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Baseball Bat Length Data

Shift Operator
1
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
4
1
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
4
1
1
2
2
3
4
1
1

Observations (width in inches)


2
3
4
29.978
30.026
29.986
29.966
29.964
29.942
30.004
30.028
29.986
29.997
29.980
30.000
29.922
29.992
30.008
29.990
29.985
29.991
29.952
29.941
30.012
30.000
29.968
29.976
29.978
29.964
29.896
29.976
30.021
29.957
29.999
30.022
29.942
29.984
29.977
30.008
29.965
30.001
29.975
30.024
29.987
29.951
30.007
30.000
30.042
29.998
30.027
29.986
29.966
29.996
30.039
29.982
29.998
30.040
30.013
30.042
30.001
30.048
30.037
29.985
29.882
29.990
29.971
30.021
29.963
29.993
30.012
30.021
30.024
29.875
29.980
29.878
30.011
30.017
30.000

1
30.046
29.972
30.046
29.997
30.018
29.973
29.989
29.969
29.852
29.987
30.028
29.955
30.040
30.007
29.979
30.073
29.995
29.994
29.977
30.021
29.875
30.043
30.065
29.899
30.029

5
29.961
30.025
30.027
30.034
30.053
30.004
29.984
29.973
29.876
30.042
29.998
30.033
29.970
29.994
30.000
30.011
29.976
30.017
29.962
30.005
29.953
30.006
30.037
29.877
30.000

Shift Average Bat Length

Width (in)

Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

X-bar
29.999
29.974
30.018
30.002
29.999
29.989
29.976
29.977
29.913
29.997
29.998
29.991
29.990
29.993
30.006
30.019
29.994
30.006
29.999
30.019
29.934
30.005
30.032
29.902
30.011
29.9897

Max
30.046
30.025
30.046
30.034
30.053
30.004
30.012
30.000
29.978
30.042
30.028
30.033
30.040
30.024
30.042
30.073
30.039
30.040
30.042
30.048
29.990
30.043
30.065
29.980
30.029

for n = 5
A2 =
UCL =
LCL =

30.075
30.055
30.035
30.015
29.995
29.975
29.955
29.935
29.915
29.895
29.875
1

9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
Shift

Min
29.961
29.942
29.986
29.980
29.922
29.973
29.941
29.968
29.852
29.957
29.942
29.955
29.965
29.951
29.979
29.986
29.966
29.982
29.962
29.985
29.875
29.963
30.012
29.875
30.000

0.577
30.033
29.946

R
0.085
0.083
0.060
0.054
0.131
0.031
0.071
0.032
0.126
0.085
0.086
0.078
0.075
0.073
0.063
0.087
0.073
0.058
0.080
0.063
0.115
0.080
0.053
0.105
0.029
0.07504

30.046
30.025
30.046
30.034
30.053
30.004
30.012
30.000
29.978
30.042
30.028
30.033
30.040
30.024
30.042
30.073
30.039
30.040
30.042
30.048
29.990
30.043
30.065
29.980
30.029

29.961
29.942
29.986
29.980
29.922
29.973
29.941
29.968
29.852
29.957
29.942
29.955
29.965
29.951
29.979
29.986
29.966
29.982
29.962
29.985
29.875
29.963
30.012
29.875
30.000

0.085
0.083
0.060
0.054
0.131
0.031
0.071
0.032
0.126
0.085
0.086
0.078
0.075
0.073
0.063
0.087
0.073
0.058
0.080
0.063
0.115
0.080
0.053
0.105
0.029
0.075

Problem: A baseball bat manufacturing process produces


a souvenir bat with a nominal length of 30 inches.
Five bats are drawn from the production line each shift
for 30 shifts. The length of each bat is measured in inches.
Is the process in control?

30.050

30.000
Length (inches)

29.999
29.974
30.018
30.002
29.999
29.989
29.976
29.977
29.913
29.997
29.998
29.991
29.990
29.993
30.006
30.019
29.994
30.006
29.999
30.019
29.934
30.005
30.032
29.902
30.011
29.990

29.950

29.900

29.850

Solution: The process is out of control.


Check operator 4's shift.

29.800
1 2

rocess produces

easured in inches.

Figure 1: Bat Length

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Shift Number

Weigh Station Data

Weight
32175
33978
28657
29388
34227
32723
27831
30543
31945
36757
28544
29993
34745
30418
29487
32145
41764
29872
35378
29856
32114
34115
30023
31635
32013.0

Absolute
Value
MR

1803
-5321
731
4839
-1504
-4892
2712
1402
4812
-8213
1449
4752
-4327
-931
2658
9619
-11892
5506
-5522
2258
2001
-4092
1612

1803
5321
731
4839
1504
4892
2712
1402
4812
8213
1449
4752
4327
931
2658
9619
11892
5506
5522
2258
2001
4092
1612
4036.87

x bar
r bar

32013.0
4036.87

UCL
LCL

42751
21275

Problem: An inspector at an interstate


for unusually heavy trucks. The inspec
24 trucks that have been weight (in po
concern?

Solution: This process is in control. No


from usual.

Truck Weight

Weight (lbs)

Truck
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Moving
Range
MR

60000
55000
50000
45000
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
Truck

Problem: An inspector at an interstate weigh station is looking


for unusually heavy trucks. The inspector examines the last
24 trucks that have been weight (in pounds). Is there cause for

Solution: This process is in control. Nothing appears different

Truck

c-bar =
sigma =

Problem: An instructor is concerned about stud


The instructor counts number of late arrivals by
Is the arrival process in control?

4.9
2.20
3 sigma
11.5
4.9
-1.8

UCL
centerline
LCL

2 sigma
9.3
4.9
0.5

Late Arrivals by Student


Number of Late Arrivals

Late Arrivals to Class


Late
Student Arrivals
1
4
2
1
3
0
4
11
5
0
6
2
7
9
8
2
9
5
10
13
11
1
12
4
13
6
14
5
15
0
16
0
17
1
18
3
19
15
20
13
21
3
22
4
23
1
24
2
25
3
26
16
27
4
28
8
29
2
30
6
31
8
32
0
33
9
34
5
35
9
36
0
avg
4.9

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1

10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34
Student

Solution: The process is out of control. A numb


are apparent.

An instructor is concerned about students coming late to class.


ctor counts number of late arrivals by each of the 36 students.
val process in control?

The process is out of control. A number of special causes

Dirt Check Data

Errors
3
1
0
0
2
5
3
6
1
4
0
2
1
3
4
1
1
2
5
2

number of daily observations =


number of samples =

p-bar =
sigma =

UCL
centerline
LCL

100
20

Problem: 100 sheets of paper were


Inspectors reported the number of
standard. Twenty days worth of da

0.023
0.01499
3 sigma
0.068
0.023
-0.022

2 sigma
0.053
0.023
-0.007

Daily Dirt Check Data

Fraction with Dirt

Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Fraction
Defective
0.03
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.06
0.01
0.04
0.00
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.04
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.02
0.023

0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
1

11

13

Daily Sample

15

17

19

Problem: 100 sheets of paper were inspected each day for dirt contamination.
Inspectors reported the number of sheets containing more dirt than a minimum
standard. Twenty days worth of data were obtained. Is dirt content under control?

Solution: This process is in control.

212731989.xls.ms_office

Process Capability Assessment


Baseball Bat Problem (X Bar Chart Data)

Problem: Refer to the Baseball Bat x-bar char


The length specification for the souvenir bats
plus or minus 1/8 inch. Is the process capable
this specification?

Bin
Frequency
nominal specification:
30
29.855
1
plus or minus:
0.125
29.875
2
29.895
4
USL =
30.125
29.915
2
LSL =
29.875
29.935
1
29.955
7 # observations nonconforming =
1
29.975
17
percent nonconforming =
0.80%
29.995
29
30.015
28
process capability index = (USL-LSL)/(6*sigma)
30.035
19
sigma estimated = R-bar/d2
30.055
13
30.075
2
from previous work, R-bar = 0.07504
30.095
0
from App B, for n=5, d2 =
2.326
30.115
0
sigma =
0.0323
Solution: Percent nonconforming, histogram,
30.135
0
process is marginally capable of meeting spe
More
0
Cp =
1.29
Count
125

Histogram of Length Measurements

Process Capability

30.095

30.055

30.015

29.935

29.895

29.855

29.975

Length (in)

30.135

USL

Frequency

LSL

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

212731989.xls.ms_office

Refer to the Baseball Bat x-bar chart example.


h specification for the souvenir bats is 30 inches
nus 1/8 inch. Is the process capable of meeting

30.073
29.852
0.221
0.0221

Percent nonconforming, histogram, and Cp suggest


s marginally capable of meeting specified requirements.

Process Capability