1) 1

..!.. ;

(1) 3 1 2

r
dlvgradlrl=V--=V
- r =-('\7. r)+r \7- = - - - = - .
Iri

dlvgrad-~-\7

div

3 r
+ - -. r

80.

(1) 1

.(

1)

r
0-=-\7.
- r =-(\7 r)-r' \7.- =

[(

r)

= -l

3
+ -=0.

] uuu ,

( r) co=rc~-co(r. Co)=r-Co(r. ),
,

10.

[(

div

r)

=3-(r

= div r-div

div

div

=,

(r .

grad(C o r)=2,

grad

r) =
= (i cos

cos ~ +k cos ). grad

cos :+ cos

=(lcosa:+jcos!3+kcosy). (lcosa: +
=cos 2 a+cos 2
h

9.

rot

(r .

(r .

= (r .

cos

jcos~+kcosy)=

1.

) .

rot

~+COS2 =

~+z

1.

rot

grad (r .

= 0-

= ,

rot = ; grad (r ) = grad


10.

div

( ),

div(

11 .

(,

1.

grad

u grad div

+ az z) =

1+

+ az k= .

=v.

v)=Udivv+v. grad

!::. 2

U=divv+v v=divv+v t

(v)

145

\I. nO.JI>8

\:,1.

grad div

v)=grad

( div

v)+grad (v . grad

v. + V
+-k
)] ,
= gra d [(
-VI + -~ )] +gra d v (
-.-1+

12, Hahu t(v+I), gd=i.


!

rot (v+ UI)=rot v+rot U i= rot v +rol -l=rot v+O= rot v,


2

grad

'

=-1+

- - j+-k=xl,

_=

=-

'

2 '

rot - 1=0.
2

13. ICGiu t()r=,

rot

()

r=Vx 2 +y2+=2,

U() r()

- xz)

1
= -.,.-- [(.! -

yz) i

+ (xz-

()z

+ ( -.) k] =

14. Hahu (ro \7) v (\7 ) ,


ro

] v=
(ro \7)v=lro l [
cosa-+cosj3-+cosy

. "

cos

-v + cos

v + cos
-

v
(.
+cosa
_2+
cos

v +
+ ( cos _

v = (V,
-cos z

3I(3

cos V')
-- 1+
"

vv ) k,

COS ~'_+s _ 3

,)
V

v
v )
_2+
COS -._2 +

:::

:::

, ~

(\7

+ cos ~ -v, +

=\7

'

r o

( )

. rot

,
10

146

150.

,, =

div

()

rot

'( ) = dlV (
d lV

()

a=axi+ayj+a,k,

V 2 + 2+ z2.

++ :.

k) =ax~+ay-+az-:=

+-~(axx+ayy+azz)~~-(a r),

r=xi+yj+zk.

rot

( ) =

az

=.-!..[(z-Z)i+(Z-z)' +
'

355. I< . -
.
,

Llr 1 , Llr2 , Llr,


(i = 1 2, ... f1)
, Llr;
,

U
.

, ,

Llri

Llr"

.....

;='1

(20)

Llr/ .....

lim

L
12

n ..... i=1

1 Llr, =

ICuuulCU u IC
,

dr

r, = U dr ,

6/ ~ i=1

dr

dr.

dr , .

147

VJ.

v.

UUUlt11 uu

(21)

(22)

1im

n ..... r:

v,
=1

dri

= 1im

Vi

t.ri ..... O i=l

drl = v dr .
~

(21)

. ,

V'dr - vdr,
u)'u V .

Jr = dx i

+ dy + d: k

(20)

. u dr= i U dx+j u dy+k U dz,

(23)

= (, ,

z).

v=v

(, ,

z)

(,

(21)

v dr =

(24)

i8

y,z)i

+ Q (, y,z) +

(22)

(, ,

z) k,

f(PdX+QdY+RdZ) ,

VX dr= i J(QdZ- Rdy) + f(RdX - Pdz) + k (Pdy -

(25)

7!

(24)

Qdx),

(.N'Q 219).

=(,),
.

(23), (24)
(23')

(25)

v=v (, )'

U v ,

dr ~ i U dx + U dy ,

10

, ~1Ic

IV.dr= fPdX+f Qdy,

(24')

Jv

(25')
.

- 10.

dr~kf(PdY- Qdx).

/ u


l~~

Kpyra

v=

i _

r=Ri cos t+R sin t (. 257).

x=R cos t,

v=RS i

y=Rsin t,

COS S t-R3

sin' t

dr =

R i sin t + R cos t) dt

( -

R4

vdr= --sin2t
2

v , c/r = . " .

257

/i Q

v=yi -

f2sin 2 2

4
-R

(.

t !
-

=
-

R!

- -.

R sin s t

1t

~8

20.

'--------------'------...

r=Ricos 8 t+

59).

V,dr= f

"

vdr+ f;dr+ fV.dr.

x=RcosSt,
v= R i sin B t -

dr =

( -

y=Rsin 3 t

R cos s t,

3 R i cos 2 t sin t + 3 R sin 2 t cos t) dt ,

v . d r = - ~ R2 sin 2 2 t dt .
4

v=

149

VJ.
-,

dr=dxi

v-yi,dr=dyj,

.rv . d r = - i .

, v dr

= - i

=0.

3
'
v dr= - -R1.
s 2
4

tdt= -3R2jt
-- .
16

ll V

30.

UUfl

= 1 i
r = i cos t

1l0

+ sin t

ll

h (.

109)

V'dr:V'dr+ jV'dr.

= cos t,

DBC
=

CLJ

dr=( - i sin t+b cos t)


v = 2 i si 2 t,

sin t

v dr~ - 2 sin s tdt.


v= 2 , r= , dr=dy , v dr=O

+2

vdr= -2 fSi tdi + !=,

_~

+.::.2

f,..

sin s t dt=O.

-2

356.

(, ,

f).p!"

"

z).

Ui
6 pi 6 PI -=

150
0=

6. ; N Oi N Oi 6.;

I ~ ,
;=1

6. Pt

~j6.P, = ~ , 6..= Udp

(26)

n-+

....

;=1

ii1 /{.

dp

mfl

s.

;=1

ii

(26)

ii

s,

d ~

dp=No dp=(l cos + cos ~+k cos ) dp

(27)

N o dp, , ~,

cos

No .
dp = dOJ I = dy dz, cos ~ dp = d 2 = dx. dz, cos dp = ds = dx dy,
dw l , dw 2 , dw , ,

(28)

dp=' dy dz+j dx dz+k dx dy.

(26)

Udp=' Ucosadp+ UCOS~dP+kJ f


s

Ucosydp=

=IIfUdYdZ+JJJUdXdZ+k Udxdy,
82

SI

8,

SI' S2' ~8 S .

= (,

~Ta

v)=x

(,

v)'+

(,

v) j+z (, v) k,

dp=

( ) du d: )= v - 2 du dv No ,
I

(N!! 224)

dp=1
1)

Idu dv= V -

z
-r
=
~I+-j+-k.
l1

F 2 -diJ. dv..

-=-I+-j+-k

..

VJ.

151

UU ill-

(29)

tVj'~Pi"'"

1im

n~OOj=1

tVj'~PI=JrV'dp,

1im

~Pi-+Oi=1

n-+

L YjX~Pj= 1im

1im

(30)

S.

(29)

, ~Pi=

~Pi-+O ;=1

dp.

illu

ill V

= (, ,

'

z)=P (, , z) i + Q (, , z)

+ R(x, , z) k

(29), (28), 110

(N2 226).

fV.dlP

(31)

f f
s

(30)

f f(PdYdZ+QdZdx+RdXdY)
s

' !(QdY dx-Rdzdx) + f

dp =

f (Rdzdy-Pdx dy)

+k

f f
s

( dx dz - Q dy dz) .

, .

i;Vj~Vi= Vi~VI=ffrVdV,

n~OO =1

=V

~Vi~O ;=1

(, ,

z) = (, , z) i

+ Q (, , z) + R (, , z) k

f f f vdv = i f Pdxdydz+
v

v
. -

+ZB k

Qdx dy dz~k f
v

1.

f dxdydz.

"
ill

== i

+ +

lill liu .

(31),

(32)

ff
s

d = f f
s

3 dy dz '+

f f dz dx +
s

ZS

dx dy .

h .

1! ~aBa

152
,

= :i:

V2_ 2 -

ZS

dy dz dy dz + dz ,
=

S1

S1

S2

f f (2

Ryz

2"

2 - z2)3/2 dy dz = 2 d ( 2 -

Ryz

S2

(.N!! 227)

y2+ Z2_ 2 =0.

p2)3f2

d = 4 ; 1t

(32)

h l

JJV.dP=12;5~.
S

20. HafiU m m v~r=x i

+ + zk

, .

Oz

Jr.dP = rdp+ r dp+ Jr.dP


s

S1

S,

SI, S21 S8

dp

/I

fr. =1
dp

S1

Ber<top

dp

r dp= (r N
~

J(r. No) dp=O.

S1

)I)dp = JrNo dp ==

ff d

P=aP=2

1,

VI.
' tI

nii

Oz,

153
li

dp

1 )

r . d = 3 2 h 11: .2)

30.

= r = i + + z k ,

.. , ft

h.

Sl

S2

dp

Jfr'dP=O'
SI

dp

Oz,

f r ' d P=a 2 ht.


S

357.

r- .

V = (, )

+ Q (, ) .

n-

I
V'dr.= Jfrotv:dt>,

(33)

1)

r . No - rNO

=h.

1) pa'3YM~BaA lt.

154

dr dp

v .dr=[P

(,

y)i+Q

(, )].

rot

v= v

[dx i+dy j]=Pdx+Qdy,

k (~Q
.

(32)

(~~ -~;)dd'

jPdx+Qdy=IJ

_) ,

dp=k dp=k dx dy,


n-

(N2 221).
Oxyz S
?

v =

(, ,

z) i

+ Q (, , z) + R (, , z) k.

n-

(34)

v dp = div v dlJ,
.

dp

S,

dv

vdp-(Pi

+ Qj + Rk) (idydz
+ jdzdx + kdxdy)=
,.
=~Pdydz + Qdzdy + Rdxdy,

div v=

f f

dy dz

(34)

+ aQ + R,

dv=dx dy dz

Q dz dx + R dx dy =

ff (:: + :; + ~~)
h

n-
(

231).

v=PV Q

dx dy dz ,

divv=\7'(PV Q)=V p.\7Q

+ 6.

Q,

Vl.

(34')

155

(34)

ff (V Q. dp) = ff(\7 . \lQ) dv+ fff /::, Q dv


s

, =

Q= ,

ff (\7 dp) fff (\7 )2 dv +ff f:, dv.


=

BeKTopv
v=Q

\7

(34),

, . h

(34")

ffQ (V . dp) fff (\1 Q . \7 ) dv + fff (Q 6 ) dv .


=

(34")

(34'),

- n

( \7Q- QV ) dp= ( f:, Q-Q 6 ) dv.


s

=l, Q=, .

V=\7

grad

ffv . dp ~ fff L dv ,
s

dx -d )
( dy dz + dz dx +
z'
S

( 2 + 2 + 2 )

..

10.

z 2

dx dy dz .

lIi

f f;r .d =

3 V,

s
nu

V,

nu

ff r d fff di v r dv
=

dp=N o dp=r o dp,

S.

f dv

3V.

S . r r = r 2 =

ff (r r ) dp = I r Iff dp = ff dp
s

3V

,2

= l

156

V=
20.

= -

ff

4
3

v . dp,

'

2 1t = - -

v=

i + + 3 k, uu

s
tfUf{ .

JJV'dP= divv dv -3
s

JJJ(X 2+ Y2 +Z%)dXdYdZ,

ll

+ - 2-2 + - a2-.r-y2

2 dx dy dz

358.

f2

StokeS- .

v=p (, , ) i

dx

dz

Ya2-.r-yz

dy

,ra:Lx

(, , z)

i + R (, , ) k

S Oxyz .

v dr= rot v dp,

(35)

dr dp

v dr

(Pi

rot v= \l

v=

S.

+ Qi + Rk) (i dx + jdy + k dz) =


i
i
k

(35)

dx

Q dv

+ R dz

=(aR _Q)i+( _aR)j+(aQ_aP)k.


az

+ i dz dx + k dx dy,

dydz

dx + Q dy -+- Rdz

dp=i dy dz

(35')

Stokes-

ff
~

dzdx

dxdy

'

Sfokes-OBY (N2

230).

157

Vl. l C'l!!>4

(35)

I<

. -

r StokeS-

(35)

v
S.

fi

. dr= rot . dp= 6 ,


s

2 + 2 =1,

z=2

v=-3yit3~j+k.

(35),

h .

359. t
. - V (, , z),
, - (N2
\

dv

V,

dp!)

grad U dv =

'

~ SS grad
(, ,

z)

dv

(.N2 206

V -+ ,

),

,l\

S. Ai{O

~ dp

~JJ

v-+o

dp.

(, ,

z)

(36):

grad

1)

dp

...

lim ~
v -+ V

dp,

S.

'l 'l,

grad U dv

= 1 S

:~ dz + J:~ dx dz + k 1 :~ dx dz =

=1

.,

1,

1 UdYdZ+jSS Udzdx+k = .
s

z)

gradU= lim
U

(, ,

V, .

~ grad Udv=

lim

-+ V

V,

dp

231)

158

(37) ,

v=P(x,y,z)i

n-

+ Q(x,y,z)j + R(x,y,z)k

(34)

~JJJ
div v dv~ div v= ~ v dp,
V
V-+O V

V~

dv

V,

V, S

S.
v
S

'

div v =

(38)

V-+

frv

dp

dp

f f rot v dv

f f dp v

' ,l)' (37)

(39)

rot v

= ~
V~O

fffrot v dv,
= ~ ffd P
-v
h

6.

(40)

(38)

v= grad

, 1

v.

Lap/ace-OB

'

l - (grad ) . dp

y~o

1)

(37)

. - (

231),

_ R) + (Q_ ) k] dx dy dz"=
[ (aR - azQ) 1+ (
az

[(R dxdz- Qdx dy)

i+

( dx dy-R dydz) + (Q dy dz-P dx dz) k]=

fdP

dp

= Idydz + jdzdx + kdxdy.

v,

VJ.

159

) =

div (grad

\1 . v

= \12

f."

2
= -

+-

+-

(36), (38), (39) (40),


, , Laplace-
,

ql' q2'

q'

(q\> q2'

q)

Laplace- .

. ,

qp q2'

, , Z, .

ql = qt (, , z),

q2 = q2

(, ,

q = q (, ,

z)

z)

X~X(ql' q2' qs)'

, ,
= r

z=z(ql, q2' q),

y=y(qj' q2' qs),

cos

.z,

= r

sil1

Z= Z

() , , ,
=

sil1 cosq>,

sil1"e sil1

z=p cos

360.

I<I< I<I< . -

10.

6fl 0,

rot v =

div v

2 U
2 U
l::,.U=-+ 2

+ --=0
3
z

div

=.

Laplace- .

U (, , z)

- . .

20. fl ,
div v = , rot v :f: 0.30. - Laplace-OBO
rot v = . f." = ,

160

----------------------------40. . div v =f= ,


rot v =f= .
. 10. . // I// V = 2 i + 2 + Z2 k
) , ) Laplace-I? . ,
)

rotv=O,

divv=2(x+y+z),

. div v
) Laplace- h~

20.

=f=

+ + z

x+y+z=O.

-! /

v=rx (i

+ k)=(y-z)i+

+ (x-y)k

(z-x)j

StokeS- l f v . dr, /'

div v=O,

rot v= - 2(i

+ + i;{)

f v

30.

dr=

rotvdp.
s

// / V=()r=()

r=r r o

/ .

) ;

) U () 9; Laplace-.
) ()

_ ()

().

()

dlV - - r = --dlvr+rgrad _.

r
=

3 ()

+ r. [' () r _ U ()

r]

2 ()

+ ' () =f= ,

rt_() r= () rot t-r grad ()


r

Laplace-OBO

' () + 2 V () = ,
r

v.

161

VJ.

. .

(41)

v=sr,

Laplace-

,=0.

v~

(41)

(xi+.yj+zk)= -:
v= - r=,

-grad

grd=

40.

~ , =

j + )
- (
-i+k

(41)

dx = -
,

dx
=-.
(2 + 2 + Z2)3/2

rdr

[i .

r=xi+yj, dr=idx+jdy

(r dr)

(xdy-ydx)=2 Pk, 12 Pkl = 2,

60.

(.NQ 136).

(-i).dr= rot(Xj-i).d=2f(k.k)d=2 dp=2P,

60.

xkdp= div(xk).dv=ffJ:O.dV=O,
,

. J~ V S.

70.

rot V dp div rot v dv= dv = ,


=

11

162

80.

= i

i + , k

(axr)

s.

dr,

( r) dr~ fJrot (axr) .dp= dp=


s

2 [ dYdz+ayff dzdx

S.

360'.

10.

+ azff dxdy].

h :

cos t +

r=

i sin t + (t) k ,

(t)

(.

).
(, ,

z).

).
(, , )

(t)

2 + 2 =2.

'. )

Oz

9.

).

(, ,

z)

- cos t

sin t _
cos t

----- -

sin t

(t) _
' (t)

Z-

011

------

cos t -

sin t,

= sin t + cos t,

(, ,

z)

Z=

(t)

-+

'

cos t

sin t

Z - u (t)

sin t

+ cos t

'

(t)

cos t

"

(t)

sin t

=0.

(t)

VJ.

163

) (, , ),
,

x=acos t=a,
'.

t=O,

()

= 1,

sin /=0,

z=au(t)=a

(st-sit)2

+ (asint + st)2= ,
2

z=au(t)

u'(t)=

(t)

- - at
- 1 Vr2 - a2

(, , ) h 1

= 1.

).

Oz,

u"2+ u,2=k 2 ,

(k 2 =ci-l),

1 " .

20.

r=ti +

sit

+ t(l+sint)k.

h , ,

t=O.

- {)
' ()

- ()

Z-

z ()

' () =~O)' = Y=Z

11

164

- ()

N () z' () -

() ' ()

() ' ()

1,

()

z - z ()

()

()

Z
= -

-1

-- =

- ()
Z- z
=----=

()

()

()

N(O)

() ' () - N () ' () ,

z' ()

+ =, z=O

Idtdr dtr I
d2

I . () () 1=1 (i+j+k)x2 k I_~

[(~;y]{
;

u.;

[2 () ]2

1/27

V3

(d

r d r)
Ks(o)..,dt dj2x dt 3 =r(O).~(O)~r(O)]=~=J..
dr

[dr
dt

30.

,12

[. () r(0)]2

d r]2
2

m.

dt%

~ ! i

cos t

sin t

+ ! k

() X 2 +y2=Z2

450.

,
.

X-eatcost
eat(acos t - sin t)

Y-eatsint
eat ( sin t + cos t)

Z_e at
ae at

1 )

eat cos t

sin t

cos450 =

~=

2ae 2at

11l+mml+nnl.

'/2 YZ2+ m2+ n2 Y/~+m~+n~ Ve 2at (2a 2 +1) V2e 2at


2

---== ,

'/2

1) .

VI.

. l=e at (acost-sin t),


11=eatcost,

4).

m=eat(asint+cost), n-=aeat ,
m.=eatsint, n1 =eat .

v=-yi

165

z=o.

(-2)2+ 2=1

+ + ck
2 +2=

1, z=O;

StokeS- , h

f vdr= ffrotv'dP=

ff

2k ' d P=2

ff

dP=2P,

rot v=

56.

=2k.

v= yz (2

+z) i +xz (+2 y+z) + ( + +2 z)k

h .

. rot v=

yz(2x+y+z) xz(x+2y+z) xy(x+y+2z)

v=

-gd-

--I--j--k,

= div v

=f:
60.

YZ(2 z+y +z) dx= - xyz (x+y+z);

(, , ).

v = grad ( arc tq

~)

=0

166

: ) , )

) =v=grad ( arctg

v . dr

f -

70.

dx

2 + %

f ()

+ 2

+---,

+ dy =
+ 2

),

21t,

, _ ).

v == f(r)r

.
h

[[()

div v=div

r]= [() div r+r grad f ()=3 f ()+ ['

f () = , j~ .
80.

= f ()

~ r.

v=

() =

r,

f ()

, .

rot f () r=f () rot r-r

=f()-r f'(r)ro=O;

()=

grad f

divf(r)r=!=O;

= f () r= f (r)(xi + i+zk)= - grad = _ i _ _ k,

=
90.

ff ()

dx =

f f ( 2 +2 + ~2)

dx .

v=xi+yj+zk.

dx

dy

dz

-=-=100.
)

h: )

.
.
dlV grad ==

div grad

dr=O,

y==Ctx,
)

Z~C2X.

div grad f () =

)
v ( -.
t+-j+-k =

+ -

2 + -=L:l ;
z 2

VI.
)

Oiv grad f ) =

'1 .[{' ro]


()

+" () =

['

()

+ ' V {' () =

= f' () ('1' o)

~)+ ~

=f'(r).(v

( -3 - -1 )
r
r

167

f"(r)

=f'(r)[+('1. r )

+ {" () ==

2 [' () -1
r

+ {"

+r('1+)J+

() =

11.

h:

div

grad

),

div

grad V),

div

grad

) =

div

grad V)=
=

div grad
~

V +grad

grad V =

L\ V + V + V + V .

120.

(gradU)! = U D. + (grad )2.

r(f)=ti+~j+
2'

o~ (, , ) ( 1, ~,

2t'k
2 ).

fF'dr=f

130.

Ydx- 2 d + Zdz=f ~

X2

+y +Z = 1
2

f f v . dp = f f
=

1)

dt-f 3 dt+6f 8 df=172'

v=x 2 i+y 2 j +z 2 k
> , > , z
.

>

2 dy dz + ! dz dx + f
s

h .

dx dy =

(1- y2_ Z2) dy dz+ f (1- 2 - Z2) dz dx + f f


Ozx

Z2

(1- 2 - 2) dx dy =

3; 1)
,

168

140.

) (v dr) = (t v+grad v)dp;


s

ff (v grad ) d fff(grad . rot v) dv, (S i ).


)' f f f(VXW).dP= f ff (wrot v-vrot w) dv, (S ).
)

==

,.

/.

) Sfokes- h

fU

(v dr) =

f (

v dr)

ff

( r~t v + grad U

v) dp.

) - h

ff (vxgrad ) dp ff
=

div (v

) dl'=

grad

/.

= f f f (grad U :rot v-v~ rot gra:d U)dv

f (grad

rot v) dv,

rot grad

=.

ff(VXW)'dP=
S

=
=

fff

div (v w) dv =

f1f

(w rot v - v . rot w) dv .

150.
(, ,

z)

Hab~

1.

257

VI.

1,

169


-+

dl = PQ

Oz,

(. 257'). Biot-Svt- l),

dH=-

(dlxr l ) ,

+00

H=Jf~(dl 1 )

~ == ,

OP=~k, dl-kd~, r==xi+yj+zk', r::s::Vx 2 +y2+ z 2


-+

r1 -

- = i + + (z - ) k , r 1 = V : + 2 + (z - )2
dl

+00

rl=(-yi+xj)d~,

+00

= S~[p2+(Z_~)2]S (-+)=(-+)f y'[p2+(Z~_~)2]S'


d~

dV

!= 2

+2,

p=MN

Oz.

~-z=ptgt, d~= pdt

cos 2 t

:JI'

+2

== ~ ( 2

i + )

dt

cos 2 t V (1

+ tg 2 t)S

:JI'
:JI'

+.::2
= - ( - i
2

+ ) cos t dt= -2 ( - i + ) .
2

:rr

-"2
')

dH

rt

d 1 dl,

rl

dH

170

dr=O

dx

dy

dz

--=-=-0 '

. .


d lV
=--+--,

= - - - ,


( 2 )
4

( 2 )
4
= 2 + y~ = ( 2)2' ~ = 2 + 2 = - ( 2 +2):

div

rot

::2

=0,

2+ 2

Lap/ace-OBO.

, h

= -2 ( %

) = - gra d =

.1 .
- ,

2 .

--=----,

16.

%+

=2

f -dx
- , =2Jarc tg - .
2 + y~

rota ~ = (2-)

Irl

Irl

+ nr(a.r),
jrl n + 2

8= i++ z k

r=xi+yj+zk.

171

VI.

r
1.
1
r o t - - = - rot ( r) + grad ( r)=
1 r ,
I r '"
1 r '"
k
i

1
nlrl n- 1 r
=-rot : ~X(axr)=
1 r In
1 r 1 2
l
1

[(ayz-z) i +(azx-axz) + (- ) k] - ~~ ( r) =

=_1_ rot
1 r '"

/r/

oyz-azy

ozx - a)..z

=n

r In+ 2

--~x(axr)=~a- _ + n(ar)r = (2-)


Irl n+2
Ir/"
Irl n
jrl n+ 2
/rl n

17.

+ 2 =

<

ff

ff

+ -2

v . dp =

z dz
dy
2
. - -2

xz dx dz

f f
z dz

dx dy =

ff

dx

+ dx

+ 2 - 2

dy=O,

- 2 - 2

vdp= divvdv= Odv=O


s

180.

ff

yz dy dz +

f f

Irl n+2

v=yzi + xzj + xyk )


h ( ::;;;; z
h), )

h
3

+ nr(a.r).

~.

(, ,

z)

(, ,

z)

v=<uxr

172

r '

(, , z) ' 1.

rotv=rot(ooxr)='\7 (r)=(\lr)-r('\7.)+
...L (r '1)00-(00 "\7) r=oo ('\7 r)-(, '\7)r=
(

= w di v r -

. '\7) r = 3 w - 00=2 w

190.

di v [

'\7)=,

(r

r(\lw)=O,

'\7)r=oo.

( )]

. ) di v - ( . ) di v

+ grad ( ) -

grad (, )

div [ax(bxc)]=div [(
- div

) -( )

[( ) ] = ( )

( )

c]=div

div + grad

[(. ) ]
( )-

div -' grad ( ),

200.

. rot

. rot

= ( ) =

2 .


arot[(a.a)a]=a.rot(a2a)=a.[a2r~ta-a

=
(

21 '.

grad

. rot =

. rot

grada 2 ]=

2 )=.

v = i sin + (1 + cos ) I
.
n- h

SV'dr=tv.d-Sk'd~S d==S,

rot v:= k.

12

1.

12

361.

(1)

.,

l' :'

, h

/1 , .1~,
/1 ... 1

.1 ! = - 1

, /1 ,

, .

/1 = .,.! - ,

,.

u u

(1).

/1 , /1 1 ,

/1 ,

,
/1!

/1 ,

/1: -

/1U iI + 1-/1U n ,

/1l11" . ,

/12 , /12 Ut ,

u u

:8 "

(1).

h k-lIi u k-lIi

(1),

/1" , /1" l" . , /1k , , .

/1" =/1"-1 ! - /1k-l "


(1)

- ()

1).

l1,

/12 U , , /1" U ,

/1 ! l :, .
/12 2

/1k n = /11<-1 n~1 - /1"-1 n "

/1

.1Ul=U t -U 1'

/1"

/12 2 = /1 - /1 2 1 . , 1 , ""

, ! U 1

/1

2 = 1 +/1 1

1) 0 ..

174

il 2 2

il2 1

l'

il22=21+3'

1---"'-1 ~U"
1 1
I__

Ak
-- ---il k 1
---

I 2

1---
I

.
.

1--'1-'
n n
I

k 2

1--

I--

-2

il k n

1--1--

I
1

...

2)

10.

ll

il 2

1 I

----11

--1-210

--13

1 i

'

-. -11--

1-1-

--3- --2- --0-

1--------

14520

-5 -,-'-.-

--1-

7 I 2

16

25

.
I

1,

1--1--l'

3).

1.

20.
(

175

4,

1,

9, 16,20, 28,

37

5)

I 2

Ll

-1
-~

LlS

----

3 I 2
~4- --5-1~2-

Ll 4

---

- 5 I 17

---=s -121 - 22

-9- --7-1-=1~7-

~1_9

- 39
~-

-101-- -I

-- --

====
1_1__ 1__

-161~4-1-4-'-= ~-

20

I Ll~~

------

~~I I

1
4

362. s Ll" n ~. -'


(1).

k-Te Llk~(==, 1,2, ... )

(1).

~ = 1 - ,

Ll% = ~ -Ll

(2)

( 2 - 1 ) -(1-U ) = 2 -2 1

+ '

Ll=Ll2l-2=(~2-Lll)-(Lll-Ll)=(-2)-(U 2 - 1 ) - (:. -) +( 1 -110) ~- . - 3112

Llu o , 2 ' 3 '

(11,

+3

'

11 .

(x-l)S= -3 2 +3-1,

, ,
h

Ll ,

2 , .. , " ,

(3)

k,

,Ll"=k - (~) k - I + (~) -2-' .. + (-1)-] ( p~ 1 ) k-+l+


+ (-

1)

( ;

k~

. ..

176

(.N2 6),

(3) "

. h

"" , "+l .

(3)

Uk, .

Ut ,

k+ 1 , U t , . ,
2 , , Uk + l ' ,

hh U ,

(3),

" 1 =1 - ( ~) Uk+ (~)-' +( _1)P_1(p~ 1 ) ,,_+

(4)

+C- 1 )(;)Uk-+1'" 1

" +1 = " 1

(3)

(4)

= Uk
1

_11"

+1 -

+1

[( ; )

+ [(;) +( ; )] -1 -

+ ( - 1) [ ( ; ) + ( ~ 1 )] Uk_p

...

Ll"+1 UO=Uk+l -

(k+1) Uk-l-'
( k+l)
1
Uk+. 2

.
+(-l)p ( k+l)

Uk_P+I ... Uo1).


k+ 1,

(3)

(3)

'

(3) k

Ll" = - 1)" ,

(5)

1)

(4')

k=3

(N~

(5)

Uk Uo=UkH=U'"

6)

(pk)+(p_k 1)=( k+p1),

(p=1,2, .. k+1).

177

1.

(5)

(6)
, k

(6)

= 3,

6,3

~ = (-

k-Te

1)3 U n =U,,+ -3 UIt +2 + 3 + 1 -

6, " (n=,

(1),

(1).

6, , 6,2 ,

k ,

. .. ,

(1)

1,2, ... )

k = 1, 2, ... , h

. (

h .uk(k=l,

1.

!1 k ,

, 6,, ....

(2)

2, ... )

]=+

(7)

2 =2 - +6, 2 =2 +2 6,

(8)

- + 2 =

= +26, +6,2 ,

u =3 2

(9)

3 +

+ 6, U =3

- 3 ( + ~o) + + 5 =

( +2 !1 +6,2 )-

+ 3 + 3 6,2 + 6,3

, ~2 ,
(7), (8) (9)'

1+

, I

, 2 ,

(9)

, 2 , 6,5

1 . h
, 2 , , (1),

= +( ; ) 6, + ( ~ ) 6,2 + ... + ( ; ) 6, + ... + k ,

(10)

1 )

(11)
1)


[:,.2 ,

Uk + t

(10)

Uk.

.... ::,

(10')

(10)

lI o [:,.

z:,.Uo. z:,.Uo, ... , [:,. +! , , .

. :

.:l

.:luk= .:lu o+ (

~') .:l2 + ( ~)

.:l s U + . + (;) .:lP + 1 Ug

+ ... +.:lk +1 .
12

178

, k = h

u =(1 +~)B uo~(I + ~+ ~2+~3) =


U+ ~u+ ~2 U+~ "

1 ,
(6)
1. 1 ,
"", ~n , ... , , h (11), :
1.
,

, , U ' h

4)

7,

1, 4, 9, 16, 20, 28,


h ~6 '

~6=(u

- 6 1 + =

(6),

_1)6 =U 6

6 5 + 15 4 - 20 U + 15 2 -

- 6 28 + 15 . 20 - 20 . 16 + 15 . 9 - 6 4 + 1 =

2 = (

- 9.

(6),
- 1)2 U =

( 2

2 1 + )

= U

2 4 + ui

=28-2 . 20-1-' 16= 4.



'=, 4 =

-5,

~5=17, 6 .=

-39,

, ,
(

4).

4)

= 1,

~o=3; ~211o='2,.

h
n , .

(11),

(11),

1I9=(1+~)3u=u+36.u+~2u+3u=I+3.

3+

+32+0=16,
=(l +)6 =U
+6 =1+6.

+ 6 + 15 ~2 +20 + 15 4 +6 ~5 +
3+15.2+20.0+15(-5)+6.17-39=37.

. .

(10'),

k+l

= Uk + t:.Uk,

, (4'),

, h

(10),

1.

363.

' .

179

f ()

+ .

=f

.= {( )

+ )- f ( )
f


= 1 ).

+h

()

! ( )

2 =,. 2 ! (xo)=D.J(xo+h)-tlf( )

()

= . h h
" =~"

f ( ) ~ -l f(x o+ ) -

~OBe k-

-l

( )

k-

()

= .

, = = h
='+

= (

2 = + (

- 1) -

= + (

-1)2 -

. .

..

"= + (

-1),

- ]) =

..

_1)2 ='<

..

~..

- 1) "-l_ (

k-Te

_1)1.

-1)3,
..

..

1) -1= " ( - 1)" .

!1" f ( ) (k= 1,2, ... ) f ()


(N2361),

= , ,

f(x o), f(xo+h),

f(x o+2h) .... , f(xo+kh)

( )= f (+)-! ( )

2 f ( ) = +) - f ( ) = f ( '+2 ) - f (+) -

+ f

( )

f (+)+

= f ( +2 ) - 2 f (+)+ f ( );

, ,

( ) = 2

( +)-.1 2

+ f (+) - f

( )

( +2 )+2

+3

) -2

( +2 )

+ )- f ( ) = f ( +3 )

-3f(x o +2h)+3f(x o+h)-f(xo)

()

= , '

' +, +2, ... ,


1)

~Yo= f ( + 11) -

t ( )

xo+kh, ...
)'

()

180

, h
= (

+
+2

( )

! ( )

(+)

! (+)

! ( +2 )

112 f

f(x o+2 )

.6.2 f(x)

! ()

5).

()

k ()

( )

(+)

! (xo+k )

f (xo+k )

( +2 )

( )

( +2)

.
2

f(xo+k

f-(xo+kh)

I
5

'

k (+)

.-

xo+kh

()

()

f ( ),

(+), ... ,

(5)

f(xo+kh),
(11). (5) h

f (xo)=[t (h)-l]k f ( )'

fk(h)f(xo)=f(kh)f(x o)= f(xo+kh),

(11)

+ k ) = (1 + )k f ( )

~l, k=3,
f ()=[()

(11')

( )

_1]3 f

f ( +3 ) = f ( )

( +3 ) - 3 f ( +2 )+3 f ( + ) - f ( ) ,

+3 ! ( ) + 3112 f

( )+ I1 f ( )

() U. k-lIi ,

k-Te

f ()= xk+A. x k - 1 + ... +A k


6. f () = f ( + ) - f
' ()
,

() = h ' () + 2 f" () +

k-1

... +

, " ()

() k -

kk

k ( k) () .

k - 2, f(k) ()

f ()= k x k - 1 + .. ..

1.

181

n n

!
h k -

f(x) =

! ( +h) -! ()

"

[).2f(x}=h 2 k(k-l) k - 2 +
h h

!lk f

k-Ta

f ( + h) _!lk-1 f ()

() =!lk-l

k - k=O

...

, . h

!lkf(x)=h"k(k-l) (k-2) ... 2 .IA o=k!A o h k


k:Tora
f(x), !lf(x), ... , !lk f(x),
( 5)
,

k+ 1

x+h,

k-Tora

x+2h, ... , x+kh.

k-Tora

f (),

!l f ( )' 2 f(x o)' , !lk f ( )

+1

= ,

,
,

k-2

., .

+1

k-l

c~ . ,

k-Tora

k-Te

. 10. f () _ 2
h = 1. , n
( 6).
=

!l f ()

I
I

f ()

16

25

11

f ()
1

----

I
n

182

f (),

f ()

f (),'

()

r ~

f () =

2.

1 ,

f () =

h
h

6,

20. .
.
=2,

1 =2+,

2 =%+1 11 +2 2 ,

ua =02+12+2 2 +3 2 , . . . .

=.,

1 =2 2 ,

2 =3 2 ,

6,

, h

02
I 02+ 12

02+ 12+22

I- - _ . -

02+ 12+ 22 + 32

n h

=+3

( - 1)
----

+ _---,(,--_--,1),-(,-_-_2.!-.) __ ( + 1) (2 + 1)

2 3 6

(11),

1.

, = ,

7,

183

1, 2, ... ,

. . ,

()= (+l) (2 +l) =, 1,2, ...


6
..

-,

= log

[().

[()

[(),

h :

10.

, ~

20.

364.

(2-l)(2+l)

, ' .
, ,

= f ()

' 1 , , Xk
' , , Yk' h =[()

. ,

t;eH,

1 , , Xk ' l"'" Yk.


, .
1)

'

184

, (

, )'

( 1 , 1)"
(.

. , Mk

258).

(Xk' Yk).

365. Newton-
. -

Newton

Xk
--~--------------------------~.

' X 1, ,

258

lf

Y.1r=Yo+ k

~Yo+

(10),

k(k-1) 2

~ ++

k(k-1) ... (k-k+1)


~
k!

(11'),

Xk-XO

xk=xo+kh, k- - - - ,

Yk =

f (Xk) == f (xo+kh) == f
,

( )

-
)
+ Xk
--~f ( +
h

palJYHa

----------------------- h

-------------------

x=xk=xo+kh
-

y=f(x)=f(xo)+-h- tlf(xo)

(12)

185

-(-
) tl (X o) ,
+ -h--h-- 1 -i!---r

2f

u ..

Newton-OBY

, ,

()

, .

(12)

f(x o), f(xo+h), ... , f(xo+kh) ,

+ h , ...

, , tl 2

+ kh .

f(x o)

(12)

t ( ) + __ tl f ( )
-

f () =


.
=4,

7, 9.

y=f(x)

f(x o)=4

tlf(x o)=3

= 4 +3 -

366.

(12)
(

1
7
- 1) ~ ::= 4 + , 2

2
-

' ;, Xk

t ()

--0--1

~ t ()
3

~ t () I
2

-1

---1

1-2 - 9 -,-1---1

. Lgg-

, ' 1 "'"

(13)

' I"'"

1,2

Lgrg

8).

, =,

tl~f(xo)::;o-l,

Lagrange-

().

,
Xk

Yk'

186

=,

1,2, .. . k)

,
k
=

+ 1 k-I
+ ... + k,

+ 1 Xkk-I + ... + k'

Yk

. .. , A k
"

(14)

k+.l

Xk

(13),

(-) (x- 2 )",(-k)

(x o - 1 )( - 2 ) (Xo-Xk)

k+ 1

Lgg-

(- ) (x- 2 )",(-k)

(X J - )( 1 - 2 ) ,(Xt-Xk)

, x-i(i=,

l+

1, .. . k)

h :

h

- ,

= ;.

= "

. - ,

= ,

- ,.

, , Xk

(14)

= ' 1"'"

, .

= ,

= '

Yk'

. (14)
, . / 1 IC,

(14)

= , 1, 2,

(-l) (-2) 4

(0-1)(0-2)

(-) (-2) 7

(1-0)(1-2)

7
2
=4+---

. .

2 '

+ (-)

(-1) 9=

(2-0)(2-1)

4, 7, 9

11.
11.

= L
q

367.

~.

q q, .

10.

187

jl

<:

= [

20.

=.

30.

= ,

40.

= =, =.

50.

<,

368.

<

> .

= .

<

<;

< .

,

+= .

fb.

10.

=' =' +='+'.

20.

30.

(+)+=+(+,) ( )

+ = +

40.

50.

+ 0=

<

+ <+.

fb . h
~ h

(1)

-=

(2)

(4)

=-, ,

c=O-=-.

(3)
,

(1)

(1),
+(-)=.

(2),

188

uu

uuu.

\ \=\- \.
= h

\ \ = \-0 \ =0.
.

20

(4)

+(

(5)

)= -+=.

> ,

> -<,

<

< .

->.

(5).

h
-(-)=.

(6)


-=,

(3')

, ,

+=+=.
,

(4),

= - ,

(3'),

=-= -(-)=-(-),

(6).

(5)

(6)

. , ,
-(+)= --.

369.

Q .

'-

11
11 ==.

1.

=' =' =' '.

2.

~ ( ).

30.

() = ( () ( )

4.

( +) = + ( )

50,

> > > .

60.

l=.

.fb.

189

40

=,

+=, (+) =+. =.


==.

..... ;

50.

ii .

>,
=

> , > > , .


O>rc. ,

+( -) =

> .

<

(-) .

> ,

< h [+(-)]

->, (-)<. -(-)>,

< ,

. >.

(+). (+)=+,

(+) (-)== -,

fb

== , h

(7)

(-). (-)=+.

-=.

(8)

(7)

(8)

=1,

-=.

h h

b.~=b.c=1 . b.~=1.

(9)

-1 ,

1
1
. - 1 =.

'

(7) . = h = 1 (8)

~ =1

==

(9),

'-=-,

190

/!

370.
10.

r /!

' . ;

20. .

Q (
, , ,

I ).

, h .
:

10.

,
,

h ,

. ,

.lj

20.

QlJi,

2).

,
h ,

. ,
h . ,

lj .
(

2).

I )

, .lj . ,

30.

I )

'
.

( I ) , h
,

. ,

.lj .
,

(.N'!! 3).

(
(

I ),

4).

'
(.N!! 4).

11.

371.

191

. -

f3

= ('/')

=(/),

(10)

n 1,

(/) ('/') uU.


,

' ,

, , '
.

(10)

h ,

.!)

{3
>

(3

(10)

fb

'

. 2 )

h h , ,

f3

{3 h h , h. 1

,
. h
:'

1;

<f

a>~.

(10) , = ~.

' .

< ',

', .

20.

> , (3

>

< {3.

', >

{3.

> , > . , ~

= (/),

(11)

> {3 (3

~=(A'/B'),

= ( "/8").

> > ', '

> ",

> ",

> , h .4)

372.
10.

I< .

, 1

<<,

-<

> u .

1) (10) .
2) fl , '
.

) ,

')

(10)

192

, .
IX ,

< IX < 1

(12)
10'1< 8. h

h . 01

(12)
(12)

+n 101

h .

, 1 +(n+l)8 1

h , . h

1 +n
' = 1

+ n ,

81

< < 1 +(n+ 1) 101'

= 1

+ ( + 1) 81'

< < ,

- = 81

< ,

. ,

20.

IX

U.u

(13)

8>

< IX < ,

< < ,

<8,

u ,

, ,

IX

< .

'1 '2,1)

(14)

(13),

(14),

< IX < '1 < '2 < ~ < ,


0< ''.-'! < - < -.

,
,
, -

~-IX '2 - '1 . , ,

(13),

1)

ct ~

(N2 4)

193

11.

373.

; ~

{14/)

;=(/),

= ('/')

( 14")
' ' h ' ',

'

( 14"')
; +}3

< < '.

, /

+/ +/ .

(15)

+ ' < < + '

, ,

+ ' lf + ', . . '


,
-

10.

20.

.N2 372,

(15),

+ /

+ /

+ =

(15).

, -

(.N2 368) .
, ;

+'

+'

0= ('/')

< < ,

'

20.

< < /

+/

< + < +',

+ 0== ;

;=(/),

< + < + ',

< < ; < < +/,

+'

< ; < +',

, ;

+ = ,

(.N2 368)

. -; =}3

+~ =

.
...

13

194

374.

~ .

03 .

(14')

(14"'~.

(14")

.ij

' ', .

'<

(16)

< '.

, ,
'

(16),

10.

',

20.

N2 372,

' ',

(3

(16).

(N2 369)

, .

(17~
,

((3) =(3),

(3

= (/),

= ('/'),

= ("/"),

< < < ,

< ' < < ',

< " < < ",

, ; ', '; ", " }


h . , ,

'

(18)

(') "

< < ',

< ((3) ') ",

< < ' "


(' ") < () < (' ').
' "


(') " = {' ")

10.

20.

(')

b'f =

(' ")

N2 372,

((3) = (~y),

(18), (C1~) a(~y)


(17) 11

, ~ , h
.

11.

ftJ

375.

>

(N!! 369)

195

, ,

k- 1

=a

k ,

= 1,

. ....

--.,k -

ak

(19)

a=(AIB) ,

(19).

k=O

'=1

=(/)


" =,

=1

(ak)p,=a k . .

a.k.l3k=(a~)k,

~ , k .
,
"

-=a.k- p
.

. k

> .

k=p

"
-=0.0=1,
. "

k=O h

-=-=-.

(, ) :

"

a.P=a k+ p,

;: =( ; '

" ~k=(a.~)k,

(~=I=O k > ,

(ak)P=a kp ,

0;=1=0

k < )

.
13

196


.~

<~,

<([~ 1, k > ,
ak>ap

< '

376.

I{ .

, k ,
~,

pk=a.

(20)
1l0m ill

(20)

k.

- .
k

- =() ,

{2 (NQ 3).


k
k
k
~ lkl Va .V"lf = -Ya~ , ~a
- = v~' =

(k

k .

;1',-

= -

=- ,

)"

kp

11.

197

< a:~ 1
k .
; , q , q

, , ,

.!...
q

, =

1,
1

V.

q-

=;.

::: _

"

;l- ',

=(; .

'1 '2 , >

>

~ Ii, : > , Ii > ,

'a;r:> ~'

,>

.,

, ;

<

a Fl =.
1 .

(21)
, ,

> 1,1)

(22)

.N!!372,

1)

(21)'

(22),

< 1 o:~= ( -;1 )-FI


.

10.

20.

198

377.

J'l .

(==1)

, ~ , ,

(23)

11

= .

~,

, .

~,

Uili

~=log

"

, ~ uili .

III. '

378. ~ -

. '
2 +2 =+
}

[(+ : - B2~~:(J=0'
, , .

2-4<0

(1).

(1)

=--,

=+

(1)

2 (;2+1)=0.

h ,

;2 + 1 = ,
.

( ==

== )


III.
=

199

(1).

z=a+bi,

(2)

r ::::

(2)

V-

1, . .

z=(a,b).

(2)

z-biuu . ,

=,

=,

(: .

+ 1= + V 2 + 2 = V2+ 2

, . 1 1, = . , = -

5,

h 1 -

51 = 5..

z=a+bi=(a,
h ,

= .

, h , .

zl=a1 +b1 i=(a 1 , 1 ).

zJj=a 2 +b2 i=(a 2 , 2 )

1 + 1 = 2 + 2

(a t ,b t )=(a 2 ,b2 )

,
,
n.

ltJ-!

z=a+bi

z=a-bi

z+z

z-z

-2-=, 2=,

379.

Izl=lz[.

6 .

}'

z=a+bi

200

fflaBa

.
(.

259).

z = =t- .

j~

z=



. =,

z=a

+ ; =

,
.

z= + =

259

. = ,

. ,

.
& . .

u .

z= +

(3)

z = +

z=i,

6+2k1t (k

z= i

(.

).

=, =l,

i:1

259)

Izl=p=OA=l,

"

6=-+2k1t.
2

(4)

:=

cos ,

sin 6

z = + = (cos 6 + i sin 6) ,

(5)

z=

(cos 6 + i

:;i

z=a+bi.

6)

u 1t

/-

(6)

z=

+ =

(cos + i sin 6) = ;

Ill.

(3)

(.

(4)

259)

(5)

tg 6=-.

"l/ 2 + 2

II

Sln v=

201

2 kr;.

(6), h ~e h ,

, .
,

380.

z ==

-+

(.

. . .

259).

(7)
. ~XOB h
Z1

+ z2=a 1 +b1 i+as+bsi=(a 1 +2)+( 1 + 2 ) .

(7).

Izl-1="~+~.

(8)
~

(.

1 :

260)

Iz:I=OM:="l/a~+ ~.

:
2 = 1


1 - 1

1 1 = 1 ,

' :

2 = ,

2 = 2

2 :

NM

-1 +I = 1 + 2

260

PM=PN+NM=P1 M1 + 2 = 1 +:.

(9)

202

(7). (9)

(10)
1

< 1 +\=- 1 +2 ,
,

(8)

(10),

-( 1 +2 )2+( 1

+ 2 )2<

- a~+ b~+ - a~+ b~

IZl + Z2 I < IZl I + I z21


. u

' ).
,
.

,
. , ,

z1=a 1+b1i,

z= + s i,

z2=a 2 +b2i,

'Z1 +Z2+ z =( 1 + 2 + )+( 1 + 2 + ) i,


Zl

Z2

Z' .
. '
,

(9),

z=a+bi

(11)

z2=a z +b2 i,

(12)

Zl = z - z2=a+bi - (a 2 +b 2 i)=(a - 2 ) + ( - 2 ) i = 1 + 1 i.

. : 2
~

(11),

(.

260)

(13)
1 2
,

z = +

(14)

1 = 2 , 1

.(12)

Z2 =

+ 2 i

111.

OM t

!
,

(13)

203

> -

I z - z21 > I z 1-1 z21

(14),

V("':" 2 )2 + (- 2 )2 > v 2 + 2 -Va~ +b~,


- . . ll Behu ll .

).

,
,

.
,

(5 + 3 ) + (2 - 4 ) - ( - 1 +
=(5+2+1) +
381.

= 5+ 3 i+ 2 - 4 i +1 - i =

(3-4-1)=8-2.


ZI = ('1

(cos + 1.'s
1

)
!)t i
V1 = l

(15)

ZI ,Z2

= l 2 (cos 61 + i sin 61) . (cos 81

+ i sin (2)

= l 2 <91 +e,)i=

-:=l 2 [cos (81 +( 2 )+ sin ( 1 +( 2 )]= (cos + i sin 6)=(' e~i=z


, .ll 1l0ll ,

ili,

u ~fl; .


zt=a 1 +b1

i,

z2=a 2 +b2 i,

, ,

(16)

ZI z2=(a 1 + 1 ) ( 2 + 2 ) = ( 1 2 -

bz) +( 1 2 + 2 b1 )

=+ = z

.= 2 =-1.

al=plcos61'

(16)

bl=plsin61'

a 2 =PZcose 2 ,

b2=p2sin62'

204

l 2

1 2 +

1 ! = l 2

(cos 61 05 62- 5in t sin 6= I 2 cos (61 + (2)

a z 1 ::: l 2 (05 61 sin 62 + 05 62 sin 61) = l % sin (61 + (2) .

(15),

(16).

. 1
ZI=Pl

(cos6 1 +isin6 j )

. 1 =l'

<txOM1 =6 1 ,

~2 =6 2 (. 261).

OMz =P21

62

.~

ON.

-}:: =6 1 + 62.

ON

=l 2.

Zj Z2=Pl

2 [05(9 1 +6 2 )+

+ i sin (61 + 62)] .



___

~=-_--'----l---'-

__________

)(

A~

261

Zl = l
ZI1

(cos 61 + i sin 61) ,

= (cos 6 + i 5in 6,,) ,

, ,


Z1=a 1 +b 1

i,

Z2=a 2 +b2

i, ... , zl1=(a n +bn i),

205

1lI.

( 1 + 1 ) ( 2 + 2 ) ( + ,

Zl' Z 2 " ' Z n=

", = i

- 1.

h , . j=j2~

l'l ,

\ "1\ =

= 1.1)

1t

, ~. h
2

2 , 2 ,

4 (.

1 , 2 , 2 , 4 ,

261).

",=,

\z1\=\OA 1 \=1,

"2== 2 =-1,

z=i 2 .i=-1 i=-i=i ,

zt=i 3 i=

382.

I Z l=I \=l,

IZ41=1

-=l=4,

\z~\=IOA2\=1,

,I=l.

/fl . ,

(16),

(18)

"2= 2 + 2 ,
(,+ 1 ) ( 2 + 2 )=+

1 a~

1 2

=,

2 2 , .

02 -+ 2 =

(19)

.z

-=----: =

"1

a 1 +b,1

1 +,

-~--2

1 .- 1
,
+--2--2-l=.~~.

\+\

(19)
(18), 01 - 1 .

206

ll

=0, h .

1,

-~----=

+ b~

a~

+ ~

+ 1 ;,

z=p (cos 9 + ; si 6),

Zl

= l (cos61 +

;sin 9.)

'.

, - ,

(s6+;si)

l (cos 61 + ; sin ( 1 )

(9-,)i

=--.=-

' Z

= 1:. [cos (13- 131) + ; si( - )

=Z2'

. ,

1l0iill

Il ii .

=l,

+; sin ( ),

383.
(17)

(=0

Zt =Z2='"

(20)

Zl=Pl(cosG 1 +

zn

=Zn=Z,

=" (cos +; sin )" = " ni =" (cos 13 +; sin

ii1

11. =

Il

),

Z = (cos

+ i sin )

iv-

(cos 9 + ; sin 6)11 = cos 9 +; sin 11 G.


z-n =

zl1

(20)

Il

.'

-11, h

e- ni

= -n(s6+IS)
'I1

..

= - (cos - 1 SI ) .
"

Zn=(a+bi)n,

z=a+bl,

( )

h ;= 'Y~J, ;2= - 1.

III

201'

384. I{ .

z=p (cos +i sin ),

- Z:=

[r(cos

(21 )

"

(22)

(cos

+i

+ i sin )

)=z

sin

w + sin

) =

(s+i

" = ,

2 krt (k

(22)

+i

(cos

(05

(cos + i sin 6), .

)]n=

sin

sin

).

).

w = 6 + 2 k rc

(23)

6+2krt

=Vp,

=---,

- ,

(24)

Vz=Vp(cos6

_ (

+ isin6)=Vp

(21),

(23),

( + 2 krt
" . 6 + 2 krc )
S~~+IS-;;--.

(cos 6 + i sin 6).


k

k=O, 1,2, ... ,


2 A1t

-1.
(24),

z,

!)

(24)

( ).

(24),

'

2rc
-.

(24)

=1,

6=0,

2k1t. . 2 k 'Ii.
V1 = cos-- + ISl~-.

(25)

1)

k=n,

l1

cos 21t=1, sin21t=O,

k=O_

208

k=

1, 2, ... ,

)
( \'1
= 1,

"(

271:

2:

27t

(-1)-,

(25),

)=
2

2,.

- , 2 - , 3 ' - , ... ,

-1,

27t. . 27t

()

cos ~ + 1 sl --;- ,

47t..

cos -;;-

4,.
+ 1 sl --;;-'
... ,

(2n-2)7t
( =cos (2n-2)7I: + 1..
sl - - - - .
)

, , h

(24)

, ,

[ (cos 6+i sin 6)( = [cos ~(6+2k7t) + isin (0+2 k7t)].

z=a+bi.

z=a+bi

h a+~i

+ 3 i)2 = +

(26)

/3= ~,
2

[3 = - , 2
2

+ " 2 + bZ' )
--2-,--'

=-,
2

+~i=

(27)

~.

1)

1_
'2

(Va + bVa + 2 + ~V
~-- )
+ ' 2 +
2

\' + i

, IX

. <"

iJ

111,
;", h,

>

209

~=O,

(26),

a.z=a 0:=0, ~2==-a.AKO


, ~ = , : = ", : ~ .

, . = , ~ =
, ,
(27).

<

V-

a.+~i

z=a+bi.

(:

+ ~i)n = + .

: ~.
3

(24)

z= {! .

= 3,

6~ ~ ' z=
2'

1,

(4 k + 1) 11:

-\1--~7t~~~, ~

3_

- V i = \ cos 2 + 1 s "2 ~ cos --6

k=O, 1, 2.
3 -;-

( 111)

(4 k + 1) 7t

"

+ 1 s ---- .

~. ',11:
V3 1
=cos_+
IS-= __ +_i

v 1

'

. 57t

('i)2=COS-

'

' " 5~

ISI __ =

V + __
1,1,
= __

10,

20.
30.

(+) , () ?
h
5

40. h V- 1 .
50. h (1 + i)n h
, h

385.

12 i - 5.

(2 , -2.

1(0.l( .

.+ i ~

(28)

+=

(, , ., ~ ), .

log(e) (a+bi)=a.+Si

1 + i.

ec<+~i

210

/- ,

+=<

(cos

~+i sin~)

(29)

= < cos ~ ,

= <

sin ~ .

h h , h

(30)
a=logV a2+lJZ=~log(aj+b2).

(31)

(29)

(30)

tg ~= - .

~ ~

(k

+ k It

),

~=arc

(32)

tg-+

kt

=, h

cos ~ = ,/_'

B=kt,

2 ,

cos ~ = cos k

t =

cos ~ = cos k 1t =
,
. ,

lOg(a+bj)=~
log

(28),

+1"

>,

1,

<.

, .

(31) (32),

lOg(a 2 +b 2 )+[arctg : +2k1t]i

( + ) = ~log
( 2 +
2

-1-

>,

[arc tg~ + (2 k + l)] i


.

<. ,

= ,

. , 1)

+,

111

211

k~O;

9 , .

+ =

(cos + i si ) =

9; = (2 kn) i,

(33)

log (a+bi)=log p+(G+2kn){.

>,

=,

h=,

=,

log = log + 2 k
<,

=, h

lal=p,. 8=1t,

log = logl I + (2 k
.

1,

log

+ 1) 1t .

h =

1,

,-r

-,

[=

(33)

(.':2 + 2kn)

i h

, ii .

= ,