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PHEASANT WOOD FROMELLES

DATA STRUCTURE REPORT

PROJECT 12008
carried out on behalf of The Australian Army

Contents
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Executive Summary Introduction Site Location, Topography and Geology Historical and Archaeological Background 4.1 The Battle of Fromelles 4.2 Pheasant Wood Burial Site 5.0 6.0 Aims and Objectives Methodology 6.1 Historical Research 6.2 Project Preparation and Site Set-Up 6.3 Topographic Survey 6.4 Excavation 6.5 Laser Scanning 6.6 Soil Sampling and Analysis 6.7 Site Reinstatement 7.0 Results 7.1 Historical Research 7.2 Pit Evaluation 7.3 Human Remains 7.4 Condition of Remains and Potential for DNA Preservation 7.5 Estimating Number of Burials 7.6 Material Culture: Artefacts and Identification 7.7 Historical Perspectives 7.8 Soil Analysis 8.0 Discussion 8.1 Summary of the Fieldwork Results 8.2 Interpretive Issues 8.3 Closing Summary 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 Recommendations Acknowledgements Bibliography Appendices 12.1 Body Parts 12.2 Glossary of Anatomical Terminology 12.3 Soil Analysis 12.4 Ground Penetrating Radar 12.5 List of Context 12.6 List of Finds 12.7 List of Samples 12.8 List of Drawings 12.9 List of Photographs 12.10 Soil Analytical Data.

7 7 8 8 8 10 12 12 12 13 13 13 17 17 18 18 18 18 38 44 45 46 52 52 55 55 56 58 58 58 59 62 62 79 81 87 89 93 98 99 99 112

List of Figures
Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Site location Aerial Photographs of the Site The locations of Pits 1-8 and Trenches 1-7 Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 1 Details of Pit 1 Survey Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 2 Details of Pit 2 Survey Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 3 Details of Pit 3 Survey Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 4 Details of Pit 4 Survey Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 5 Details of Pit 5 Survey The east-facing section across Pit 6 The west-facing section across Pit 6 The west-facing section across Pit 7 The west-facing section across Pit 8 Results of the ground-penetrating radar survey

6 11 16 19 20 23 24 27 28 29 30 33 34 36 36 38 39 88

List of Plates
Plate 1: Plate 2: Plate 3: Plate 4: Plate 5: Plate 6: Plate 7: Plate 8: Plate 9: Plate 10: West end of Pit 4 exposed in Trench 4 showing soil changes & well defined pit edges German Eyelets Australian Buckles SF 258, General Service Button (front) SF 258, General Service Button (back). SF 206, Rising Sun Badge SF 202, Reverse of Rising Sun Badge SF 94, Swastika Amulet SF 217, Cardboard Matchbox Example of Front and Back of Original Matchbox

15 46 47 48 49 49 49 50 51 51

List of Tables
Table 1: Dimensions of the pits at Pheasant Wood

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Cover Plate: View of Evaluation Site taken from Fromelles Church Tower (thanks to Tim Whitford)

Glasgow University 2008 This report is one of a series published by GUARD, Gregory Building, Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow, G12 8QQ

PHEASANT WOOD FROMELLES


DATA STRUCTURE REPORT By Tony Pollard, Olivia Lelong, Gaille MacKinnon, Iain Banks and Peter Barton With contributions by Cecily Cropper and Jo McKenzie

This document has been prepared in accordance with GUARD standard operating procedures.

Author:

.. Dr Tony Pollard

Date:

7 August 2008

Approved by:

.. Dr Iain Banks

Date:

7 August 2008

London
GREAT BRITAIN

Lille Arras Amiens Dieppe Caen Rouen Paris Beauvais Reims

BELGIUM LUXEMBOURG

GERMANY

Project 12008 Fromelles Archaeological Evaluation

Strasbourg

Orleans Nantes
FRANCE

Dijon
SWITZERLAND

Lyon

Bordeaux
ve r

ITALY

Dunkerque

Do

ra

Calais St-Omer

it

Roeselare Kortnij Mouscron Roubaix Tournai


SPAIN
0

of

Marseilles

Boulogne-sur-Mer Bethune Le TouquetParis-Plage Bruay-laBuissiere Arras Abbeville

Pheasant Wood
500 km

St

Lille Lens Douai Valenciennes

Fromelles
Estaires Laventie
Fauquissart Aubers Neuve-Chapelle Lorgies le Maisnil

Merville

Lille

Fromelles

Fournes-en-Weppes Herlies Ligny le Grand

500 m

1 km

Illies

Seclin

Bethune

La Bassee

Pheasant Wood

Extent of the site in 2008

Extent of the site in 2007

KEY
0 150 m

Vegetation Road and path Buildings Hydrography

Figure 1: Site Location map

1.0 Executive Summary


Between 23 May and 13 June 2008, burial pits dug by the Germans in 1916 in a field adjacent to Pheasant Wood, near Fromelles in northern France, were subject to archaeological evaluation. The work was carried out by GUARD on behalf of the Australian Army and followed on from a non-invasive survey carried out in May 2007. That first phase of investigation utilised geophysical survey, metal detector survey, topographic survey and historical research to establish not only that Australian troops had been buried on the site by the Germans in July 1916, following the battle of Fromelles, but also the strong possibility that the graves had not been located by Allied recovery and reburial parties after the war and were therefore still intact (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007). In response to these findings, a second phase of fieldwork was commissioned, this time taking the form of an invasive evaluation involving limited excavation. Limited trial trenching based on a 15-20% sample exposed human remains in all five of the pits previously thought to have been used for burial. Over three weeks, it became apparent that the graves were indeed intact and contained large numbers of burials, with evidence for both Australian and British troops identified. Evaluation was also carried out on the remaining three pits, which from aerial photographic evidence were known to have remained open until at least September 1918. The presence of human remains in these three pits was limited to the west end of Pit 6, which was in keeping with the previous suggestion (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007), based on aerial photograph analysis, that this part of the pit had been backfilled at the same time as the other five and may therefore have been used to contain overspill burials. A provisional report (Pollard 2008) on the evaluation was submitted to the Australian Army soon after the completion of the fieldwork. Although this more extensive and wide-ranging report includes the results of various on-site investigations and subsequent post-excavation analyses, it does not substantially alter the general observations or conclusions contained within that provisional statement.

2.0 Introduction
The Battle of Fromelles, fought on 19-20 July 1916, was the worst single day of the First World War for the Australian armed forces. Men of the Australian 5th Division, not long arrived on the Western Front, went into action with British troops from the 61st Division to attack German front and second line trenches in advance of Fromelles village, which sits on the Aubers Ridge in northern France. The aim was to prevent the Germans from reinforcing their lines to the south, where the Battle of the Somme had been raging since 1 July. Despite a preparatory bombardment by Allied guns, the German defences remained largely intact, their protection enhanced by a series of concrete bunkers. Although some gains were made, with men making it into the German front line or breaking through beyond it, the losses were dreadful. The advance began at 6.00 pm in broad daylight and German machine guns and artillery mowed down Australian and British troops as they stepped out of the sally ports in their own lines, crossed no mans land, assaulted the German front line trenches and then, in some cases, left those positions in a fruitless search for the second line many of these men dying while trying to defend drainage ditches. A second assault was ordered forward during the night, but the attack was then called off at the eleventh hour; this news did not reach the Australians, who jumped off once again to suffer further terrible losses. By the morning of 20 July the Australians had lost around 5500 killed, wounded, missing or captured. The British suffered around 1500 killed and wounded, with the Germans suffering similar losses (a more detailed description is provided in 4.1). Following the battle, British and Australian dead were scattered over a wide area, taking in no mans land between the Allied and German lines, the German front line itself, where fierce hand to hand fighting took place, and the rear of the German front line. Bodies in the German front line and behind, and indeed some of those in no mans land, were buried by the Germans. The Germans removed bodies from their trenches and separated their own dead from the Allied dead. Some of the Allied bodies were then taken to places where they could be put on a light trench railway and moved to a sheltered position to the rear of Pheasant Wood, which is overlooked by Fromelles village on the ridge immediately to the south. According to German military accounts, which include the original orders for the burial operation, the bodies were buried in a series of pits which were dug to accommodate 400 men. A double row of four pits, totalling eight in all, first appears in an Allied aerial photograph of Pheasant Wood taken on the 29 July 1916, just nine days after the battle. By this time five of the pits and possibly the western end of a sixth had been backfilled, presumably after the placement of bodies within them. The pits are located immediately adjacent to the light trench railway from which the bodies were unloaded. A Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) mass grave for 410 unidentified Australian troops killed 7

in the 1916 battle of Fromelles was established after the war on the Rue Delvas, in what was formerly no mans land, and a memorial wall at the rear of the cemetery, known as VC Corner, carries the names of the 1,299 Australians who fell in the battle and have no known grave. Although attempts were made by the Allies to locate graves dug by the Germans, there is no record of these being successful, at least in the area of Pheasant Wood. In more recent years, a preliminary examination of some of the aerial photographs showing the pits at Pheasant Wood led to a campaign by several Australian individuals (notably Lambis Englezos) to have the site investigated. After a long period of discussions at various levels within the Australian Army and Government, the Centre for Battlefield Archaeology at Glasgow University (a sub-division of GUARD) was commissioned to carry out a non-invasive survey of the site in April 2007. The field element of the project took place between 15 May and 28 May 2007, following initial reconnaissance of the site between 30 April and 2 May 2007. This non-invasive survey of the site, which included a component of historical research in the German archives in Munich and elsewhere, established beyond doubt that Australian troops at least had been buried on the site, and also provided quite compelling evidence that the graves had not been re-discovered after the war and were therefore intact and undisturbed. This latter point, however, could not be established beyond doubt without some form of invasive intervention or ground-truthing; in short, an evaluation was required. Accordingly, the programme of work reported here was commissioned.

3.0 Site Location, Topography and Geology


Fromelles village is located some 11 km south of the French/Belgian border. It is 36 km north-east of Arras and 8.5 km south-west of Armentires. It sits on a low ridge named after the village of Aubers, which is situated just under 3 km to the south-west of Fromelles. For most of the war the ridge lay around 2 km behind the German front line, with the only real attempt by the Allies to take it coming in May 1915, when a British attack on German positions in front of Aubers and Fromelles ended with no gains and heavy losses. The ridge and the villages eventually fell to the British in autumn 1918 during the sequence of Allied actions known as the Advance to Victory. The initial survey area was a 30 m by 155 m strip of land, which sits at an elevation of 21 m along the southern edge of Pheasant Wood (centred on 50 36 35 E, 2 51 16 N). The area of the graves took in most of the eastern half of this strip. Although infrequently ploughed in the past, the ground was said by the farmer to be too wet for arable crops and so is currently given over to grass, which is cut twice a year for animal fodder. The southern side of the survey area is bordered by an arable field, which at the time of the investigation was given over to a crop of potatoes. This field rises gently to the south for some 160 metres, where it meets the northern edge of Fromelles village (c 27 m elev.), which at this point occupies the summit of the Aubers Ridge. The firmness of the ground in dry weather and the presence of surface water during wet weather is due to the presence of clay on the flat terrain adjacent to Pheasant Wood, which contrasts with the sandier soils further up the slope. This picture was verified by the evaluation, with excavation exposing clayey and silty subsoils overlying blue Ypresian clay at around 2 m below the surface.

4.0 Historical and Archaeological Background


A full overview of the history of Fromelles and its role in WWI was included in the initial survey report (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007) and so only the section related to the battle of Fromelles and its aftermath is repeated here.

4.1 The Battle of Fromelles


The battle we now call Fromelles was fought on 19-20 July 1916, and was initially known as the Battle of Fleurbaix. The Battles Nomenclature Committee officially renamed the action as the Attack at Fromelles in May 1921. In German histories it is referred to as the Gefecht bei Fromelles. On 5 July 1916, British General Headquarters regarded the Fourth Army offensive on the Somme, underway since 1 July, as still holding potential. They therefore looked towards First, Second and Third Army Commanders, whose troops occupied sectors north of the active battle zone, to find ways of aiding the continuing action. By launching small auxiliary attacks, they hoped to sufficiently occupy German attention elsewhere to discourage the movement of reserves to Picardy. 8

It was on 8 July that General Sir Charles Monro (GOC, First Army) instructed Lieutenant-General Sir Richard Haking (GOC XI Corps) to devise a diversionary scheme in French Flanders, north of the La Basse canal. Haking deliberated upon a re-launch of the plan that had ended in costly 8th Division failure on 9 May the previous year: the capture of a section of the Aubers Ridge. Once more the twin villages of Aubers and Fromelles were marked down as key targets. The German Commander-in-Chief, General Erich von Falkenhayn, suspected an attack in the Aubers area might be forthcoming, and had advised his commanders accordingly. On 9 July 1916, Monro ordered Haking to limit the scope of the venture to the capture of the German forward trench system, at the same time condensing the attacking front from 6000 to 4000 metres suitable for a two-Division enterprise. The key target, in the centre of the battle front, was a defensive feature known as the Sugar Loaf, one of hundreds of German mini-salients deliberately sited and constructed along the length of the Western Front; several others, such as the Wick Salient, also a part of the attacking front, are also evident in the sector. Jutting out from the general line, their purpose was to be heavily defended against attack, but especially to provide annihilating enfilade fire against hostile ventures to left or right. Mini-salients therefore supported each other by covering all the ground between. Although the Germans held the heights of the Aubers Ridge, on both sides of no mans land the forwardmost network of positions lay on the plain, a waterlogged terrain with countless drainage dykes that in most places had forced both sides to abandon the idea of conventional full-depth trenches in favour of breastworks protecting a shallow excavation: in other words, the defences were built up from ground level, more than dug into the ground. Such constructions demanded a colossal quantity of timber, sandbags, wire and sheeting, plus immense human effort to install and maintain. Once complete, however, they formed an effective defensive shield. Having changed the names of captured towns and villages in France and Belgium to create their new world (Fromelles became Petzstadt and Aubers, Buchheim) the Germany Army looked upon the positions as the border of a fresh empire. The trench/breastwork shield was further bolstered by secreting within it a network of reinforced concrete pillboxes; a great many remained unknown to British observers. Such emplacements, absent in the Allied positions opposite, where the military mindset was offensive rather than defensive, were used to shelter infantry and machine gun teams. When battle was joined and the initial enemy barrage had lifted, German troops emerged to deploy their weapons from the parapet. Following a systematic bombardment (utilising more guns per metre of front than had been employed to open the Somme offensive on 1 July), the two selected Divisions the British 61st (2nd South Midland) and 5th Australian were to attack with a full complement of six infantry brigades. Surprise was not sought (nor was it possible with the enemys observational advantage), for it was essential the Germans appreciated the possibility of imminent action in order to cause them to retain troops in the sector. On 16 July the bombardment began. On the same day, Sir Douglas Haigs Deputy Chief of Staff, MajorGeneral Richard Butler, attended a First Army conference. He made it known that the offensive in Picardy was not proceeding with the required momentum to make the Fromelles venture expedient. Despite this counsel, Sir Richard Haking still strongly favoured an attack; indeed, both he and Sir Charles Monro assured GHQ that their guns were performing splendidly and that any abandonment, or even postponement, of the plan was unnecessary. Within 24 hours Monro had already reconsidered his position, but GHQ did not authorize cancellation, instead leaving the decision to Monros discretion. Whilst the commander pondered anew, the weather deteriorated. Despite poor ground conditions, waterlogged ditches criss-crossing no mans land, tiring troops, and observers reporting artillery results somewhat inferior to that which had been anticipated with the firepower employed, on 17 July Monro finally determined to press the attack. It would take place on the evening of 19 July. Having spent just a few weeks on French soil, both 61st Division and 5th Australian Division were unblooded; indeed, they were still learning the craft of trench warfare and housekeeping. The Australians were able to deploy three men per metre of attacking front, the British just one. It was to be a particularly momentous venture for the Australians: their first attack in the Western Front theatre. Across no mans land an experienced 6th Bavarian Reserve Division, incorporating 16, 17, 20 and 21 Reserve Infantry Regiments, awaited developments. The division had been transferred to Fromelles from the Neuve Chapelle sector, where they had suffered serious casualties in the British Expeditionary Forces first large scale independent offensive action of the war, between 10-13 March 1915, and had been resident in the sector ever since. The 1916 attack, which began around 6 pm on the evening of 19 July, was a confused affair. Although according to German sources, much damage was caused to their fieldwork defences, the British and Australian guns had neither sufficiently cut the wire nor neutralised the concrete emplacements and the protected machine-guns 9

and gunners to provide the free passage of no mans land that had been promised. German artillery and trench mortar (Minenwerfer) batteries too had been left relatively unmolested, and with the benefit of superior observation and assistance from guns in neighbouring sectors, they were able to deal with massing and forming Allied troop formations before the attack had even begun. Losses were therefore already substantial before the whistles blew. British and Australian troops then entered no mans land through narrow sally ports in the breastworks to find themselves enfiladed by machinegun and small arms fire, and swathed in shrapnel and high explosives. German records note, however, that in places the Allied bombardment was highly effective, with many men buried by collapsing breastworks. Although certain key areas of fortification were blown down, the Germans were still able to largely enact their carefully designed and long-established defensive scheme, holding off all attempts at penetration within the central sector of the attacking front. On both flanks the defences were pierced; but with no reserves available and poor protection for support, supply and communication troops in crossing no mans land, under sustained counter-attacks the assaults, which included a second Austrailian attaack around 10 pm, soon began to disintegrate, leaving those who had made progress stranded within a complex and alien enemy trench system, and running short of ammunition and water. The central key position, the Sugar Loaf Salient, was said to have been entered by a small force of British troops (numbered at 40 at 6.15 pm on a British 1st Army map drawn up at the time; see NA PRO WO95 165); however, this is not substantiated by the extraordinarily detailed German records held in the Kriegsarchiv in Munich: no British troops are believed to have entered the Sugar Loaf. On the right Allied flank, substantial elements of the British 182 Brigade successfully gained the German (RIR 17) front line and held on for an hour. On the northern flank, however, a more concentrated Australian force managed to infiltrate the German positions in considerable numbers; they then waited in vain for adequate support and further orders. The following morning, thick mist and deliberately flooded trenches conspired to confuse those who, being either unable to retire or not receiving orders, had spent the night within enemy lines; in attempting to retire to their own positions, most were either killed or captured. Subsequent to the attack, the sector once more fell back into a state of relative quiet that lasted for the rest of the year and throughout 1917.

4.2 Pheasant Wood Burial Site


Following the Battle of Fromelles (19-20 July 1916), large numbers of Australian and British dead lay in no mans land, in the front line German trenches and in locations behind these trenches. It was left to the Germans to bury many of these dead, and one of these grave sites was at Pheasant Wood, just to the north of Fromelles and over 1.5 km behind the German front line. Eight pits were dug by German troops immediately south of the feature known as Fasanen-Waldchen (Pheasant Wood). Orders issued by Major General Von Braun of the Imperial Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment No 21 suggest that work probably began on 22 July 1916; it appears to have been complete (that is, five pits backfilled) on the aerial photographs of 29 July and 1 August. In addition to their repeated mention in documents dating from 1916 to 1928, pits can be seen on all post-23 July 1916 aerial photographs of the area (Figure 2). They are also included on several editions of British trench maps, originally as a group of eight on map segment of Sheet 36SW2 Edition 6D dated 14.2.17, later as six (Sheet 36SW2 dated 2.7.18). The National Archives 8.8.16 edition (WO 297/944) does not yet mark the features, but all post 14.2.17 editions do. In most map information panels they are identified simply as earthworks, but on some examples a dugout symbol is appended, perhaps an educated deduction by the aerial photograph interpreter. It has been suggested that the pits might have been trench mortar (Minenwerfer) positions, but considering the Germans supremely careful application of camouflage and concealment in this region, this interpretation of works so plainly obvious to aerial scrutiny is a curious one. The Kriegsarchiv, Munich, records show that all German mortar positions were located much closer to the front line (6 BRD (WK) files and 20 BRIR Bund 3, Munich). Furthermore, were any newly appearing features regarded as remotely suspicious, they would have been mentioned in British intelligence summaries and marked as such upon maps, with or without proof of their true nature; suspicion was sufficient. In addition, it was customary to subject confirmed or even suspected mortar positions to the concentrated attentions of Allied artillery, all sign of which is absent in the aerial photograph sequence (very few shell holes). The features in question were at no time marked, noted or regarded as having anything but benign military connotations. Other than a few subtle undulations, there is no surface trace of the pits today, and so in an effort to re-locate them and clarify their character and wartime function, a multi-faceted archaeological survey was implemented in May 2007, the results of which have already been reported (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007). The aims and objectives of the evaluation which followed this initial phase of investigation are outlined overleaf:

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CU IW MA 100 284 map 25.04.1916

CU IW M 98 300 map 29.07.1916

CU IW M 98 359 map 01.08.1916

CU IW M 98 361 map 01.08.1916

Pit 2

Pit 3 Pit 6

Pit 7 Pit 8 Pit 1 Pit 4 Pit 5

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Figure 2: Aerial Photographs of the Site.

CU IW M 99 359 map 22.10.1916

5.0 Aims and Objectives


The aims of the evaluation were: To establish the presence or absence of human remains in the pits at Pheasant Wood

Should burials be present: To estimate the number of burials present. To assess the condition of the burials. If possible, to verify the nationality of the burials (Australian and British or just Australian?). To assess the potential for the identification of individuals. To assess the feasibility of removal of the remains of individuals.

Should burials appear to be absent: To establish beyond doubt that all of the human remains were removed by the post-war recovery party.

These aims were to be achieved through the implementation of the following objectives: To relocate the eight pits using the information provided by the previous phase of work as a guide. To subject the five pits suspected to contain massed burials to limited evaluation, with a maximum of a 20% sample of each of these pits to be examined.

Should burials be found in situ: To expose human remains only to the degree required to fulfil the previously stated project aims. No human remains were to be removed from the pits for examination. Where ever possible to establish the depth of the pits and the presence or absence of lower layers of burial deposits, without disturbing the upper layers.

Should no burials be found to be present (the site having been cleared in the immediate post-war era): To remove the fills from all of the pits to the degree necessary to establish beyond doubt the total absence of any human remains (given that some may have been overlooked by the recovery and reburial party).

6.0 Methodology
6.1 Historical Research
Historical research has always been fundamental to the investigation of the Pheasant Wood site, and it played a central role in the first phase of survey. The evaluation reported here was preceded by another programme of documentary research, much of it in the German archives in Munich. The aim of this research, which was carried out by Peter Barton, the project historian, was to more thoroughly examine those sources identified during the initial phase of work (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007), and also locate further documents with the potential to shed more light on the battle and its aftermath, especially those which may pertain directly to the burial of Allied troops at Pheasant Wood. Among the types of documentation sought during this research was a German death list, which may have been compiled by the burial parties and would include the names of all those buried on the site the information coming from the dog tags and other forms of identity removed from the bodies and forwarded to the Red Cross in Switzerland. It seems likely that such a list was made, but if it survives it has yet to be located. Other useful documents would include any reference to the recovery and reburial of bodies from the Pheasant Wood site in the years immediately following the war. These were more likely to be found in British or 12

Australian archives, but again no such document was identified, though references to the burials are made in various pieces of archived correspondence. Much useful information has, however, been recovered and compiled in a separate report (Barton 2007), and is only referred to here where it reflects directly on the results of the evaluation and the interpretation of the evidence.

6.2 Project Preparation and Site Set-Up


The fieldwork element of the project required much preparation, not the least of these tasks being the formulation of a statement of works/project design, which had to be cleared as appropriate to the task in hand by the French archaeological authorities for the region (represented by Virginie Motte, who visited the project with her colleagues on several occasions). Just as important was obtaining permission to carry out the project from the landowner (Mme Demassiet) and tenant farmer (M Serge Desruelles), along with the Maire of Fromelles (the Mayor, M Hubert Huchette). Colonel Feliks Skowronski, the Australian Defence Attach in Paris, and his assistant Sam Rossato played an important role in these negotiations, as did Martial Delebarre, a local employee of the CWGC, who was seconded as local liaison to the project. From the outset the project was overseen by the Fromelles Evaluation Group (FEG), chaired by the CWGC and including representatives from a number of interested parties, including the Australian Army (represented by Colonel Peter Singh) and the British Ministry of Defence. In the months leading up to the project the FEG held regular meetings in London, to which the project director (Tony Pollard) reported on a regular basis. In the lead up to the fieldwork, the project was managed on behalf of the Australian Army by Roger Lee, head of the Australian Army History Unit, while the field operation was overseen by Major General Mike OBrien, accompanied by Roger Lee. Dr Denise Donlon acted as an observer on behalf of the Australian Army. The complexity of the operation and the nature of the deposits, which potentially included human remains and unexploded ordnance, required a thorough health and safety plan, which was developed through discussions with GUARDs safety officer, Robert Will, and Glasgow Universitys safety officer, Cled Williams. The project team was put together at an early juncture and was built around a core of specialists with long experience in forensic and mass grave archaeology, with Gaille MacKinnon taking the role of project anthropologist. The team played a vital role in the development of the methodologies adopted, and Cecily Cropper has been credited as a contributor to this report because of her input at this stage (while also going on to play a key role in the field). Also recruited was Steve Litherland, a forensic archaeologist with much experience of working on the Western Front. The rest of the team, all of whom had experience in the excavation of human remains, were drawn from GUARD, with Dr Olivia Lelong taking charge of field recording. The project was managed for GUARD by its Director, Dr Iain Banks. Site engineering was carried out by Gary Andrews, who also operated the mechanical excavator used in the project. The sensitive nature of the project and the high public and media interest it understandably generated required that the work area be screened from public view. The requirement for a considerable quantity of fencing, coverings for trenches, site huts and various types of plant machinery placed added importance on the role of Martial Delebarre, who sourced much of this equipment locally. Prior to the commencement of the project, several days were spent setting up the site erecting screens, establishing site facilities, transporting equipment, re-establishing survey points and relocating the sites of the pits. Before work could commence, the exact route of the NATO fuel pipeline, which runs across the western part of the site, but does not interrupt the pits, was marked out in order that an exclusion zone could be established. Ground was broken by the mechanical excavator on the morning of Monday 26 May, an exercise which observed by the media. Media representatives were restricted to an area at the eastern end of the site and, although not permitted access to the excavation trenches, they were fully briefed on progress by Dr Tony Pollard and Major General Mike OBrien at daily briefings. Site security was a serious issue and accordingly the site was inspected regularly by the local gendarmerie they were also called in when deposits of human remains were encountered for the first time. The site was subject to overnight observation by a private security firm, which also extended to the teams days of rest.

6.3 Topographic Survey


A detailed topographic survey of the site was carried out in 2007. The results of this work were used to aid the pin-point location of the pits prior to excavation. A total station EDM was used throughout the project to locate trench locations and the finds made within them. 13

6.4 Excavation
The approximate locations of the pits on the ground were established by overlaying a 1916 aerial photograph on the map of the field using GIS; geo-referenced coordinates were thus obtained for the corners of each pit. The coordinates were marked out on the ground as a guide to the positioning of trenches. As it happened, the pits were found to lie almost immediately to the north of these positions, a ghosting effect which was consistent across the site. Two long evaluation trenches (Trenches 1 & 2) were initially excavated by machine across the locations of two pairs of grave pits (1-2 and 5-6), in order to establish their exact positions, their proximity to each other and examine the soil profile between them. A smaller trench was excavated across each of the other pits (1, 3, 4, and 7), while the entire surface of Pit 8 was topsoil-stripped prior to trenching. The central portions of Trenches 1 and 2, where they cut through the ploughsoil and upper part of the subsoil between the grave pits, were subsequently backfilled to facilitate movement of the mechanical excavator around the site. In each trench, excavation by machine proceeded from north to south. The soil was removed in spits using a 1.6-m wide toothless ditching bucket under close archaeological supervision. The first spit removed the modern turf and topsoil. The surface of the underlying ploughsoil was then scanned with a metal detector, signals were excavated, and finds were bagged and numbered according to context and spit. The ploughsoil was then removed in spits of 0.2 m, with the surface of each spit scanned before its removal. Below the ploughsoil, at depths of 0.2-0.3 m below the present ground surface, the upper fills of the pits were identified as bands of distinctive, mottled, blue and orange clay within the generally yellow-orange clay subsoil. Excavation by machine proceeded through the uppermost portions of the pit fills and the upper subsoil horizon, for no more than 0.2 m. This exercise provided much better definition of the pit edges than would have been the case if stripping had ceased at the very top of the pit. The grave pits (1-5) were readily recognisable by soil changes most obviously through the presence of a more obvious component of blue clay than the surrounding subsoil. This material (Ypresian clay) exists at a depth of about 2 metres and its presence in the upper fills was a clear indicator of ground disturbance at depth. At this initial cleaning stage, the indicators for the graves being intact were already promising. The edges of the pits were sharply defined against the natural subsoil, and in some cases slight undulations had been created by the curved backs of the German shovels used to dig the pits (tool marks were also observed against some the sides of the pits during excavation). Had the graves been discovered by an Allied recovery party after the war, it is likely that exhumation would have been a rather clumsy affair, entailing some ragged over-digging of the pit edges in order to reach the bodies, and the irregularity resulting from this would probably have been observable. Additionally, with the removal of the bodies the back-filling of the pits may not have been immediate, the result being a blurring of edges and a loss of definition (this was apparent in the case of the three pits left open until at least 1918). Somewhat surprisingly, however, it was discovered that the pits were not as straight-edged and regular in size as the aerial photographs suggested, though some idea of this had been gleaned from the rather vague geophysical results obtained during the 2007 programme of survey. After the locations of the pits had been identified through soil changes exposed by this initial stripping, a small sondage (measuring approximately 1 m north/south by 0.7 m) was excavated by hand through the fills of Pits 1-5 in order to establish the presence or absence of human remains. This exercise revealed articulated human remains in Pits 1-5 at depths of between 0.8 and 1.3 m below the tops of the pits. With the presence of human remains established and their depth assessed, the excavation trenches were then extended to cover the required sample area. Evaluation was to be limited to a maximum 20% sample excavation of each of the five pits thought to contain burials (pit numbers 1 to 5 were backfilled by the end of July 1916, while the other three remained open until at least 1918). This was achieved through the removal of pit fills using the mechanical excavator to create a sondage (limited evaulation trench). Soil was removed in spits of between 0.1 and 0.2 m depth, with the surface of each spit scanned with a metal detector to check for associated artefacts or unexploded ordnance. No unexploded ordnance was encountered at any point during the project. However, in some cases relevant evidence in the form of eyelets from ground sheets used to transport bodies to the grave site were recovered from the upper parts of the pit fills. From north to south the sondages measured the original width of each pit (between 2 and 2.2 m) and they ranged from 1 to 1.8 m east to west, along the length of the pits. Machine cuts left a skin of fill sitting against the pit sides and this was removed by hand. At this stage, the sides of each sondage were also stepped by means of mechanical excavation into the topsoil, ploughsoil and uppermost portions of the pit fills, to maintain a vertical:horizontal ratio of at least 2:3; this was done in order to comply with health and safety regulations, ensure a safe working environment for the excavation staff, and to facilitate access into the pits. 14

Initially, steps were cut only into the upper levels of the adjacent pit fills in order to maintain the integrity of the pit sides, but in some cases the tops of pit sides were slightly reduced largely to prevent collapse onto burial deposits and shoring was also used where required (see below).

Plate 1: West end of Pit 4 exposed in Trench 4 showing soil changes & well defined pit edges. Using the hand-dug sondage as a guide, mechanical excavation ceased approximately one spit above the burial horizon and hand excavation continued. Initially, this took the form of careful spading out of the generally sticky, moist clay fill, but as burial deposits were encountered the spade was exchanged for the trowel. Polytunnels were initially placed over each pit, both to provide protection from inclement weather and to shield human remains from view. In most cases these were replaced or supplemented by larger canvas tents provided by the French Army, which were more weather proof and offered better ventilation. Electric lamps, fuelled by generators, were suspended from the frames of some of the tents to provide better lighting for work in the deeper pits. Perforated rubber and steel mats and wooden boards were placed on the steps as mud control measures, in order to prevent slips and create clean working surfaces. Youngman boards were placed across the pits where necessary to create working platforms above the burials and protect them from pressure or disturbance during their exposure. At the close of each working day, any exposed human remains were covered with polythene tarpaulins. During the fieldwork, several long spells of heavy rain resulted in the draining of water into all of the pits. Pit 2, where conditions were driest, had the least ingress of water and Pit 1 rather more, while Pits 3, 4 and 5 were at times inundated with up to 0.4 m water after a heavy nights rain. Water was removed using a combination of electric pumps, manual bailing and sponging; any water removed from the pits was stored in a foul water bowser, and subsequently removed from the site and disposed of at a designated biohazard waste disposal facility. On the ground surface, drainage channels were excavated to direct water away from the pits, with this surface run off draining into the nearby field drainage ditches. In the cases of Pits 3 and 5, the wet conditions destabilised the clay at the sides and these were shored using Perspex sheets to retain the loose sediment. As work in the pits progressed, the ends of all the pits were exposed by topsoil stripping in order to precisely establish their lengths. The exposed edges and corners of each pit were then surveyed in three dimensions by total station (Figure 3). 6.4.1 Excavation Recording

Excavation proceeded by hand within each pit to expose the burials. Excavators wore Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) in the form of full bodied paper suits and surgical gloves, and, where necessary, face masks were also utilised. Where gaps occurred between burials, excavation proceeded through the underlying deposits to establish the presence or absence of human remains at a lower level and, if possible, identify the base of the pit (this proved possible to a lesser or greater extent in all of the pits). 15

Aerial Photograph - 10 Oct 1916

Burial pits

Location of railway (based on 2007 topographical survey) Pit 7

Open pits

Site extent in 2007

Railway

Pit 6 Pit 2
Trench 3 Trench 2

German trench

30 m

Pit 3
Trench 1

Pit 8

Pit 5 Pit 4 Pit 1


Trench 4

Extent of the site in 2008

Trench 4 - Pit 4

16
0 20 m

Trench 1 - Pit 5

North-east view

Extent of the site in 2007


Trench 3- Pit 3

Trench 2- Pit 1

Figure 3: Pit & Trench Locations (NB Pit shapes between topsoil stripped areas extrapolated).
Trench 2 - Pit 2

KEY

Sondage in pit

Trench extent

Pit exposed in 2008

Location of pits based on 1916 Aerial photograph

North-west view of site 3D model (2008)

Some artefacts were recovered during hand excavation of the upper pit fills; machining paused when the regular metal detector scans indicated the presence of such finds. Their positions were surveyed in three dimensions using a total station and they were lifted, bagged and numbered. Other artefacts were encountered at the level of burial deposits, in many cases directly associated with bodies. These were numbered, surveyed, recorded by written description and, where possible, photographed in situ. Some of these were removed, cleaned and photographed again. Expert advice on the finds assemblage was provided by Laurie Milner, formerly of the Imperial War Museum in London. Where artefacts were clearly associated with a body, the body number was incorporated into the small finds record to make the association explicit in the site archive. Although the evaluations aim was not to disturb any burials, some smaller bones of hands and feet were removed and bagged to prevent their dislocation and loss in the often very wet burial matrix. Bags were labelled to associate them with individual skeletons and their relevant limbs. These were returned to each pit in a collective bag, along with a separate collective bag containing any individually bagged finds that had been removed for photography, before backfilling (it is important to note that no human remains or artefacts were removed from burial contexts on the completion of the project). This prevented their dislocation and loss in the wet burial matrix, which at times made keeping them intact almost impossible, and also further disturbance (and possibly loss) should a future attempt be made to recover the bodies. As cleaning of the upper burial horizons proceeded (Pits 5 and 1 being the first to be excavated), it became apparent that the exposed human remains were skeletal, though in some trenches decay products were apparent in the form of the viscous burial matrix, which gave off a strong odour. The first objective was to clean off on the upper deposit of burial remains. The exposed burial deposits were recorded in plan by written description on pro forma burial sheets and by measured sketch. The main articulation points on each skeleton were surveyed by total station, with each point coded according to body number and position. Photographs were taken of the burial deposits in each pit, of each individual skeleton, and of any notable features such as evidence of trauma. A second set of photographs was taken of each pit using small targets to enable the production of rectified photographic plans, and the positions of the targets were then surveyed in three dimensions. The burials were also recorded in three dimensions by means of laser scanning (section 6.5). Contexts, including deposits and pit cuts, were recorded by written description on pro forma sheets. The edges of the pits, trenches and sondages were recorded by total station survey, as were profiles across the pits and burial deposits.

6.5 Laser Scanning


Laser scanning is a technique more usually used in the recording of standing buildings and three-dimensional spaces such as mine systems. It was recently used by GUARD to record a deep dugout constructed in 1918 by British troops to the north of Ypres in Belgian Flanders. The technique uses a device which distributes a high intensity bombardment of laser beams, known as a point cloud, to generate a three-dimensional image of the surveyed target, which can then be rendered and turned into a high resolution three-dimensional rendering on a computer (these three-dimensional points will be integrated into the site survey using GIS to provide an added layer of recording). Although never before used on a mass grave site, the technology has been used in the survey of trench locations in field evaluations. It was therefore felt that it might have a useful part to play in recording the work, augmenting the total station and photographic surveys. It was hoped that the survey technique would suit the three-dimensional nature of the site, not just reflected in the pits but also the human remains within them, the cleaned upper surface of which provided recordable forms. Of particular appeal was the techniques ability to create a fly-through rendering of the site, which would give an impression of the scale and the nature of the works, as well as its results, to interested parties with no personal knowledge of the site. The work was carried out by APR Services using a Faro scanner over two days in the last week of the evaluation, by which time work on the pits was advanced enough to provide worthwhile results. In order to facilitate the scans, the polytunnels and tents covering the pits were removed and tripod-mounted reflectors set up at each corner, some distance away from the sondages. The scanner was set up in a position where the pit contents could be recorded and the area was cleared of personnel as the scanning progressed. The recording of each pit took only a few minutes. Some of the visual products from this survey have been used to illustrate this report (Figures 6, 8, 10 and 12).

6.6 Soil Sampling and Analysis


In order to gain some further comprehension of the nature of the soils and their impact on the survival of the 17

remains, a geo-archaeologist, Dr Jo McKenzie, examined the sediments in each pit and took samples from the various fills. Analysis of these samples has provided valuable information on soil morphology, its associated chemical and physical characteristics and the ultimate effect that these may have on the decomposition of clothing and cadaveric materials in the pits (Janaway 2008). The positions of all samples were recorded in three dimensions.

6.7 Site Reinstatement


After recording and the replacement of any artefacts and small bones (see above) that had been removed during excavation, the pits were backfilled. Backfilling was carried out in stages to prevent damage to the fragile burial deposits and to simplify their re-exposure, should recovery of the remains take place in the future. Damage to bones can severely comprise the ability to subsequently yield DNA profiles, and so great care was taken during this stage of the works to ensure that those bodies which had been exposed were accorded maximum protection. The exposed human remains were first covered with a permeable geotextile in order to protect them, while also allowing free drainage through the burial matrix, thereby preserving the burial conditions as much as possible. A thick layer of fine sand was placed on top of this and carefully packed by hand around and over the skeletons to further protect them. A layer of lightweight, freely draining substrate (vermiculite) was then placed over the sand, in order to absorb pressure from the heavy clay above. The clay was then backfilled as carefully as possible to the top of the each pit. Steel mesh was placed above each backfilled pit to prevent any unauthorised disturbance of the graves, and the ploughsoil and modern topsoil were replaced above this. Since the completion of the project, the ground has been further reinstated by the CWGC. The CWGC brought in fresh topsoil which was then grass-seeded, and also erected a small inscribed stone which commemorates the dead soldiers now known to lie in this ground.

7.0 Results
This section presents an overview of the results of the various elements of the methodology set out above.

7.1 Historical Research


The results of this research as they reflect directly on the evaluation are summarised in a later section (Historical Perspectives section 7.7).

7.2 Pit Evaluation


The various types of intervention described in the following pit by pit summaries are defined thus: Trench - evaluation trench through ploughsoil and topsoil to expose subsoil and grave fills (Trench 1 was cut across Pits 5 and 6 and Trench 2 across Pits 1 and 2; the other pits were dealt with individually and the surface of trench 8 was entirely exposed). Sondage sample excavation of burial pits. These took in the entire width of the pits (c 2 m) and between 1 m and 1.8 m of the length of the pit (east/west), which equates overall to around a 16% surface area sample. In pits 1-5, small sondages were cut through the upper burial deposits in order to establish the presence or absence of lower deposits. Following a description of the locations of the sondage and a brief summary of the exposure process, the pit sequences are described in stratigraphic order subsoil and cut first, then primary burial deposits, followed by secondary deposits and finally pit backfill. Note on context numbers: Due to the order in which the pits were excavated context number prefixes do not always correlate to the pit number but the trenches in which the pit sondages were excavated, ie Pit 5 is located in trench 1 (it was the first to be investigated), while pits 1 and 2 are located in trench 2. There is a correlation between context number prefixes and the remaining pits, 3,4,6,7 and 8, as these were all located within their own smaller trenches following the abandonment of the longer evaluation trenching technique. The absence of 5 prefixes relate to the short-lived misidentification of a natural soil change as the western end of Pit 6. By the time this had been realised, and the real end located around 1 metre further to the east, three context numbers had already been assigned and these can be found in the context list in the appendices.

18

7.2.1 Pit 1 (Figures 4 & 5) Pit 1 was investigated at the southern end of Trench 2 in a sondage measuring 1.8 m east/west by 2.2 m. The sondage was located against the western end of the pit. The modern turf and topsoil (2001) sealed the ploughsoil (2002) that had accumulated since the First World War, which consisted of stiff, compacted mid brown silty clay with frequent fine roots and light orange clay mottles, up to 0.24 m thick. Shrapnel balls, spent .303 bullets and shell fragments were recovered from it. The upper fill (2006) and cut [2007] of Pit 1 were exposed in the surface of the sterile subsoil after removal of the ploughsoil. The upper subsoil consisted of stiff, compact, mid yellow-brown silty clay with light orange mottles and rare roots. It lay 0.3 m deep above the lower subsoil horizon, consisting of plastic, consolidated, light yellow-brown silty clay with small lenses of light blue-grey clay (2005). A modern plastic field drain ran east/west across the centre of Trench 2 to the north of Pit 1. Pit 1 measured 9.9 m east/west (as exposed in plan) and 2.2 m north/south at the top. The north and south sides descended at angles of about 75 degrees from the horizontal to a fairly flat base, while the west side (pit end) was nearly vertical (90 degrees) at its south-west corner. The cut measured about 1.09 m deep from the top of the fill to the base of the pit in this south-west corner. Excavation reached the base of the pit only in the south-west corner of the sondage, to the south of B12. Part of one body was exposed in this area, a pair of flexed legs (B20) which had been tied with what appeared to be telephone wire (SF 185), probably for ease of transport. The upper part of the body extended beneath B12, B22 and B30 to the north. Water regularly seeped into the pit and remained at this lower level, even after several days of dry weather. This body from the primary burial phase was covered with a thick layer of sticky but compacted mid orange sand mottled with light yellow-grey clay (2010), which had been dug out last from the base of the pit and therefore represented the spoil backfilled first. It lay 0.24 m thick above B20 and sloped up to a thickness of 0.53 m against the western edge of the pit. Flecks of bright orange iron staining indicated some mineral leaching from the deposits above. At least five further bodies rested on this layer and appeared to have been buried in roughly the order B50/ BP51, followed by BP52, and finally the intertwined bodies of B30, B22 and B12. The damaged skull, left arm and left ribs of B50 were exposed at the eastern edge of the trench; a flexed left leg and foot (BP51) extending from the baulk to the south may have belonged to the same individual. The glass eye-piece for a gas mask (SF 218) was found to the west of B50. The flexed left arm of another individual (BP52) extended from the eastern baulk and lay above the torso of B50. An extended, prone body (B30) lay immediately to the west, with his head to the south and his torso lying over the left hand of BP52. His flexed left arm rested on the skull of B50 and on a long (1.53 m) cut wooden stick (SF 219), which lay parallel to him; the stick may have been used to help transport the bodies or position them in the pit. The left foot of B30 lay beneath the stick, and also beneath the left arm of B22. Five metal rivets (SFs 253, 254) were found above the right leg of B30; a copper alloy buckle (SF 240) was found by the right lower leg, and 14 eyelets (SF 188) from a German groundsheet were also associated with the body. Part of his tunic survived, and was identified as a probable fragment from a pocket flap, which from its pointed appearance would suggest an Australian tunic British tunics had straight-edged pocket flaps (L Milner, pers comm). B22 lay supine and extended with his head to the north. His left arm lay over the left legs of B30 and BP51, but ran beneath the wooden stick (SF 219) on which the left arm of B30 rested. B22 wore a maxillary dental prosthetic (SF 242), and two charging clips containing .303 bullets (SFs 248, 249), leather braces straps (SF 257) and a metal button (SF 184) were also found with him. His right arm extended beneath the head of B12 to the west, while his own head rested on the left arm of B12. B12 lay extended with his head to the north at the western edge of the pit. An extensive assemblage of artefacts was associated with this skeleton, indicating that he was buried with his webbing and equipment. His right arm was flexed beside his head and the hand lay beneath a leather bayonet scabbard (SF 93) and the wooden handle of an entrenching tool (SF 92). He appeared to be wearing puttees. A small, copper alloy swastika with a leather cord through its central perforation (SF 94) lay near his right wrist, and may have been a good luck charm like those many soldiers carried into battle (L Milner, pers comm). Concentrated around his upper body were numerous copper alloy strap ends, press studs, rivets and buckles (SFs 100-3, 124-8, 138-143, 145-8, 154-7, 165-175), leather braces straps (SFs 152-3) and other objects. Several charging clips containing .303 bullets (SFs 129, 130, 159) and a blue enamelled water canteen (SF 125) were still in place. He wore socks, and remnants of his tunic (including a possible collar fragment in a fine quality fabric) survived. A concentration of zinc eyelets to the west of B12 (SF 123) indicated that he had been buried in a German groundsheet and it seems likely, given the intertwining of B12 and B22, that they were shrouded in a shared groundsheet. 21

Around and directly above these second-phase burials lay loose, sticky, sandy clay (2013), mid grey in colour with dark and light grey mottles and lenses of orange clay, averaging 0.1 m thick. This was the upper backfill of the pit, transformed in colour and texture through contact with the bodies and the products of decomposition. Crumbs and small fragments of lime (2009) lay in patches within this deposit. Above lay backfilled clay (2006), consisting of firm, plastic, light orange silty clay with pale blue-grey clay mottles and small lenses of bright orange, iron-rich sand and fine gravel. It lay up to 0.8 m thick, but was shallower (only 0.55 m thick) at the western end of the pit, where the lower fill 2010 sloped up against the cut. A leather bayonet scabbard (SF 120) was found in the lower part of the backfill; it bore the stamp HGR 15, indicating that it was manufactured by Hepburn, Gale & Ross in Bermondsey in1915; these were used by British and Australian troops alike (L Milner, pers comm). 7.2.2 Pit 2 (Figures 6 & 7) Pit 2 was exposed and investigated at the northern end of Trench 2, at the edge of Pheasant Wood, in a sondage measuring 1 m east/west by 2.65 m. The sondage was located around 3 m from the western end of the pit. Although it lay only 8.8 m to the north of Pit 1, soil conditions were quite different in and around this pit. The modern turf and topsoil (2001) sealed the post-WWI ploughsoil (2002), which was drier and waxier in texture than above Pit 2. As elsewhere, several shell fragments, spent .303 bullets and shrapnel balls were recovered from it. The sterile subsoil at this northern end of the trench differed slightly from that at the southern end. The upper subsoil (2004) was the same stiff, compact, mid yellow-brown silty clay with fine light orange mottles, but with roots penetrating it much more frequently. At a depth of c 0.3 m it gave way to a lower subsoil horizon (2005) of light yellow-brown silty clay, which at this end of the trench contained concentrations and thick bands of much drier, more friable clay sand and sandy clay, strong orange in colour and evidently iron-rich. At the base of the pit, in a small sondage against the western baulk, another subsoil horizon was encountered of dense, light blue clay (2014) with a coarse, well-defined structure the underlying Ypresian clay. Pit 2 measured 9.7 m east/west (as exposed in plan) and 2.65 m wide at the top. The south side of the cut sloped down at an angle of about 40 degrees from the horizontal and curved gently onto a flat base, while the north side was nearly vertical. Although the base of the pit was not fully exposed, it appeared to measure 1.6 m wide (north/south). Parts of five bodies deposited in a first phase of burial were uncovered where the spaces between upper burial deposits permitted exploration. Against the western baulk were human remains relating to two individuals from the first burial phase (B44, followed by B43), while parts of a further three were found along the eastern side of the trench (BP59, BP61 and B60; their burial order was not clear). On the west, a flexed left arm (BP44) was found lying on the base of the pit. It lay below a pair of articulated legs, only visible around the knees (B43); the right leg was extended north-east/south-west and continued beneath the lower backfill (2012) and B42 to the east, while the left leg was flexed and ran directly beneath B44. A leather cord (SF 208), possibly a boot lace, was found immediately south of B43. On the eastern side of the trench, a flexed left leg (BP59) was just visible around the knee area beneath the lower backfill (2012) and B42 (above at a higher level). A right lower leg and foot (BP61) belonging to another individual lay to the south on a north-east/south-west alignment. Part of an extended, prone body (B60) was partially exposed. He lay with his head to the north, resting against the cut. Only part of the right upper body and right arm were visible; his lower body appeared to run beneath B42 (with the lower backfill 2012 intervening), while his right hand ran beneath the eastern baulk. A small white horn button (SF 216), possibly from an undergarment, was found on his chest, along with a small copper alloy hook with textile attached (SF 243), possibly for a collar. These earlier burials were sealed by relatively loose, sticky, light grey-brown silty clay, flecked with bright orange and dark red iron staining (2012), which contained crumbs and small fragments of lime; this was the clay that had been backfilled over the bodies first deposited in the pit. It sloped down from a thickness of about 0.3 m at either side toward the centre, where it lay only 0.1 m thick. Occasional roots up to 5 mm in diameter penetrated it from the western baulk. Up to seven more bodies from a second phase of burial lay on this lower backfill. They had been buried approximately thus: BP45 and B41, then B42, BP46 and BP58, and finally B47 and BP65. BP45 was represented only by a proximal phalange from a foot, just exposed at the western baulk; the remainder presumably ran into the baulk. B41 lay prone against the western baulk, with his injured head resting against the sloping south edge of the pit and lower legs continuing into the baulk. He appeared to have been wrapped in a groundsheet, 22

evident as decayed textile over and around the torso. A small metal hook (SF 205) was discovered above his pelvis, and a bone toothbrush (SF213) lay beside his left ribs. B42 lay immediately to the east, supine with his upper spine steeply curved, possibly to fit the body into the pit; his badly damaged head lay against the northern edge of the pit. His left arm extended across the torso and face, while his right appeared to extend into the western baulk; it may have been flexed, reappearing as BP46, a right wrist and hand that rested against the north side of the pit at an angle. Two small horn buttons (SF 210) were found just above the sternum, and may have derived from an undergarment. Remnants of textile visible around the upper torso may have represented a groundsheet in which B42 was wrapped. His lower legs and feet lay directly above the left arm of B41, while his knees lay beneath the right arm of B47. An articulated hand (BP58) was exposed at the eastern baulk; it may have related to B47, which lay just to the north. A left lower arm and hand (BP65) also extended from the eastern baulk, lying directly over BP58 and resting against the left side of B47s skull. B47 lay prone and extended north/south with his head to the south. Most of his pelvis and lower body ran beneath the eastern baulk, but part of his flexed right leg and left knee were visible at the section edge. The remains of a gas mask (SF 260), with eye-pieces intact, sat in situ on his head above the eye sockets (in battle, these hoods were often worn beneath the helmet in readiness to be pulled down over the face). A small horn button (SF 261), perhaps from an undergarment, was found on the right lower ribs. His right arm was flexed, extending across the legs of B42; his right hand lay on the mid torso of B41 and was steeply bent; it may have come to rest on a fold in the groundsheet that enveloped B42. Above and around these second-phase burials was relatively loose, plastic, light grey-brown silty clay with frequent tiny lenses and lumps of bright orange to dark red iron staining (2011), up to 0.10 m thick. Pieces of lime occurred on the surface of this deposit, which represented backfilled clay transformed through decomposition, biological activity and leaching. The backfilled clay sealing all of the burial deposits lay above this, and consisted of rather stiff, moderately compacted silty clay, light yellow-brown in colour with thick lenses of pale blue-grey clay, pockets of mid orange-brown silty clay, small lenses of bright orange, ironstained gritty clay sand and frequent small ironstones. Tip lines were visible in the western baulk, sloping down from either side of the pit. Several roots up to 0.04 m in diameter protruded into the fill from the western baulk. It measured 0.97 m thick at the centre of the pit. The remains of up to two more individuals were exposed during trench preparation in the pit fill (2011) to the east of the trench: a cranium (BP63) near the south edge of the pit and the bones of a left foot aligned north/south (BP64) at the north edge. 7.2.3 Pit 3 (Figures 8 & 9) Pit 3, at the edge of Pheasant Wood, was investigated in Trench 3 in a sondage measuring 1.7 m east/west by 2.7 m north/south, located around 3 m from the western end of the pit. Beneath the modern turf and topsoil (3001), the post-WWI ploughsoil (3002) consisted of compacted, stiff, friable, mid brown silty clay with abundant roots generally over 0.03 m in diameter. Bullets, shell fragments and shrapnel balls were recovered from it. The upper fill (3003) and cut [3007] of Pit 3 were exposed beneath the ploughsoil. The surrounding subsoil matrix (3004) was sticky, consolidated light orange silty clay with fine quartzite crystals and occasional fine roots, 0.26 m thick. The underlying subsoil horizon (3005) consisted of a similar deposit, light yellow-orange in colour, but it also contained bands of orange iron-rich fine gravel. A narrow, linear cut [3008] was visible running NNE/SSW through the upper subsoil (3004) and terminating at the south edge of the grave pit; it was filled with soft, light orange silty clay and fragments of ceramic drainage pipe (3009). It appears that the original digging of the grave pit (by the Germans) broke a field drain; this may account for the extremely wet conditions that prevailed in Pit 3, which flooded continually. At the base of the pit, in a small sondage excavated at the south-eastern corner of the trench, another subsoil horizon was encountered of dense, dark blue clay (3012) with a coarse, well-defined structure the underlying Ypresian clay. Pit 3 measured 9.6 m east/west by 2.65 m at the top. The north side sloped down at a 40 degree angle, while the south side was vertical. The flat base measured 1.65 m wide and lay 1.3 m below the top of the fill. The Pit 3 profile was the opposite of the Pit 2 profile, which had a sloping south side and a vertical north side. It may be that the northern side of Pit 3 was angled to avoid a boundary ditch at the edge of the forest as much as it was to avoid tree roots. The remains of two individuals were uncovered in the sondage in the south-east corner. A flexed left arm (BP57), only visible around the elbow region, extended from the eastern baulk of the trench. Directly above 25

it lay a left ankle and foot (BP56); the remainder of this individual continued westward, beneath the lower backfill (3010), with B39 above. BP56 and BP57 had been buried in a primary phase of deposition and covered by a layer of soft, sticky silty clay (3010), light orange in colour with small blue-grey mottles and flecks of dark orange iron staining, which displayed a hackly fracture when broken. It contained a higher proportion of dark orange clay in proximity to the bones (possibly from the decay of textiles), and lay up to 0.12 m thick. Another five bodies or body parts lay above this, representing a second phase of burial; they appeared to have been buried in the order BP48, followed by B37, B38 and B40, and finally B39. BP48 was represented by a left lower leg, ankle and foot and prone left pelvis, just exposed at the western edge of the trench. He may have lain beneath B37 immediately to the east, but this was not established beyond doubt. B37 lay prone with his head to the south and his right arm lying against the south edge of the pit. His legs were flexed at the knee and extended into the western baulk. B37 had been buried in a rubberised British groundsheet (SF 196), which survived very well and still retained its elasticity. The clay (3006) surrounding this body was noticeably lighter in colour than around the other human remains at this level, and it may be that the rubberised fabric had prevented the products of decay from leaching out into the matrix (J McKenzie, this report). B37. A buckle (SF 228), probably from an Australian tunic, was found beneath his chin, close to a mother-of-pearl button (SF 227) that may have come from an undergarment. A copper alloy rifle cleaner (SF 195) was found next to his left hip. B38 lay adjacent to the east, also prone but with his head against the north edge of the pit. His left arm lay over the right knee of B37, and he had been buried with his lower legs and feet lying to the east. The remains of a black woollen sock were visible around the left ankle. A buckle (SF 197) from an Australian tunic, was found immediately east of his torso. He lay partly under B39 to the east. At the eastern edge of the trench was a supine skeleton (B40) with his head against the north edge of the pit. Like B37 and B38, he had suffered head injury. His right hand lay beneath the right leg of B39, to the west. He had been buried with several pieces of kit, including the internal waterproof bag for a PH helmet (SF 200); this lay on the right side of his chest, and a bone toothbrush (SF 198) lay beside it. A leather belt and pouch (SF 199) was found in situ around his waist; it was not military issue, and may have been a personal money belt (L Milner, pers comm). A small mother-of-pearl button (SF 220) on his pelvis may have come from an undergarment. A General Service Button (SF 258) may have come from either this individual or B39. B39 lay between B38 and B40 and partly over both, so he had been buried last in the Pit 3 sequence. He lay extended and supine, but his upper body lay twisted to the west with his head and neck against the north edge of the pit, while his feet rested against the south edge. His body appeared to have been forced to fit into the pit, probably because of his apparently large size. His left arm and head lay above the left foot and right leg and foot of B38 and his right leg lay over the right hand of B39. Remnants of textile around his head and upper body could indicate that he was buried with his tunic pulled up around his face. The bodies deposited in the second phase of burial were covered with a general scattering of lime, with a thicker concentration (3011) to the east of B39s torso perhaps representing a discrete bagful or shovelful. Clay had been backfilled on top of them. Around and immediately above the bodies, it had been transformed through leaching and decomposition products to very soft, sticky, pale blue-grey clay with frequent small light orange mottles (3006), 0.04-0.18 m thick, although it was more orange than blue in the vicinity of B37 (see above). Small roots extended into it from the south side of the pit. The upper backfill (3003) consisted of fairly consolidated, sticky, plastic silty clay (averaging 1 m thick), mottled mid orange-brown, light blue-grey and light yellow-orange, with occasional tiny quartzite crystals, lenses of bright orange fine iron-rich grit and lumps and concentrations of lime. Tip lines were visible in the section, sloping down from either side. Abundant roots under 0.01 m in diameter penetrated the fill, along with occasional larger tree roots extending into the pit from the north. 7.2.4 Pit 4 (Figures 10 & 11) Pit 4 was investigated in Trench 4 in a sondage measuring 1.35 m east/west by 2.2 m north/south, located around 1 m from the western end of the pit. The modern turf and topsoil (4001) lay over fairly compacted, stiff, mid yellow-brown silty clay, the post-WWI ploughsoil (4002). Battle detritus, including shrapnel balls, shell fragments and spent .303 bullets were recovered from it. The upper fill (4003) and cut [4006] were exposed beneath the ploughsoil. The surrounding upper subsoil horizon consisted of consolidated, stiff, light yellow-orange silty clay with pockets of dark orange, iron-rich grit and decayed stones, which lay up to 0.28 m thick. It sealed a lower subsoil horizon of stiff, consolidated, 26

mid grey-yellow silty clay with pale blue-grey clay mottles (4005), which also contained bands of orange ironrich fine gravel. Pit 4 measured 9.26 m east/west by 2.10 m wide at the top. The cut [4006] had nearly vertical sides and measured about 1.5 m deep. Not enough of the base was exposed to allow its character to be observed. One body was found on the base of the pit, in a small sondage excavated between the legs of B36. A pair of articulated legs were visible, only exposed around the knee area (B55). This body, buried in a primary phase of deposition, was covered with soft, plastic, mid grey clay with discrete lenses of glutinous, grey-black clay, probably representing products of decomposition (4008). It gave off a strong smell of putrefaction and lay up to 0.23 m thick. The base of the pit filled with water at this depth almost immediately after bailing or sponging, even after several days of dry weather. Another nine bodies lay on the lower backfill and represented a second phase of burial: B34, B54, BP53, B36, B35, B32, B49, B33 and B31, in roughly that order of deposition. The legs of B34, one of the first in the sequence, lay aligned east/west along the north edge of the pit; the pelvis and upper body presumably continued into the west baulk. His left foot still wore a laced-up leather boot (SF 194), which appears to be of Australian type (L Milner, pers comm). His right foot wore a sock. The rubberised collar of a probable gas cape (SF 231) lay between his legs. Two bodies lay directly above: B35 and B36. B36 lay extended and prone with his head to the south, his right arm extended and his left flexed. His lower legs lay directly over B34. One Australian Rising Sun badge (SF 206) was found above the right hip of B36, and another (SF 202) above his lower torso on the right, possibly on the shoulder of BP54. A length of twisted wire (SF 236) was looped around his left wrist. On the left side of his jaw, which was badly damaged, was a safety pin (SF 207) that may have held a bandage in place. Two strands of leather cord (SF 237) lay aligned east/west beneath his neck. The head of another individual (BP53) lay within the crook of his right arm; the rest extended into the pit fill to the west. The left arm of another individual (BP54) lay parallel to B36 against the west baulk, with his left shoulder and hand beneath the left wrist and knee of B36. B36 lay partly beneath an adjacent body (B35) to the east; his right leg lay beneath the left knee of B35 and his right arm lay beneath the head of B35. B35 lay parallel to B36, extended and supine with his head to the south, his right leg extended across B34 and his left leg flexed at the knee and overlying B36. The rubberised components of a gas mask (SF 235) lay on his lower left thigh, a piece of wood (SF 238) rested across his left forearm and there were traces of finely woven textile on his left leg. A General Service Button (SF 241) was recovered from spoil removed from the area of his lower torso. The remains of some textile with a loose weave, perhaps from a sandbag, were visible wrapped around his hips at the front and back. The right arm of B33 lay above his head and right shoulder. Another body (B49) lay at the same level, supine and extended east/west along the south edge of the pit. Only his pelvis and legs were exposed, and his feet lay beneath the head of B33. His upper body extended into the western baulk. B32 lay to the east of B35, extended with his head to the north beside B35s right leg. He lay prone, his right arm lying forward with his hand against the boot of B36, with B31 lying over his right elbow. His right leg and right pelvis extended beneath the east baulk, while his left lay beneath the right arm and torso of B33. Rubberised threads (SF 232), perhaps from a pair of gas mask goggles, lay around his upper body. Only the head and upper body of B33 were exposed, lying prone along the south edge of the pit with his head to the west. His pelvis and legs presumably continued under the east baulk. His flexed right arm lay over B35 and B32, and his head lay above the feet of B49. His fractured left arm rested vertically against the pits southern edge. The last body to be buried was B31, partially exposed at the north-eastern corner of the trench. He lay supine, with only his fractured skull and his arms extending from the east baulk. His arms lay over his head with his hands against the north edge of the pit. He wore a tied and knotted leather band (SF 234) around his left wrist, along with the cuff from a woollen garment. A concentration of what may have been textile lay around his head, possibly the remnants of a jacket, as a metal buckle and two buttons (SF 233) were found with it. The inner box and cover of a matchbox (SF 217) were found in the same area; the coloured, printed design (depicting John Bull) was still clearly visible on the cover, along with a makers mark showing it had been manufactured in Gloucester. It may have been carried in a pocket. Lying around and immediately over the second-phase burials was a deposit up to 0.26 m thick of soft, sticky, very plastic mid grey clay (4007). This comprised the backfilled clay, transformed through decomposition of the bodies. It contained frequent light grey and dark grey mottles and lenses, occasional small lenses of light orange silty clay and lumps of degraded lime. It also contained discrete lenses of glutinous black clay, 31

which occurred more frequently toward the base of the deposit and may indicate differential decomposition of organic material. It gave off a strong smell of putrefaction, especially when first exposed to the air. It contained irregularly shaped, sub angular calcined inclusions, which possibly may have derived from the decay of soft tissue; these were sometimes found adhering to bones and fusing them together. Around some of the body parts the clay was stained russet-brown and bright orange, possibly from the decay of textiles. Above it, the upper backfilled deposit consisted of firm, sticky, plastic light orange-yellow silty clay mottled with light blue-grey clay (4003), with tiny quartzite crystals and occasional lumps of lime. It also contained small pockets of bright orange gritty clay, especially towards the base of the deposit, that represented leaching and mineralisation from higher up the profile. It lay about 1 m thick across the pit. 7.2.5 Pit 5 (Figures 12 & 13) Pit 5 was investigated at the southern end of Trench 1 in a sondage measuring 1.5 m east/west by 2.2 m, located around 1 m from the western end of the pit. The modern turf and topsoil (1001) sealed the postWWI ploughsoil, a stiff, compacted, mid grey-brown silty clay with orange clay mottles (1002), up to 0.2 m thick. Some shrapnel balls, spent .303 bullets and shell fragments were recovered from the ploughsoil, along with a few sherds of modern ceramics. Beneath the post-war ploughsoil (1002), the upper fill (1010) and cut [1006] of Pit 5 were exposed in the surface of the sterile subsoil (1004). The upper subsoil consisted of very consolidated, stiff, light yelloworange clay with frequent small grey-brown lenses and tiny, bright orange, iron-rich mottles. Roots up to 0.1 m in diameter extended into the upper subsoil, which lay up to 0.4 m deep. Beneath it was a lower subsoil horizon (1005) of very consolidated, stiff, light grey-yellow silty clay with small lenses of pale blue-grey clay and occasional bands of coarse, bright orange, angular fine grit and clay. Several patches of light grey-brown, more humic clay visible in the lower subsoil were probably tree boles or root stains. Several roots up to 0.02 m in diameter extended into this lower subsoil. A modern plastic field drain ran east/west across the centre of Trench 1 to the north of Pit 5, while an older, ceramic field drain ran east/west across the trench to the south of Pit 5. Pit 5 measured 9 m east/west (as exposed in plan) and 2.2 m wide at the top. The cut [1006] had nearly vertical sides descending to a flat base, and was about 1.8 m deep from the top of the fill. Up to four bodies rested on the base of the pit (B19, B23, BP25 and BP28). These were only exposed on the pits northern side, where it was possible to excavate beneath the level of the upper burial deposit. B19 and B23 lay very close together, both with their heads to the north, and B19 appeared to have been buried first, as threads from the webbing or uniform of B23 overlay B19. B19 wore a maxillary dental prosthetic. A cluster of brass eyelets (SF 177), possibly from a British groundsheet, lay 0.2 m to the north of B19, and the close proximity of the bodies suggests that they were wrapped in a single groundsheet. A pair of leather braces straps and a piece of lozenge-shaped leather (SF 182) lay beside the left ribs of B23. At this northern edge of the pit, a gap of c 0.75 m occurred between these burials and BP25 and BP28, a right lower leg and foot and a left foot respectively that may have belonged to the same individual. The bodies lay in a matrix of very loose, wet, sticky black clay, up to 0.1 m deep (1019). It contained abundant irregularly shaped, sub angular calcined inclusions, 0.02-0.06 m across on average, which may possibly have derived from the decay of soft tissue; these were sometimes found adhering to bones and fusing them together. It also contained moderately frequent lumps and small fragments of lime, with a particular concentration on the torso of B19. During excavation, water seeped continuously into the base of the pit and the deposit gave off a strong smell of putrefaction. The earliest burial deposits were sealed by a thick layer of firm, dense, plastic clay (1018), mid to light bluegrey in colour with a waxy texture, up to 0.25 m thick. It contained moderately frequent concentrations of black clay less than 0.01 m across and, when broken, displayed a hackly fracture. It also contained lumps and small fragments of lime, and gave off a fairly strong smell of putrefaction. This deposit consisted of clay that had been backfilled over the bodies first deposited in the pit, and it appeared to have been transformed in colour and texture through the processes of leaching and decomposition. Resting on the blue-grey clay (1018) were at least six bodies which had been deposited in a second phase of burial: B17/BP24, BP26, BP27, BP10/BP13, B09 and B08. B17 was one of the earliest in this series; his body lay with the head to the north and arms spread, and with the legs (possibly represented by BP24, a distal femur and patella) presumably running beneath B08. A concentration of lime fragments and chunks (1020), perhaps representing a single bag or shovelful, lay to the north of B17s skull. Part of another skull (BP27), with the remains of a PHG helmet (SF 137) immediately above, lay to the west of B17 against the east-facing 32

section at approximately the same level; the rest of this individual may have been present in the western baulk of the trench (the PHG was a later model gas mask than the PH and was introduced in 1916). To the west of B17s lower torso was an articulated, fractured left arm and hand (BP26); the rest of this individual was not visible at this level. An Australian tunic buckle and several .303 bullets (SF 135) lay to the west of BP26. At least three other bodies lay at a slightly higher level and aligned east/west axis at the southern edge of the pit. B09 lay extended and prone, with his left arm resting at a steep angle against the cut and his right beneath the torso of B08; his lower body, including part of his pelvis, continued into the west-facing section, but his right leg could be seen flexed at the trench edge. A pair of leather braces straps (SF 181) lay beside his right ribs. His head rested beneath the left pelvis of B08, which lay prone above with arms outstretched. A small, decorated mother-of-pearl button (SF 179) was found beside the right wrist of B08. Several charging clips (SF 178) containing .303 bullets lay among and beside his left ribs, and a pair of leather braces straps (SF 180) lay beside his right ribs. His left arm rested at an angle against the pits southern edge. An articulated foot and lower leg (BP10) extended from the western trench edge and rested on his left upper arm; a second lower leg and heel (BP13) were visible beneath this at a lower level, also extending from the trench edge, and may have belonged to the same individual. Immediately around and above the second-phase burials lay sticky, soft, plastic and rather gritty light grey clay (1016/1017), up to 0.06 m thick, with occasional small bright red flecks of iron staining, moderately frequent mid grey mottles and small lenses of grey-black organic clay. It also contained concentrations of pinkishcream, soft crystalline material (possibly adipocere), pupae cases and soft brown material (decayed textile), all occurring immediately next to the skeletal remains. This deposit was softer, looser and stickier than the overlying clay (1013), which peeled off cleanly onto it, and the underlying clay (1018). It appeared to comprise the backfilled clay matrix which had been transformed by decomposition processes; while it occurred around the bodies, it was not possible to distinguish individual body stains within it. A discrete concentration of lime (1021) lay above the lower back of B08, and the gritty texture of the surrounding matrix (1016/1017) may have been due to the presence of lime in smaller quantities everywhere at this level. These deposits were sealed by a layer of soft, plastic, malleable clay (1013), predominantly blue-grey in colour with light orange lenses and crumbs of lime throughout, 0.1 m thick. This again may have been altered in colour and texture by decomposition processes. A fragmentary leather object (SF 116), bearing stitching and a deep pink printed pattern on a paper lining, was found in this layer to the north-east of B17; it may have been a wallet or pouch. Some of the Australian soldiers participating in the battle had been routed through Cairo, and a wallet such as this might have been purchased in a bazaar during the stopover (L Milner, pers comm). A decayed PH helmet (SF 121) was also found in the deposit. The upper backfill (1010) of the pit lay above this. It consisted of very sticky, plastic and fairly consolidated silty clay, light yellow-orange in colour with frequent thick lenses of pale blue-grey clay, occasional bright orange gritty clay mottles and fine quartzite crystals. The blue-grey lenses became more frequent farther down the soil profile. Tip lines were visible in the deposit, in the form of concentrations of blue-grey and orange clay that sloped up towards the north and south sides of the pit. Several concentrations of zinc eyelets from at least one German groundsheet (SFs 17-21, 28-30, 33-34) and zinc buttons, possibly from a German gas cape (SFs 22-27, 36-44), were found in the upper fill, at a depth of approximately 0.4 m from the top of the pit. The distribution of the eyelets indicated that the groundsheet had been folded before being placed into the pit as it was being backfilled. Part of a pair of goggles (SF 73), which would have been carried in the PH helmet pouch in case of gas attack (L Milner, pers comm), were also found in the upper fill against the northern edge of the pit. The upper fill lay about 1.5 m deep across most of the trench, but only 1.36 m deep above the upper burial deposits where they rested against the pits southern side. 7.2.6 Pits 6, 7 & 8 by Iain Banks

The final three pits are visible as open pits on aerial photographs taken as late as 16 September 1918. It was therefore presumed that these pits were not used for burials but were backfilled after the war, possibly after being used to accommodate rubbish relating to the conflict. Nonetheless, these pits were also evaluated, both to check for the absence or presence of burials (particularly important in the case of Pit 6 see below) and to recover stratigraphic evidence which might shed more light on the burial pits. Accordingly, the pits had over-cutting box sections placed across them, to ensure that the full profile of the pit cut would be seen in section.

35

6003 6001 6004 6002 6014 cut 6012 6006 6015 6008

6005

6013 6007 cut 6012

6009

6011

6010

East-facing section of Pit 6.


6017

6001

6016 6030 6027 wire

6019

6031 cut 6029

6020 cut 6029 6021 6026 6028 6023 6025 6022 6028

6024

West-facing section of Pit 6.

1m

Figures 14 & 15: Sections through Pit 6. 7.2.6.1 Pit 6 (Figures 14 & 15) Pit 6 was the third pit along the line from the western end of the site against the edge of the forest. As noted in the 2007 survey report, there was some evidence on the aerial photographs that the length of this pit had been reduced during the period of the burials (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007, 22). It was therefore possible that there had been a limited amount of burial within the western end of the pit, possibly as overspill from the filling of the previous five. The box section was cut at a point around 1 m from the western end of the pit. The two exposed sections (east and west facing) through the fills had very different profiles, and so both faces were recorded (Figures 19 & 20). The pit was cut into the clay subsoil and sealed with a post-war ploughsoil (6001) that consisted of dark brown silt clay with some stones. This soil was very stiff and hard to work, which indicates the low level of ploughing that the area has undergone; it was in excess of 0.3 m in depth and produced a number of shrapnel balls and spent .303 bullets. 36

The pit depth at the western end of the trench (shown on the east-facing section) was c 1.0 m below the topsoil, while the west-facing section gave a pit depth of 1.4 m. This suggests that the pit was increasing in depth towards its middle. The profile in the east-facing section appeared to have survived reasonably well. The southern side of the pit appeared to have retained its shape, with the cut [6012] being virtually vertical on this side; on the northern side, the profile was more sloping, probably indicating that the looser soil closer to the wood was capable of preserving a vertical face, and similar to Pit 3 in this regard. The fills were quite straightforward in the east-facing section. At the base of the pit cut [6012] was a small patch of organic matter (6009). This lay within the main fill of the pit (6002), which consisted of orangebrown clay with patches of mixed clays, including blue-grey clay and brown clay. There was some mottling evident, which indicates periodic waterlogging of the deposit, while the fill contained abundant roots from the wood and some small stones. Within this fill were larger patches of clay of different colours, discrete lumps of material deposited as part of the backfill: deposit (6006) was a large patch of dark grey clay with some small stones, while deposit (6008) was a layer of dark brown clay; this lay above the organic patch (6009), and may represent specific backfill relating to that deposit. Deposit (6007), which lay against the northern side of the pit and consisted of iron-stained blue-grey clay, probably represents slumping of material from the northern face of the pit. On the west-facing section, the profile was much less clear and the fills more mixed. The cut of the pit [6029] showed no indication of the vertical face on the southern side, instead giving the appearance of a series of scoops that probably represent successive collapses of the side of the pit. The northern side was more like the profile on the east-facing section, although there was again a greater indication of slumped material. The fills fell into three broad groups. The first, which comprised compact brown clay (6024), dark brown clay with stones and iron pan (6025) and loose dark brown silty clay (6026), were backfilled deposits relating to deposit (6008) in the east-facing section. The second group consisted of blue-grey mottled clay (6020) and dark grey-blue clay with some mottling (6027), which were slumped material from the spoil heaps and sides of the pit. The third group comprised mixed blue-grey and orange clay (6016), orange-brown clay with iron and manganese staining (6019), grey-brown clay (6021), grey-brown clay (6023), light brown clay (6030) and pale tan clay (6031), which consisted of the final backfill of the pit in the post-war period. The most significant element of the pit, however, was within the excavated area. At the very base of the pit, skeletal material was exposed. These proved to be leg and foot bones from possibly two individuals (BP62), including a foot and lower leg with the sock still in place. Initial impressions that this material represented part of a full burial were resolved on excavation, which showed that the material was isolated and not part of a larger burial. There is every likelihood that further body parts may be present, particularly toward the west end of the pit. The only other indication of the pit having been filled with material prior to backfilling came from the westfacing section, where a piece of wire projected from the section within the backfill (6016), 0.73 m below the top of the fill. It was clearly, therefore, integral to the fill and not a later incorporation. 7.2.2 Pit 7 (Figure 16) Pit 7 was the most easterly of the pits adjacent to the wood, and accordingly had looser soil conditions on the northern side of the pit because of root penetration and greater organic content within the soils. However, like the previous trench, this also meant that it was better drained than the pits that lay further away from the wood. The box section was cut across the pit at roughly its mid point. The pit was sealed by a stiff, dark brown silty clay topsoil (7001) around 0.25-0.3 m deep. The pit cut [7011], which was extremely irregular, did not preserve the original profile, but instead reflected the slumping and collapse which had occurred during the autumns and winters of 1916-1918, while it remained open and exposed to the elements. The original width of the pit was no longer apparent in the profile, and collapse had extended the area of disturbance to a width more than 5 m. The depth of the pit from the top of the backfill was of the order of 1.48 m, although the base of the pit was very irregular as well. This again probably reflected the slumping of the sides. The slump was represented by clay deposits, including pale orange clay with streaks of blue-grey clay (7007), grey-brown silty clay (7008), and patches of dark grey clay (7016) within (7007). The interface between these deposits and the backfill was represented by [7012], which at times was visible as a black line, representing the growth of grass on the surface of the pit. The backfilled deposits consisted of grey-brown silty clay (7009), mid brown-grey clay with flecks of building material (7006), light brown clay (7003) and blue-grey clay with patches of different clays (7002). Apart from the flecks of building material, which appeared to be small fragments of brick or tile, there was no indication in the section of 37

7005

7001 7003 7007 7018 cut 7011 7017 cut 7012

7004 7006 7019 7009

7002 7008

cut 7011

7013

cut 7007 7015 7012 7014

7016

2m

Figure 16: Section through Pit 7. artefactual material. It is clear that there were no dumps of munitions in the material excavated, because each spit of material was checked by metal detector in compliance with the health and safety procedures for the site. 7.2.3 Pit 8 (Figure 17) Pit 8 was fully exposed on the surface prior to excavation, an exercise which made very apparent the results of prolonged erosion and collapse. The surface appearance of the pit was irregular and quite difficult to see. This was particularly the case on the southern side of the pit, and it is apparent in the section drawing (Figure 22) that the full width of the pit was not contained within the box section though only a small portion remained outside. The pit was sealed by a topsoil layer (8001) that consisted of dark brown loamy clay and was 0.35 m deep prior to machining. The width of the pit at the top of the backfill was in excess of 4 m, with the southern edge beyond the box section. The base of the pit did lie entirely within the section, however, and it measured 1.98 m wide. The profile of the pit was less irregular than that of Pit 7, but it is clear that there had been a degree of erosion and slumping; this is not a surprise, given that the pit remained open for at least two years. The cut of the pit [8013] had a relatively steep face on the northern side (time did not permit the recording of both sides), while the southern side was a very gentle angle, indicating considerable collapse of the face of the pit. The section demonstrates the difference between the northern and southern sides, as the southern side had an extensive slumped deposit, a blue-grey mottled clay (8011), which was up to 0.46 m thick. On the northern side the slumped deposit, a pale tan clay with orange and blue clay streaks (8008), was much smaller and represented slippage rather than whole collapse of the side. The backfilled deposits consisted of pale brown clay with blue-grey streaks (8012), light brown clay with patches of other clays (8005), blue-grey clay with a mixture of lenses of brown and orange clays (8002) and compact blue-grey clay (8003). The process of backfilling was evident in the lenses of other material within clay 8005 (loose orange clay 8006; orange clay with organic staining 8007; brown-grey silty clay 8019; orange gritty clay with lumps of iron-rich material 8020, and compact grey clay 8021). The backfilled deposit (8012) also included a dark grey clay deposit (8022) which was interpreted as an animal burrow.

7.3 Human Remains


7.3.1 Introduction

by Gaille MacKinnon

As previously stated in the Aims and Objectives section of this report, the limited evaluation excavation was undertaken in order to: establish the presence or absence of human remains in the pits at Pheasant Wood; if remains were found to be present, an estimation of the number of bodies within the pits would be attempted, and an assessment of the potential for the recovery and identification of remains would be made (see also Pollard, 2008). 38

8001 8004 8001


8.01

8002

8003
8.02 8.03 8.04

8005

8006 8007

8009 8005 8008 8010


8.07 8.08 8.09 8.12 8.06 8.05

8019

8020 8011 8021

Figure 17: Section through Pit 8.

39
8012 8015 8014 8011
8.10 8.11

cut 8013

8017

8018

8016 8010 8022

cut 8013

8010

1m

The limited excavations subsequently established the presence of human remains within each of the five pits that had previously been suspected to contain bodies (Pits 1-5), together with a small number of fragmentary body parts that were found in a sondage (in this case a box section), dug through the west end of Pit 6. Itshould be appreciated that the following observations of the individuals buried within each of the pits must be regarded as preliminary statements only, particularly with regard to the nature and extent of the skeletal trauma. Such statements are based upon field observation of the in situ human remains as, at no time during the evaluation, were bodies or body parts removed from the burial pits for closer examination or analysis. Equally, with regard to the general preservation of the individual dentition(s) of the men buried within the five grave pits, preliminary observations - where the teeth were visible and accessible for a visual inspection - suggest that they are well-preserved and, in all cases seen, remain in place within either the maxilla or the mandible. Interestingly, this would also seem to apply to those individuals who have suffered extensive periand/or post-mortem disruption of the facial skeleton, in that even though the facial bones may have been fragmented and displaced, the teeth of such individuals appeared to still lie in their individual positions within the protective, bony structure of the mandible or the maxilla. No loose teeth were observed within the grave fill of any of the pits at any time during the evaluation process. These field observations will only be confirmed when and if a full excavation and anthropological analysis takes place at Pheasant Wood. Any anthropological observations made within the text were made using the general reference literature (Kimmerle & Baraybar 2008; Tibbett and Carter 2008; Bass 2005; White & Folkens 2005; Scheuer & Black 2000; Buikstra & Ubelaker 1994; Brooks & Suchey 1990). 7.3.2 Pit Summaries 7.3.2.1 Pit 1 A minimum of seven individuals were uncovered in this pit. The conditions within Pit 1 were relatively dry with little seepage of groundwater into the bottom of the grave. There was a substantial amount of chloride of lime used throughout the grave fill which, together with the thick clay matrix and general anaerobic conditions, served to greatly assist the preservation of the skeletons of the individuals and the associated organic and other artefacts. Individuals had been placed in the pit in both prone and supine positions and, from what can be seen from at least one burial, there are also flexed bodies lying along the long axis of the grave cut. Contrary to popular belief, chloride of lime can promote preservation rather than decomposition of the bodies - it was generally used to mask the smell of decomposing bodies. The upper deposit of bodies was visually dominated by a pair of skeletons lying on their backs on the same German groundsheet. The most westerly of these two skeletons (B12) was still wearing 1908 webbing with six full clips of .303 bullets marking the position of the pouches which once held them. Organic materials also survived, and the socks and trousers (and leather strap-ends for trouser braces) were still discernible covering parts of the lower body. It is clear that this individual was placed in the grave with his webbing and the vast majority of his equipment and was therefore not stripped before burial. This young man had suffered horrendous peri-mortem wounds, with the legs lying face down in the grave and the torso facing up having been severely disrupted at the waist. The observable state of epiphyseal fusion indicates a probable age of 15-16.5 years for this individual (Scheuer & Black 2000). The body lying immediately to the east of this individual (and upon the same German groundsheet) had two full clips of .303 bullets lying above his skull, was also associated with the leather bayonet scabbard, and wore a leather bracelet(?) which lay in situ around his right wrist (B22). He had one leg severed at the knee and lay some 50 cm from a long, worked wooden stick which had also been thrown into the grave. The purpose and function of the wooden stick cannot be firmly established; however, it is possible that this object may have been used as a crutch and then perhaps later as an object used to manoeuvre the bodies in the pit. There was also a very distinctive maxillary dental prosthetic lying in situ within the mouth. Organic materials were also present with this individual in the form of clothing and leather strap-ends for trouser braces. Another skeleton was fully exposed in the east side of the trench, this time lying face down in the grave (B30). He had suffered severe peri-mortem trauma to the skull, scapulae and thorax, and the observable state of epiphyseal fusion indicated a probable age of 15-16.5 years (Scheuer & Black 2000). Organic materials were present in the form of a fragment of textile from the hem of a tunic and possible woollen socks. There were also numerous metal rivets, buttons, buckles, and eyelets from a German groundsheet associated with this individual. He was immediately overlying a fourth skeleton (head and upper torso only; the rest of the body ran into the east section), who was found with the remnants of a gas mask lying by his left side (B50). This thumb of the left 40

hand was abducted in such a manner that suggests he may possibly have been holding an object on or around the time of death. Both of these latter individuals had sustained multiple peri-mortem cranial injuries which had caused severe disruption of the face and skull. The bottom of the pit was reached in the south west corner of the trench, where the lower parts of a pair of legs were uncovered lying in a flexed position along the southern edge of the grave cut (B20). The legs had been tied together using communication cable, presumably to assist with the transport of the corpse from the battlefield. This lower burial deposit was separated from the upper by a layer of earth and lime. Numerous other body parts were found within this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain, as they ran into the east section of the unexcavated fill of Pit 1 (see the Body Reports in the Appendices for a more complete individual body/body part description). 7.3.2.2 Pit 2 A minimum number of 14 individuals were partially uncovered in a sondage measuring approximately two metres by just over one metre, the highest minimum number of individuals (MNI) found within the smallest sondage. This pit lies further north than pit 1 and immediately abuts the southern edge of Pheasant Wood. Given the generally poor to fair preservation of the skeletons in this pit, it is thought that the pits proximity to the wood has had a deleterious effect on the bones, possibly due to the leaching of moisture from the soil and the subsequent damage most likely caused by moisture-seeking tree and plant roots. This may also account for the much diminished level of preservation of general textiles (as compared to Pit 1). A similarity exists, however, with Pit 1 in the placement of the bodies; this was not regular or linear in nature, with individuals randomly thrown onto their fronts, their backs and their sides (Pollard 2008). One of the bodies from the upper layer of the body mass within this pit lay prone upon a groundsheet and lay under at least two other individuals (B41). Organic preservation of textiles, metallic objects and a toothbrush were found associated with this body. He had suffered multiple peri-mortem injuries to the cranium, the pelvis, and the femur, and the vertebrae were partially displaced and out of anatomical articulation. This last observation suggests that the body may have either sustained peri-mortem trauma to this region and/or that the body was sufficiently decomposed at the time of burial for these skeletal elements to be subsequently found out of alignment. Another body lay over this individual (B42), one whose observable state of epiphyseal fusion suggested a probable age of 17-19 years (Scheuer & Black 2000). This young man lay in association with a groundsheet and textiles, and he also had extensive trauma to the cranium, lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae, with the latter being somewhat displaced. In association with this individual was another body lying in a prone position over the latter two bodies (B47). The position of the right hand suggested that it had been resting upon an object, or possibly that the hand was lying over a fold in the adjacent groundsheet. His thorax was in a very poor and fragmentary condition and part of his vertebral column lay out of anatomical position. Numerous other body parts (which appeared to be articulated) were found within this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain as they ran into both the east and west sections of the unexcavated fill of Pit 2 (see the Body Reports in the Appendices for a more complete individual body/body part description). 7.3.2.3 Pit 3 A minimum number of seven individuals were uncovered in a 1.5 m length of this pit. The pit lies further east than Pit 2 and also immediately abuts the south edge of Pheasant Wood. As with Pit 2, the burial conditions within Pit 3 have caused extensive damage to the bones of the skeletons which exhibit, in general, poorer preservation than that found within Pit 1. Its immediate proximity to the wood like that of Pit 2 seems to have had a deleterious effect on the bones due to the leaching of moisture from the soil and the subsequent damage most likely caused by moisture-seeking tree and plant roots. The edges of the pit demonstrated some deviance from the very regular, rectangular form suggested by the wartime aerial photographs some irregularity across the site was also suggested by the results of the geophysical survey (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007). The northern edge was slightly angled on the surface and cut down at a slope, while the opposing, southern edge was straight and vertical. This irregularity may have been as a result of roots from the nearby wood interfering with the digging process in 1916. In contrast to Pit 2, there was some suggestion of order to the deposition of the upper layer of bodies within Pit 3, as the bodies appeared to alternately lie head-tofoot across the trench. The upper deposit of bodies contained a number of individuals who had suffered extensive peri-mortem trauma. A very tall, robust individual had been placed into the pit in such a way as to suggest that his body 41

was flexed in order to fit him into it (B39). His upper body was twisted to the left, and his legs were flexed at the knees in order to accommodate his body into the available space within the grave. A British General Service Button (SF 258) may have been associated with this individual, and he also had mother of pearl buttons in his abdominal and thoracic regions (possibly associated with a shirt), and the remains of a sock upon his foot. Textile materials were found around the skull and upper body, suggesting that his tunic had been pulled up around his face. Peri-mortem trauma could be observed on the right arm, the elbow was completely disarticulated, and there was damage to the left elbow and wrist, the thorax and the right scapula. The vertebral column was not in correct anatomical position or articulation. One of the individuals lying underneath this body lay extended and half-exposed in the grave, as the majority of the left side of the body lay unexcavated in the east section of the grave fill (B40). He had suffered extensive cranial trauma (both peri- and post-mortem) and the facial skeleton was severely disrupted, with disruption and displacement of the vertebral column. The aforementioned British General Service Button (SF 258) may also have been associated with this individual rather than B39. Within this upper level of the body mass lay another body, wrapped in a British groundsheet which remained very well-preserved with retention of material form, elasticity and colour, along with numerous eyelets (B37). This individual had also suffered massive cranial trauma and displacement; the overlying groundsheet was found to have collapsed into the exposed brain cavity of the skull. Remnants of a possible orange tourniquet remained in situ over the right distal humerus, adjacent to the elbow, and the wrist also appeared very damaged. Trauma could also be seen to the thorax, the left wrist and elbow, numerous vertebrae appeared to be slightly out of alignment, and the right pubis was detached. A leather tie ?shoe-lace was also found, which may have been tied to either side of the groundsheet in the region of the skull perhaps to wrap and contain the very damaged cranium of this individual (this wound must surely have been incurred after the application of the tourniquet). An Australian tunic belt buckle was found underneath the chin. The observable state of epiphyseal fusion and pubic symphyseal development displayed a morphology that suggests an age of between 15-23 years, with a mean of 18.5 years (Scheuer & Black, 2000; Brooks & Suchey, 1990). The body under this individual lay prone and in association with an Australian tunic belt-buckle (SF 197), which was found slightly east of the body in the region of the lower right thorax (B38). Fragments of a black sock remained around the left ankle. Multiple trauma was present on the cranium and facial skeleton, the left shoulder and elbow, the thorax, both pelves and the right knee. The observable state of epiphyseal fusion suggests a probable age of 18-20 years (Scheuer & Black, 2000). Numerous other body parts were found within this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain as they ran into both the east and west sections of the unexcavated fill of Pit 3 (see the Body Reports in the Appendices for a more complete individual body/body part description). 7.3.2.4 Pit 4 A minimum of ten individuals were partially uncovered in this pit, which lay south of Pit 3 and east of Pit 1, in a sondage which measured just over 2 metres by 1.5 metres. Most of the bodies lay across the width of the pit, on both their fronts and backs, but individuals also lay along the pit edges, creating the impression of a raft of limbs suspended in a black, odoriferous matrix of wet clay and decomposition products. Given the anaerobic environment and the very wet clay within the burial pit, the organic preservation was very good, with textiles, leather, cardboard and human hair (and, in one instance, a toe-nail) surviving. A leather-booted foot was positioned against the north side of the trench and the design suggests an Australian wearer (B34). Clear evidence for the presence of dead Australian soldiers took the form of two Australian Rising Sun badges (SFss 202 and 206), apparently associated with a pair of individuals lying across the western end of the sondage. Further to the east, the spoil removed from the torso area of another body contained a General Service Button indicative of a British casualty (SF 241). Among the upper level of bodies lay a partially exposed individual who displayed a fractured and very severely disrupted skull (B31). He wore a leather bracelet tied and knotted around the left wrist, together with a mass of textile of uncertain classification possibly of a tunic, as a buckle and leather buttons appeared to be associated. A concentration of this material at lower arm level may suggest that this garment was pulled up over the head possibly as a result of being dragged from the battlefield and/or nearby railway line. The cuff of a knitted woollen garment remained in situ around the left wrist. The matchbox (SF 217) was found in the same area as the textile and the buckle, so there may have been an association with a tunic pocket. A body that lay directly under this individual had been placed in such a position that he lay over several other bodies. Possible cords of a head-band for gas mask goggles ran across the upper back of this individual (that is, from the right and left scapulae). There were also the remnants of an upper garment still present on the 42

torso (B32). Another individual lying west of this body had the remains of gas mask components located by the distal left femur, and also had the partial remains of some tightly woven material on the left leg (B35). In addition, a poorly preserved, loosely woven material (?sand bag/?lime bag) was present, wrapped around the front and the back of the pelvis. Two buttons and a buckle were also found between these two bodies. The thoracic vertebrae were displaced and lay only in approximately relative alignment. In terms of other bodies exhibiting vertebral trauma, one individual had severe trauma to the head and neck the mandibular condyle was sheared through and existed as a separate element, together with the first six cervical vertebrae, which were severely disrupted and existed only as fragments (B36). A leather cord (aligned east/west) was in two parts under the neck at the junction of the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae and extended as a separate piece running to the east of the body. Was this perhaps part of an item that secured the head more securely to the neck for transportation from the battlefield? There was also a safety pin found by the left side of the mandible at the gonial angle - perhaps used to secure a field bandage to the head of this person. An Australian Rising Sun badge was found on the right side of the lower torso (SF 202), and a brass wire was found coiled around the wrist. Another Australian Rising Sun badge (SF 206) was found by the shoulder level of an individual who lay immediately to the west of this body (BP54). Numerous other body parts were found within this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain, as they ran into the sections of the unexcavated fill of Pit 4 (see the Body Reports in the Appendices for a more complete individual body/body part description). 7.3.2.5 Pit 5 A minimum of ten individuals were recovered from Pit 5 in a sondage measuring 2.2 metres by 1.5 metres. Two of these bodies were lying side by side with their heads to the north in the bottom of the pit, which may suggest some attempt at deliberate positioning. Following the deposition of soil and lime, both beneath and above the overlying soil, a further deposition of bodies took place. These bodies appear to have been placed in the grave without any thought to their positioning and provided perhaps the starkest image of the entire evaluation. One body lay with the head to the north and arms spread-eagled away from the body (B17). The left radius of this individual was removed from its original articulated position within the left lower arm when it was disturbed during the initial digging of the sondage into this pit (it was also the first bone to be discovered at Fromelles during the 2008 season). Across this individuals waist another corpse lay on its front, in close association with the partially exposed remains of further bodies. This was one of the last individuals to have been placed in this pit (B08). The neck was in extreme flexion, so that the foramen magnum of the skull could be seen, and there was slight disarticulation between the first and second cervical vertebrae; perhaps the head had slumped forward after placement in the grave and before backfilling. The left arm was fractured above the wrist and ran up the southern side of the pit with the result that no carpals, metacarpals or phalanges of the hand were present, although whether this damage was peri- or post-mortem in nature remains to be established. There was also trauma to the left torso and pelvis. Artefacts associated with this body included a bandolier of .303 ammunition clips, a mother of pearl button associated with the left wrist, and leather straps for trouser braces by the lower right ribs. The body underlying this individual lay extended and prone along the south section of the pit and appeared to be associated with a leather fitting, possibly from the adjacent bandolier of ammunition clips (B09). The left arm was fractured at the distal radius and ulna and lay in an almost identical position to the previous body, as it too ran vertically up the southern side of the pit. Again, whether this damage was peri- or post-mortem in nature remains to be established, as no carpals, metacarpals or phalanges were present. Leather straps for trouser braces were found by the lower right ribs and also remnants of decayed textile. Within the upper layer of the body mass was a body part which consisted of a left lower leg and foot, with trauma evident upon the proximal tibia and distal fibula (BP10). The remains of a cotton thread ran parallel to the tibia and fibula, and these may be stitching from fragments of a puttee. One of the individuals in the lower level of the body mass in the eastern side of the pit displayed a skull and thorax which were both severely disrupted (BP23). The vertebrae were not in complete alignment or full articulation, which may mean that this individual either sustained peri-mortem trauma to this region, and/ or that the body was sufficiently decomposed at the time of burial for these elements to become displaced. The body from the pelvis downwards remained due to its position unexposed. Leather straps for trouser braces were found by the lower left ribs. Brass eyelets from a groundsheet lay slightly north of this individual, and may possibly have been used to wrap B23 and B19 together. Two other body parts in the vicinity of this individual remain to be exposed; they were both found in association with gas mask components. Numerous other body parts were found within 43

this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain as they ran into the sections of the unexcavated grave fill of Pit 5 (see the Body Reports in the Appendices for a more complete individual body/ body part description). 7.3.2.6 Pit 6 (West section) Analysis of the wartime aerial photographs suggested that the west end of Pit 6 was backfilled at the same time as Pits 1-5 and was therefore potentially used for burial, perhaps for the overspill of remains once the previous five pits were filled (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007, 22). The body parts found during evaluation of the west part of Pit 6 consisted of commingled right and left foot bones, which were found within the fragments of two black woollen socks (BP62). These foot bones were also loosely associated with two midshaft fragments of two tibiae and fibulae and displayed both peri- and post-mortem trauma. The morphology of the tibiae and fibulae suggest that they are from two individuals; however, this remains to be confirmed, as the skeletal material was covered in heavy clay and were in general very poorly preserved.

7.4 Condition of Remains and Potential for DNA Preservation


The thick clay soils, anaerobic conditions and the high levels of moisture found at Pheasant Wood have provided an environment for generally a good level of preservation of organic and non-organic artefacts and materials across the site. There is, however, inevitably some variability in the level of preservation of the human remains and artefacts within the pits. Each of the pits provides a distinct burial environment for the human remains, which seems to be dictated not only by their physical position and location upon the site, but also by the unique biological, chemical, and physical properties that appear to exist within them (Forbes 2008; Tibbet & Carter 2008). Excluding the peri- and post-mortem trauma that has been observed, the bones of the individuals within Pits 1, 4 and 5 exhibited good to very good bone condition and preservation. The generally wetter environments within these graves, together with the distance at which they lie from the wood, appear to have provided an environment which has been conducive to both bone and artefact preservation. Anaerobic conditions resulting from thick, waterlogged soils also tend to retain preservation of materials such as wood and textiles, and this is certainly what was observed in Pits 1, 4 and 5. Those individuals buried in the pits lying closer to Pheasant Wood (Pits 2 and 3) revealed differing levels of bone and artefact preservation. The individuals in Pit 2 were buried in an environment which appeared to have a higher organic content. In addition, the leaching of moisture from the grave by the adjacent trees of the wood and the subsequent plant root damage that was observed upon a number of the bodies has made the bones more friable; in general, they are in a much poorer condition than those of Pits 1, 4 and 5. Conversely, the bodies within Pit 3 appeared to have been lying in an environment where there was a continual inundation of ground water, which has provided a reasonable preservation of bone, although this does not appear to have been terribly good for the preservation of textiles (Janaway 2008). The potential for DNA viability and extraction from the bones and teeth of these individuals cannot be ascertained unless samples are actually taken from the bodies and tested in the laboratory. It is not scientifically possible to make a visual assessment of the gross and long term preservation of the bone and dental material and subsequently comment upon their ability to yield DNA, and reasonably expect those observations to be reflected in successful DNA amplification. Parsons and Weedn state that there is no precise (time) division between what might be considered short-term and long-term preservationit is the interaction between the sample and its environment that determines DNA preservation, and age per se is not an absolute indicator of DNA quantity or quality (1997, 109). There are problems inherent in attempting to extract DNA from older remains; these include issues such as: insufficient quantities of DNA within the sample; a high level of degradation of DNA within the sample; contamination of the sample by post-mortem processes, or contamination of the sample by the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors (Majanovi et al, 2007; Harvey & King, 2002). These PCR inhibitors are thought to be environmental in origin, and their presence within old or ancient samples is an especially significant problem which can prevent the successful amplification of DNA (Gojanovi & Sutlovi, 2007). In addition, micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi are also thought to play a considerable role in the microscopic focal destruction and degradation of bone and teeth and, in cases where they are broken, fragile or decalcified, the ability of such bone to yield a DNA profile is very much diminished (Bell, 1990; Weedn & Parsons, 1997). Given some of the problems with DNA amplification as briefly outlined above, if the individuals from 44

Pheasant Wood are going to become the subject of a DNA identification program, an informed and scientifically rigorous DNA sampling strategy developed particularly for this project needs to be in place before any excavation of remains commences (Edson et al, 2004). Advice has been sought by GUARD from one of the most internationally respected private DNA laboratories in the United States who are leaders in providing forensic DNA analysis and research services to law enforcement agencies, federal and state governments, crime laboratories, and disaster management organizations throughout the United States and around the world. In order to establish the viability of DNA they suggest that an initial bone and tooth test sample be taken from 10 bodies within each pit. It is thought that this should provide the project with some degree of understanding about the state of DNA preservation, whilst not committing to taking and testing samples from all of the bodies if the results are not positive. Based on the results of this initial test, it is felt that the information should be sufficient to develop a more comprehensive DNA testing strategy based upon the state of DNA preservation at Pheasant Wood. The company have five different extraction methods for bone and dental samples and have found that different incidents respond differently to various extraction methods. In this instance, they recommend that these first set of samples are tested for STRs, Y-STR and mtDNA and feel that a combination of STR, Y-STR and mtDNA testing would provide the greatest chance of obtaining profiles, whilst simultaneously addressing the potential familial reference sources available, which will likely be several generations of decedents and more distantly related individuals (E.Huffine, pers.comm). In addition, an official DNA outreach program would need to be instituted that would serve as the primary liaison between the families and the military and government authorities. Such a program would need to be in place before excavation commences in order to assist and explain the methods that will be used to account for families missing loved ones; to advise families on who might be the most appropriate individual within the family from which to take the biological sample; to take the samples in a way that would meet any legal and identification requirements, and finally to track these samples through the identification system and continually inform the families on the progress of DNA analysis. The identification of human remains involves not only complex scientific, technical and legal issues, but often also embraces challenging ethical and cultural concerns (Williams & Crews 2003). There are wider questions raised by the availability of these advanced DNA technologies, but these are not discussed here. These and other realities will need to confronted and addressed if this project goes forward to a recovery excavation. However, the potential exists to push back the boundaries of what can be achieved with DNA identification of older human remains from these highly differential mass grave contexts. More importantly, it would finally return the names and identities of these soldiers to their families and to the nations for whom they sacrificed their lives.

7.5 Estimating Number of Burials


It should be noted that estimating numbers on the basis of sample excavation is not a precise science and only with total excavation will an accurate number be reached. However, it is possible, on the basis of the strategy adopted, to provide estimated numbers within a reasonable upper and lower range. In order to estimate numbers, a given sample of each pit was excavated; in most cases these were 15% (Pits 3 and 4) or 20% (Pits 1 and 5) of the surface area of the pits. Both ends of each trench were located by topsoil stripping, so the full dimensions are known in all cases; the average length of the pits was 10 metres. Due to time constraints, the sample size for Pit 2 was closer to 10% (though this was enough to expose a very high MNI). This gives an overall sample of around 16% of the total surface area of the five pits (largely represented by the upper horizons of burials, which were cleaned to the degree required to achieve the project objectives). ies represented in each of the excavation trenches are initially expressed as the Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI) that is, the total number of individuals either fully or partially exposed (many bodies ran underneath the sides of the sondages or were only partially revealed as part of the lower, primary deposit). The total MNI for the evaluation was 50 which, given the size of the sample, immediately suggests a high overall total (in Pit 2 alone 12 individuals were encountered in a trench measuring not much more than 2.2 m x 1.1 m, which may suggest as many as c 100 burials in this c 10 m long pit). A lower, primary deposit was identified in each of Pits 1 to 5, and in all cases this deposit lay on the base of the trench (which occurred at an average of 1.2 1.3 m from top of pit). Due to the constraints of the evaluation (that is, wherever possible, not to disturb human remains), it was only possible to glean a limited impression of the basal deposits by excavating through gaps in the upper deposits. Given the presence of a lower level 45

of remains in all trenches, it is safe to assume that the majority of the MNI in each trench represents only the upper deposit of a two-tier burial, with a small portion (in most cases only one or two individuals) representing that part of the basal deposit which could be uncovered. The lower deposits had been buried beneath a thin covering of earth (c 20-30 cm), and in most cases at least one layer of lime, prior to the second tier of burials being placed on the surface of this backfill. Without removing the upper layer and excavating directly onto the lower layer across the entire sondage, it is impossible to give an accurate figure for the number of individuals lying on the base of the pit within the trenches. However, given the information available, there seems little reason to doubt that the basal deposits will consist of similar numbers to those observed in the upper deposits. If we consider the MNI only for each trench (ie those visible), this provides an estimated total of around 45 to 50 bodies per pit and an overall total of somewhere between 225 to 250 bodies. If, however, the lower deposit is taken more fully into account, which it certainly needs to be, then these numbers may increase to between 80 and 90 per pit and an overall total of between 400 and 450. Some pits may, of course, contain more or less bodies than others. The lower figure from the higher range provided here is in keeping with the written German orders, which specify graves to be dug for 400 men. There is little reason to doubt that this figure was based on an actual count, as bodies were collected from the battle front rather than some sort of estimate. It is therefore highly possible that all 400 of these bodies are contained within the pits at Pheasant Wood.

7.6 Material Culture: Artefacts and Identification


The metal detector survey carried out as part of the 2007 programme of site evaluation resulted in the recovery of an extensive artefact assemblage (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007). These included the usual types of war debris to be found in most fields in Flanders: shrapnel balls, shell fragments, cartridge cases, etc. Among this material, however, were a number of finds more directly associated with the burial of Allied troops in the pits dug by the Germans. Notable here were a number of buttons and the two Australian medallions recovered from the topsoil in close proximity to the pits. One of these was an AIF horseshoe medallion inscribed with the Shire of Alberton, while the other was a heartshaped piece with an ANZAC motif. It was these two objects which originally provided the evidence from the site that Australian troops had been buried there in 1916. It was therefore expected that a relatively high number of artefacts would be recovered from the grave fills, especially if the graves were found to be intact, which was the case. Every exposed spit of pit fill was scanned with the metal detector and identified finds were recovered. Quantities of shrapnel balls were recovered from the pit fills, but these were only collected in bulk and time was not wasted recording their positions. However, the upper parts of some fills did contain more interesting finds, the most notable being the eyelets from groundsheets used to carry bodies to the grave site. A number of these were recovered from the upper fills of Pits 1 and 5. These were made from zinc and thus came from German groundsheets, while the Allied versions had brass eyelets (the British blockade of German ports made metals such as copper and brass a rare commodity in Germany). It was decided from the outset that artefacts recovered from grave contexts, in association with human remains, would not be removed from site but be recorded by photography and then returned to their original context. In some cases the 46

Plate 2: German Eyelets.

finds were replaced in perforated finds bags with context labels, in order to prevent their being disturbed and their contexts becoming confused in any future recovery operation. This is especially important if finds are to be used as a means of identification, as explained below. An important aim of the evaluation was to assess the potential for establishing the identity of individual bodies. Distinguishing nationality is a basic but essential form of identification. On the basis of the earlier work, there seemed little doubt that if bodies were still present in the grave pits they would include Australians. However, there was also a distinct possibility that British soldiers were also buried at Pheasant Wood. Although there were many similarities between the uniforms and equipment utilised by the Australian and British troops at Fromelles, there were also some important differences with the potential to provide indicators of nationality. Important here were aspects of the tunics worn by both contingents. The Australian tunic had a sewn-in waist belt with an ovoid, looped metal buckle with a cross bar. These buckles were found in association with a number of the bodies, with some of them located in the upper torso area, suggesting that tunics had been pulled over the head during the burial process, perhaps as a result of bodies being dragged across the ground by the feet. In many cases the fabric from the belt still adhered to the buckle. This feature was entirely lacking on the British pattern tunic. There is also an important difference in the types of buttons used on the Australian and British pattern tunics.

Plate 3: Australian Buckles. The buttons on the Australian tunics were of a plain type and were made from a number of materials, including metal, bone/horn and even mother of pearl. Some of these finer buttons are probably from undergarments, including shirts. The relative absence of obvious tunic buttons, though some examples may have been found in Pit 4, may be due to their manufacture from vegetable ivory, which according to the Army Clothing Department files in the National Army Museum replaced bone/ivory tunic buttons in 1916. It is possible that these buttons derived from vegetable products may not have survived decay in the pits. The cotton elements of the 1908 webbing in Pit 1 had almost entirely decayed, but animal-derived fibres survived, in the form of woollen socks and uniform components (L Milner pers comm.). In contrast, the British tunic was fastened by a composite brass button known as a General Service Button, which bore a crest consisting of a rampant lion and unicorn standing to either side of a coat of arms topped by a crown. The buttons which fastened the front of the tunic, which numbered five in all, were larger than those which fastened the four pockets on the front of the garment and the epaulets on each shoulder. These buttons were manufactured by a number of companies in Birmingham, with the makers mark clearly stamped on the backs of the buttons. During examination of contemporary photographs taken shortly before the battle, only one Australian soldier has so far been found to be wearing brass tunic buttons and these appear 47

to be of a plain type (the Australians did not introduce their version of the General Service Button, which incorporated a map of Australia until after the battle). The study of all such images is critical, for not only are these the only clues available that can inform us exactly who was wearing what equipment at what time, but they often refer to the very units involved in the battle. The recovery of some artefacts in pits with a distinctly wet burial matrix (Pits 3, 4 and 5) was not straightforward; the matrix in which they were suspended was in some cases a black, viscous material (possibly the result of decomposition products), which made cleaning a difficult and unpleasant process. In order to prevent the loss of small artefacts with the removal of this material, it was scanned with a metal detector upon being lifted from the trench, with the point of origin of each bucket load of material, or part thereof, noted in order that the approximate location of finds recovered in this way could be ascertained. While many finds were made in situ, a number of important discoveries were made in this way. Among these were two General Service Buttons. The first of these buttons came from spoil removed from the torso area of a body in Pit 4. The button (SF 241) was quite badly decayed but was clearly a General Service Button of the smaller type. There was an additional attachment ring looped through the fixed loop on the back of the button, and from an examination of intact tunics this appears to be a feature of pocket buttons. Corrosion products obscured that part of the back of the button bearing the makers name, but enough of the surface remained clear to make out partial elements of the impressed words ...ttons and Birmingham.

Plate 4: SF 258, General Service Button (front). The second button (SF 258) came from the central area of the trench in Pit 3 and was again recovered from metal detected spoil; it may be associated with one of two individuals in the pit. This button was in slightly better condition on the outer face than the example from Pit 4, but more corroded on the back. It lacked a secondary attachment loop. Possibly associated with the same tunic were four small, four-holed metal buttons. These are of a type sometimes associated with the General Service Button and are essentially backing buttons which were sown onto the inside of the tunic behind the large General Service Button to provide a more secure attachment. The General Service Buttons associated with these were not recovered, but may well have sunk to a deeper level within the deposit. As decomposition progressed, a number of artefacts may have sunk from their original positions to deeper levels within the pits. Metal detector scans in all of the pits certainly indicated the presence of metal artefacts beneath the upper layer of burials, and these may relate to more than just those objects associated with the basal burial deposits.

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Plate 5: SF 258, General Service Button (back). Perhaps the most striking artefacts diagnostic of nationality were the two Rising Sun badges encountered in Pit 4 (SF 202 and 206). Both of these were recovered in situ from the lower torso regions of two individuals located against the western side of the trench. This location may suggest that one of them at least was being carried in tunic pockets rather than on the lapels both badges displayed broken fastenings on the back. The badges were made from a lightweight alloy and displayed some degree of corrosion. It was initially thought that further evidence for a British presence was identified in a small hook associated with a hook and eye collar fastening found close to the skull of B60 in Pit 2. It was suggested that the hook and eye collar fastening, like the GSB, was specific to the British tunic, the Australians using a button. Plate 6 & 7: SF 206, Rising Sun Badge & SF 202, Reverse of Rising Sun Badge.

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However, since the end of the fieldwork, research has established that the hook and eye was used on some Australian tunics also. Various further classes of artefacts were identified within the pits. These ranged from individual artefacts to complex pieces of kit, including full sets of webbing. The most striking example of the latter took the form of a set of 1908 pattern webbing worn by a body (B12) in Pit 1. Although the canvas had largely decayed, all of the .303 bullets were still in situ where the pouches would have been located, along with the various brass loops, buckles and strap ends which fastened the webbing in place. This individual had suffered severe physical trauma about the waist and it is likely that the severity of these abdominal wounds was one reason why the webbing may have been left in place. This scenario served as a stark indicator that, given the seriously disrupted state of some of the bodies at burial, German troops detailed to search the remains for papers and other items may well have avoided contact with the seriously shattered (and indeed decomposing) corpses. The fact that some remains had been lowered into position on groundsheets rather than being simply tossed in (by the use of arms and legs) suggests that more such examples of severe trauma might be expected. It is also possible, given the estimated numbers lying at Pheasant Wood, that in the rush to dig the pits and gather, transport, search and inter the men, some remains may have been buried without being searched. The presence of badges and buckles, but especially the survival of paper-based articles like the matchbox (see below), offers potential during recovery for not only determining nationality, but also uncovering items that may lead to the establishment of personal identity. Also associated with the body discussed above (B12) was an unusual medallion or amulet, which appeared to have been fastened around the neck with a leather cord. This took the form of a swastika cut from copper alloy, with a central suspension hole. Prior to its appropriation by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, the swastika was a well known Hindu symbol of good fortune and swastika amulets were commonly worn by westerners during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A swastika medallion was also found alongside a buried German soldier, killed in 1915 and excavated at Thlus, near Arras, in 2003. The reverse of the medallion bore the name of the beer brewing company Carlsberg, which had adopted the symbol, along with the sun motif which surrounds this example, as a marketing logo, again prior to its appropriation by the Nazis (Saunders, 2007).

Plate 8: SF 94, Swastika Amulet. A good indication of the high level of preservation possible on the site came in the form of a cardboard matchbox (SF 217), which was recovered from the north-eastern corner of the trench in pit 4 (Plate 8). The matchbox is not complete and appears for some reason to have been cut in half. Clearly visible on the front of the flattened box is the makers mark: S J Moreland and Sons Ltd of Gloucester, England. The lower part of the graphic has also survived very well the patriotic but rotund image of John Bull. The company 50

became a subsidiary of Bryant and May in 1913, which still produces matches today. As an aside, it is perhaps not irrelevant to note that no less than 64 members of the company volunteered for service during WWI. Thirteen of these men are remembered as having been killed on the companys war memorial in St. Stephens Church, Bristol Road, Gloucester. Whether any of these men joined the local regiment, the Gloucesters, and went on to serve in that regiment at the battle of Fromelles is not yet known.

Plate 9: SF 217, Cardboard Matchbox.

Plate 10: Example of Front and Back of Original Matchbox. Given the presence of British and Australian troops in the pits, studies are ongoing into what these men may have been wearing during the battle. It is agreed that there was a marked difference in tunic design, but the permutations regarding uniform adornments are not as straightforward. The British General Service Buttons found during the evaluation are certainly highly relevant to the nationality of the remains with which they are associated. It may be the case, though, that some bodies will lack any form of identifying artefacts, as they may have been buried without the requisite clothing items. 51

7.7 Historical Perspectives


The key findings of the project as regards the historical record concern the reliability of German documentation of the Pheasant Wood burials, and other aspects of reporting on the battle and its aftermath. What has become clear is that the various sets of instructions in Oberst Julius Ritter von Brauns Burial Order 5220 were, for the most part, closely followed by the parties detailed to work at Pheasant Wood in the week following the battle, from 21 July 1916 onwards. In 1916, the digging of the pits was carried out rapidly and by a large team upwards of 150 men. The easternmost excavations (Pits 6, 7 and 8) may well still have been in the process of being dug at the same time as bodies were being delivered, searched, and then interred in the western pits nearer the trench tramway. No documented indication has yet been found for the order in which pits were filled. British aerial photographs reveal that five pits were backfilled by 29 July, again confirming that von Brauns later 27 July pit closure order (supported by information from the Divisional medical officer, Dr Ott) was also strictly adhered to. As instructed, during the burial process the layers of bodies were separated and covered by an earth and lime mixture, though the poorly distributed character of some this material may be indicative of the haste in which the operation was carried out. It is important to note that the majority of the bodies revealed thus far do not appear to have been handled with any undue disrespect though the rapidity of the operation has undoubtedly led to some unfortunate body positions (bodies lying face down and the spread-eagled body in pit 5 provide stark images). Regarding numbers of remains present, given the extrapolation made from the evaluation results, there is no reason to believe that the figure of 400 mentioned in the burial order should be doubted. Indeed, with such a large number of remains to be dealt with in the mid-summer heat, speed would have been essential. The six-day window between 21 and 27 July thus incorporated digging of the pits, interment of the dead, and backfilling. The only evidence of von Brauns orders being disobeyed lies in the excavations revealing that a few men had in fact been laid to rest using Zeltbahnen (German groundsheets). This appears likely to have been a result of the combination of climate and the grim physical condition of some of the bodies due to the severity of their wounds. In general, therefore, there is a strong sense that the German records should be trusted rather than doubted.

7.8 Soil Analysis

by Jo McKenzie

A programme of soil sampling and analysis was undertaken as part of the Pheasant Wood evaluation, to investigate the physical and chemical conditions within individual burial pits and at the site as a whole. A summary of the main points is included below; a fuller report can found in the appendix (12.3). 7.8.1 Aims and Objectives

A series of objectives provided a framework for this programme which dictated analytical methods used and the design of the sampling strategy. These were as follows: 1. To assess the overall environmental condition of the site. Environmental features noted during the excavation as possibly significant for the condition of human remains included the sites topographic position (at the base of a gentle slope), soil texture (almost entirely heavy, fine-grained clay) and land cover variation (within an arable plot, but adjacent to a small woodland). Soil analysis aimed to assess the effect of all these features upon the burial pits. 2. To investigate differentials in soil conditions between burial pits. Differences in key soil properties (such as drainage) were noted between burial pits. A soil sampling strategy was designed with the aim of investigating these differences, both between burial pits and against burial-free Pit 8. 3. To assist with speculation upon the condition of human remains further down the stratigraphic sequence in each pit, and thus the potential for future excavation/recovery of remains. With an excavation strategy of burial non-disturbance, spot sample recovery from (especially) lower stratigraphic levels provided an opportunity to extend the reach of the excavation overall. 4. To add to the overall interpretation of activity at the Pheasant Wood site. As an integrated geo-archaeological study, the soil analysis programme aimed to enhance overall archaeological understanding and interpretation of the site.

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7.8.2 Methodology A series of between 10 and 13 soil samples were taken from each pit containing burials (Pits 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). These consisted of a vertical line of samples down through the backfill sequence of each pit, and then a more individual series of spot samples through the burial layer, at various points adjacent to skeletal material, surviving textiles, metal objects and other areas of interest. As a control for baseline soil conditions, a corresponding series of samples was taken through one of the empty pits, Pit 8. A total of 67 samples were taken. Three analytical techniques were used: pH, organic matter content (SOM) and total phosphate (total P). These were chosen as the most suitable means of providing the most comprehensive and appropriate physical and especially chemical characterisation of the Pheasant Wood sediments in the limited timeframe available. All techniques are well established in geoarchaeological study, providing a solid basis for archaeological interpretation. A full description of analytical methodologies and sampling and analytical strategy is provided in Appendix 12.3. 7.8.3 Results and Discussion Field and laboratory examination of the soils from both backfilled and burial contexts showed soil texture to be universally clay to silty clay. Flanders clay is notably fine-grained, giving it a very low water permeability (Nathanail 2001), and this was very much in evidence both during poor weather conditions during excavation and in the laboratory, with the waterlogged sample set taking an unusually long time to dry (over three weeks). The reddish-brown to grey mottled appearance of the backfill deposits indicated that waterlogged, poorly-draining conditions have long been the norm at the site. Mottling indicates hydromorphism: iron movement as a result of water retention on the ground surface and probably also periodic alteration of the level of the water table. At lower levels of excavation, the clay was chiefly a pale grey gleyed colour, indicating iron reduction due to permanently waterlogged conditions. Standing water was present in four out of the five burial pits during excavation. Significant variation was observed throughout both the burial and control pits for all three soil properties analysed, and a full discussion of this variation is provided in Appendix 12.3. pH ranged from 7.7 to 4.1; however, very few readings below 7 were noted, with soils generally neutral to slightly alkaline. The very few acidic responses to pH analysis are a point of potential interest (see below). Soil organic matter levels were generally low, with all except three samples falling within the range 5.93 0.94%, and no clear pattern of increase/decrease in either backfill sequences or into the burial level of the pits. Total P values were fairly high to medium throughout, ranging from 624 151 mgP/100g soil. As with soil organic matter, no clear pattern of phosphate increase/decrease emerged from the pit backfill sequences, with fluctuations through each profile, and a wide range of values obtained even from what might be expected to be phosphate-rich burial levels. The nature of this variation provided the key finding of the analysis. It would appear that a very inflexible set of soil conditions prevails at the Pheasant Wood site, with very little of the typical soil chemical and organic matter movement and cycling observed. For example, within control Pit 8, where given the lack of inhumations we might expect fairly low total phosphate and soil organic matter signatures which gradually decrease down profile (due to the normal processes of soil nutrient cycling), we instead see a range of values for both. These values probably relate to vegetation input as the result of material ingress when the pit was open, or the growth of vegetation on and in the backfilled material during the long delay between excavation and infilling. As a key factor in successful nutrient cycling is water movement, it is suggested that these soil properties have remained static in the profile as a result of the impermeable nature of the clay. The significance of this lack of chemical movement to assist with archaeological interpretation is illustrated within all five burial pits, where significant increases in especially total phosphate are visible in samples immediately adjacent to inhumations. In Pit 1, notably high total P (286.84 m g/100g soil) from FR081/12, taken to the immediate west of the surviving fabrics associated with the upper torso of B12, contrasts with far lower FR08/11 (177.11 mg/100g soil) taken only approximately 15 cm further out from the body area. Similar total phosphate differentials are observable between burial level samples in Pits 3,4 and 5. Soil organic matter movement appears similarly restricted. In Pit 4, two samples taken adjacent to surviving textile fragments (FR084/07 and FR084/10) show extremely high organic matter percentages (54.05% and 28.59%), with samples from the same clay matrix (4007) taken from slightly further away from surviving organic fragments showing low values. A similar situation is seen with sample FR083/10 in Pit 3. It appears that a high degree of organic material has moved into the clay immediately surrounding the surviving textile but has progressed no further. 53

This effect may assist with identifying archaeological features within the burial matrix. For example, total P values taken to either side of the groundsheet identified as probably having held or wrapped individuals B12 and B22 (samples FR08/07 and FR08/08) show P values inside the groundsheet almost double that outside, indicating significant retention of a chemical signature and illustrating the position of the fabric barrier. A similar effect is seen in Pit 3, where the highest P-signature of the entire sample set is evident (FR083/08; 624.11 mgP/100g soil), at a spot just at the edge of the very well-preserved rubberised British groundsheet containing individual B37. A second adjacent spot (FR083/07) only slightly further out from the groundsheet edge shows a far lower P value of only 184.14 mgP/100g soil. The role of the waterlogged clay matrix in creating these conditions of burial is confirmed by the results from Pit 2 the driest, most freely draining pit sequence, located adjacent to the woodland edge. Here, a network of roots extending throughout the pit has broken up the clay matrix, encouraging drainage and therefore physical and chemical decomposition of materials. Into the burial layers, total P is more even between samples, indicating a greater degree of nutrient cycling. A second significant feature of the analysis is the dropping of pH values (that is, soil becoming increasingly acid) into the lower levels of burial. This is evident in Pit 4 and especially Pit 5, where although pH through the upper infill sequence was fairly high (alkaline), this dropped sharply into the lower burial matrix (to pH 4.1-4.2). This is surprising, as waterlogged environments can generally maintain a neutral or slightly alkaline pH. Exceptions to this are environments high in organic matter, such as peat bogs (Caple 1994). However, organic matter values into the base of Pit 5 are very low. It is possible that burial artefacts, most probably metal objects, may have created more acidic conditions into the permanently waterlogged pit bases. This may have implications for the relative survival of burial materials, eg potentially worse bone preservation. 7.8.4 Conclusions

The dense, fine-grained, impermeable nature of the Flanders clay of which the Pheasant Wood site is formed has created a complex chemical and physical soil environment, within which soil properties show very localised differences. The main conclusions to be drawn from this analysis are summarised below: 1. The overall site environment. The appearance of the majority of the pits (that is, generally fairly wet and or waterlogged) shows that the topography of the Pheasant Wood site is likely to be a significant factor in material preservation. With such an impermeable clay matrix, even a slight slope is likely to result in frequent standing water, and in the immediate aftermath of backfilling into Pits 1-5, standing water would have run preferentially through the looser pit backfills into the inhumation areas, probably quite rapidly, creating a waterlogged environment in which the impermeable, newly-spaded edges of the clay pits created a strong barrier to water movement down through the subsoil. Only in Pit 2, where a rooted, more open environment prevailed, was water able to pass out of the pit. These environmental conditions will have determined conditions in the lower levels of each pit. Incidentally, it would appear that the woodland is not a significant influence on the nature of the burial environment: the lowest overall levels of organic matter were noted in Pit 2 the driest, best-drained pit, but also that closest to the woodland boundary, and therefore in an area where we might expect a greater input of organic materials. It seems that even if a greater organic input were present, the better-drained soil conditions at this pit promote a level of nutrient cycling more than capable of removing this. 2. Differences in soil conditions between burial pits. The differences observed between and within pits can be ascribed to the action of the clay matrix, firstly in creating local waterlogging, and secondly by way of this discouraging biological activity and thus decomposition. However, this does not mean that the differentials in conditions of preservation are therefore easily understandable. The unexpectedly high total P values from control Pit 8 are a good example of this where the effects of even a potentially small influence (such as lowlevel vegetation development during the time in which the pit was left open) may have had an unexpectedly clear effect on the soil conditions. On the positive side, it appears that within the burial matrix at least, the impermeable clay has acted to freeze a significant amount of the products of decomposition at their origin, making good interpretation possible and good preservation more likely. 3. Can we speculate upon the condition of remains further down the sequence? Yes, possibly. Pits 4 and 5 show a distinct drop in pH into their lower levels into properly waterlogged material. In the absence of high organic matter values, it is likely that artefacts (particularly metals) may have created more acidic conditions into the pit bases (at least in some cases). This may have had a negative effect on bone survival; however, the bone observed so far in permanently waterlogged contexts (for example, Pit 5) appears in reasonable condition. The potential for a slightly changing set of environmental conditions to be encountered during further excavation should therefore be borne in mind. 54

4. Does the analysis add to the overall interpretation of activity at the Pheasant Wood site? Yes, several features stand out. It is clear that not only the clay matrix but also individual burial artefacts appear to have acted to arrest decomposition and nutrient loss, such as the groundsheets in which several of the bodies were wrapped. This may imply that bodies were fairly thoroughly wrapped, rather than merely carried, within these coverings. A fairly hasty or not particularly organised programme of burial is also perhaps implied by the lack of a corresponding significant rise in pH in and around contexts where lime spreading was identified (for example, (2013) in Pit 1, possibly (1018) in Pit 5). This appears to indicate that lime spreading was neither extensive nor particularly carefully undertaken.

8.0 Discussion

8.1 Summary of the Fieldwork Results


The orders issued to German troops in July 1916 specified that pits were to be dug for 400 men (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007). The dimensions of the pits display some small degree of variation in plan and section. Table 2 below gives the dimensions of each. The depths for Pits 1-5 were recorded only in those small areas where it was possible to excavate to the base, and they may in fact vary along the lengths of the pits. Table 1: Dimensions of the pits at Pheasant Wood Pit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Length at Top (E/W) 9.90 m 9.71 m 9.60 m 9.26 m 9.00 m 6.82 m 9.49 m 9.73 m Width at Top (N/W) 2.20 m 2.65 m 2.70 m 2.20 m 2.20 m 1.86 m 3.92 m 1.72 m Depth from Top of Fill to Base 1.09 m 1.55 m 1.32 m 1.51 m 1.84 m 1.40 m 1.48 m 1.11 m Depth of Fill Above Burials 0.80 m 0.93 m 1.05 m 0.99 m 0.70 m 1.24 m ---

Among the five pits that contained articulated burials, it was clear that those who dug the pits, buried the bodies and covered them followed the same basic protocol. The shovels they used to excavate the pits left the impressions of their curved backs in the stiff clay subsoil, which would have come away in chunks from the sides of the cut. Bodies were placed on the base of each pit, then lime was sprinkled on top sometimes in particular densities that indicate a discrete bagful or shovelful, but more often as a diffuse scatter (again, the speed of the operation appears to have been a factor here). Clay was backfilled over the first burials and more lime was thrown in before a second phase of burial took place. Lime was scattered over these bodies, again sometimes in concentrations, but more often as a rather cursory measure. Finally, clay was replaced to fill the pits to the contemporary ground surface. Where tip lines were visible, they showed the clay had been shovelled in from both sides. However, between the five pits there were considerable differences, both in the nature of the burial deposits and in the post-depositional processes and conditions that affected them. Pit 1 is the shallowest of the five, but it was only investigated at its western end; it may well deepen along its length. The position of the skeleton (B20) on the base of Pit 1, with legs steeply flexed against the cut, might suggest that bodies were buried densely in the primary phase. The bodies belonging to the second phase of deposition were buried with superficial order. This pit contained the most artefacts, many of them associated with B12. It may be that the webbing and other items of kit on this soldier were left in place by the burial party because the severe injuries to his torso made it difficult to remove them. An Australian tunic buckle (SF 240) near the lower leg of B30 may indicate his nationality. Although Pit 1 does retain standing water in its base, it is generally one of the drier pits, and the lower fills do not have the black organic content of some of the others. The lower backfill (2010) contains a high proportion of sand; it derives from the lower subsoil (2005), as this was the horizon excavated last (at the base of the pit) and therefore backfilled first. The sand content could explain why Pit 1, at least at this end, is more freely draining than Pits 3, 4 and 5. In Pit 2, the limited view afforded of the primary burials suggested that they lay at various alignments and were somewhat entangled. Those belonging to the second phase appear to have been laid out with more order, in generally parallel alignment. Conditions here are even drier and the fills are markedly different, being 55

generally more brown and organic in appearance than elsewhere although in fact soils analysis showed that this pit had the lowest organic content of any. The lower subsoil (2005) is even sandier than in Pit 1, so the primary backfill was quite freely draining, although beneath it is the blue Ypresian (Eocene) clay which retains water in the very base of the pit. The roots extending into Pit 2 from the adjacent woodland have created a much more biologically active and acid environment, with water introduced and sucked out repeatedly. Microscopic fauna will also have been more abundant and active because of the moisture content and root penetration. The acid conditions have encouraged the leaching of minerals from the upper backfill deposits (2003 and 2011), but discouraged their leaching from the lower backfill, creating the iron staining and gritty texture in the lower backfill (2012). In Pit 3, very little of the primary burial deposits was visible. This was mainly because the upper burials were laid out in relative parallel order with few gaps, again as if they had been carried by the shoulders and feet along the top by two people at either side. An Australian tunic buckle (SF 197) associated with B38 indicates the presence of at least one Australian soldier. A British presence is also indicated, however, through a General Service Button (associated with either body B39 or B40). In contrast to Pit 2, conditions here are extremely wet perhaps at least partly because the pits original excavation had interrupted a field drain. . In Pit 4, excavation to the base established the presence of primary burials (a very limited view only was possible, as the secondary layer of bodies was so densely packed). The bodies buried in the second phase lay at various angles, often intertwined and, although deliberate placement was evident, some of them may have been rolled in from either side. Possibly two bodies (B36 and B54) were associated with two Rising Sun collar badges (SFs 202 and 206), which are clearly indicative of Australian soldiers (the bodies and badges were so close together that they may represent a pair of lapel badges from the same individual). The depth of this pit and the fine particle size of the clay have created a sealed environment that retained water along with the probable products of decomposition. A similar environment prevails in Pit 5. More of the base and primary burials were exposed here, and it was evident that waterlogging because of the underlying clay subsoil had retained the products of decomposition, producing the black colour and strong smell of the primary backfill. The primary burials were laid out with a large gap (0.75 m) between two of the bodies (B19 and BP25/BP28). The bodies buried in the second phase seem to have been rolled or pushed in from the south, so that they piled up against that side of the pit.

8.2 Interpretive Issues


The Fromelles project represents a rare and unprecedented attempt to apply invasive evaluation techniques to a mass grave site. There can be no doubt that the operation has proved a success, especially given the complexity of a site which includes no less than eight pits and the three week timeframe in which it was carried out. The decision to evaluate all of the pits has certainly justified itself, as the exercise has identified a number of important variations between the pits, each of which represents a specific burial and micro-environment. The work has also raised a number of questions which can only be answered with further excavation and these are discussed below. Burial practice is just one of the factors to demonstrate variation across the pit complex, with each of the pits exhibiting some difference in the way that bodies have been placed, although all of them have provided evidence of at least two tiers of burials. The degree to which the sample areas reflect conditions along the entire length of the trenches obviously remains to be seen. However, there are certain observations which can be made at this stage. The placement of the sondages at different points along the length of the pits has suggested some variation in the depth of the pits, which may indicate that the pits may become slightly deeper away from the ends (as reflected in the deepest of the deposits - Pit 5 - and the variation visible in Pit 6, where there were no intact burials obscuring the pit base). Pit 5 displayed not only the deepest section of cut but also the greatest depth of burial deposits, with the exposed remains suggesting bodies lying three deep at this point. This may be a result of the location of the pit in the burial sequence: being the furthest away from the railway, it may have been the last to be filled, with every effort being made not to have to move on to a sixth pit; alternatively, it may reflect a general increase in the depth of deposits towards the centre of the pits. Given the presence of apparent overspill remains in the western end of the adjacent Pit 6, however, the former seems the most likely. The attempt to fit as many bodies as possible into Pit 5, thus saving on the effort to backfill yet another pit, may also be suggested by the excess spoil left over next to Pit 5 after the backfilling operation and visible in the aerial photographs (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007, 58). 56

Preservation levels also vary across the site, with the remains in the southern pits (1, 4 and 5) generally in better condition than those closer to the wood to the south (2, 3 and the west end of 6). This appears in part to be due to differences in soil conditions, with soil analysis indicating variations in the inter-relationship between soil deposits and the materials, including human remains, sealed within them. Variations may also exist within the same pits with the chemistry of upper and lower burial deposits displaying different properties, as far as pH and phosphate levels are concerned. It was clear throughout the fieldwork that the lower parts of the pits were generally wetter than the upper parts, though some pits, such as Pit 4, were wetter than others throughout. It was assumed that the presence of waterlogged deposits in the highly anaerobic environment at the base of the pits would enhance the preservation of organic materials the implication being that if soft tissue survival was going to be found anywhere, it would be at these lower levels. Soil analysis has, however, suggested that this may not necessarily be the case. The presence of higher quantities of metals may, among other factors, be responsible for an increase in acidity levels, and this may also accord with the very clean state of the bones encountered in most of the trench bases. The ends of all the pits were located through topsoil stripping and their locations and dimensions recorded as part of the site survey. As well as further emphasising the less than uniform nature of the pits, as suggested on the aerial photographs and the general impression of German military efficiency, this exercise suggests further variation in burial conditions across the site. The exposure of the eastern end of Pit 4 where the sondage was at the pits western end revealed pit fills which seemed distinctly wetter than those at the opposite end. This increase in moisture levels was accompanied by a very distinct smell of decay, much more so than had been apparent at the western end. It may be no coincidence that this, the western end of Pit 1, is not far away from Pit 4, which proved to be the wettest of the pits. This increase in moisture levels and a possibly related enhancement of preservation conditions, as demonstrated at least in the upper deposits of Pit 4, may be the result of subsurface topography, such as a relict ancient watercourse. This is again uncertain, but if such a feature were oriented in a north-/south direction it would also help to explain the wet conditions encountered in Pit 3, not far to the north of Pits 1 and 4 (though the presence of a long-since damaged field drain has also been noted here). Although the presence of two General Service Buttons, from Pits 3 and 4, is highly indicative of a British presence, it could be argued that other factors led to their deposition (they could have been carried in the pockets of Australian soldiers, for instance, however unlikely this seems). A British presence is, however, also strongly indicated by the high numbers of bodies evident in the pits. On the basis of independent research, only 173 Australian soldiers are thought to have been buried in the pits at Pheasant Wood, and given that upwards of 400 bodies may be present, some of these must surely be British. Indeed, if the high total is accepted, logic would dictate that they represent the majority of bodies buried at Pheasant Wood. Even if the lowest and very conservative estimate of 225 bodies proves to be the case, then this would still suggest a presence of around 55 British bodies. It should, however, be noted that there is uncertainty about the number of Australian bodies thought to have been buried at Pheasant Wood and the actual number may in fact be greater than 173. One indelible impression left by the exposure of the human remains at Fromelles is of the extremely violent nature of the combat. Many of the individuals display evidence of multiple peri-mortem injuries which have caused severe disruption to the bodies. Among the remains are individuals who have undergone some degree of first aid prior to death, evidenced by the presence of tourniquets, possible field dressings and, in Pit 1, perhaps even a makeshift crutch. These men went on to sustain further injuries which were obviously fatal, the majority of which appear to have been caused by explosions. This is consistent with contemporary accounts of the battle which describe soldiers being treated by medics in the midst of the fighting. In some cases at least, the blast injuries probably reflect the heavy use of hand grenades by the Germans in defence of their front line trench. The negative impact of this bone trauma and disruption on the potential survival of DNA should not be discounted, but at this stage it is impossible to assess. However, in all observed cases, even the most disrupted bodies still had intact bones and it is these which have the highest potential for the preservation of DNA.

8.3 Closing Summary


The evaluation fulfilled all of its major aims, and has made an essential and invaluable contribution to our understanding of the burials at Pheasant Wood. In summary: The presence of undisturbed burials were identified in five of the eight pits, with at least some fragmented human remains in the western end of one additional pit (Pit 6). 57

The c 16% sample partially exposed the remains of 50 individuals, and estimated numbers appear to be in keeping with the 400 bodies mentioned in the German burial orders. There was evidence for both Australian and British burials, indicated through the recovery of distinctive artefacts and the high number of bodies present. Evaluation and soil analysis have identified variation in burial environments across the site, from pit to pit, and also within the same pits (for example, between primary and secondary burial deposits). The condition of the remains was generally good, with only skeletal remains uncovered by the excavation. Soft tissue survival may exist in places due to localised conditions across the site, but the increased levels of soil acidity in the lower levels are in accord with the skeletal remains encountered where ever the basal deposits were reached (the localised nature of soil conditions must also be noted here high acid levels may not be general across the site). The condition of the bodies is such that they can be recovered on an individual basis. The only bones which were definitely disarticulated were those from the bottom of Pit 6. There remains,, however, the potential for partial remains and body parts from the other pits. Identification through DNA may be possible, but this would require the sample testing of remains before any firm statement can be made on feasibility. There is some potential for identification through means other than DNA as paper survival has been established, so the possibility remains that not all bodies were thoroughly searched due to their condition at the time of burial. The number of identifications that could be made in this way is likely to be very small, but the potential does exist.

9.0 Recommendations
Although the evaluation has established the feasibility of individual recovery, it is not within the remit of this report to recommend future actions on the site. Should the Australian and British governments decide to proceed with recovery operations, then the issue of DNA sampling and identification will require serious consideration. It would be possible to test for DNA feasibility from a small sample of bodies during the early stages of recovery and, if positive results are obtained, to extract samples from each body as the work progresses. The creation of a sample bank which could be cross-referenced to a grave identification code would allow reburial in individual graves to proceed without delay (though preparation of the site is likely to be a time consuming operation and so medium term storage for remains will be required). Thereafter inscriptions on gravestones, which in the first instance would presumably read Known unto God, could be modified to named individuals as and when positive identifications are made. The management of a DNA identification programme, with the requisite appeals for possible relatives to come forward and give familial samples, is obviously highly complex and involves a number of ethical and methodological issues and considerations although, once again, it is not within the scope of this report to comment further on these at the present time.

10.0 Acknowledgements
The Fromelles evaluation would not have been possible without the skills, experience and dedication of a large group of people. Paramount here were the members of the field team: Cecily Cropper (forensic archaeologist), Steve Litherland (forensic archaeologist), Iraia Arabaolaza (forensic archaeologist/anthropologist), Charlotte Francoz (site surveyor), Edouard MacLean-Masson (site assistant) and Gary Andrews (site management, logistics and plant machinery operator). Once again, Martial Delebarre played an indispensable part as local liaison and did much to ensure the smooth running of the operation through his procurement of plant and equipment. His comradeship and can do attitude was appreciated by all. The project was managed in the field on behalf of the Australian Army by Major-General Mike OBrien and Roger Lee (Army Historical Research, Australian Army), both of whom provided every assistance during the work. Dr Denise Donlon acted as an observer on behalf of the Australian Army. Captain Caroline Kelly (Australian Army) provided an important point of contact during the lead up to the project. Colonel Peter Singh and Sue Jorgenson provided on-site assistance. 58

Colonel Feliks Skowronski, Australian Defence Attach in Paris, and his assistant Sam Rossatto (who provided excellent translation services throughout) are thanked for their support prior to and during the project. Special thanks to the mayor of Fromelles, M Hubert Huchette, for his co-operation and the people of Fromelles for their warmth and hospitality. Access to land was generously granted by Mme Demassiet and tenant farmer M Serge Desruelles. At the end of the project, Mme Demassiet donated the grave site to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, an act of great generosity and compassion. From the Commonwealth War Graves Commission special thanks to David Parker, Peter Francis and David Symons and Lord Faulkner of Worcester, Chairman of the All-Party Parliamentary War Graves and Battlefields Heritage Group. Our gratitude goes to the regional archaeological and cultural authorities in the form of Alain Jacques and Virginie Motte, both of whom played vital roles in facilitating official permission for a British team to carry out an archaeological project in France. The following people provided assistance with the archive searches in their respective institutions: Dr Ralf-Peter Fuchs, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt, Munich; Roy Hemington, Commonwealth War Graves Commission; Peter Holton, CWGC; Marie Meriaux, ICRC, Geneva; Daniel Palmieri, ICRC, Geneva; David Parry, IWM; Hilary Roberts IWM; Dr Lothar Saupe, Bayerisches Kriegsarchiv, Munich; Greg Smith, IWM; William Spencer, National Archives, Kew, London; and Nigel Steel, Australian War Memorial, Canberra. Further vital assistance with research, translation and advice was provided by: Jeremy Banning; Dr Peter Chasseaud; Michael Forsyth; Richard Van Emden. We also thank the proprietors of Caf Gallodrome, Fromelles for providing a much enjoyed lunch on every day of the project. Logistical support at GUARD was provided by Aileen Maule and John Kiely. Report graphics were produced by Charlotte Francoz (survey products) and Gillian McSwan (section drawings). Report page setting and production was by Gillian McSwan and Jen Cochrane, who also provided general office support throughout. Last, but not least, the team would like to thank Lambis Englezos and Ward Selby, both of whom did so much to ensure that the project took place by highlighting the issue of the Australian Missing at Fromelles. Both of them visited the site while fieldwork was taking place during which time their moral support and companionship was highly appreciated. Last, but not least, to Tim Whitford, for his encouragement throughout the project.

11.0 Bibliography
Bass, W M 2005 Human Osteology. 5th Edition. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society. Ball, D F 1964 Loss-on-ignition as an estimate of organic matter and organic carbon in non-calcareous soils. Journal of Soil Science 15: 84-92. Barton, P 2007 Fromelles: A report based upon research in the Hauptstaatsarchiv Kriegsarchiv, Munich, November and December 2007. Carried out on behalf of the Australian Army History Unit. Unpublished manuscript report. Bascomb, C L 1974 Physical and chemical analyses of <2 m m samples. In Avery, B W and Bascomb, C L (eds) Soil Survey laboratory methods. Soil Survey of England and Wales, Harpenden: 14-41. Brady, N C and Weil, R R 1999 The nature and properties of soils. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Bell, L S 1990 Palaeopathology and Diagenesis: An SEM Evaluation of Structural Changes Using Backscattered Electron Imaging. Journal of Archaeological Science 17:85-102. Brooks, S & Suchey, J M 1990 Skeletal Age Determination Based on the Os Pubis: A Comparison of the Ascadi-Nemeskeri and Suchey-Brooks Methods. Human Evolution 5: 227-238. Buikstra, J E & Ubelaker, D H 1994 Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series No 44. 59

Caple, C 1994 Reburial of waterlogged wood, the problems and potential of this conservation technique. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 34 (1): 61-72. Cook, S F & Heizer, R F 1965 Studies on the Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Sites, University of California Publications in Anthropology, 2 (1965): 13. Edson, S M, Ross, J P, Coble, M D, Parsons, T J & Barritt, S M 2004 Naming the Dead Confronting the Realities of Rapid Identification of Degraded Skeletal Remains. Forensic Science Review 16:64-90. Forbes, S L 2008 Decomposition Chemistry in a Burial Environment. Soil Analysis in Forensic Taphonomy. Chemical and Biological Effects of Buried Human Remains, 203-224. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Gojanovi, M D & Sutlovi, D 2007 Skeletal Remains from World War II Mass Grave: From Discovery to Identification. Croatian Medical Journal 48. Goldberg, P & Macphail, R 2006 Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology. Oxford: Blackwell. Gosling, J A, Harris, P F, Humpherson, J R, Whitmore, I & Willan, P L T 1996 Human Anatomy Color Atlas and Text. London: Mosby-Wolfe. Hammon III, W S, McMechan, G A & Zeng, X 2000 Forensic GPR: finite-difference simulations of responses from buried human remains, J Applied Geophysics, 45 (2000), 171-86. Harvey, M & King, M C 2002 The Use of DNA in the Identification of Postmortem Remains. Forensic Taphonomy. The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains (eds) W D Haglund & M H Sorg, 474-483. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Janaway, R C 2008. The Decomposition of Materials Associated with Buried Cadavers. Soil Analysis in Forensic Taphonomy. Chemical and Biological Effects of Buried Human Remains, 153-202. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Kimmerle, E H & Baraybar, J P 2008 Differential Diagnosis of Skeletal Injuries. Skeletal Trauma. Identification of Injuries Resulting From Human Rights Abuses and Armed Conflict, 21-86. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Marjanovi, D, Durmi-Pai, A, Bakal, N, Haveri, S, Kalamuji, B, Kovaevi, L, Rami, J, Pojski, N, karo, V, Proji, P, Bajrovi, K, Hadiselimovi, R, Drobni, K Huffine, E, Davoren, J & Primorac, D 2007 DNA Identification of Skeletal Remains from the World War II Mass Graves Uncovered in Slovenia. Croatian Medical Journal 48. Nathanail, C P 2001 Terrain evaluation for peacekeeping with examples from Bosnia Herzegovina. In Ehlen, J and Harmon, R (2001) The Environmental Legacy of Military Operations. Colorado: Geological Society of America: 7-12. Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary 1996 Fourth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Parsons, T J & Weedn, V W 1997 Preservation and Recovery of DNA in Postmortem Specimens and Trace Samples. Forensic Taphonomy. The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains, (eds) WD Haglund & MH Sorg, 109-126. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Pollard, T 2008 Pheasant Wood Evaluation: Provisional Report. GUARD Report 12008, University of Glasgow. Pollard, T, Barton, P & Banks, I 2007 Pheasant Wood, Fromelles: Evaluation of Possible Mass Graves. GUARD Report 12005, University of Glasgow. Saunders, N J 2007 Killing Time. Archaeology and the First World War. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. Scheuer, L & Black, S 2000 Developmental Juvenile Osteology. London: Academic Press. 60

Schultz, J J, Falsetti, A B, Collins, M E, Koppenjan, S K & Warren M W 2002 The detection of forensic burials in Florida using GPR, in International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar 9. Society of PhotoOptical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Monographs, Bellingham WA, USA. Smith, B F & Bain, D C 1982 A sodium hydroxide fusion method for the determination of total phosphate in soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 13 (3): 185-190. Tibbett, M & Carter, D O 2008 Soil Analysis in Forensic Taphonomy. Chemical and Biological Effects of Buried Human Remains. Boca Raton: CRC Press. White, T & Folkens, P A 2005 The Human Bone Manual. London: Academic Press. Williams, E D & Crews, J D 2003 From Dust to Dust: Ethical and Practical Issues Involved in the Location, Exhumation and Identification of Bodies from Mass Graves. Croatian Medical Journal 44 (3):251-8.

61

12.0 Appendices
12.1 Body Reports
Pit 1 Body (B) Body Part (BP) B12 Position of Body Extended, prone & supine, left arm lies under skull of B22 Associated Skeletons Adjacent to B22, uppermost level of body mass. General Observations Lying upon the same ?German groundsheet as B22. Leather bayonet scabbard (SF93/120), wooden entrenching tool-handle (SF92), indeterminate metal object (SF118) and metal swastika and leather band/?bracelet (SF94) found in immediate proximity to right hand. Numerous artefacts associated with this body suggest that this individual may still have been wearing his webbing and include: 8 chargers of .303 bullets; a gas mask exhalation valve; buckles; strap-ends; and press-studs. A wooden object (SF187) found above the chest area tentatively identified as a fragment of a wooden rifle butt. Alloy fastening for textile (SF98); a textile pouch with 3 chargers (SF144/159/161-2,168,169); alloy strap-ends, buckles & a collar/ press- studs (SF100-103,117,124,126 -8,138-143,145-158,163-67,170-75), ammunition clips of bullets (SF129-130); and a blue enamel metal canteen (SF125). Preservation of organic materials (socks, clothing and leather strap-ends for braces). Lime present around body. Feet to pelvis lying in prone position, observable perimortem trauma to lumbar spine has contorted torso and upper body into supine position, trauma to facial skeleton. Observable state of epiphyseal fusion indicates a probable age of 15-16.5yrs (Scheuer & Black, 2000). Lying upon the same ?German groundsheet as B12. Right hand lies under heavily oxidised metal object (SF118) possibly assoc. with leather bayonet scabbard (SF120). Broken leather ?bracelet in situ over right wrist (SF119). Two chargers of .303 bullets lie above the skull, but under the groundsheet. Buckles (SF173/174) lie on top of right clavicle. Left arm lying under long wooden stick (SF219). Associated Artefacts SFs 92-95, 98, 100-103, 117-120, 122, 124-130, 138-172, possibly also associated with 173-175, 187

B22

Extended, supine, right arm lies under skull of B12, left arm lies over legs of B30

Adjacent to B12, uppermost level of body mass. Lying above B20, B30 & B51.

SFs 118-119, 184, 242, 257, possibly also associated with 173-174

62

Pit 1

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B22 (cont)

Position of Body Cont

Associated Skeletons Cont

General Observations

Associated Artefacts

B30

Extended, prone

Lying below B22, above B20, B50, B52. Upper level of body mass.

B20

Flexed

Lying below B12, B22, B30. Lowest level of body mass, lying upon the floor of the grave.

Cont Preservation of organic materials (clothing & leather strap-ends for braces). Observable peri-mortem trauma to left humerus, left thorax, left pubis, right distal femur (trauma has separated distal femur from knee joint and lower leg). Dental maxillary prosthetic found in situ within the mouth (SF242). Observable state of epiphyseal fusion is complete indicating individual is an adult (Scheuer & Black, 2000). Metal button (SF184) and leather braces for trousers (SF257) also found with this body. Left elbow lies immediately over long SF130, 188-189, wooden stick (SF219) and crushed skull 190, 193, 203, of B50, left hand is under left thorax of 218-219, 240, body. Right arm extended west, right 253-255 wrist lies under left foot of B22, right hand lies adjacent to right foot of B22; right leg disarticulated from hip socket, right foot under left arm of B22, left leg lies under SF219 and also under left arm of B22. Preservation of organic materials (clothing & possible socks). Observable peri-mortem trauma to left side of skull, both scapulae and upper thorax. Observable state of epiphyseal fusion indicates a probable age of 15-16.5yrs. Artefacts include: eyelets from a German groundsheet (SF188); eyelets & a button from a German groundsheet (SF129); metal button from a ?shirt (SF190); fragment of textile from the hem of a ?tunic (SF193); metal 4-hole button marked Excelsior (SF203); eyepiece from a gas mask (SF218) and assoc. components (SF130); metal buckle by right tibia (SF240); metal eyelet from above the shoulder (SF253); and metal rivets (SF254-55). Body consists of flexed legs, lower legs SF185 and feet and lies directly under the feet and lower legs of B22 and the right arm of B30. ?Communication cable (SF185) has been tied around the lower legs, perhaps to assist in the transportation of the body from the battlefield. Left foot travels vertically up the baulk underlying

63

Pit 1

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B20 (cont)

Position of Body Cont

Associated Skeletons Cont

General Observations the feet of B12 (the feet of both individuals are separated from one another by some 12cm) and both knees lie directly up against the south cut of the grave. Due to the position of this body within this grave, the rest of the body remains unexposed. The upper half only of this body has been exposed, the rest runs north-east into the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. The skull of B50 lies directly under the left elbow of B30, the left arm lies flexed under the left thorax of B30, and the left hand lies directly south of the skull. Left thumb is abducted from the rest of the hand (as if the hand had been holding something that has subsequently decomposed). Peri-mortem trauma has caused severe disruption of cranial and facial skeleton. An eye-piece from a gas mask (SF218) was found between the left thorax of B50 and left pelvis of B30. Body consists of a left mid-femur to left foot, the leg is flexed at the knee, the left foot is encased in a sock. The leg lies under the left forearm of B22 and immediately adjacent and east of left lower leg of B22, and may in fact represent the left leg of B50. The rest of the body remains unexcavated and lies in the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. Body part consists of left arm and lower arm which emerges from the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. This arm lies over the thorax of B50 with the left hand lying under the abdomen of B30. The arm also underlies the long wooden stick (SF219). The rest of the body remains unexcavated and lies in the east section of the grave fill.

Associated Artefacts Cont

B50

Extended, supine

SF218

BP51

Extended, supine

Lying under B22, poss. associated with B50 (and on same level).

None

BP52

Flexed, supine

Lying over thorax of B50, hand under B30. Lower level of body mass.

None

64

Pit

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B41

Position of Body Extended, prone

Associated Skeletons Left arm under B42, lying over B47. Upper level of body mass.

General Observations

Associated Artefacts SFs 205, 211, 212

B42

Extended, supine

B41s left arm lying under B42s legs & feet, B43 lies under B42s torso, BP44 lies under B42s lower thorax, B47s right arm rests over the knees of B42. Upper layer of body mass.

Body is lying prone upon a groundsheet and resting upon the left pelvis, directly up against the unexcavated west section of the grave fill. The right arm, right hand, and right leg (below mid-shaft femur), together with left lwr. leg (below the knee) of this individual remain unexcavated in the west section. The left arm is extended under the legs and feet of the adjacent body of B42, and the hand of B47 underlies the thorax of B41. Preservation of textiles (clothing?). Eyelet hook for possible ?tunic collar (SF205) and possible ?belt buckle (SF211) found on left pelvis, toothbrush (SF212) possibly associated with this body. Multiple peri-mortem trauma to the cranium, with the mid- and lower thoracic vertebrae partially displaced and out of anatomical articulation. This suggests that the body may have either sustained perimortem trauma to this region and/or that the body was also subsequently sufficiently decomposed at the time of burial for these skeletal elements to be found out of alignment. Trauma can also be seen on lumbar vertebrae, the greater trochanter of the right femur and both pelves. This is a young individual with a probable age of 17-19yrs of age. Remains of a possible groundsheet present around the cranium and possible textile fragments around legs. Left arm lying across the face and upper torso, position of left hand not yet clear. Right arm appears to run into the unexcavated west section of the grave fill. Extensive trauma to the cranium, lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae with vertebrae partially displaced. Loose teeth present, possibly as a result of trauma (no wear apparent on those visible). Similar to B41, this individual may have either sustained peri-mortem trauma to this region and/or that the body was also subsequently sufficiently decomposed at the time of burial for these skeletal elements to be found out of alignment. Post-mortem damage to

SF210

65

Pit 2

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B42 (cont) B43

Position of Body Cont

Associated Skeletons Cont

General Observations both pelves, sacrum, distal left tibia, and left metatarsals. Two small horn buttons associated with the sternum. Small horn button found near sternum (SF210). Body consists of (extended) right and (flexed) left legs and right foot. The rest of the body, together with the left lower leg and foot, lie within the unexcavated west section of the grave fill. Extended right leg runs beneath the torso of B42 and right foot is visible lying to the east of the body of B42. Post-mortem damage to both distal femora, bone is quite friable in these regions. Body part consists of a left distal humerus and left proximal radius and ulna. Postmortem damage to the radial head and proximal shaft (peri-articular area of radius). This body part is flexed at approx.30 (possibly abducted away from the body), lies beneath both B42 and B43, and whilst it remains unexcavated it may belong to B60.

Associated Artefacts Cont

Extended & flexed, lying on right side

BP44

Flexed, lying on left side

BP45

Unknown

B43 lies directly over left arm of BP44, torso of B42 lies above right lower leg & foot of B43. Lower layer of body mass. BP44 lies directly under the legs of B43, left humerus of BP44 continues beneath B42. Lower layer of body mass Lies above B43. Lower layer of body mass. Possibly belongs to B42. Upper layer of body mass.

None

None

BP46

Unknown

Proximal phalanx from a foot just visible in the unexcavated west section of the grave fill. It lies in close proximity and above B43 and appears to be pointing south. The rest of the body remains unexcavated within the west section. Body part consists of right lower arm, wrist and hand which extends from the unexcavated west section of the grave fill and is aligned in a north-easterly direction. The arm emerges from the section at a steep, almost vertical angle and is resting against the north section of the pit, above (but not in direct contact with) the cranium of B42. The palm of the hand faces south.

None

None

66

Pit 2

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B47

Position of Body Extended body, flexed limbs, prone position

Associated Skeletons Above B41, B42, B60, may be associated with B58. Upper layer of body mass.

General Observations Body consists of an individual lying in a prone position, right hand lies upon the left thorax of B41, right lower arm over the right knee of B42, right humerus lying upon left knee/distal femur of B42. Left arm may be related to BP65 or BP58. The right leg is flexed at the knee and rests against the cranium of B60, the distal tibia and fibula extend into the unexcavated east section of the grave fill, a left distal femur is visible extending into the east section and is possibly associated with this body. The position of the right hand suggests that the hand was resting upon an object, or possibly a fold in the groundsheet covering B41. Ribs and vertebrae are generally very fragmentary and in poor condition. The mid- and lower-thoracic vertebrae have been displaced, two lumbars are articulated with each other, but lie out of alignment with the rest of the vertebral column. Post-mortem damage to right shoulder, right pelvis, right distal femur and proximal tibia. Small horn buttons (SF261) found on right lower thorax, small metal button found by right femoral shaft (SF259,) gas mask goggles (SF260) in situ upon the cranium, possible associated with a toothbrush (SF213). Body part consists of un-sided proximal, intermediate and distal hand phalanges (the distal phalanges are flexed at c.90). The rest of the body is thought to extend into the unexcavated east section of the grave.

Associated Artefacts

BP58

Unknown

Under elbow of BP65 May be associated with B47. Upper layer of body mass.

67

Pit 2

Body (B) Body Part (BP) BP59

Position of Body Flexed, body lying on left side

Associated Skeletons BP59 lies under B42 & B47. Lower layer of body mass.

General Observations

Associated Artefacts

B60

Appears extended in a prone position

BP61

Semiflexed, supine position

BP58

Unknown

BP63

Unknown

None Body part consists of left mid-shaft to distal femur, patella and proximal end of the left tibia. The femur is aligned NNW, whilst the tibia is flexed at approx. 90 and seems to run east-west into the pedestal of grave fill that remains in situ to support B42. Post-mortem excavation damage to medial femoral condyle. Body part remains unexcavated as it lies under B42 & B47. B60 lies Body consists of a partially exposed SF216, 218, 243 under B47 individual - the right pelvis of B47 lies over right lwr. arm and hand of B60, & B42. the right knee of B47 lies abutting the Possibly. assoc. with cranium of B60, the right foot of B43 lies BP44. to the north-east of B60s cranium. PostLower layer mortem and excavation damage to left of body scapula, radial head and left ribs. Artefacts mass. associated with this body include: a horn button (SF216); an eye-piece from a gas mask (SF218); and a metal hook for a possible ?tunic collar (SF243). B47 and Body part consists of a right lower leg, None BP65 lie with B47s upper torso and BP65s left above BP61. hand lying above BP61s right knee. The Lower layer lower leg of this individual was covered of body by textile, fragments of which remain in mass. situ along the shafts of both the tibia and the fibula. The rest of the body remains unexposed. Under Body part consists of un-sided proximal, None elbow of intermediate and distal hand phalanges BP65 (the distal phalanges are flexed at c.90). May be The rest of the body is thought to extend associated into the unexcavated east section of the with B47. grave. Upper layer of body mass. Unknown. Body part consists of a fragment of the None Upper layer left frontal (including the left orbit) and of body the left parietal of the skull, and was found mass. to be lying on the left side. Preservation is good, however, post-mortem damage is present on the orbital margin (radiating toward the sphenoid bone), and also upon the anterior edge of the parietal. The rest of the body remains to be exposed and lies in the upper fill of the unexcavated eastern area of the grave. 68

Pit 2

Body (B) Body Part (BP) BP64

Position of Body Extended, supine

Associated Skeletons Unknown. Upper layer of body mass.

General Observations

Associated Artefacts None

BP65

Extended, prone

Body part consists of a left foot aligned north-south in the grave. Some postmortem damage is present upon the metatarsals, otherwise fair preservation can be seen. The rest of the body remains to be exposed and lies in the upper fill of the unexcavated eastern area of the grave. Hand Body part consists of lower left arm phalanges and hand, this body part could possibly of BP58 be associated with B47. Left arm is under elbow extended, elbow is flexed at approx. 90, hand travelling down slope towards the of BP65. Upper level north. Fair preservation, post-mortem of body damage at the distal radius and the head mass. of the fifth metacarpal. Textile fragments found on top of the lower arm, whilst an iron button was found by the left wrist. Body lies in supine position, the right humerus is abducted from body, elbow is bent, the right hand rests over the skull. The left arm runs along the side of the body, elbow is bent, hand rests on the centre of the chest area. Both legs are extended and bent at the knee, the right and left lower legs and feet are in the unexcavated west section of the grave fill. This individual has been wrapped in a British groundsheet which remains very well-preserved with retention of material form, elasticity, colour, with preservation of the numerous metal eyelets from a groundsheet (SF196). This individual has suffered massive cranial trauma and displacement, the overlying groundsheet was found to have collapsed into the exposed brain cavity of the skull. Remnants of a possible orange? tourniquet remains in situ over the right distal humerus (SF230), adjacent to the elbow, and the wrist also appears to be very damaged.

69

Pit 3

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B37

Position of Body Extended, flexed at knee, supine

Associated Skeletons Under B38, poss. over lower legs of BP48 (which remains in unexcavated west section). Upper level of body mass.

General Observations Trauma can also be seen to the right and left thorax, the left wrist and elbow, numerous vertebrae appear to be slightly out of alignment, the right pubis is detached. There is also excavation damage to the knees. A leather tie ?shoelace (SF225) was also found which the excavator thinks may have been tied to either side of the groundsheet in the region around the head perhaps to wrap and contain the very damaged cranium? An Australian ?belt buckle was found underneath the chin (SF228), together with a mother-of-pearl button and a ?eye (possibly from an undershirt(?) (SF227), whilst a alloy rifle ?cleaner was found by the right pelvis (SF195). Both right and left pubic symphyses display a morphology that suggests an age between 15-23 years, with a mean of 18.5 years (Brooks & Suchey, 1990). This individual appears to be robust and very tall and seems to have been forced to fit into the burial pit. His feet are running up against the north section and his head (which is facing west) lies up against the south section. His right humerus is lying over his face, his right lower arm is over his left shoulder, the left arm and hand is extended along the side of the body. His upper body is twisted to the left, and the legs are extended and slightly flexed at the knees in order to accommodate his body into the available space. Peri-mortem trauma observable on: right proximal humerus (right elbow is completely disarticulated from the right lower arm); left elbow and left wrist, left and right thorax; right scapula. The vertebral column is not in correct anatomical articulation or alignment. British general service button (SF 258) may be associated with either B39 or B40. Mother of pearl buttons from possible underwear garment found

Associated Artefacts SF195, 196, 225, 227-228, 230

B37 (Cont)

Cont

Cont

Cont

B39

Extended, supine and lying slightly on the left side

B39 lies over B40; right scapula of B39 lies directly over left foot of B38. Right leg of B38 under left arm and skull of B39. Upper level of body mass.

SF201, 221, 222, 223, 224, 229

70

Pit 3

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B39 (cont)

Position of Body cont

Associated Skeletons cont

General Observations

Associated Artefacts

B40

Extended, supine

Lying under B39. Upper level of body mass.

BP48

Appears extended, prone

Potentially lying under lower legs and feet of B37. Upper level of body mass.

cont in abdominal (SF201,222) and button with thread in chest region (SF223). Remnants of sock on foot and lower leg of B39 (SF229). Possible groundsheet groundsheet near left humerus (SF224). Textile materials (SF221) found around skull and upper body, it is possible that his tunic had been pulled up around face. This individual lies extended and half- SF198-200, 220 exposed in the grave the majority of the left side of the body lies within the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. The right humerus is abducted from the body, bent at the elbow, and the hand lies under the right femur of B39. The right leg is slightly bent at the knee, mid-shaft tibia, fibula and foot also lie within the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. Skeleton exhibits extensive cranial trauma (the upper portion of the frontal bone was accidentally removed by machine). However, the facial skeleton has suffered extensive disruption and both mandibular condyles have sustained damage, both of which appear to be peri-mortem in nature. Fractures are also present to the right thorax and the sternum, and there is disruption and displacement to the vertebral column from approx the 7th thoracic to the second lumbar vertebrae. Finds include a bone toothbrush (SF198); a leather ?money-belt around the waist (does not appear to be army issue) (SF199); a shell button found around abdominal area (SF220); and a gas mask/rubberised bag is nestled under the right armpit (SF200). Individual missing a number of teeth ante-mortem. General service button (SF 258) may have come from either B39 or B40. This body part consists of a left pelvis None and left lower leg, ankle and foot. The rest of the body lies in the unexcavated west section of the grave fill.

71

Pit 3

Body (B) Body Part (BP) BP56

Position of Body Unknown, possibly lying on left side? Flexed, supine

Associated Skeletons Lies above BP57 and below B39. Lower level of body mass. Lies below B56 and B39. Lower level of body mass Lies over B32. Upper level of body mass

General Observations This body part consists of a left distal tibia, fibula and foot. The rest of the body remains unexposed.

Associated Artefacts None

BP57

B31

Unknown, prone

B32

Extended, prone, lying slightly on right side

Beneath B31 & B33, same level as B35, Upper level of body mass

None This body part consists of a left mid-shaft to distal humerus and proximal third of a left radius and ulna, arm is flexed at the elbow joint. The shoulder and wrist joints of this individual remain in the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. This partially exposed body consists SF217, 233, 234 of a skull and arms of an individual whose body continues to run into the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. The body is aligned NW-SE and lies immediately to the east of B32. The skull is fractured and severely disrupted in the left parietal/temporal region. The right and left arms lay crossed over one another and also lie over the extended right arm of B32. SF234 is a leather wrist-band which is tied and knotted around the left wrist; there is also a mass of material of uncertain classification - possibly a tunic as a buckle and leather buttons (SF233) appear to be associated. A concentration of this material at the lower arm level may suggest that the garment was pulled up over the head. A cuff of a knitted woollen garment also remains on the left wrist. A matchbox (SF217) was found in the same area as the concentration of material and buckle (ie around lower arm and wrist area) and therefore there may be a possible association with a clothing pocket(?), particularly if the tunic was indeed pulled over the individuals head. Individual lies extended and prone in an SF232 north-south direction, with right pelvis, leg and foot running into the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. Right arm is extended upwards above the head, flexed at the elbow, with right hand up against foot and boot of B36. Left and right arm of B31 overlie the right arm of B32. Left arm is extended

72

Pit 4

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B32 (cont)

Position of Body cont

Associated Skeletons cont

General Observations

Associated Artefacts cont

B33

Extended, prone

B34

Extended, supine

tightly along the left torso, left leg is extended with the distal left tibia, fibula and foot underlying the right torso of B33. Possible cords of a head-band for gas mask goggles (SF232) run across the upper back of this individual (ie from the left to the right scapulae). Upper garment still present on the torso. Possible postmortem trauma on the skull from the removal of the overlying clay grave fill. Only the skull and the upper body are B33 lies over B49, exposed, the rest of the body is not visible B35 & B32. as it extends under the east baulk. This Upper level individual is aligned east-west and lies up of body against the south section of the pit. The right humerus is abducted at 90 from the mass torso, flexed at the elbow, with the right hand running partially under the east baulk. The left arm is also abducted at 90, runs vertically up the southern edge of the pit. Proximal third of humerus is fractured; radius and ulna are in articulation and run vertically back down the south edge of pit by the left side of the skull. The left hand presumably lies under the face. This body lies over the lower legs and feet of B32 and B49. Upper garment still present over the torso, although it is very fragmented and not well-preserved. Removal of clay around skull resulted in removal of the thin outer cortex of the skull which still had hair attached. Lies Only the legs (mid-shaft femora) and feet immediately of this individual are exposed, the rest beneath the of the body runs under the west baulk. legs and feet The body is aligned east-west and lies up of B35 & against the north section of the pit. The B36 right foot still wears knitted woollen sock, Upper level there is a leather boot (SF194) on the left of body foot, and the collar of a gas cape (SF231) mass lies between the knees of B34 and under the lwr. right leg of B36. No obvious trauma.

None

SF194, 231

73

Pit 4

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B35

Position of Body Extended, supine

Associated Skeletons Overlies B36, B34, B32 and under B33. Upper level of body mass

General Observations This individual is aligned north-south and parallel to B36 and B32. The head and right arm remain unexcavated as they lie beneath B33, the left arm is flexed, the hand lies over the left pelvis. The left leg is flexed, the knee is raised on the femur of B36, then slopes down and under the left leg of B35. The right leg is extended, the foot lies right up against the north edge of the pit. Gas mask (SF235) components located on distal end of left femur. Partial remains of tightly woven material on left leg. Loosely woven material (?sand bag/?lime bag) present and is wrapped around both the front and back of the pelvis and is poorly preserved. Partial remains of more tightly woven material on torso and left arm. A piece of wood was found lying over the right arm (SF238). Two buttons and a buckle were also found between B35 and B36 (SF239) together with a metal button (SF241). No visible trauma, although mid-thoracic vertebrae are displaced and lie only in relatively approximate alignment. This individual is aligned north-south and lies next to the west section, the right arm is extended at 90 to the body, left arm slightly flexed, elbow runs into the west section, the left arm remains unexcavated and lies under the left pelvis. The right and left legs are extended, with the right foot up against the north section of the pit, whilst the left lower leg and foot extend into the west section. The lower legs of B36 overlie B34, the right femur of B36 is overlain by left knee of B35, and the skull of BP54 lies within the crook of the arm of B36. Trauma to the skull and neck the mandibular condyle is sheared through and exists as a separate element, the first six cervical vertebrae are severely disrupted and exist only as fragments. A leather cord (SF237) is aligned east-west in 2 parts under the neck at the junction of the seventh cervical/first thoracic vertebrae and extends as a separate piece to the east of

Associated Artefacts SF235, 238, ?239, 258

B36

Extended, prone

B36 lies over B34, B35 lies over B36. Upper layer of body mass

SF202, 207, 236, 237, 239

74

Pit 4

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B36 (cont)

Position of Body cont

Associated Skeletons cont

General Observations the body. There was a safety pin (SF207) found by the left side of the mandible at the gonial angle perhaps to secure a bandage?; an Australian Rising Sun Badge (SF202) was found on the right side of the lower torso, and a brass wire was found coiled around the left wrist (SF236). This individual is aligned east-west and is represented by the pelvis, legs and proximal lwr.legs only, the right and left feet are under the body of B33, the rest of the body lies in the unexcavated west section of the grave fill. The left leg lies right up against the south section of the pit. Textile fragments found on both pelves, along the sides of both femora, and the right tibia and fibula. No trauma visible. This individual was identified within a small sondage which was excavated between the femora of B36, and consists of right and left distal femurs which are articulated with right and left proximal tibiae and fibulae. Due to the position of this body within the grave fill, the remaining skeletal elements of this individual were not subsequently exposed. This body part consists of the top of a skull which is visible tucked within the crook of the left arm of B36, foramen magnum is tilted superiorly and facing north. Head hair was found to be associated with this individual. This body part runs north-south in the grave and consists of a left arm and hand. The arm is extended, the shoulder lies beneath the left wrist of B36 and the left hand lies under the left knee of B36. The rest of the body remains unexposed in the unexcavated west section of the grave fill. Associated with a concentration of material around the lower arms and hands. It is possible that the Australian rising sun badge (SF202) came from around the shoulder level of this individual.

Associated Artefacts cont

B49

Extended, supine

B49 lies under B33. Upper layer of body mass

None

B55

Unknown

No associated skeletons, but immediately below B36. Lower level of body mass Below B36, Upper level of body mass Unknown Upper level of body mass

None

BP53

Unknown

None

BP54

Unknown

SF206

75

Pit 5

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B08

Position of Body Extended, prone

Associated Skeletons Over B09, B17 and under BP10. Upper level of body mass

General Observations

Associated Artefacts

B09

Extended, prone

Lying under B08. Upper level of body mass

This is one of the last individuals to have SF178, 179, 180 been placed in this pit. The neck is flexed in such a position that the foramen magnum of the skull can be seen and there is slight disarticulation between the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae, perhaps the head has slumped forward after placement in the grave and before backfilling? The right arm is abducted away from the body and lies over B17, the left is also abducted and runs vertically up the south section of the pit. Left arm is fractured above the wrist. As with B09, damage to these elements may have been incurred during initial excavation, as no carpals, metacarpals or phalanges are present. However, this remains to be established. An alternative explanation could be that the left hands of B09 and B08 may have both been lost peri-mortem. There is also trauma to the left torso and pelvis. The left leg lies over B09s skull, torso and left pelvis.Artefacts that are possibly associated with this body are a bandolier (SF178) which was located to the left side of the lower torso and above the pelvis, a mother of pearl button was associated with the left wrist (SF179), and leather straps for braces were found by the lower right ribs (SF180). This individual lies extended and prone SF75,181, along the south section of the grave and immediately beneath the left pelvis of B08. The right arm is raised above the head, the humerus is under the right pelvis of B08, and the hand is presumed to be under the mid-torso of B08. The skull is under the left pelvis of B08 and beneath a leather fitting possibly associated with the bandolier adjacent and west of the skull (SF178). The left arm lies in near identical position to B08, ie running vertically up the south section of the pit could possibly indicate the same depositional method? The left arm is fractured at the distal radius & ulna. As with B08, damage to these elements may have been incurred during initial excavation, as no carpals, metacarpals or phalanges are present. However, this remains to be established. 76

Pit 5

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B09 (cont)

Position of Body cont

Associated Skeletons cont

General Observations An alternative explanation could be that the left hands of B09 and B08 may have both been lost peri-mortem. The pelvis and proximal right femur are observable, the rest of the body runs into the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. Leather straps for braces were found by the lower right ribs (SF181) and also remnants of decayed textile (SF75). This body part consists of a left lower leg and foot. BP13 is aligned exactly as BP10 and represents the right lower leg and foot of BP10. The left foot of BP10 lies immediately above the left arm of BP08. Trauma to proximal tibia and distal fibula. Cotton thread runs parallel to the tibia and fibula, possible ?puttee fragment? Textile ?strap fragment (SF104) possibly associated with the ribs of BP10. This body part consists of a right lower leg and foot which remains unexcavated as the rest of the body runs into the west section of the grave. BP10 represents the left lower leg of this individual. No visible trauma. This body lies beneath B08, aligned north-south (and 90 to B08 & B09), arms are both abducted away from the torso at a 90 angle. The left radius was removed from its original articulated position within the left lower arm when it was disturbed during the digging of the sondage into this pit (it was also the first bone to be discovered at Fromelles during the 2008 season). There are no legs visible, although the position of BP24 suggests that they may possibly belong to this individual. The body is prone and aligned northsouth at the eastern side of the pit. Dental prosthesis present in the maxilla. The skull is articulated with the vertebral column to approximately the 7/8th thoracic vertebrae, both scapulae and the proximal half of the left humerus is visible . The body is in alignment with and partially overlain by B23, which lies

Associated Artefacts cont

BP10

Extended, lying on right side

Over BP13 Upper level of body mass

SF104

BP13

Extended, lying on right side

B17

Extended, supine

Under BP10s left lower leg. Upper level of body mass Possibly associated with ?B24, over B19. Upper level of body mass

None

None

BP19

Extended, prone

Lies under B23 & B17. Lower level of body mass

SF136

77

Pit 5

Body (B) Body Part (BP) B19 (cont) BP23

Position of Body cont

Associated Skeletons cont

General Observations over B19s right humerus. B19 lies in the base of the pit and is part of the primary depositional event. SF136 is a zinc eyelet found near the cranium. This body is prone and aligned northsouth at the eastern side of the pit. The right arm runs under the unexcavated east section of the grave fill. The skull and the left thorax are both severely disrupted. The vertebrae are not in complete alignment or full articulation, which may mean that this individual had sustained peri-mortem trauma to this region, and/ or that the body was also sufficiently decomposed at the time of burial for these skeletal elements to be found out of alignment. The body from the pelvis downwards to the feet remains due to its position unexposed. Trouser brace straps remain on left ribs (SF182). SF177 is a groundsheet that lies to the north of B19 & B23 and its position suggested to the excavator that this groundsheet was used to deposit these two individuals together into the grave pit. This body part consists of a right distal femur and patella which lies beneath the left arm of B08. The distal end of the right femur and patella facing southwest, potentially in the right position to be associated with B17. Gas mask components were found with this body (SF121). This body part consists of a right distal end of the tibia, fibula and right foot and is visible up against the north section of the pit. BP25 lies immediately over a left foot of BP28. May possibly be associated with BP28. This body part consists of a left humerus, radius, ulna and hand. The ulna and radius are fractured mid-shaft and both skeletal elements are twisted and flipped at the humeral articulation. Hand lies palm-down. Lies beneath B08 and the right pelvis of B17.

Associated Artefacts

Extended, Prone

Lies over BP19. Lower level of body mass

SF177, 182

B24

Unknown

Beneath B08. Upper level of body mass

SF121

BP25

Unknown

BP26

Flexed, unknown

Over BP28 and under B17 Lower level of body mass Beneath B08 & B17. Upper level of body mass

None

None

78

Pit 5

Body (B) Body Part (BP) BP27

Position of Body Unknown

Associated Skeletons Upper level of body mass Under BP25. Lower level of body mass Unknown

General Observations This body part consists of part of a cranium with an observable sagittal suture and fragmentary right and left partietal bones which is overlain to the north by a ?gas mask (SF137). This body part consists of a left foot (metatarsals are the only skeletal elements exposed) which lies immediately below the right distal lower leg and foot of BP25, and so may possibly be associated with BP25. This body part number represents a number of commingled right and left foot bones which were found within the fragments of two black woollen socks. These foot bones were also loosely associated with two mid-shaft fragments of two tibiae and fibulae. The morphology of the tibiae and fibulae suggest that they are from two individuals. However, this remains to be confirmed.

Associated Artefacts SF137

BP28

Unknown

None

BP62

Unknown

Black woollen socks no small finds number allocated.

12.2 Glossary of Anatomical Terminology


Anthropological reports use standardised anatomical terminology to record findings and undertake analyses of human remains accurately in order to ensure that the side, location, and other features of each skeletal element are consistently noted. Standardised anatomical terminology incorporates a series of internationally accepted conventions which are based upon the premise that the body is in standard anatomical position. Standard anatomical position may be defined as one in which the human body stands erect with the feet together and the face, eyes and palms of the hands directed forward (Gosling et al, 1996:1.2). A brief summary of terms used within the text may be found below (Gosling et al, 1996; Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary, 1996). Directional Terms of the Body Abduction Anterior Distal Dorsal Inferior Lateral Medial Palmar Plantar Posterior Proximal Superior To move a limb or any other part away from the midline of the body Toward the front of the body Lower end of the bone Top/upper surface of the foot, (also a term for the back of the hand) Body parts away from the head Away from the midline of the body Towards the midline of the body Palm of the hand Underside of the foot Toward the rear of the body Upper end of the bone Body parts toward the head 79

Burial Positions of the Body Extended Flexed Prone Supine General Terms Ante-mortem Articulation Carpals Cervical vertebrae Clavicle Condyle Coccyx Cranium Epiphysis (pl es) Alteration to the body that occurs before the death of an individual. Area where adjacent bones contact with one another at a joint. In life, the articulation contains cartilage or other fibrous tissues. The eight bones of the wrist, which articulate with the metacarpals distally and the ulna and radius proximally. The seven bones making up the neck region of the vertebral column. The collar bone. A rounded protuberance that occurs at the ends of some bones. Lower most element of the vertebral column consisting of four rudimentary vertebrae fused to form a triangular bone that articulates with the sacrum. Part of the skeleton that encloses the brain. A secondary bone-forming centre attached to a bone and separated from it by cartilage, commonly located at the ends of long bones, on the margins of certain flat bones, and at some major tubercles and processes. After a certain period of development, which differs for each epiphysis, it fuses to the main bone and no further growth occurs at that point. The timing of the fusion of the various epiphyses is one of the methods which is used in the age determination of unidentified individuals (Buikstra & Ubelaker, 1994). Dental implant that is used to anchor artificial teeth to the mandible or the maxilla. The thigh bone. The head of the femur articulates with the hip bone, the lower end of the shaft articulates with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint. The long, thin outer bone of the lower leg, articulates with the tibia just below the knee, and the distal end projects inferiorly to form the lateral part of the ankle joint. Large hole in the occipital bone of the skull through which the spinal cord passes. The point of the angle of the mandible. The bone of the upper arm, articulates with the scapula at the shoulder joint, and the radius and ulna at the distal end of the shaft. The five bones of the vertebral column that are situated between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum, in the lower part of the back. The lower jaw. The upper jaw. One of the five bones of the hand that connect the wrist to the fingers. One of the five bones of the foot that connect the ankle to the toes. 80 A burial position where the body is laid out flat A burial position where the body is laid on its side, (often in a foetal position) with legs and arms bent to a greater or lesser degree towards the ribs A burial position where the body is laid out on its front A burial position where the body is laid out on its back

Dental prosthetic Femur Fibula Foramen magnum Gonial angle Humerus Lumbar vertebrae Mandible Maxilla Metacarpal (pl s) Metatarsal (pl s)

Morphology Orbit Orbital margin Patella Parietal Pelvis (pl es) Peri-mortem Process Phalanx (pl ges) Post-mortem Pubis Radius Sacrum Scapula (pl ae) Sphenoid Sternum Talus Tarsals Thoracic vertebrae Tibia Thorax Trochanter Ulna

This term refers to the prominent or principal aspects and outward appearance of an anatomical or skeletal element, its overall shape, structure, colour, pattern etc. The cavity in the skull that contains the eye. The bony border that surrounds the orbit. The lens-shaped bone that forms the kneecap. Either of a pair of bones forming the top and sides of the cranium. The bony structure formed by the left and right hip bones, the sacrum and coccyx. Alteration/s to the body that occurs on or around the time of death. A localised projection, a bony prominence, (eg the frontal process of the maxilla). The bones of the fingers and the toes. Alteration/s to the body that occurs after the time of death. Anterior-inferior part of the bony pelvis that approaches the opposite part of the bony pelvis at the midline. The outer and shorter bone of the forearm, head of the radius articulates with the ulna, the distal end articulates with the bones of the wrist and the ulna. Curved triangular element of the vertebral column consisting of five fused vertebrae, articulates with the last lumbar vertebrae above, the coccyx below, and the hip bones laterally. The shoulder blade. A bone forming the base of the cranium behind the eyes. The breast bone. The ankle bone. The seven bones of the ankle and proximal part of the foot, they articulate directly with the metatarsals distally and the tibia and fibula proximally. The twelve bones of the vertebral column to which the ribs are attached. The shin bone: the inner and larger bone of the lower leg, articulates with the femur above, with the talus below, and with the fibula to the side. The chest - part of the body cavity between the neck and the diaphragm. The skeleton of the thorax is formed by the sternum, costal cartilage, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae of the vertebral column. A large, rounded elevation. Sole examples are located on the proximal part of the femur as two large prominent rugged processes, termed the greater and lesser trochanters. The inner and longer bone of the forearm, articulates with the humerus and the radius above and with the radius and indirectly with the wrist bones below. by Jo McKenzie

12.3 Soil Analysis


12.3.1 Aims and Objectives

An extensive programme of soil sampling and analysis was undertaken as part of the Pheasant Wood evaluation, with the aim of investigating the physical and chemical conditions prevailing both within individual burial pits and at the site as a whole. Several key objectives provided a framework for this exploration, influencing both the selection of analytical methods used and the design of the sampling strategy. These were as follows: - To assess the overall environmental condition of the site. Environmental features noted during the site investigation as having a potential bearing upon the condition of human remains included the sites topographic position 81

(at the base of a gentle slope), soil texture (almost entirely heavy, fine-grained clay) and land cover variation (within an arable plot, but adjacent to a small woodland). Soil analysis aimed to assess the effect of all these features upon the taphonomy of the burial pits. - To investigate potential differentials in soil conditions between burial pits. Differences in key soil properties (such as drainage) were noted during excavation to exist between burial pits. A soil sampling strategy was designed with the aim of investigating these differences, both between burial pits and against burial-free Pit 8. - To assist with speculation upon the potential condition of human remains further down the stratigraphic sequence in each pit, and thus the potential for future excavation/recovery of remains. With an excavation strategy of burial non-disturbance, spot sample recovery from (especially) lower stratigraphic levels provided an opportunity to extend the reach of the excavation overall. - To add to the overall interpretation of activity at the Pheasant Wood site. As an integrated geo-archaeological study, the soil analysis programme aimed to enhance overall archaeological understanding and interpretation of the site. 12.3.2 Methodology Sampling strategy. A total of sixty-seven spot samples for soil and deposit analysis were obtained by the author during the evaluation of the burial pit site at Pheasant Wood, Fromelles. Samples were obtained from each pit containing burials (Pits 1,2,3,4 and 5) and from one burial-free pit (Pit 8). Excavated at the same time as the other pits, Pit 8 was not used as a grave pit but left open and empty for approximately two years (Section 7.2) Pit 8 was thus sampled as a control for baseline soil condition in the absence of burials. A similar sampling strategy was maintained through each pit, with a sequence of spot samples taken in a vertical (where possible, depending on the position of excavation steps) section through the various backfills into each pit. These provided samples FR081/01-FR081/06 (Pit 1), FR082/01-FR082/06 (Pit 2), FR083/01FR083/06 (Pit 3), FR084/01-FR084/06 (Pit 4) and FR085/01-FR085/09 (Pit 5), with a complete sequence through the primary fill and into natural material taken from Pit 8 (FR088/01-FR088/12). In the burial pits, once the burial layer was reached, a more individualistic sampling regime was undertaken, with four to six additional samples taken at various points adjacent to skeletal material, surviving textiles, metal objects and other areas of interest. In the less well preserved deposits of Pit 2, these further samples were used to extend the sequence below the upper burial level. Samples were bagged and their position three-dimensionally recorded. Analytical techniques. Three techniques were used within this study: pH, organic matter content (SOM), and total phosphate (total P). These were chosen as the most suitable means of providing the most comprehensive and appropriate physical and especially chemical characterisation of the Pheasant Wood sediments in the limited timeframe available. All techniques are well established in geoarchaeological study, providing a solid basis for archaeological interpretation. Analytical strategy. Due to time constraints, not all samples could be analysed for total phosphate (a timeconsuming procedure). It was therefore decided that two pits at either end of the environmental spectrum - ie the driest, most free draining (Pit 2) and the wettest, most waterlogged (Pit 4) would be analysed in full for total P, with Pits 1,3, and 5 analysed for a reduced selection of their backfill deposits (but all burial-level samples). A reduced series of five control Pit 8 samples were also analysed. This strategy allowed a complete picture of phosphate levels through two key pits as well as a more general view of the complete sample series, with (crucially) every burial-related sample undergoing P-analysis. For the less time-consuming pH and SOM analyses, every sample was processed. Analytical methods. Prior to analysis, soils were air-dried for approximately three weeks and then sieved to 2 m m. The determination of soil pH was carried out following the standard method of Bascomb (1974). 10g of the <2 m m fraction of each sample was weighed into a glass beaker, to which 25 m l distilled water was added. This was stirred and left to stand for 30 minutes, after which determination of the pH of the solution was made using a glass electrode pH meter calibrated to pH 4, 7 and 10 one hour prior to the commencement of measurement. 2 ml of 0.01 m calcium chloride was then added by pipette to each soil solution and the pH measured again using the same method as described above. The addition of calcium chloride simulates the salts normally present in soil, thus making the solution more buffered against variability between samples, and it is this second measurement that is quoted in the text. Soils were measured twice to ensure that a stable measurement had been reached. 82

The determination of soil organic matter was carried out using the Loss on Ignition method. Here, the air-dried, <2 m m fraction was further oven-dried at 105oC to ensure complete dryness. Approximately 10g of each sample was then accurately weighed out into a crucible and placed into a muffle furnace and left overnight (16hrs) at 375oC (Ball, 1964). After being left to cool in a dessicator, the samples were then reweighed to determine the percentage loss of mass resulting from the ignition of the organic fraction. The long-cool burn scheme was chosen out of caution and the possibility of shell, carbonates and clay fractions being affected were a higher temperature used. Total phosphate was determined through the sodium hydroxide fusion method, following the procedure given in Smith and Bain (1982). Colorimetric determination of a 5 m l aliquot of the treated sample was then undertaken using an ammonium molybdate/ascorbic acid reagent, with an allowance of 2 hours for colour development. Standard solutions were made ranging from 0-10 mg P. The absorbance of the standards and samples was measured in a 40 mm cell at 880 mm. The standards were used to plot a graph of absorbance against relative concentration (mg P), from which the total phosphorus (mg/100g) was calculated for each sample and then converted to total phosphate (P2O5/P2 = 9141.96/61.96 = x 2.29). 12.3.3 Results (see appendix 12.10 for tabulated results of analyses) Soil morphology. Field and laboratory examination of the morphology of soils from both backfill sequences and burial contexts showed soil texture to be universally clay to silty clay. Flanders clay is notably fine-grained, giving it a very low water permeability (Nathanail 2001), and this property was very much in evidence both during poor weather conditions at excavation, and in the laboratory. The waterlogged sample set took an unusually long time to dry (over three weeks), and clay adhesion was significant, with dried samples extremely hard and difficult to break up and sieve. The reddish-brown to grey mottled appearance of the majority of the backfill deposits testified to these waterlogged, poorly-draining conditions, with mottled areas indicating hydromorphism the uneven redistribution of iron through the deposit as a result of leaching through surface water stagnation (towards the top of the profile) or leaching and precipitation through water table fluctuation (lower down in the backfill sequence as well as at the level of burial) (Goldberg and Macphail 2006: 67). At these lower levels, the clay is chiefly a pale grey gleyed colour, indicating iron reduction under anaerobic, permanently waterlogged conditions. Standing water was present in four out of the five burial pits during excavation. 12.3.4 Discussion Overview: pH. pH in calcium chloride ranges from a maximum of 7.7 (seen at the top of the Pit 2 sequence) to a minimum of 4.1 (seen in both Pits 1 and 5). However, very few readings at this lower end of the range are seen, with only 12 out of the 67 samples having a pH below 7, and only 4 below pH 6. The soils and archaeological deposits sampled at Fromelles can therefore generally be described as neutral to slightly alkaline, and finer variations within this range in each profile is discussed further below. Mild alkalinity within a relatively narrow range is to be expected for these soils, with pH having a tendency towards stability which is particularly strong in clay, due to a chemical resistance to pH change known as the buffering capacity, in which soils of intermediate pH status minimise the impact of changes in soil chemistry through the actions of reserve ions located on, especially, clay minerals and organic matter (Brady and Weil 1999: 351). It thus follows that for human activity to be reflected in pH values, activity must be of sufficient intensity to overcome this natural buffer. This makes the smattering of notably lower, more acidic pH values seen throughout the sequence of especial potential interest. These are concentrated in Pits 4 and 5, generally within the lower, waterlogged levels of the pit, with the exception of FR084/04 (pH 4.6) which is located mid-way through the backfill sequence in Context [4003], and are discussed further below. Overview: Soil organic matter. SOM levels are generally low throughout the sample sequence, with all except three samples falling within the range 5.93 0.94% SOM. There is no clear pattern of SOM increase into the burial levels of the pits, a possible reflection of the highly localised conditions of preservation and translocation of burial-related materials identified in the pit-by-pit discussion below. The lowest overall levels of organic matter are seen in Pit 2 the driest, most well-drained pit, but also that closest to the woodland boundary, and therefore in an area where we might expect a greater input of organic materials. These results indicate that even if a greater organic input is present, the more well-drained soil conditions at this pit promote a level of nutrient cycling more than capable of removing this, and presumably of cycling other soil chemical and physical indictors too. Outstanding among the organic matter results are three huge readings- at 54%, 28.5% and 14% SOM. All are taken from adjacent to textiles surviving within the burial environment and evidently contain more textile than soil. 83

Overview: total phosphate. Total P values are generally fairly high to medium throughout, ranging from 624 151 mgP/100g soil. As with soil organic matter, no clear pattern of phosphate increase/decrease emerges from the pit backfill sequences, with fluctuations through each profile, and a wide range of values obtained even from what might be expected to be phosphate-rich burial levels. The potential for this to reflect very localised conditions of preservation is discussed below; however, it may also be connected to the particular pH range of the sample set. Whereas in both acid (pH 1-5) and alkaline (pH 7-14) soils phosphorus leaches relatively slowly, in slightly acid conditions (pH 6-7) phosphates are leached quite quickly (Heizer and Cook 1965, 13). With the pH of many of the samples only a little out of this danger area, it is possible that differential leaching may be a factor in these very varied results; however, it is also the case that phosphorus retention depends upon soil temperature, moisture availability, and the concentration of such minerals as iron, aluminium and calcium, and there is no clear correlation between slightly acid/just alkaline pH and lower phosphate values. Unsurprisingly, the notably higher phosphate values (all over 250 m gp/100g soil) are seen adjacent to burial materials. Oddly, the pit which stands out as being the most consistently (relatively) high in phosphate is control Pit 8 (discussed below). 12.3.5 Pit-by-pit Discussion and Interpretation Pit 8 Control. Pit 8, located at the eastern end of the site, was one of three pits on the site not used for burial, and has therefore been used in this analysis as a control against the other five sampled pits (7.4.2). A fairly complex series of backfills are seen, partially the result of erosion and slumping over the two years that the pit remained open (7.2.3). A vertical series of eleven spot samples through four fills and into the natural subsoil at the base of the excavated area (FR088/01-FR088/11) was therefore unable to take in every identified, although a single sample was taken to the north of the vertical sequence, through notably gritty primary fill [8014] (FR088/12) (Figure 17). pH in Pit 8 decreases steadily down-profile from an alkaline response, before rising sharply into primary fills [8011] and [8014] and natural subsoil [8016]. However, this variation may be better interpreted rather as a dip in pH at context [8022], which is identified as an animal burrow. Total P and SOM values for this context do not show a corresponding variation, and it is possible that this lower pH may be derived from slightly looser, more free-draining material in the burrow infill. SOM is generally low, mostly in the region of 2-3 %, indicating a generally low organic matter content for these dense clays. This is predictable, with the dense clay seen throughout Pit 8 showing little in the way of roots, vegetable material etc. The highest SOM value is seen at the base of the excavated profile in subsoil context [8016]. This can almost certainly be attributed to the growth or ingress of organic material leaf litter, some vegetation cover during the period in which the pit was left open. Down-profile leaching of this SOM through lower clay layers has evidently not taken place, with what is likely to have been a small differential still visible in the soil. This may provide an explanation for the relatively high total P values seen throughout the profile these too are probably attributable to vegetation input, perhaps partly as the result of material ingress during the time the pit was left open, or the growth of vegetation on and in the backfill material during the long delay between excavation and infilling. As a control sequence, then, what Pit 8 shows most of all is the potential variability of soil chemical and physical properties at the Pheasant Wood site, even without the complications of the burial environment. Pit 1. Twelve samples were taken from this first burial pit. Six of these (FR081/01-FR081/06) were taken in a vertical sequence through infill deposits [2002], [2006], and [2013]. Here, all three soil properties pH, SOM and total P vary down-profile, P quite significantly. Higher P near the top of the profile could relate to land cover and P derived from surface vegetation, though the % SOM at FR081/01 is not that great. Moving into the level of the burials, a further six samples (FR081/07-FR081/12) were taken. These throw up some interesting suggestions. A significant contrast in P-values is seen between samples 07 and 08, taken within (08) and outside of (07) the German groundsheet identified as probably having held or wrapped individuals B12 and B22. Total P values inside the groundsheet are almost double that outside, indicating significant retention of a chemical signature, possibly by virtue of the fabric barrier. Evidence for such retention and/or lack of movement is also seen elsewhere in the burial contexts, with a notably high total P value (286.84 m g/100g soil) from FR081/12, taken to the immediate west of the surviving fabrics associated with the upper torso of B12, and a far lower (177.11 mg/100g soil) value obtained from FR081/11 taken only approximately 15cm further out from the body area. SOM values for the burial layer broadly reflect these concentrations, with a notably high (for the sequence) SOM for FR081/12. It would appear that within this burial environment, P movement may be very restricted, and thus a P-signature (and thus to an extent a SOM signature) may reflect extremely local conditions. It is suggested that this is due to the extreme impermeability of the clay and to the associated waterlogging of the soil. 84

Pit 2. The first of the two complete total P analysis pits, Pit 2 was selected for this as it represents the driest, most free-draining pit sequence, located adjacent to the woodland edge. With a more degraded series of deposits than those seen in Pit 1, the entire Pit 2 sample sequence (FR082/01-FR082/10) relates to infill material ([2011] and [1012]) with no significant spot samples of burial material accessed. During excavation, one reason for Pit 2s free-draining status became obvious: the clear network of both large and small roots extending throughout the pit, breaking up and aerating the clay matrix and facilitating not only drainage, but biological activity (and therefore physical and chemical decomposition of materials and associated chemical movement) in the form of microscopic soil and root fauna. Most likely as a result of this altered environment, the Pit 2 sequence is a more typical expression of an anthropogenically infilled profile, with pH showing a generally steady alkaline signal with a slight decrease down profile which reflects the free-draining nature of the sequence. In the upper levels, however, both total P and SOM are notably lower. This is interesting, as it would be assumed that the woodland would be responsible for some input of organic material, but this is obviously not a key influence in itself in terms of organic/phosphatic additions to the pit. Towards and into the burial layers, P increases sharply, but appears more even between samples, perhaps indicating more of a degree of P-cycling (again, as a result of increased drainage) and therefore a more generalised signature for this profile. Despite improved drainage through the infill and upper burial layers, excavation showed the base of Pit 2 to retain standing water, and therefore that no matter what the drainage regime of the pit backfills, the impermeability of the underlying clay substrate proves a deciding factor for the taphonomy of the Pheasant Wood grave pits. Pit 3. With a far better preserved set of burial-related material, the sample set for Pit 3 is similar to that seen at Pit 1, with six samples through ploughsoil and infill sequence [3002]-[3003]-[3006] (FR083/01-FR083/06), and a further four spot samples at various points adjacent to burial materials at the inhumation level [3010] (FR083/07-FR083/10). Situated to the east of Pit 2 and adjacent to the woodland, Pit 3 appears as if it could have more of a SOM signal derived from this, with higher SOM values through the backfill sequence than seen elsewhere in the sample set, and certainly than Pit 2 to the immediate west. Pit 3 is also notably more waterlogged at the burial level than Pit 2 the result of a broken ceramic drainage pipe (7.1.3). pH values for Pit 3 are steadily alkaline, as in Pit 2, again possibly decreasing slightly towards the base of the profile and the burial level. Most interesting are the total P values, which show significant variation, and appear to support the conclusions reached for Pit 1. Relatively high at the top of the profile (presumably as a result of vegetation cover/woodland influence), these drop further down the infill sequence before rising significantly into the burial level. The highest P-signature of the entire sample set is seen here, at sample FR083/08 (624.11 mgP/100g soil), at a spot just at the edge of the very well-preserved rubberised British groundsheet containing individual B37 (7.1.3). To the other (western) side of the groundsheet, a second adjacent spot (FR083/07) only slightly further out from the groundsheet edge shows a far lower P value of only 184.14 mgP/100g soil. Again, a possibly very localised soil chemistry, related to very precise conditions of burial, is indicated. This interpretation is also supported by sample FR083/10, a spot sample adjacent to surviving textile at the collar of individual B39. Despite being sampled as part of the surrounding soil context, the extremely high SOM from this sample indicates that a high degree of organic material, presumably from the textile, has leached into the clay immediately surrounding it, but appears to have progressed no further. Pit 4. The most waterlogged pit of the entire sequence, Pit 4 shows a correspondingly high level of organic preservation at the burial level, and as such was selected as the second complete total P analysis pits, with a sequence of six infill samples (FR084/01-FR084/06) followed by four spot samples taken from within the burial matrix (FR084/07-FR084/10). Interestingly, pH shows a sequence of three alkaline responses from the upper samples followed by a distinctly acid result from FR084/04, located within infill context [4003]. No reason for this strong change in pH can be identified, apart from the location of the sample at a step-point in the pit section, where it is possible that standing water over the course of the excavation may have affected the pH. However, this is considered unlikely and the response appears genuine, with pH from this point in the sequence varying strongly between samples, rising to 6 and 7 before once again dropping to 4.6 within the burial matrix. Although no reason for this can be offered, what this once again illustrates is the potentially inhibiting effect of the impermeability of the clay matrix on both physical and chemical movement within the whole pit sequence. Clearly, the acidic conditions prevailing at FR084/06 show a clear chemical separation from both FR084/03 (pH 7) above, and FR084/05 (pH 6) below. As is the case with the other burial pits (apart from Pit 2), total P shows significant variation between both the infill sequence and the burial matrix and individual spot samples within that matrix. With relatively low (for the sample set) values for the former, variation within the latter is extreme, with two samples taken adjacent to surviving textile fragments showing significantly high total P in conjunction with extremely high SOM percentages (54.05% and 28.59%). By contrast, samples from the same clay matrix (4007) taken from slightly 85

further away from surviving organic fragments show comparatively low total P values and low SOM. Once again, the inhibiting effect of this impermeable clay matrix on chemical cycling and decomposition is seen. Pit 5. The final pit in the sampled sequence, Pit 5 is located at the southern edge of Trench 1, and was notable for its depth, with the position of inhumations such that excavation into a secondary level of burial was possible. Consequently, a more extensive sequence of infill samples was achievable, with samples FR085/01FR085/09 extending from ploughsoil deposit [1002] down to just above (or possibly slightly into) lower burial matrix deposit [1019]. This sequence provided one of the most interesting observations of the analysis. pH through the upper infill sequence gave a predictably alkaline response, but dropped sharply into the upper burial deposit, recovering slightly before becoming increasingly acidic into the lower burial matrix (pH 4.1-4.2). This is surprising, as anaerobic, waterlogged environments are generally able to maintain a neutral or slightly alkaline pH. Exceptions to this are environments high in organic matter, such as peat bogs (Caple 1994). Although SOM throughout the sample set is generally fairly low (and continues to be so throughout this Pit 5 sequence, particularly into the lower burial matrix), this and to a certain extent the evidence from Pit 4 seems to indicate that as waterlogging increases, the pH of the Pheasant Wood pits may decrease. This may have implications for the relative survival of inhumation materials, with potentially worse bone preservation, but correspondingly better organic survival. Once again, total P and SOM of the four samples taken from points within the upper burial matrix show a high degree of localised variability, with (again) soils from adjacent to well preserved textile/organic materials showing a high P value and slightly higher SOM than those slightly further away from extant burial material. 12.3.5 Conclusions The key finding to emerge from this very variable sample set is that the dense, fine-grained, impermeable nature of the Flanders clay of which the Pheasant Wood site is formed appears to have created an inflexible set of burial conditions which has resulted in a fairly complex chemical and physical soil environment. How does this answer the objectives set out in 7.4.1? - The overall site environment. It is clear from the physical situation of the majority of the pits (ie, generally fairly wet and/or waterlogged) that the topography of the Pheasant Wood site is a significant factor in site taphonomy. With such an impermeable clay matrix, even a slight slope is likely to result in frequent standing water, slow runoff and resultant waterlogging and gleying near to the water table, and hydromorphism further up the profile. It is extremely likely that in the immediate aftermath of inhumation and backfilling into Pits 1-5, standing water would have run off preferentially through the looser pit backfills into the inhumation areas, probably quite rapidly creating a waterlogged micro-environment within which the impermeable, newlysheared spaded edges of the clay pit cuts created an effective barrier to water movement down through the subsoil. Only in Pit 2, where a rooted, aerated environment prevailed, was through-running water apparently able to pass out of the pit. It would appear likely that these environmental conditions will prevail into the lower levels of each pit. Incidentally, in terms of organic matter (and therefore possibly phosphatic) additions, it would appear that the adjacent woodland is not a significant influence on the nature of the burial environment. - Differences in soil conditions between burial pits. The analysis has shown that the many differences seen both between and within pits can be ascribed to the action of the clay matrix, firstly in creating local conditions of impermeability, and secondly by way of this discouraging biological activity and its accompanying decomposition processes. However, this does not mean that the differentials in conditions of preservation seen are therefore easily explicable quite the opposite. The unexpectedly high total P values from control Pit 8 are a good example of this where the processes of decomposition are so thoroughly arrested, the effects of even a potentially small influence (such as low-level vegetation development during the time in which the pit was left open) may have a clear and possibly confusing effect. On the plus side, it appears that within the burial matrix at least, this very impermeability has acted to freeze a significant amount of the products of initial decomposition adjacent to their origin, making good interpretation possible, and good preservation more likely, and creating a complex series of highly localised chemical environments throughout the burial matrix of each pit. - Can we speculate upon the potential condition of human remains further down the stratigraphic sequence in each pit? Yes, possibly. Evidence from Pit 5 (and to a lesser extent Pit 4) appears to show a distinct drop in pH into the lower regions of these pits and into properly waterlogged material. In the absence of high SOM values for these sequences (especially in Pit 5) we may speculate that burial artefacts, most probably metal objects, may have created more acidic conditions into the permanently waterlogged pit bases. This may have a negative 86

effect on bone survival; however, the bone seen so far in permanently waterlogged contexts (eg Pit 5) appears in reasonable condition. The potential for a slightly changing set of environmental conditions to be encountered during further excavation should therefore be borne in mind. -Does the analysis add to the overall interpretation of activity at the Pheasant Wood site? Yes, several features stand out. It is clear that not only the clay matrix, but individual burial artefacts also appear to have acted to arrest decomposition and nutrient leaching, such as the groundsheets in which several of the bodies were wrapped. This may imply that bodies were fairly thoroughly wrapped, rather than merely carried, within these coverings. A fairly hasty, or possibly not particularly organised programme of burial is also perhaps implied by the lack of a corresponding significant rise in pH in and around contexts where lime spreading is identified (eg [2013] in Pit 1, possibly [1018] in Pit 5). This appears to indicate that lime spreading was neither extensive nor particularly carefully undertaken.

12.4 Ground Penetrating Radar Survey

by Iain Banks

In response to some criticism that the 2007 non-invasive survey did not include a traditional GPR survey this was carried out in 2008 prior to the main evaluation work. The aim here was largely academic, to establish whether this technique would produce clearer indications of the pits and any contents than the 2007 survey. The previous survey was undertaken by Geofizz Ltd, a commercial operator, using a Future I-160. This instrument utilises an electromagnetic pulse to detect cavities, metal, solid objects and groundwater levels. It has been successfully employed in the discovery of a crashed Hurricane fighter in central London in 2005, and has been previously used to locate buried trench features and underground voids on WWI sites at Givenchy and near Ypres. Given the potentially problematic nature of the clay soils at Fromelles it was decided to use this equipment here in 2007. That Future I-160 survey succeeded in identifying the location of the railway, of the fuel pipe on the western edge of the survey area and the varying water levels across the site the latter of which gave some very useful indications of pit depths (Pollard et al 2007, 23-4). For the 2008 survey, a SIR-3000 ground penetrating radar was employed using a 200 MHz antenna. This antenna gives less definition towards the surface than the 400 MHz antenna more normally used for archaeological surveys, but it provides a stronger signal for the lower levels in the soil. The reason for selecting the 200 MHz antenna was the nature of the local soils, which were known to be clay and prone to waterlogging. This meant that the signal from the GPR would penetrate the soil less successfully than in drier conditions. The 200 MHz antenna gave the best chance of overcoming the properties of the soil, particularly when the burials were likely to be more than a metre below the surface of the soil. The survey was conducted using parallel traverses at 0.5 m intervals along the length of the field from the eastern end to the remains of the railway line. The results were processed through WinRADAN and through Reflex, both of which programmes are capable of displaying the data in 2D and 3D. The results of the survey indicated that the depth of the water table was roughly 2 m deep which was in keeping with the results of the 2007 survey. Beyond that, however, there was no clear indication in the data of the presence of the pits. The pits should have been visible between 0.3 m and 1.5 m, but there is little in the data to indicate the presence of the pits, and absolutely no indication of the contents (Figure 18 GPR plot across site at depth of 0.8 m). Given that the burial pits were cut into heavy clay and were backfilled with the same clay, this was not entirely unexpected and it is in keeping with previous work elsewhere. Good results have been obtained seeking burials within dry, sandy soils, but wet clays give only faint traces when containing shallow burials; burials that lie well over a metre below the surface in wet clay may give little or no response to GPR survey (eg Hammon et al 2000, 177-79; Schultz et al 2002).

87

GPR Results (2008) Extent of the site in 2007

Extent of the site in 2008

Pit 7 Pit 6 Pit 2 Pit 1 Pit 3 Pit 4 Pit 5 Pit 8

Figure 18: Results of the ground-penetrating radar survey.

88

GPR grid

Location of railway (based on topographical survey in 2007)

30 m

12.5 List of Contexts


Area Context Description Interpretation/Relationships Modern topsoil Post-WWI ploughsoil Backfill of Pit 6 Upper subsoil horizon Lower subsoil horizon Cut for Pit 6 Cut for modern field drain Modern field drain Upper backfill Pre-war field drain Body stain above upper burials Cut for grave pit Body stain against S side Body stain around upper burials (E) Body stain around upper burials (W) Lower backfill, above lower burials Body stain around lower burials Lime deposit to N of B17 Lime deposit over B08 Modern topsoil Post-WWI ploughsoil Upper backfill Upper subsoil horizon Lower subsoil horizon to N Upper backfill Cut for grave pit Cut for grave pit Lime deposit near base of 2006 Lower backfill, above lower burials Body stain around upper burials Lower backfill above lower burials Body stain around upper burials Ypresian clay subsoil Modern topsoil Post-WWI ploughsoil Upper backfill, above upper burials Upper subsoil horizon Trench 1 1001 Light grey-brown clay silt Trench 1 1002 Mid grey-brown silty clay Pit 6 1003 Light orange/blue clay Trench 1 1004 Light yellow-orange clay Trench 1 1005 Light grey-yellow silty clay Pit 6 1006 Sub-rectangular cut - 1007 Cancelled Trench 1 1008 Linear east/west cut Trench 1 1009 Plastic pipe Pit 5 1010 Light yellow-orange clay, blue-grey lenses - 1011 Not used Trench 1 1012 Ceramic pipe Pit 5 1013 Soft blue-grey clay, light orange lenses Pit 5 1014 Sub-rectangular cut with vertical sides Pit 5 1015 Dark grey clay Pit 5 1016 Soft light grey clay, black lenses Pit 5 1017 Soft light grey clay, black lenses Pit 5 1018 Waxy blue-grey clay, black lenses Pit 5 1019 Sticky black clay, calcined deposits Pit 5 1020 Creamy-white fragments and lumps of lime Pit 5 1021 Creamy-white fragments and lumps of lime Trench 2 2001 Light grey-brown clay silt Trench 2 2002 Mid brown silty clay Pit 2 2003 Light yellow-brown silty clay, blue-grey lenses Trench 2 2004 Mid yellow-brown silty clay Trench 2 2005 Light yellow-brown silty clay + orange sand Pit 1 2006 Light orange silty clay, blue-grey mottles Pit 2 2007 Sub-rectangular cut, vertical N side, Sloping S side Pit 1 2008 Sub-rectangular cut with vertical sides Pit 1 2009 Creamy-white fragments and lumps of lime Pit 1 2010 Orange sand with yellow-grey clay mottles Pit 2 2011 Plastic light grey-brown silty clay Pit 2 2012 Light grey-brown silty clay Pit 1 2013 Sticky mid grey sandy clay, dark mottles Pit 2 2014 Dense light blue clay Trench 3 3001 Light grey-brown clay silt Trench 3 3002 Mid brown silty clay Pit 3 3003 Orange-brown/blue-grey/yellow- orange clay Trench 3 3004 Light orange silty clay

89

Area

Context

Description

Interpretation/Relationships Lower subsoil horizon Body stain around upper burials Cut for grave pit Cut for pre-WWI field drain Fill of broken pre-WWI Field fragments drain Lower backfill, above lower burials Lime deposit in SE corner Ypresian clay subsoil Modern topsoil Post-WWI ploughsoil Upper backfill, above upper burials Upper subsoil horizon Lower subsoil horizon Cut for grave pit Body stain around upper burials Lower backfill, above lower burials Cancelled Cancelled Cancelled Topoil Part of back fill, prob 1916. Foot and lower leg found at bottom. Disposal of body parts at end of clean up Lump of basal clay within backfill 6002 Part of back fill of pit 6 Part of back fill of pit 6 Part of back fill of pit 6 Part of backfill. Slumped Part of backfill of pit 6 may represent initial covering of HR BP62 Related to HR BP62 and section permeating through which lay adjacent Possibly relating to iron object Part of 1916 backfill water percolation out of section

Trench 3 3005 Light yellow-orange silty clay, orange gravel Pit 3 3006 Sticky pale blue-grey clay Pit 3 3007 Sub-rectangular cut, sloping N side, vertical S side Trench 3 3008 Narrow linear NNE/SSW cut Trench 3 3009 Light orange silty clay, ceramic pipe Pit 3 3010 Light orange silty clay, blue-grey mottles Pit 3 3011 Creamy-white fragments and lumps of lime Pit 3 3012 Dense dark blue clay Trench 4 4001 Light grey-brown clay silt Trench 4 4002 Mid yellow-brown silty clay Pit 4 4003 Orange-yellow silty clay, light blue-grey mottles Trench 4 4004 Light yellow-orange silty clay Trench 4 4005 Mid grey-yellow silty clay, blue-grey mottles Pit 4 4006 Sub-rectangular cut with vertical sides Pit 4 4007 Soft mid grey clay, black lenses Pit 4 4008 Plastic mid grey clay, black lenses Pit 6? 5001 Ploughsoil and topsoil Pit 6? 5002 Undisturbed subsoil Pit 6? 5003 Fill of west end pit 6? (actually natural soil change) Pit 6 6001 Compact dark brown clay with some stones Pit 6 6002 Orange-brown clay, patches of mixed clay including blue-grey and brown clay. Pit 6 6003 Small patch of very compact blue-grey clay Pit 6 6004 Large patch of compact blue-grey clay. Contains organic lens 6032 Pit 6 6005 Small patch of slightly loos e dank grey clay Pit 6 6006 Large patch of compact dark grey clay Pit 6 6007 Compact blue grey clay with iron staining down side of pit Pit 6 6008 Layer of dark brown clay Pit 6 6009 Small patch of organic matter, very wet, sock Pit 6 6010 Small patch of iron concretion Pit 6 6011 Area of iron concretion, loose material, may represent iron object

90

Area

Context

Description

Interpretation/Relationships Cut of Pit 6. Different to cuts in more sloping, may have slipped (6007) pit 7 & 8, not as much slippage & weathering Undisturbed topsoil in which pit was cut Undisturbed subsoil Undisturbed subsoil Part of backfill of pit 6. Some iron pan dating to 1918/19 when pit unfilled see 6029 Piece of wire within material Part of backfill. Discrete lump of clay. Relates to post-war backfill Discrete lump of clay within back fill of 1918/19 Part of backfill of 1918/19 Part of backfill of 1918/19 Patch within backfill of 1918/19

Pit 6 6012 Pit us straight sided on S side. N side Pit 6 6013 Grey blue clay, quite compact, few inclusions Pit 6 6014 Very compact grey blue clay with quartz fragments Pit 6 6015 Dark grey and orange mottled clay, very compact Pit 6 6016 Mixed clay deposit, consists of blue-grey and orange clays. Pit 6 6017 Small patch of very compact blue-grey clay Pit 6 6018 Small patch of compact blue grey clay Pit 6 6019 Compact orange-brown clay with mineral staining. Iron and manganese panning Pit 6 6020 Compact blue-grey mottled clay with patch of organic material Pit 6 6021 Patch of relatively loose grey-brown clay

Pit 6 6022 Small iron concretion Part of backfill in 1918/19 Pit 6 6023 Small patch of grey-brown clay & stones Part of backfill of 1918/19 Pit 6 6024 Compact brown clay and some stones Part of backfill of 1916 Pit 6 6025 Patch of stones and iron pan in dark Part of tail of 1916 brown clay relating to layer 6026 Pit 6 6026 Loose dark brown silty clay, patches of Tail of backfill of 1916 iron running across from western end of pit Pit 6 6027 Dark grey-blue clay some orange fe Slip from side of pit 6, in 1916 mottling beginning Pit 6 6028 Dark grey and orange clay, very compact Undisturbed geological clay Pit 6 6029 Broad irregular cut, showing weathering Cut of Pit 6, cut in 1916 but on pit edges backfilled in 1918/19 Pit 6 6030 Light brown clay, fairly compact, iron Part of backfill from 1918/19 staining Pit 6 6031 Compact pale tan clay, very sticky and wet Part of backfill from 1918/19 Pit 6 6032 Thin line of black organic matter Not a root. Within backfill of 6004 Pit 7 7001 Dark brown silty clay, very stiff Topsoil Pit 7 7002 Compact blue-grey clay with patches of Part of the backfill of pit 7, post light grey clay and mix war Pit 7 7003 Loose stick, light brown clay Part of backfill from end of WW1 Pit 7 7004 Slightly loose light brown clay, with tree roots Undisturbed A horizon Pit 7 7005 Small patch of pale brown clay with no Lens is part of post war backfill inclusions Lump of clay from spoil heap Pit 7 7006 Compact mix of brown-grey clay Part of post-WW1 backfill Small flecks of brick or tile

91

Area

Context

Description

Interpretation/Relationships Material eroding from spoil heaps into Pit 7 Part of the natural infilling of pit 7 after 1916 Bottom of deposit of postWW1 backfill Remains of vegetation growing at bottom of pit. Original line of pit 7 after collapse of sides Interface between 1916 erosion and the 1918/19 backfill May represent an iron object in the in section and lying against original cut of base of the pit Geological deposit cut by 1916 pit Part of natural undisturbed very small tones and sand, gritty cut by 1916 pit 7011 Part of collapse/erosion of 1916 pit Entirely within natural deposit of 7018. Natural feature caused by waterlogging. Undisturbed geological deposit Undisturbed geological deposit underlying 1916 pit. Topsoil Back fill of Pit 8 in post WW1 period Part of backfill of Pit 8 in 1918/19 Part of backfill of pit 8 in WW1 period Main bulk of backfill of pit 8 patches of clay dating to post WW1 period Small patch within backfill of pit 8 Silting/erosion deposit within pit 8 Part of erosion of Pit 8 Undisturbed geological layer Cut of pit 1918/19 before backfill undertaken Part of erosion of Pit 8 and collapse of sides.

Pit 7 7007 Compact pale orange clay with small patches of blue grey clay. Patches of dark organic clay 7016 Pit 7 7008 Compact grey brown silty clay, dark grey clay inclusion 7016 Pit 7 7009 Silty loose grey-brown clay Pit 7 7010 Black organic debris with feathered lower edge Pit 7 7011 Irregular cut, originally steep sided and flat bottomed Pit 7 7012 Double V-shaped cut with northern end deepest Pit 7 7013 Large chunk of fe concretion, roughly oval pit 7011 Pit 7 7014 Densely compact clay with large amounts of iron pan staining the clay. Grit & stone Pit 7 7015 Soft grey-white clay with large mixture of subsoil particles Pit 7 7016 Compact dark grey clay in patches in 7007 and 7008. Part of general collapse 1916 trench Pit 7 7017 Small, roughly cigar shaped patch of fe concretion, roughly 0.100 m by 0.200 m wide Pit 7 7018 Very compact mottled grey clay with streaks of fe staining and quartz inclusion Pit 7 7019 Compact pale orange and blue-grey clay Pit 8 8001 Dark brown loamy claim, very compact Pit 8 8002 Compact deposit of mixed clays. Blue-grey in colour with lenses of other colours Fe concretions Pit 8 8003 Very compact blue-grey clay. Holster shaped in section Pit 8 8004 Slightly loose grey brown clay with fragments of building material in mix Pit 8 8005 Compact light brown clay with multi- coloured Pit 8 8006 Small patch of relatively loose orange clay Stones with fe staining Pit 8 8007 Compact orange clay with organic staining Pit 8 8008 Compact creamy coffee coloured clay with orange and blue clay steaks Pit 8 8009 Compact blue grey mottled clay Pit 8 8010 Irregular cut of Pit 8 after erosion and collapse Pit 8 8011 Compact blue grey clay with orange mottling. Patches of very dense clay, slightly grey in colour 92

Area

Context

Description Compact pale brown clay with blue grey streaks of fe staining and quartz inclusion Flat bottomed U shaped cut of original pit in 1916 with 3 m width due to collapse Very compact grey-brown clay with frequent quartz fragments Compact grey and orange clay. Patches of grey clay with quartz powered inclusions Very compact dark grey clay with orange streaks. Compact grey clay with quartz powder within fragments Compact grey clay with quartz powder within Patch of compact brown grey silty clay Fully within 8005 Slightly loose orange gritty clay with fe inclusions Compact grey clay c. 0.200 m x 0.100 m Dark grey clay

Interpretation/Relationships Part of backfill of 1916 pit. Original cut of Pit 8 from 1916 Material at bottom of 1916 pit Undisturbed geological deposit. Undisturbed geological deposit Part of undisturbed geology layer 8015 Part of undisturbed geology layer 8015 Patch within backfill of 1918/19. Patch of material within the backfill from 1918/19 Patch of clay within the 1918/19 backfill Animal burrow

Pit 8 8012 Pit 8 8013 Pit 8 8014 Pit 8 8015 Pit 8 8016 Pit 8 8017 Pit 8 8018 Pit 8 8019 Pit 8 8020 Pit 8 8021 Pit 8 8022 Find Body No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

12.6 List of Finds


Context No 1002 1002 1002 1002 1002 1004 1003 2002 2002 2002 2002 1002 1002 1002 1002 2002 1010 1010 1002 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 Trench No 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Spit No 2 2 2 2 3 0 2 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Pit No - - - - - - 6 - - - - - - - - - 5 5 - 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 93 No Pieces 1 Multiple 1 1 1 Multiple Multiple 1 1 1 Multiple Multiple Multiple 1 Multiple 1 1 1 Multiple 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Material fe Lead Lead Ceramic Lead Lead Lead fe fe Lead Lead fe Lead Lead Misc Misc Zinc Zinc fe Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc/fe Artefact Shell fragt/shrapnel Shrapnel balls Bullet Pot sherd Bullet Shrapnel balls Shrapnel balls Shell fragt/shrapnel Nail or screw Bullet (303) Shrapnel balls Shell fragments Shrapnel balls Bullet (303) Misc modern Misc metal Groundsheet eyelet Groundsheet eyelet Shell frags Ground sheet eyelet Ground sheet eyelet Button Button Button Button Button Button Eyelet Eyelet Large eyelet

Find Body No 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - BP02 - - - - - - - - - - -

Context No 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 2006 2006 2006 1010 1013 2006 2006 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 1002 2002 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 2006 2006 1010 3002 3002 1010 1010 1010 1010 1010 2002 2002 2006 1010 1010 3003 3003 3003 3003

Trench No 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 3

Spit No 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

Pit No 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 - - - - - - 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 5 - - 5 5 5 5 5 - - 1 5 5 3 3 3 3

No Pieces 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Multiple Multiple 1 1 1 6 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 94

Material Glass Zinc Zinc Zinc Lead Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Lead fe Lead Glass Misc fe Lead Lead fe Lead fe Lead cu alloy fe Lead fe Lead fe/cu alloy Lead Lead Zinc Zinc Zinc cu alloy Textile fe fe Lead Textile Glass Textile Zinc Lead Lead Lead Lead Zinc fe Lead Lead Lead Lead

Artefact Tiny fragments Button Eyelet Eyelet Shrapnel ball Button Button Button Button Button Button Button Button Button Shrapnel ball Shell frag Bullet Small fragment Calcified bone Shell frag Shrapnel ball Shrapnel ball Misc metal Bullet Shrapnel Shrapnel ball Drive band Shrapnel Shrapnel ball Bolt Shrapnel ball Shell (driving band) frag Shrapnel balls Shrapnel balls Eyelet Eyelet Eyelet Press stud Poss decayed sacking Ident lump Small frags Bullets Red, malodorous Clear sherd Decayed textile Eyelets Bullet Shrapnel balls Bullet Shrapnel balls Large eyelet Ident object Bullet Shrapnel ball Bullet Shrapnel ball

Find Body No

Context No

Trench No

Spit No

Pit No

No Pieces

Material

Artefact

87 - 3003 3 2 3 1 88 - 3003 3 2 3 1 89 - 3003 3 2 3 1 90 - 1001 0 0 - Multiple 91 - 2006 2 0 1 1 92 - 2006 2 0 1 1 93 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 94 B12 2006 2 0 1 2 95 B12 2006 2 0 1 2 96 - 4002 4 2 - 1 97 - 2006 2 0 1 1 98 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 99 - 2006 2 0 1 1 100 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 101 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 102 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 103 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 104 B08 1016 1 0 5 1 105 - 4003 4 0 4 Multiple 106 - 2006 2 0 1 Multiple 107 - 2006 2 3 1 1 108 - 2006 2 3 1 Multiple 109 - 2006 2 3 1 Multiple 110 - 2006 2 3 1 2 111 - 2006 2 3 1 Multiple 112 - 2006 2 3 1 1 113 - 1001 2 0 - 1 114 - 1001 2 0 - Multiple 115 - 1001 2 0 - 1 116 - 1001 1 0 - 1 117 BP05 2006 2 0 1 1 118 BP16 2006 2 0 1 1 119 BP16 2006 2 0 1 1 120 BP05 2006 2 0 1 1 121 - 1013 1 0 5 1 122 B12 2006 1 2 1 1 123 - 1001 2 0 - 2 124 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 125 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 126 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 127 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 128 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 129 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 130 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 131 - 1016 2 0 5 1 132 - 1016 1 0 5 1 133 - 1013 1 0 5 1 134 - 1013 1 0 5 1 135 - 1013 1 0 5 3 136 B19 1019 1 0 5 1 137 B29 1019 1 0 5 1 95

Lead Shrapnel ball Lead Shrapnel ball cu alloy drive band frag Various Various Zinc Eyelet Mod ? Leather Bayonet scabbard fe + leather Swastika + tie Wood Frag Zinc Button Zinc Button cu alloy/ Fastening textile cu alloy Strap end cu alloy Strap end cu alloy Strap end cu alloy Buckle cu alloy Collar stud Textile Strap frag cu alloy/ cu alloy frags + shrapnel lead balls Zinc + Eyelets and canvas frags canvas Lead Bullet Lead Shrapnel balls fe Shell frags cu alloy Indent objects Zinc Eyelets Shell Button cu alloy Strap end Lead Bullets fe Shell frag Paper? Wallet? cu alloy Strap end fe Indet object Leather Cord on wrist Leather Bayonet scabbard fitting fe/glass/ Gas mask textile Textile ? Zinc Eyelets cu alloy Strap end fe Water canteen cu alloy Press stud cu alloy Press stud cu alloy Press stud fe + lead Ammo clip and bullet fe + lead Ammo clip and bullets Lead Shrapnel ball Textile Button Brick Fragment Textile Textile Textile Bullets with packaging? and lead Zinc Eyelet fe/textile Gas mask

Find Body No

Context No

Trench No

Spit No

Pit No

No Pieces

Material

Artefact

138 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 139 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 140 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 141 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 142 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 143 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 144 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 145 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 146 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 147 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 148 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 149 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 150 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 151 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 152 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 153 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 154 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 155 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 156 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 157 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 158 B12 2006 2 0 1 2 159 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 160 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 161 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 162 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 163 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 164 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 165 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 166 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 167 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 168 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 169 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 170 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 171 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 172 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 173 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 174 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 175 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 176 - 4003 4 0 4 1 177 - 1019 1 0 5 6 178 B08 1017 1 0 5 1 179 B08 1017 1 0 5 1 180 B08 1017 0 0 5 1 181 B09 1017 1 0 5 1 182 B23 1019 1 0 5 1 183 - 1019 0 0 5 2 184 B22 2006 2 0 1 1 185 B20 2010 2 0 1 1 186 - 2006 2 0 1 3 187 B12 2006 2 0 1 1 188 B30 2010 2 0 1 14 189 B29 2006 2 0 1 1 190 B29 2010 2 0 1 1 191 - 2010 2 0 1 1 96

cu alloy Buckle cu alloy Strap end cu alloy Press stud cu alloy Press stud cu alloy Press stud cu alloy Press stud Textile Pouch cu alloy Press stud cu alloy Rivet cu alloy Rivet cu alloy Buckle fe Eyelet fe Large buckle fe Eyelet Leather Strap Leather Strap cu alloy Buckle cu alloy Buckle cu alloy Strap end cu alloy Strap end Zinc Eyelet fe Charger Metal? Button Metal? Pouch Metal? Pouch Metal? Button cu alloy Indet object cu alloy Buckle cu alloy Press stud cu alloy Press stud Mixed Pouch Mixed Pouch cu alloy Press stud cu alloy Press stud cu alloy Strap end cu alloy Buckle cu alloy Buckle cu alloy Buckle Brass Brass cap cu alloy Eyelets fe/lead Bullets and ammo clips Mother of Button pearl Leather Brace straps Leather Brace straps Leather Brace straps Zinc Eyelets Metal? Button Rubber/ Line cable metal Metal Metal object Wood Rifle butt fragment Metal Eyelets Metal Eyelets and button Metal Button Metal Button

Find Body No

Context No

Trench No

Spit No

Pit No

No Pieces

Material Metal Textile Leather cu alloy Textile cu alloy Bone Leather Textile Mother of pearl Metal

Artefact Metal object Coat hem fragment Boot Rifle cleaner Rubberised groundsheet Tunic belt buckle Toothbrush Belt Gas mask/rubbersd bag Button Rising Sun Badge

192 - 2010 2 0 1 1 193 B29 2006 2 1 1 194 B34 4007 4 0 4 1 195 B37 3006 3 0 3 1 196 B37 3006 3 0 3 1 197 B38 3006 3 0 3 1 198 B40 3006 3 0 3 1 199 B40 3006 3 0 3 1 200 B40 3006 3 0 3 1 201 B39 3006 3 0 3 1 202 B36/ 4007 4 0 4 1 BP54 203 B30 2010 1 0 1 1 204 - 2003 2 0 2 1 205 B41 2011 2 0 2 1 206 B36 4007 4 4 4 1 207 B36 4007 4 0 4 1 208 - 2012 2 0 2 1 209 - 2012 2 0 2 2 210 B42 2011 2 0 2 2 211 - 2011 2 2 2 1 212 - 2011 2 0 2 1 213 - 2011 2 0 2 1 214 - 2003 2 0 2 1 215 - 2011 2 0 2 1 216 B60 2011 2 0 2 1 217 B31 4007 4 0 4 1 218 B50 2010 2 0 1 1 219 B30 2010 2 0 1 1 220 B40 3006 3 0 3 1 221 B39 3006 3 0 3 2 222 B39 3006 3 0 3 1 223 B39 3006 3 0 3 1 224 B39 3006 3 0 3 1 225 B37 3006 3 0 3 1 226 B38 3006 3 0 3 1 227 B37 3006 3 0 3 2 228 B37 3006 3 0 3 1 229 B39 3006 3 0 3 2 230 B37 3006 3 0 3 1 231 B34 4007 4 0 4 1 232 B32 4007 4 0 4 1 233 B31 4007 4 0 4 3 234 B31 4007 4 0 4 1 235 B35 4007 4 0 4 3 236 B36 4007 4 0 4 1 237 B36 4007 4 0 4 2 238 B35 4007 4 0 4 1 239 B35/ 4007 4 0 4 3 B36 240 B30 2010 2 0 1 1 241 B35 3006 3 0 4 1 242 B22 2010 2 0 1 1 97

Metal Button Ceramic Earthenware Metal Garment/eyelet Metal Badge Metal Safety pin Leather Shoe? Leather Material Horn Button cu alloy Buckle Bone Toothbrush Bone Toothbrush Metal + Buckle textile fe Metal Horn Button Paper Match box Glass Eye-piece Wood Stick Shell Button Textile Tunic? Vest? Shell Button Horn Button with thread Rubber Poss groundsheet Textile With leather & thread Textile Sock Horn Eyelet? + button cu alloy Buckle Textile Sock Rubber Tourniquet Rubberised Collar of groundshhet Rubberised Band for goggles? Metal? Buckle/2 buttons Leather Wrist band Rubberised Gas mask/goggles Metal - Wire fixings bronze? Leather Cord Wood Piece of wood Metal 2 button/1 buckle Metal fe/alloy Plastic Buckle General Service Button Dental prosthetic

Find Body No

Context No

Trench No

Spit No

Pit No

No Pieces

Material

Artefact

243 B60 2011 2 0 2 1 cu alloy/ textile 244 - 2010 2 0 1 1 Textile 245 - U/S 2 0 - 3 Zinc 246 - 4007 4 0 4 1 Lead 247 - 4007 4 0 4 1 metal 248 - 2006 2 0 1 1 cu alloy 249 - 2006 2 0 1 1 cu alloy 250 - 2006 2 0 1 1 Textile 251 - 2010 2 0 1 1 cu alloy 252 - 2010 2 0 1 1 cu alloy 253 B30 2010 2 0 1 3 Metal 254 B30 2010 2 0 1 2 Metal 255 B30 2010 2 0 1 3 Metal 256 B22 2010 2 0 1 1 Metal 257 B22 2006 2 0 1 2 Leather 258 B39/ 4007 3 0 3 4 Metal B40 259 B47 2011 2 0 2 1 cu alloy 260 B47 2011 2 0 2 4 fe + glass 261 B47 2011 2 0 2 1 cu alloy 730 - 3002 3 2 - Multiple Lead 740 - 3003 3 3 3 1 cu alloy 750 - 3003 3 3 3 1 Lead 760 - 1001 0 0 - Multiple Various 770 - 3003 3 0 3 Multiple fe 780 - 2006 1 0 1 Multiple Lead 790 - 2006 1 0 1 1 cu alloy 800 - 2006 2 0 1 1 Zinc 810 - 2006 2 0 1 1 Zinc 820 - 2006 2 0 1 1 Zinc 830 - 4003 4 0 4 1 cu alloy 840 - 4003 4 1 4 1 cu alloy 850 - 4003 4 1 4 1 Lead 860 - 4003 4 1 4 1 Lead 870 - 4003 4 1 4 1 Lead 880 - 4002 4 2 - Multiple Lead 890 - 4002 4 2 - Multiple fe

Hook for collar Poss groundsheet Eyelets Shrapnel ball Buttons Chargers Chargers Ground sheet Bullet Cartridge case Eyelet Rivet Rivets Object Braces General Service and other buttons Button Gas helmet eyepiece Button Shrapnel balls Drive band frags Bullet Various Shell Shrapnel ball Drive band fragment Eyelet Eyelet Eyelet Bullet Spring Shrapnel balls Shrapnel balls Shrapnel balls Shrapnel balls Shell fragments

12.7 List of Samples


Area Pit 5 Pit 5 Pit 1 Pit 1 Pit 5 Pit 2 Pit 2 - - - - Pit 5 Pit 1 Sample No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Context No Size Description Lime Pupae case Lime in lower part of backfill 2006 Lime from directly above upper burials Dark grey deposit against S side of pit Lime in lower part of backfill 2003 Discoloured lime from level of upper burials Cancelled Cancelled Cancelled Cancelled Pupae cases with black concentrations at top of 1016 Pupae case 98 1013 S 1013 S 2009 S 2009 L 1015 S 2003 L 2003 S - - - - 1016 L 2006 S

Area Pit 3 15 Pit 5 Pit 1 Pit 1 Pit 1 Pit 1 B30 Pit 1 Pit 1

Sample No 14 - 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Context No 3006 - 1017 2006 2006 2006 2010 2010 2010

Size S - S S S S S M M

Description Discoloured lime from directly above upper burials Cancelled Pupae cases associated with B09 Soil with textile, associated with B12 for element analysis Possible grass Insect remains (floated up in water that filled base of pit) Soil associated with possible decayed ferrous object E of Stretchy material associated with sample 20 (= SF 244) Crystalline material in SW corner of trench

12.8 List of Drawings


Area Pit 5 Pit 5 Pit 2 Pit 7 Pit 8 Pit 6 Pit 6 Drawing No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sheet No 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 Subject W-facing section across upper part of cut Plan of possible spade cuts along S side of cut E-facing section across upper pit fill E-facing section across Pit 7 E-facing section across Pit 8 E-facing section across Pit 6 W-facing section across Pit 6 Scale 1:10 1:20 1:10 1:20 1:`0 1:10 1:10

12.9 List of Photographs


Photo Zone No Zone No Context No Subject Description Pit 8 area before trenching Pit 7 area before trenching Pit 6 area before trenching Pit 5 area before trenching Pit 4 area before trenching Pit 3 area before trenching Pit 2 area before trenching Pit 1 area before trenching Trench 1/2 - Pits 6 and 5 Trench 1/2 - Pits 6 and 5 Spit 1 (north end,) section 1 Spit 1, section 2 Spit 1, section 3 Spit 1, section 4 Spit 1, section 5 General view of N end of trench North end of trench N 2-3 m N 2-3 m , 2nd section (to S) M 2-3 m , 3rd section (to S) Ground sheet eyelets in situ Ground sheet eyelets in situ Ground sheet eyelets in situ Ground sheet eyelets in situ Decayed eyelet (to left of scale) Of circular hold/vopid in Pit 1 fill Circular hole/void in Pit 1 fill From E E E E E E E E S N N N N N N S S W W W N S N N N N N

1 Pit 8 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 2 Pit 7 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 3 Pit 6 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 4 Pit 5 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 5 Pit 4 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 6 Pit 3 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 7 Pit 2 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 8 Pit 1 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 9 Tr 1/2 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 10 Tr 1/2 Topsoil Pre-ex shot of 11 Tr 1 001 Post-ex shot of 12 Tr 1 001 Post-ex shot of 13 Tr 1 001 Post-ex shot of 14 Tr 1 001 Post-ex shot of 15 Tr 1 001 Post-ex shot of 16 Tr 1 1003-1009 Pre-ex shot of 17 Tr 1 1003-1009 Pre-ex shot of 18 Tr 1 1001-1009 W facing section 19 Tr 1 1001-1009 W facing section 20 Tr 1 1001-1009 W facing section 21 Pit 5 1010 SFs 17, 18 22 Pit 5 1010 SFs, 19, 20 23 Pit 5 1010 SFs 22-31 24 Pit 5 1010 SFs 22-34 25 Pit 5 1010 SF 28 26 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of 27 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 99

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description Through pit 5 (with targets) during removal of 1010 (between ranging rods) During removal of 1010 (detail) Pit 2 Pit 2 In plan, south edge of pit 5 In plan, south edge of pit 5 In plan, south edge of pit 5 In plan, south edge of pit 5 In plan, south edge of pit 5 In plan, south edge of pit 5 In plan, south edge of pit 5 Pit 1 Pit 1 Pit 1 Pit 1 Pit 1 Pit SF 68 in situ BPs 01-03 in situ BPs 01-03 in situ BP 01 in situ BPs 02 + 03 in situ, withtextile SF 75 Additional articulated part of BP 01 in situ BP04 in situ Pit 1 after trench widening Pit 1 after trench widening Pit 1 after trench widening Pit 1 after trench widening Pit 1 after trench widening Pit 1 after trench widening Pit 1 after trench widening Pit 3 Pit 3 Of 1016, 1017 during removal of 1013 Of 1016, 1017 during removal of 1013 During removal of 1013 During removal of 1013 Ground sheet eyelets in situ Ground sheet eyelets in situ Bayonet scabbard & trenching tool handle in situ Bayonet scabbard & handle in situ Bayonet scabbard &

From W W W SE N W W W W S S S S E S W N NW S+A N N N N N S E N W S E+A E+A E+A S S N+A N+A N N S S S S S

28 Pit 5 1010, 1014 W facing section 29 Pit 5 1010, 1014 Working shot 30 Pit 5 1010, 1014 Working shot 31 Pit 2 2003 Pre-ex shot of 32 Pit 2 2003 Pre-ex shot of 33 Pit 5 1010, 1004 Possible spade cuts 34 Pit 5 1010, 1004 Possible spade cuts 35 Pit 5 1010, 1004 Possible spade cuts 36 Pit 5 1010, 1004 Possible spade cuts 37 Pit 5 1010, 1004 Possible spade cuts 38 Pit 5 1010, 1004 Possible spade cuts 39 Pit 5 1010, 1004 Possible spade cuts 40 Pit 1 2005, 2006 Pre-ex shot of 41 Pit 1 2005, 2006 Pre-ex shot of 42 Pit 1 2005, 2006 Pre-ex shot of 43 Pit 1 2005, 2006 Pre-ex shot of 44 Pit 1 2005, 2006 Pre-ex shot of 45 Pit 1 2005, 2006 Pre-ex shot of 46 Pit 1 2006, SF68 Detail shot of 47 Pit 5 BP 01, 02, Detail shot of 03 48 Pit 5 BP 01, 02, Wider shot of 03 49 Pit 5 BP 01 Detail shot of 50 Pit 5 BP 02, Detail shot of 03 51 Pit 5 BP 01 Detail shot of 52 Pit 1 - Detail shot of 53 Pit 1 2006-2005 Pre-ex shot of 54 Pit 1 2006-2005 Pre-ex shot of 55 Pit 1 2005-2006 Pre-ex shot of 56 Pit 1 2005-2006 Pre-ex shot of 57 Pit 1 2005-2006 Pre-ex shot of 58 Pit 1 2005-2006 Pre-ex shot of 59 Pit 1 2005-2006 Pre-ex shot of 60 Pit 3 3003, 3005 Pre-ex shot of 61 Pit 3 3003, 3005 Pre-ex shot of 62 Pit 5 1016, 1013 Working shot of 63 Pit 5 1016, 1013 Working shot of 64 Pit 5 1016 Working shot 65 Pit 5 1016 Working shot 66 Pit 1 2006 SFs 80-82 67 Pit 1 2006 SFs 80-82 68 Pit 1 SFs 92-95 Working shot of 69 Pit 1 SFs 92-95 Working shot of trenching tool 70 Pit 1 SFs 92-95 Working shot of trenching tool handle in situ

100

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description Bayonet scabbard & handle in situ Bayonet scabbard & handle in situ Pit 4 Pit 4 Pit 4 In situ Strap ends and buckle in situ with articulated hand Strap ends and buckle in situ with articulated hand Strap ends and buckle in situ Strap ends and buckle in situ Socks partially uncovered Socks partially uncovered Socks partially uncovered Socks partially uncovered eyelets and canvas SF 106 eyelets and canvas Feet of B 13 with socks in situ Feet of B 13 with socks in situ Feet of B 13 with socks - wide shot Strap end Strap end - wide shot, BP8 in background Lower legs with puttees and socks lower legs with puttees and socks SFs 118, 119 articulated hand, leather thong and fe object SFs 118, 119 articulated hand, leather thong and fe object SFS 118, 119 articulated hand, leather thong and fe object SFs 118, 119 articulated hand, leather thong and fe object Puttees on left leg of BP15 Puttees on left leg of BP15 Puttees on left leg of BP15 Sample 17 textile probably associated with BP15 Femur and cu alloy buckle, press studs and textile SF 120

From S S E+A E+A S N S S S S S W W W W N N E E E E+A E+A E E S+A S+A S+A S+A E+A E+A E+A E+A E

71 Pit 1 SFs 92-95 Working shot of trenching tool 72 Pit 1 SFs 92-95 Working shot of trenching tool 73 Pit 4 4003, 4005 Pre-ex shot of 74 Pit 4 4003, 4005 Pre-ex shot of 75 Pit 4 4003, 4005 4003, 4004 76 Pit 5 BP 11 BP 11 77 Pit 1 B 12, Working shot of SFs 100-2 78 Pit 1 B 12, Working shot of SFs 100-2 79 Pit 1 B 12, Working shot of SFs 100-2 80 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of 81 Pit 1 B12 Working shot 82 Pit 1 B12 Working shot 83 Pit 1 B12 Working shot 84 Pit 1 B12 Working shot 85 Pit 1 SF106 Working shot 86 Pit 1 SF106 Working shot 87 Pit 1 B12 Working shot 88 Pit 1 B12 Working shot 89 Pit 1 B13 Working shot 90 Pit 1 SF 117 B05 Working shot 91 Pit 1 SF117 BP05 Working shot 92 Pit 1 BP05 Working shot 93 Pit 1 BP05 Working shot 94 Pit 1 BP12, Working shot BP16 95 Pit 1 BP12, Working shot BP16 96 Pit 1 BP12, Working shot BP16 97 Pit 1 BP12, Working shot BP16 98 Pit 1 2006 Working shot 99 Pit 1 2006 Working shot 100 Pit 1 2006 Working shot 101 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 102 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 101

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description Femur and cu alloy buckle, press studs and textile SF 120 Femur and cu alloy buckle, press studs and textile SF 120 Femur and cu alloy buckle, press studs and textile SF 120 Femur and cu alloy buckle, press studs and textile SF 120 W end of pit 6 in bright sunshine W end of pit 6 in bright sunshine W end of pit 6 in bright sunshine W end of pit 6 in bright sunshine W end of pit 6 - overcast W end of pit 6 - overcast W end of pit 6 - overcast Gas mask SF 121 in situ Gas mask SF 121 in situ Textile SF 122 in situ Gas mask and textile in situ, SFs 121, 122 SFs 121, 122, B08, B09 Eyelet and ground sheet remains SF 123 Eyelet and ground sheet remains SF 123 Eyelet and ground sheet remains SF 123 Artefacts associated with B 12: SFs 124-30 Artefacts associated with B 12: SFs 124-30 Artefacts associated with B12 Artefacts associated with B12 Artefacts associated with B12 Textile SF 134 in lower Of human remains in Pit 1 B12 + 20, BP16, 21, 22 Of human remains in Pit 1 B12 + 20, BP16, 21, 22 Of human remains in Pit 1 B12 + 20, BP16, 21, 22 Of human remains in Pit 1 B12 + 20, BP16, 21, 22 B12 and finds associated with torso B12 and finds associated with torso

From E E E E S S S S S S S N+A W+A W+A W+A NW E+A E+A E+A E+A E+A S S S S S S E W E+A E+A

103 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 104 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 105 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 106 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 107 Pit 6 1003 Pre-ex shot of 108 Pit 6 1003 Pre-ex shot of 109 Pit 6 1003 Pre-ex shot of 110 Pit 6 1003 Pre-ex shot of 111 Pit 6 1003 Pre-ex shot of 112 Pit 6 1003 Pre-ex shot of 113 Pit 6 1003 Pre-ex shot of 114 Pit 5 1013 Working shot of 115 Pit 5 1013 Working shot of 116 Pit 5 1013 Working shot of 117 Pit 5 1013 Working shot of 118 Pit 5 2006 Working shot of 119 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of 120 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of 121 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of 122 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of 123 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of 124 Pit 1 2006 SFs 124-30 125 Pit 1 2006 SFs 124-30 126 Pit 1 2006 SFs 124-30 127 Pit 5 1013 Working shot of pit 1 fill 1013 128 Pit 1 2006 Working shot 129 Pit 1 2006 Working shot 130 Pit 1 2006 Working shot 131 Pit 1 2006 Working shot 132 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot 133 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot 102

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description B12 and finds associated with torso Bound legs B20 Bound legs B20 Bound legs B20 Bound legs B20 B12 and finds associated with torso B12 and finds associated with torso Of human remains in Pit 5 B8, 9 10, 13, 17, 19 Of human remains in Pit 5 B8, 9, 10, 13, 17, 19 Of human remains in Pit 5, B8, 910, 13, 17, 19 Of human remains in Pit 5, B8, 9, 10, 13, 17, 19 Head and chest with artefacts Head and chest with artefacts Pit 4 evaluation sondage Pit 4 evaluation sondage Pit 4 evaluation sondage Pit 4 evaluation sondage Pit 4 evaluation sondage Pit 4 evaluation sondage Pit 4 evaluation sondage Pit 4 evaluation sondage Human remains in pit 5 with labels Human remains in pit 5 with labels Human remains in pit 5 with labels Human remains in pit 5 with labels Human remains in pit 5 with labels Human remains in pit 5 with labels Human remains in pit 5 with labels B08 and B09 B08 and B09 B08 and B09 B08 and B09 B08 & B09 B19 and B28 B19 and B28 B25 and B28 B25 and B28 BP27 and gasmask SF137 BP27 and gasmask SF137 BP 26 BP 26 BP 10, 13, 24

From E+A E+A E+A E+A E+A E+A E+A S+A S+A E E S S E E E E E E E E E+A N+A W+A S+A S+A S+A E+A E+A N+A N+A S+A S E+A E+A N +A N+A W+A W+A E E W+A

134 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot 135 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 136 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 137 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 138 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 139 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 140 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of 141 Pit 5 BP Working shot 142 Pit 5 BP Working shot 143 Pit 5 BP Working shot 144 Pit 5 BP Working shot 145 Pit 1 B12 Detail shot of 146 Pit 1 B12 Detail shot of 147 Pit 4 Pit 4 General shot of 148 Pit 4 Pit 4 General shot of 149 Pit 4 Pit 4 General shot of 150 Pit 4 Pit 4 General shot of 151 Pit 4 Pit 4 General shot of 152 Pit 4 Pit 4 General shot of 153 Pit 4 Pit 4 General shot of 154 Pit 4 4003 General shot of 155 Pit 5 1016/1017 General view of 156 Pit 5 1016/1017 General view of 157 Pit 5 1016/1017 General view of 158 Pit 5 1016/1017 General view of 159 Pit 5 1016/1017 General view of 160 Pit 5 1016/1017 General view of 161 Pit 5 1016/1017 General view of 162 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 163 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 164 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 165 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 166 Pit 5 1016 Detail shot of 167 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 168 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 169 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 170 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 171 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 172 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 173 Pit 5 1016 Detail shot of 174 Pit 5 1016 General shot of 175 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of 103

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description

From W+A W+ A W W+A N+A S+A SE + A E E E+A E+A E+A E+A E+A E+A E+A E+A ENE ENE ENE S S S N N E E E S S S S S S S S S S S S S S N N N

176 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of BP 10, 13, 24 177 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of BP 10, 13, 24 178 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of B17 179 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of B17 180 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of B17 181 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of B17 182 Pit 5 1016/1017 Detail shot of B17 183 Pit 5 SF179 B08 Wide shot Of button in situ 184 Pit 5 SF 179 B08 Detail shot of Button 185 Pit 5 SF182 B23 Wide shot Of leather brace straps in situ 186 Pit 5 SF182 B23 Detail shot of Leather brace straps in situ 187 Pit 5 SF177 Wide shot Of eyelets in situ 188 Pit 5 SF177 Detail shot of Eyelets in situ 189 Pit 5 SF181 B09 Wide shot Leather brace straps in situ 190 Pit 5 SF181 B09 Detail shot of Leather brace straps in situ 191 Pit 5 SF180 B08 Wide shot Leather brace straps in situ 192 Pit 5 SF180 B08 Detail shot of Leather brace straps in situ 193 Pit 5 SF178 B08 Wide shot Ammoclips in situ 194 Pit 5 SF178 B08 Detail shot of Ammoclips in situ 195 Pit 5 SF178 B08 Wide shot Of bullets and ammoclips in situ 196 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of Textile (collar?) and buckles associated with B12 197 Pit 7 2006 Detail shot of Textile (collar?) and buckles associated with B12 198 Pit 7 2006 Detail shot of Textile (collar?) and buckles associated with B12 199 Pit 7 2006 Detail shot of Textile (collar?) and buckles associated with B12 200 Pit 7 2006 Detail shot of Textile (collar?) and buckles associated with B12 201 Pit 7 SF 173 Detail shot of Buckle with scale 202 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of SF 173 buckle with scale 203 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of SF 174 buckle with scale 204 Pit 1 2006 Detail shot of SF 174 buckle with scale 205 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of BP 29 206 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of BP 29 207 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of Textile (collar) associated with B12 208 Pit 1 2006 Working shot of Textile (collar) associated with B12 209 Pit 7 7009 Pre-ex shot of W end of Pit 7 210 Pit 7 7009 Pre-ex shot of W end of Pit 7 211 Pit 7 7009 Pre-ex shot of W end of Pit 7 212 Pit 7 7009 Pre-ex shot of E end of Pit 7 213 Pit 7 7009 Pre-ex shot of E end of Pit 7 214 Pit 7 7009 Pre-ex shot of E end of Pit 7 215 Pit 7 7009 General shot of E end of Pit 7 216 Pit 7 7009 Detail shot of E end of Pit 7 217 Pit 7 7009 Detail shot of W end of Pit 7 218 Pit 5 - Working shot of Tony Pollard 219 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of Trauma to skull 220 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of Trauma to skull 221 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of Trauma to skull 104

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description Trauma to skull and tourniquet Trauma to skull and tourniquet Trauma to skull, with button and leather cord Trauma to skull, with button and leather cord Button and leather cord, with skull trauma Through pit 7 - wideshot Through pit 7 North part Through pit 7 south part Through pit 7 in sun shadow Of pit before 3D scan Of pit before 3D scan Of pit before 3D scan Of pit before 3D scan Of pit before 3D scan Of pit before 3D scan Burials in Pit 1 Burials in Pit 1 Burials in Pit 1 For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification Legs Skull and torso Bodies 30 and 50 Full body B22 chest with artefacts Chest with artefacts Pelvis and legs C/UP of braces Pelvis and legs Skull, chest and left arm Skull, chest and right arm Full body Full body Feet detail Full body Full body Damage to skull Damage to skull Scepulse damage Scepulse damage Pelvis to right foot

From N N N N N W E N E S S S W S S W W S E E E SW NE NE NE S S S S N S S N S E E N N

222 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 223 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 224 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 225 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 226 Pit 3 B37 Working shot of 227 Pit 7 - W facing section 228 Pit 7 - W facing section 229 Pit 7 - W facing section 230 Pit 7 - E facing section 231 Pit 7 - Working shot 232 Pit 7 - Working shot 233 Pit 7 - Working shot 234 Pit 7 - Working shot 235 Pit 7 - Working shot 236 Pit 7 - Working shot 237 Pit 1 - General view of 238 Pit 1 - General view of 239 Pit 1 - General view of 240 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 241 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 242 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 243 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 244 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 245 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 246 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 247 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 248 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 249 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 250 Pit 5 1016/1017 Photos with targets 251 Pit 1 B20 Detail shot of 252 Pit 1 B12 - B22 Detail shot of 253 Pit 1 B30 - B50 General shot 254 Pit 1 B22 Shot of 255 Pit 1 B22 General shot of 256 Pit 1 B12 Shot of 257 Pit 1 B12 Shot of 258 Pit 1 B12 Shot of 259 Pit 1 B12 Shot of 260 Pit 1 B12 Shot of 261 Pit 1 B22 Shot of 262 Pit 1 B22 Shot of 263 Pit 1 B22 Shot of 264 Pit 1 B22 Shot of 265 Pit 1 B22 Shot of 266 Pit 1 B30 Shot of 267 Pit 1 B30 Shot of 268 Pit 1 B30 Close up of 269 Pit 1 B30 Close up of 270 Pit 1 B30 Close up of 271 Pit 1 B30 Close up of 272 Pit 1 B30 Shot of 105

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description Of right hand and both feet of B22 Both feet and north end of stick Pelvis and braces detail Belt buckles SF73 and 74 Face - enterior view Posterior view Face and enterior Left laterel view Right hand B12/ Left hand of B22 Legs and ties around them Feet Right hand Skull and left arm of B30 Skull, left thorax and arm Skull, left thoraz and arm Skull, left thorax and arm Body and left hand N left arm below stick SF219 and above B5 Left femur/tibia/fibula and front Left femur/tibia/fibula and front Gas mask west of B50 and under BP52 Long stick in east end of grave Human remains in Pit 1 Human remains in Pit 1 Human remains in Pit 1 Human remains in Pit 1 Human remains in Pit 1 Human remains in Pit 1 Human remains in Pit 1 Human remains in Pit 1 B12 chest and skull Chest and skull Braces on pelvis area Braces on pelvis area For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification For rectification W-facing section

From E E NE E E W W N S W SE E E W N E N E W E N S E N W W N E S S N N N W

273 Pit 1 B30 Close up of 274 Pit 1 B30 Close up of 275 Pit 1 B22 Shot of 276 Pit 1 B22 Close up of 277 Pit 1 B22 Close up of 278 Pit 1 B22 Close up of 279 Pit 1 B12 Close up of 280 Pit 1 B12 Close up of 281 Pit 1 B12/22 Close up of 282 Pit 1 B20 Shot of 283 Pit 1 B20 Close up of 284 Pit 1 B50 Shot of 285 Pit 1 B50 Close up of 286 Pit 1 B50 Close up of 287 Pit 1 B50 Close up of 288 Pit 1 B50 Close up of 289 Pit 1 B50 Shot of 290 Pit 1 BP52 Shot of 291 Pit 1 B51 Shot of 292 Pit 1 B51 Shot of 293 Pit 1 SF218 Shot of 294 Pit 1 SF219 Shot of 295 Pit 1 2006 General shot of 296 Pit 1 2006 General shot of 297 Pit 1 2006 General shot of 298 Pit 1 2006 General shot of 299 Pit 1 2006 General shot of 300 Pit 1 2006 General shot of 301 Pit 1 2006 General shot of 302 Pit 1 2006 General shot of 303 Pit 1 B12 Detail shot of 304 Pit 1 B12 Close up of 305 Pit 1 B12 Close up of 306 Pit 1 B22 Close up of 307 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 308 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 309 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 310 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 311 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 312 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 313 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 314 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 315 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 316 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 317 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 318 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 319 Pit 1 - Photos with targets 320 Pit 8 8012 General shot of 106

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description W-facing section, N half W-facing section, S half E-facing section E-facing seciton, S half E-facing section, N half Human remains in Pit 3 Human remains in Pit 3 Human remains in Pit 3 Human remains in Pit 3 Human remains in Pit 3 with ranging rods Human remains in Pit 3 with ranging rods Human remains in Pit 3 with ranging rods Human remains in Pit 3 with ranging rods Human remains in Pit 3 with ranging rods And labels And labels And labels And labels And labels B39 and B40 B40 upper body B40 upper body B40 upper body B40 upper body B40 toothbrush, gasmask, bag and belt B40 money belt only B40 toothbrush B40 lower body B39 legs and feet B39 legs and feet B39 pelvis B39 pelvis B39 torso B39 head and right arm B39 B38 Left arm and head of B37 Buckle Upper body and buckle B38 trauma skull front B38 trauma skull front Legs under B39 Legs under B39 B37 B37 legs and ground sheet B37 rifle cleaner B37 rifle cleaner and scale B37 buckle and leather cord B37 buckle and leather cord in context

From W W E E E N W E S N W E S S N W E S S E E E E S E E E E N E E E S S N N N N W W W S W W W W W W

321 Pit 8 8012 Detail shot of 322 Pit 8 8012 Detail shot of 323 Pit 8 8012 General shot of 324 Pit 8 8012 Detail shot of 325 Pit 8 8012 Detail shot of 326 Pit 3 - General shot of 327 Pit 3 - General shot of 328 Pit 3 - General shot of 329 Pit 3 - General shot of 330 Pit 3 - General shot of 331 Pit 3 - General shots of 332 Pit 3 - General shots of 333 Pit 3 - General shots of 334 Pit 3 - General shots of 335 Pit 3 - General shots of 336 Pit 3 - General shots of 337 Pit 3 - General shots of 338 Pit 3 - General shots of 339 Pit 3 - General shots of 340 Pit 3 B39 and B40 General view of 341 Pit 3 B40 Detail shot of 342 Pit 3 B40 Detail shot of 343 Pit 3 B40 Detail shot of 344 Pit 3 B40 Detail shot of 345 Pit 3 B40 Detail shot of 346 Pit 3 B40 Detail shot of 347 Pit 3 B40 Detail shot of 348 Pit 3 B40 Detail shot of 349 Pit 3 B39 Detail shot of 350 Pit 3 B39 Detail shot of 351 Pit 3 B39 Detail shot of 352 Pit 3 B39 Detail shot of 353 Pit 3 B39 Detail shot of 354 Pit 3 B39 Detail shot of 355 Pit 3 B39 General view of 356 Pit 3 B38 General view of 357 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 358 Pit 3 - Detail shot of 359 Pit 3 - General view of 360 Pit 3 B38 General view of 361 Pit 3 B38 General view of 362 Pit 3 B39 Detail shot of 363 Pit 3 B39 Detail shot of 364 Pit 3 B37 General view of 365 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 366 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 367 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 368 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 369 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 107

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description B37 torniquet B37 torniquet in context BP48 Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 4 with tripod Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 4 Human remains in pit 5 Human remains in pit 5 Burials in pit 4 with tripod and ranging rods Burials in pit 4 with tripod and ranging rods Burials in pit 4 with tripod and ranging rods Pit 3 burials with labels Pit 3 burials with labels Pit 3 burials with labels Pit 3 burials with labels B34 Boot find no 194 Boot find no 194 Boot find no 194 Boot find no 194 Gasmask collar find no.231 Gasmask collar find no.231 Boot find no 194 Boot find no 194 B31 B31 B31 skull B31skull B34 BP54 BP54 B36 B36 Lower body of B36 Torso and skull of B36 Skull and neck of B36 Skull and neck of B36 Skull of B36 Skull of B36 BP53 skull also showing BR. cord around arm of B36 BP53 skull also showing BR. cord around arm of B36

From W W W W S E W S S E E W W E W S E SW E N W E S W W W W W W W E E E E E E E W W W W W W W W E E W W

370 Pit 3 B37 Detail shot of 371 Pit 3 - General view of 372 Pit 3 BP48 General view of 373 Pit 4 - General view of 374 Pit 4 - General view of 375 Pit 4 - General view of 376 Pit 4 - General view of 377 Pit 4 - General view of 378 Pit 4 - General view of 379 Pit 4 - General view of 380 Pit 4 - General view of 381 Pit 4 - General view of 382 Pit 4 - General view of 383 Pit 4 - General view of 384 Pit 4 - General view of 385 Pit 4 - General view of 386 Pit 4 - General view of 387 Pit 4 - General view of 388 Pit 4 - General view of 389 Pit 4 - General view of 390 Pit 4 - General view of 391 Pit 4 - General view of 392 Pit 4 - General view of 393 Pit 4 B34 Detail shot of 394 Pit 4 - Detail shot of 395 Pit 4 - Detail shot of 396 Pit 4 - Detail shot of 397 Pit 4 - Detail shot of 398 Pit 4 - Detail shot of 399 Pit 4 - Detail shot of 400 Pit 4 - Detail shot of 401 Pit 4 - Detail shot of 402 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 403 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 404 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 405 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 406 Pit 4 B34 Detail shot of 407 Pit 4 BP54 Detail shot of 408 Pit 4 BP54 Detail shot of 409 Pit 4 B36 General view of 410 Pit 4 B36 General view of 411 Pit 4 B36 Detail shot of 412 Pit 4 B36 Detail shot of 413 Pit 4 B36 Detail shot of 414 Pit 4 B36 Detail shot of 415 Pit 4 B36 Detail shot of 416 Pit 4 B36 Detail shot of 417 Pit 4 BP53 Shot of 418 Pit 4 BP53 Shot of 108

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description BP53 also showing BR. cord around arm of B36 BP53 also showing BR. cord around arm of B36 B49 B49 B33 B33 B33 with detail of left arm B33 left arm B33 chest B33 chest B33 head B33 head B32 B32 B32 detail of skull B35 B35 Of lower body Of lower body Upper body B35 left arm, B36 right arm, B35 skull not excavated B55 B55 B55 For rectification For rectification For rectification SW part of trench SE part of trench NE part of trench N central part of trench NW part of trench SW part of trench Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Left hand of B50 Left hand of B50 In trench 4 from N to NE Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit Holding camera over pit

From W W W W E E E W W W W W E E E W W W W W W W W W S S S S S E N W W W S E N E+A E +A N N W W W W W S S S E E E E

419 Pit 4 BP53 Detail shot of 420 Pit 4 BP53 Detail shot of 421 Pit 4 B49 Detail shot of 422 Pit 4 B49 Detail shot of 423 Pit 4 B33 Detail shot of 424 Pit 4 B33 Detail shot of 425 Pit 4 B33 Detail shot of 426 Pit 4 B33 Detail shot of 427 Pit 4 B33 Detail shot of 428 Pit 4 B33 Detail shot of 429 Pit 4 B33 Detail shot of 430 Pit 4 B33 Detail shot of 431 Pit 4 B32 General view of 432 Pit 4 B32 General view of 433 Pit 4 B32 General view of 434 Pit 4 B35 General view of 435 Pit 4 B35 General view of 436 Pit 4 B35 Detail shot of 437 Pit 4 B35 Detail shot of 438 Pit 4 B35 Detail shot of 439 Pit 4 B35 Detail shot of 440 Pit 4 B55 Detail shot of 441 Pit 4 B55 Detail shot of 442 Pit 4 B55 Detail shot of 443 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 444 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 445 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 446 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 447 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 448 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 449 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 450 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 451 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 452 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 453 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 454 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 455 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 456 Pit 1 B50 Detail shot of 457 Pit 1 B50 Detail shot of 458 Pit 4 - Photos with targets 459 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 460 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 461 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 462 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 463 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 464 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 465 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 466 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 467 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 468 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 469 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 470 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 471 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 109

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description Holding camera over pit B64 lower leg in base of pit B64 lower leg in base of pit B64 lower leg in base of pit B64 lower leg in base of pit B34 and boot SF 194 in situ B34 and boot SF 194 in situ B34 and boot SF 194 in situ B34 and boot SF 194 in situ B34 and boot SF 194 in situ B34 and boot SF 194 in situ B34 and boot SF 194 in situ Matchbox SF 217 and other finds in situ Matchbox SF 217 and other finds in situ Matchbox SF 217 and other finds in situ Matchbox SF 217 and other finds in situ Matchbox SF 217 and other finds in situ Matchbox SF 217 and other finds in situ Disarticulated bones Disarticulated bones Disarticulated bones Disarticulated bones Body parts in lower pit 3 Body parts in lower pit 3 Body parts in lower part Pit 3 Body parts in lower part Pit 3 Body parts of lower part Pit 3 Burials with ranging rods Burials with ranging rods Burials Burials Burials Burials with labels Burials with labels Burials with labels Burials with labels B41 with cranial trauma B41 with spine trauma B41 pelvis (position) Group B43, BP44, BP45 B46 B42 B42 cranial damage B42 spine (vertebrae displaced)

From E S E E E S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S E E E N N S W E S W S E S W W+A W+A W+A W+A W+A W+A W+A W+A

472 Pit 3 - Photos with targets 473 Pit 6 B64 Shot of 474 Pit 6 B64 Shot of 475 Pit 6 B64 Shot of 476 Pit 6 B64 Shot of 477 Pit 4 B34 Detail shot of 478 Pit 4 B34 Detail shot of 479 Pit 4 B34 Detail shot of 480 Pit 4 B34 Detail shot of 481 Pit 4 B34 Detail shot of 482 Pit 4 B34 Detail shot of 483 Pit 4 B34 Detail shot of 484 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 485 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 486 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 487 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 488 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 490 Pit 4 B31 Detail shot of 491 Pit 6 B64 Detail shot of 492 Pit 6 B64 Detail shot of 493 Pit 6 B64 Detail shot of 494 Pit 6 B64 Detail shot of 495 Pit 3 BP56 + Shot of BP57 496 Pit 3 BP56 + Shot of BP57 497 Pit 3 BP Shot of 498 Pit 3 BP56 + Shot of BP57 499 Pit 3 BP56 + Shot of BP57 500 Pit 2 - General view of 501 Pit 2 - General view of 502 Pit 2 - General view of 503 Pit 2 - General view of 504 Pit 2 - General view of 505 Pit 2 - General view of 506 Pit 2 - General view of 507 Pit 2 - General view of 508 Pit 2 - General view of 509 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 510 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 511 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 512 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 513 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 514 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 515 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 516 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 110

Photo Zone No

Zone No

Context No

Subject

Description B42 spine, non-fused epiphylis B42 pelvis not fused B42 B47 B42 and B47 Gas mask in situ of B47 B47 spine (displacement) B47 lower femur B60 B60 (spine) and right foot to B43 BP61 + BP59 BP59 BP58 Toothbrush by arm of B47 Gasmask in situ B47 East facing section For rectification, ranging rods marks top end of cut For rectification, ranging rods marks top end of cut For rectification, ranging rods marks top end of cut For rectification, ranging rods marks top end of cut For rectification, ranging rods marks top end of cut For rectification, ranging rods marks top end of cut BP63 BP64 BP63, BP64 labels show their location in pit E-facing section W-facing section E end of pit 2 exposed in plan E end of pit 2 West end of pit 3 exposed West end of pit 3 Last day Last day Last day East end of pit 3 exposed East end of pit 3 exposed East end of pit 3 exposed East end of pit - no chalk board East end of pit - no chalk board East end of pit - no chalk board Working shots

From S S S W+A W+A W+A E E E E E E E E E E W+A W+A W+A W+A W+A W+A A A E E W S E S SW S S S S S S W NW E -

517 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 518 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 519 Pit 2 - General view of 520 Pit 2 - General view of 521 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 522 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 523 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 524 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 525 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 526 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 527 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 528 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 529 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 530 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 531 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 532 Pit 2 - General view of 533 Pit 2 - Photos with targets 534 Pit 2 - Photos with targets 535 Pit 2 - Photos with targets 536 Pit 2 - Photos with targets 537 Pit 2 - Photos with targets 538 Pit 2 - Photos with targets 539 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 540 Pit 2 - Detail shot of 541 Pit 2 - General view of 542 Pit 6 6002 General shot of 543 Pit 6 6002 General shot of 544 Pit 2 - General view of 545 Pit 2 - General view of 546 Pit 3 - General view of 547 Pit 3 - General view of 548 - - - Working shot 549 - - - Working shot 550 - - - Working shot 551 Pit 3 - General view of 552 Pit 3 - General view of 553 Pit 3 - General view of 554 Pit 1 - General view of 555 Pit 1 - General view of 556 Pit 1 - General view of 538- - - - - 1038 111

12.10 Soil Analytical Data


Sample FR081/01 FR081/02 FR081/03 FR081/04 FR081/05 FR081/06 FR081/07 FR081/08 FR081/09 FR081/10 FR081/11 FR081/12 FR082/01 FR082/02 FR082/03 FR082/04 FR082/05 FR082/06 FR082/07 FR082/08 FR082/09 FR082/10 FR083/01 FR083/02 FR083/03 FR083/04 FR083/05 FR083/06 FR083/07 FR083/08 FR083/09 FR083/10 FR084/01 FR084/02 FR084/03 FR084/04 FR084/05 FR084/06 FR084/07 FR084/08 FR084/09 FR084/10 FR085/01 FR085/02 FR085/03 FR085/04 FR085/05 FR085/06 FR085/07 FR085/08 Context 2002 2006 2006 2006 2013 2013 2013 2013 2010 2010 2013 2013 2002 2011 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 3002 3003 3003 3003 3006 3006 3006/3010 3006/3010 3006/3010 3006/3010 4002 4003 4003 4003 4003/4007 4007 4007 4007 4007 4007 1002 1010 1010 1010 1013 1013 1016/1017 1018 pH 8 7.9 7.7 7.8 7.4 5.9 7 7.1 7.8 7.9 7.8 7.9 8 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.7 7.8 8.1 8.1 7.9 7.6 7.7 8 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.8 8 8.1 7.7 4.8 6.1 7.2 6.8 4.6 7.8 6.8 8 8.1 7.8 7.5 7.4 7.5 4.3 6.7 pH CaCl 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.2 6.7 7.1 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.6 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5 7 4.6 6 7 6.8 4.6 7.5 6.7 7.3 7.2 7.4 7.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 6.8 SOM (%) 4.97 3.44 2.88 3.13 3.63 2.75 5.31 4.13 1.43 1.63 4.52 5.56 2.30 2.21 2.42 3.27 2.61 3.07 3.06 3.13 3.27 3.16 4.90 4.87 4.40 3.52 3.13 5.02 3.75 3.91 3.87 14.18 4.49 3.53 3.59 4.38 2.51 2.29 28.59 3.33 2.29 54.05 5.43 3.62 1.75 3.87 3.58 2.33 2.02 2.42 112 Total Phosphate (mg/100g soil) NA 202.02 236.42 NA 164.26 NA 127.09 200.61 191.78 187.16 177.11 286.64 151.60 234.36 158.03 152.60 188.16 231.95 243.60 252.49 219.90 229.54 NA 207.65 NA 195.19 NA 235.37 184.14 624.11 282.62 260.52 168.12 186.35 202.02 201.82 171.49 190.77 379.04 171.09 183.74 332.84 NA 207.24 NA NA 218.09 NA 172.69 NA

Sample FR085/09 FR085/10 FR085/11 FR085/12 FR085/13 FR088/01 FR088/02 FR088/03 FR088/04 FR088/05 FR088/06 FR088/07 FR088/08 FR088/09 FR088/10 FR088/11 FR088/12

Context 1019 1018 1018 1018 1018 8002 8002 8002 8002 8002 8005 8005 8022 8022 8011 8016 8014

pH 4.1 7.8 7 6.7 7.2 8 7.9 7.6 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.1 7 7.8 7.6 7.6

pH CaCl 4.2 7 7.1 6.7 7.1 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.4 7.2 7.1 7 6.7 6.5 7.4 7.2 7.4

SOM (%) 0.94 2.62 4.27 5.93 3.04 3.24 3.45 3.07 2.93 3.07 2.77 3.96 3.30 3.65 3.42 5.48 2.98

Total Phosphate (mg/100g soil) NA 182.18 421.22 244.41 251.03 218.09 NA NA 205.64 NA NA 242.00 NA 234.96 NA 251.84 NA

113