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TRIPURA RAHASYA

OR THE MYSTERY BEYOND THE TRINITY

Translated by SWAMI SRI RAMANANANDA SARASWATHI (Sri Munagala S !en"atara#aia$%

Sri Ramanasramam, Tiruvannamalai. South India. Fifth Edition, 1989. Reprinted 1994 T$is te&t is intended 'nly ('r (a)t*(inding reading

FORE OR!
Tripura Rahas"a #as $onsidered %" &ha'avan Sri Ramana (aharshi as one of the 'reatest #or)s that e*pounded advaita philosoph". +e often ,uoted from it and re'retted that it #as not availa%le in En'lish. -s a $onse,uen$e Sri (una'ala .en)ataramaiah /no# S#ami Ramanananda Saras#athi0 too) up the #or) of translation in 1912 as another la%our of love, addin' 3ust one more En'lish translation to his alread" e*tensive store. This #as first pu%lished in parts in the &an'alore ("thi$ So$iet"4s 5ournal /6uarterl"0 from 5anuar" 1918 to -pril 1947 and after#ards $olle$ted into %oo) form, of #hi$h five hundred $opies #ere printed and privatel" $ir$ulated. The -sramam has sin$e ta)en over the $op"ri'ht and made it one of their offi$ial pu%li$ations. The #or) ori'inall" in Sans)rit is #idel" )no#n in India and has %een translated into a num%er of lo$al lan'ua'es, %ut I do not )no# of an" previous translation in En'lish. It is re'arded as one of the $hief te*t8%oo)s on -dvaita, the readin' of #hi$h alone is suffi$ient for Salvation. Sri -nanda 9oomaras#ami ,uotes from it #ith appre$iation in his %oo), :-m I (" &rother4s ;eeper<: I for one mu$h appre$iate the present translation #hi$h #ill no# %e easil" availa%le for all #ho )no# En'lish. Sri Ramanananda Saras#athi has put us under a 'reat o%li'ation %" his painsta)in' #or). It #ill surel" %e a 'ratifi$ation to him to )no# that his la%our of love has at last found a permanent a%idin'8pla$e and #ill not %e lost to future 'enerations, for man" of #hom it must %e$ome a spiritual te*t %oo). October 16, 1959. Sri Ramanasramam SADHU ARUNACHALA (Major A. . C!a"#ic$, O.%.&.'

+ONTENTS Fore#ord Introdu$tion To &ha'avan Sri Ramana (aharshi /- =ra"er0 Introdu$tor" >ote 9+-=TER I 9+-=TER II 8 O%li'ator" Sense to#ards -$tion 9ondemned and Investi'ation Re$ommended 9+-=TER III 8 The -nte$edent 9ause for ?earnin' the @ospel. -sso$iation #ith the ise must pre$ede :.i$hara: 9+-=TER I. 8 !is'ust for orldl" En3o"ments is In$ul$ated so that !ispassion mi'ht %e !eveloped 9+-=TER . 8 On &onda'e and Release 9+-=TER .I 8 On the (erits of Faith for 'ainin' the @oal and on the +armfulness of !r" =olemi$s

9+-=TER .II 8 That the @oal is 'ained onl" after -s$ertainin' @od %" Faith, Effort and -pproved ?o'i$, and !evotion to him 9+-=TER .III 8 ;e" to the =ara%le of 9hapter . 9+-=TER IA 8 +o# that +ema$huda Realised the Self after -nal"sin' +is o#n (ind and =lun'in' #ithin 9+-=TER A 8 On Further Instru$tions %" +is &eloved, +e 'ot Samadhi in spite of +is E*ternal -$tivities and Remained in the State of Eman$ipation even #hile -live 9+-=TER AI 8 That the 9osmos is not other than Intelli'en$e 9+-=TER AII 8 The -ppearan$e of the Realit" of the Bniverse depends on the Stren'th of ill of 9reation 9+-=TER AIII 8 +o# a)efulness and !ream are similar in >ature and O%3e$ts are onl" (ental Ima'es 9+-=TER AI. 8 +o# the Bniverse is (ere Ima'inationC +o# to 'ain that Stron' ill #hi$h $an $reate itC and the +i'hest Truth 9+-=TER A. 8 On #hat need %e )no#n and need not %e )no#n and on the >ature of the Self 9+-=TER A.I 8 On 9ons$iousnessC 9ontrol of (indC and Sleep 9+-=TER A.II 8 On the Bselessness of Fleetin' Samadhis and the a" to isdom 9+-=TER A.III 9+-=TER AIA 9+-=TER AA 8 .id"a @ita 9+-=TER AAI 8 On the a$$omplishment of isdom, its >ature and S$riptural ?ore 9+-=TER AAII 8 The 9on$lusion -==E>!IA I 8 To 9hapter . -==E>!IA II 8 Siddha @ita from Do'a .asishtha -==E>!IA III

I>TRO!B9TIO>
Sri Tripura Rahas"a is an an$ient #or) in Sans)rit #hi$h has %een printed all over India. The latest and %est edition #as %rou'ht out in the ;ashi Sans)rit Series in 19EF. The %oo) is said to have %een printed on$e %efore and issued in loose leaves. There #as also an edition in %oo) form printed in &el'aum to#ards the end of last $entur".G /The ori'inal Sans)rit te*t unfortunaeel" appears to have %een out of print for some "ears.0 The esteem in #hi$h the #or) is held for its san$tit" ma" %e 'au'ed from an a$$ount of it 'iven in the =refa$e to the (aahaatm"a ;handa. (ahaadeeva ori'inall" tau'ht the +i'hest Truth to .ishnu #ho in turn tau'ht &rahma in the 9elestial re'ions. ?ater .ishnu in$arnated on Earth as Sri !attaatre"a, the ?ord of the -vadhuutas /the na)ed sa'es0, and tau'ht it to =arasuraama #ith the added in3un$tion that it should %e $ommuni$ated to

+aritaa"ana #ho #ould later see) the Truth from him. =arasurama thus realised the Self %" the 'uidan$e of Sri !atta and d#elt on the (ala"a +ill in South India. In the meantime, a &rahmin, %" name Sumanta, livin' on the %an)s of the Sarasvati had a son, -lar)a %" name, #ho used to hear his mother $alled :5aa"i -a"i: %" his father. &ein' a $hild, he too addressed his mother :-i:. +e died in his $hildhood, and his last #ords on his death8%ed #ere :-i -i: onl". This sound is ho#ever sa$red to the @oddess. +avin' %een uttered in all inno$en$e and purit" of mind, it $onferred une*pe$ted merit on the d"in' $hild. +e #as later %orn as Sumedha, a son to +arita. +aritaa"ana is his patron"mi$. +is spiritualit" developed as he 're# up and he sou'ht =arasuraama to learn the hi'hest 'ood from him, #ho in turn imparted to him the )no#led'e #hi$h he had 'ained from !attaatre"a. =arasuraama told him also that his master had predi$ted the $ompilation of the )no#led'e of the +i'hest Truth %" +aritaa"ana for the %enefit of man)ind. +aritaa"ana #as #orshippin' Sri (inaa)shi in the temple at (adurai in South India. >aarada appeared to him and said that he had $ome from &rahmaloo)a in order to see #hat +aritaa"ana #as 'oin' to present to the #orld in the form of an Itihasa $ontainin' the Supreme Spiritual Truth. +aritaa"ana #as %e#ildered and as)ed ho# the Saint e*pe$ted it of him. >arada saidH :There #as an assem%l" of saints in &rahmaloo)a. (aar)andee"a as)ed &rahmaa a%out the Sa$red Truth. &rahmaa said that it #ould %e %rou'ht out %" "ou in the form of a hol" %oo). So I $ame to as) "ou a%out it.: +aritaa"ana #as at a loss and pleaded ina%ilit" to reprodu$e the Sa$red Truth learned from =arasuraama. >aarada then meditated on &rahmaa #ho appeared %efore them and as)ed #hat the matter #as. hen >aarada put the #hole matter %efore him, he turned to +aritaa"ana and %lessed him, endo#in' him #ith the a%ilit" to produ$e the %oo) at the rate of four $hapters a da". +e also referred to +aritaa"ana4s past and attri%uted his present ina%ilit" to remem%er #hat he learnt to the $asual and undis$iplined utteran$e of the sa$red s"lla%le in his past in$arnation. &rahmaa further en3oined >aarada to %e the first to read +aritaa"ana4s #or) #hen it should %e $ompleted. The #or) #as thus #ritten %" +aritaa"ana and is also $alled after his name +aritaa"ana Samhita. It is said to $onsist of 1E,777 slo)aas in three se$tions 8 The (aahaatm"a ;handa /Se$tion on the @reatness of Srii !eevi0, 5naana ;handa /Se$tion on Supreme isdom0, and 9har"aa ;handa /Se$tion on 9ondu$t0. Of these the first $onsists of 2,28I slo)aasC the se$ond of E,121 slo)aasC and the third is not tra$ea%le. The se$tion on @reatness $ontains the prelude to the #or) and later treats mostl" of the manifestations of the Supreme &ein' as !ur'a, ;aali, ?a)shmi, Sarasvati, ?alita, ;umaari, et$. and their e*ploits and found in &rahmaanda =uraana, (aar)ande"a =uraana and ?a)shmi Tantra. Its $ontents mostl" $over the 'round of !ur'a Saptasati and of ?alita Bpaa)haa"ana. Sri .id"a /#orship of the Supreme &ein' as @oddess0 has a ver" hol" tradition tra$ed to the .edas. There are t#o prin$ipal divisions, )no#n as :;aativid"aa: and :+aativid"aa: former #as pra$tised %" Indra, 9handra, (anu, ;u%eera, et$.C it is the simpler of the t#o and also more $ommon. The other #as pra$tised %" ?opaamudra and approved of the #ise.

Sri Tripura Rahas"a, other#ise +aritaa"ana Samhitaa, %e'ins #ith :O( >amaha: /:Salutations to -um:0 and ends #ith :Shri Tripuraiva +rim: /:Tripura is onl" +rim:0. -um is #ell )no#n as the sa$red s"lla%le si'nif"in' the +i'hest &ein' in the a%stra$tC so also :+rim: is the sa$red s"m%ol of the same as the @oddess. The $ontents of the %oo) are thus en$losed %" these t#o s"m%ols 8 the most sa$red in the .edas and the #or) is e,uall" san$tified. In Sutra &has"a /the $ommentar" on &rahma Sutras0, Sri San)ara has used the stor" of Samvarta as found in Tripura Rahas"a, in his $ommentar" on :-pi$ha Smar"ate: /Suutra0, #ith approval. There is a lu$id $ommentar" in Sans)rit on +aritaa"ana Samhita. It is named Tatpar"a !iipi)a and #ritten in 491E of ;ali Era /i.e. 1811 -.!.0 %" one !ravida Srinivasa, son of ."dianatha !i)shita of the villa'e of (ahapush)ara in South India. -s for its philosoph", there is no real reason to distin'uish it from .edanta. S$holars ho#ever $all this s"stem the Taantri or the Saa)ta, and point out some apparent differen$es %et#een this and -dvaita .eedaanta. This s"stem tea$hes that the Supreme Realit" is no other than -%stra$t Intelli'en$e. :Intelli'en$e: si'nifies Self8luminosit" and 4-%stra$tion4 denotes its unlimited nature. >o other a'ent $an %e admitted to e*ist apart from It in order to reveal It. The apparent variet" is onl" due to .imarsa, the 'ross aspe$t of Its a%solute freedom )no#n as Svatantra #hi$h at times unfolds the =ure Self as the 9osmos and at others #ithdra#s Itself and remains unmanifest. -%stra$tion and manifestation are inherent in the =ure SelfC these t#o aspe$ts are 'iven the names Siva and Sa)ti, respe$tivel". There $annot %e manifestation %e"ond the Supreme Intelli'en$eC therefore 9osmos and the Self are onl" the same, %ut different modes of Realit". Realisation of the Truth is thus ,uite simple, re,uirin' onl" $onstant remem%ran$e on these lines /anusandhaanam0 that Realit" is not in$ompati%le #ith the #orld and its phenomena, and that the apparent i'noran$e of his Truth is itself the out$ome of Realit" so that there is nothin' %ut Realit". 9reation and !issolution are $"$les of Self8e*pression and -%stra$tion due to S#atantra. There are no San)alpa8.i)alpas /modifi$ations0 in the state of dissipation and the Self remains as 9hit in a%solute purit" and un$han'in'. The Self is uniform and undivided. The dispositions of the individuals of the previous ;alpa /$reation0 remain un$o'nised %ut potential, a#aitin' to %e$ome manifest in the alternatin' mode. The tenden$" in the dire$tion of manifestation is (a"a #hi$h later displa"s as -vid"a /i'noran$e0 #hen the predispositions are in their full s#in'. 9hit, (aa"a and -vid"a are thus the same Realit". 9osmos is an e*pression in the medium of $ons$iousness and thus not unreal as some #ould have it. +ere the Realit" of the 9osmos is on a$$ount of the medium of e*pression, i.e., $ons$iousness, #hi$h does not $ontradi$t the statement that forms, et$. are unreal. There is thus no fundamental differen$e %et#een Tantra and .edanta. Det the =andits sa" that (a"a is made su%servient to &rahma in .edanta, that its appli$ation is limited to 'ross manifestation and that it is therefore 'ross #hi$h in ultimate anal"sis resolves itself into

voidC #hereas a$$ordin' to Tantra, (aa"a is an aspe$t of Realit" and should resolve itself into 9hit on ultimate anal"sis. This $annot %e a valid o%3e$tion. For, #here does the a%ove void rest< It must resolve itself into 9hit. The favourite e*ample of the #orld %ein' an ima'e refle$ted in $ons$iousness, as ima'es in a mirror is $ommon to %oth s"stems. .ide :.ishvam darpana drish"amaana na'aro tul"a 3iantar'atam: in !a)shinaamoorti Stotra of Sri San)ara. ithout tr"in' to find differen$es #here the" do not e*ist, let the earnest student appl" the infalli%le test of the pea$e of mind %rou'ht a%out %" the different modes of e*pression of the Realit" and %e satisfied and happ". MUNA(ALA S. )&N*A+ARAMA,AH (no# S#ami Ramananan"a Saras#at!i'

TO &+-@-.-> SRI R-(->- (-+-RS+I - =R-DER


S-?BT-TIO>S TO SRI R-(->- 8 the livin' monument of Eternal TruthJ The dire$t proof of the Ine*pressi%leJ (a" Th" +ol" Feet lead me into the San$tuar" of Sri TripuraJ &lessed %e th" +ol" FeetJ &lessed Th" =resen$eJ &lessed Th" dear onesJ &lessed all that relates to TheeJ &lest %e the (other Earth on #hi$h Thou artJ &lest %e the Bniverse 'oin' round Th" 9entreJ ?ove of (ani$)a .a$ha)ar personifiedJ Essen$e of @ods and sa'es ta)en shapeJ Sola$e of the ForlornJ Refu'e of the OppressedJ +elp to the (ee)J .oi$e of the (uteJ Splendour of allJ Rein$arnate of the .edasJ +ail to TheeJ Thine is the @lor"J Oh, Si'npost of =ea$eJ ?imit of -nandaJ

I>TRO!B9TORD >OTE
5amada'ni #as a &rahmin saint #ho lived in the forest #ith his #ife Renu)a and his sons, of #hom =arasurama #as the "oun'est, the most valiant and the %est reno#ned. The $ountr" #as then ruled %" +aiha"as, a $ertain $lan of ;shattri"as. Some of them $ame into $lash #ith =arasurama %ut fared the #orse. The" dared not $hallen'e him after#ards. Their ran$our, ho#ever, remained, and the" $ould not resist their lon'in' for reven'e. The" seiKed their opportunit" #hen =arasurama #as far a#a" from the hermita'e, atta$)ed his saintl" father and )illed him. On the son4s return, the mother narrated the unprovo)ed murder of the saintC she also desired that her hus%ands %od" should %e $remated on the %an)s of the @an'es and that she mi'ht as a Sati mount the funeral p"re.

=arasurama vo#ed that he #ould $lear the earth of the ;shattri"a vermin. +e pla$ed his father4s $orpse on the shoulder and too) his livin' mother on the other and set out alon' to the @an'es. hile passin' throu'h a forest, an -vadhutha, %" name !attatre"a, sa# Renu)a and stopped the "oun' man #ho $arried her. The -vadhutha addressed Renu)a as Sa)ti in$arnate, of unparalleled mi'ht /E)aviiraa0 and #orshipped her. She %lessed him and told him of her life on earth and her resolve to end it. She also advised her son to loo) to !attatre"a for help #hen needed. =arasurama #ent on his #a" and fulfilled his mother4s desire. +e then $hallen'ed ever" ;shattri"a in the land and )illed them all. Their %lood #as $olle$ted in a pool in ;uru)shetra, and =arasurama offered o%lations to his forefathers #ith it. +is dead an$estors appeared and told him to desist from his %lood" reven'e. -$$ordin'l", he retired into mountain fastnesses and lived as a hermit. +earin' on one o$$asion of the pro#ess of Rama, his #rath re)indled and he $ame %a$) to $hallen'e him. Rama #as %orn of !asaratha #ho, thou'h a ;shattri"a, es$aped his doom %" a ruse. Rama a$$epted =arasurama4s $hallen'e and 'ot the %etter of him. =arasurama returned $rest8fallen and on his #a" met an -vadhuta named Samvarta, the %rother of &rihaspati. ?ater he en$ountered Sri !attatre"a #ho instru$ted him in the Truth and so led him to salvation.

!-TT-TREDThere #as on$e a dutiful #ife #hose hus%and #as, ho#ever, a li$entious #ret$h. This $ouple un#ittin'l" distur%ed Rishi (andav"a, #ho had %een pla$ed on a spear %" a mis'uided )in'. The Rishi, #ho #as in a'on" %ut not d"in', $ursed them, sa"in' that the hus%and #ould die at sunrise and the #ife %e left a #ido#. ido#hood is most a%horrent to a +indu lad" and $onsidered #orse than death. &" the for$e of her dutiful #ifehood she resisted the $urse of the RishiC the Sun $ould not riseC and the @ods #ere rendered impotent. The @ods in $oun$il resolved to approa$h -nasu"a 8 the ideal of #ifehood 8 to as) her to prevail on the other lad" to relent. -nasu"a promised her that she #ould restore her dead hus%and to lifeC and so the matter ended satisfa$toril" for all. The three $hief @ods then a'reed to %e %orn as sons to -nasu"a. &rahman #as %orn as the (oonC Siva as !hurvasa and Sri >ara"ana as !atta. The last is also $alled :!atta -tre"a,: of #hi$h the latter #orld is the patron"ami$ derived from -tri, the hus%and of -nasu"a. Sri !attatre"a is the foremost in the line of divine tea$hers in$arnate on earth.

TRIPURA RAHASYA

OR T+E (DSTERD &EDO>! T+E TRI>ITD

9+-=TER I

1. Salutation to -um /undifferentiated &rahman, and "et the0 =rimal and &lissful $ause, the trans$endental $ons$iousness shinin' as the uni,ue mirror of the #onderful universeH >oteH 8 The one undifferentiated &rahman si'nified %" -um polarises as Sat8$hit8ananda ta)in' shape as =arames#ari #ho, in +er $r"stal purit", displa"s the varie'ated phenomena #hi$h '"rate in e,uipoise #ithin +er. >eutral &rahman and the polarised &rahman are thus inter$han'ea%le. The idea of the mirror implies the non8separateness of the o%3e$t from the su%3e$t /$ons$ious %ein'0. E. /+aritha"ana said H..................0 :Bndistur%ed "ou have heard, O >aradaJ the (ahatm"a /The @ospel0 of Sri Tripura, #hi$h tea$hes the #a" to Trans$enden$e.: >oteH 8 Thus %e'ins the latter part of the %oo)C the first part deals #ith a narrative of !evi /Sa)ti 8 Sri Tripura0, +er #orship and +er 'ra$e. Tripura literall" means the three $ities. The" are the states 8 5a'rat, Svapna and Shushupti. The under$urrent of $ons$iousness in all of them, remainin' unaffe$ted, is metaphori$all" $alled the Resident (istress %" name Sri Tripura. The pro$reative fa$ult" 'eneratin' ne# %ein's and the lin) of altruisti$ love $onne$tin' the offsprin' to the parent are personified in the (other. +en$e the feminine termination of Tripura. :The #a" to trans$enden$e: si'nifies that interest in Tripura purifies the mind and $reates the Keal for en,uir" into the Truth. The listener is no# fit for the ensuin' dis$ourse on #isdom. 1. I shall no# dis$ourse on #isdom, #hi$h is uni,ue %e$ause one #ill %e permanentl" freed from miser", %" hearin' it. 4. This is the $on$entrated e*tra$t of the essen$e of the .edi$, .aishnava, Saiva, Sat)ta and =asupata lore ta)en after a deep stud" of them all. F8I. >o other $ourse #ill impress the mind so mu$h as this one on isdom #hi$h #as on$e tau'ht %" that illustrious master !attatre"a to =arasurama. The tea$hin' #as %orn of his o#n e*perien$e, lo'i$al in sense and ,uite uni,ue in its nature. One #ho $annot apprehend Truth even after hearin' this must %e dismissed as a sill" fool to %e ran)ed

amon' the insentient and a$$ursed of @odC Siva himself $annot ma)e su$h an one 'ain #isdom. 8. I no# pro$eed to relate that in$ompara%le tea$hin'. ?istenJ Oh, the lives of Sa'es are most sa$redJ 9811. >arada too served me to learn the same from meC for, servi$e to sa'es ena%les one to apprehend their innate )indness, 3ust as the sense of smell helps one to dete$t the intrinsi$ odour of mus). -s =arasurama, the son of 5amada'ni, alread" pure8minded and pleasin' to all, #as listenin' to the @ospel of Tripura from the lips of !attatre"a, he %e$ame a%stra$ted in devotion and so 'ro#in' still for a time, his mind %e$ame still purer. 1E811. Then as the mind rela*ed, his e"es 'lo#ed in rapture and his hair stood on end, as if his e$stas" $ould not %e $ontained #ithin %ut must es$ape throu'h the ver" pores of his %od". +e then fell to the 'round %efore his master !atta. 14. -'ain he arose, and %ein' filled #ith e$stas", his voi$e $ho)ed #ith emotion as he saidH 4?u$)" am IC %lessed am IC throu'h Th" @ra$e O ?ordJ4 1F. That e*panse of @ra$e $alled Siva, here in$arnate as m" @uru, is indeed 'ra$ious to meC 'ainin' #hose pleasure even the ?ord of $reation, loo)s a pi'm". 12. !oes not the @od of !eath veril" mer'e into the Self, if onl" one4s master is pleased #ith one< That Supreme &ein' is 'ra$ious indeed, 3ust in so mu$h as is m" (aster, for reasons un)no#n to me. >oteH 8 The meanin' is that the @uru, %ein' @od, is mer$" in$arnate and re,uires no in$entive to sho# 'ra$e. 1I. The @uru4s 'ra$e 'ained, I have 'ained allJ Thou hast no# )indl" opened out to me the 'lor" of Tripura. 18. I no# desire ferventl" to #orship +er Trans$endental (a3est". ;indl" tell me, m" (aster, ho# it is to %e done. 198EE. &ein' thus re,uested, !atta @uru satisfied himself as to the fitness of =arasurama, #hose Keal for and devotion to Tripura #orship #ere intenseC and he dul" initiated him into the method of +er #orship. -fter initiation into the ri'ht method, #hi$h is more sa$red than all others and leads dire$tl" to Realisation, =arasurama learned from the s#eet tips of Sri @uru all the details re'ardin' re$itation fi'ures for #orship and different meditations, one after another 8 li)e a hone" %ee $olle$tin' hone" from flo#ers. &har'ava /i.e., =arasurama0 #as over3o"ed.

E1. &ein' then permitted %" his hol" master, he thirsted to pra$tise the sa$red loreC he #ent round his master, made o%eisan$e to him and retired to the (ahendra +ill. >oteH 8 To #al) round 'entl" and pea$eful, al#a"s )eepin' the $entre to one4s ri'ht, is a si'n of respe$t to the o%3e$t in the $entre. E4. There, havin' %uilt a $lean and $omforta%le hermita'e, he #as en'a'ed for t#elve "ears in the #orship of Tripura. EF. +e in$essantl" $ontemplated the fi'ure of that +ol" (other Tripura, performin' at the same time his dail" tas)s and the spe$ial $eremonies $onne$ted #ith +er #orship and re$itationsC t#elve "ears thus passed in a flash. Then on a $ertain da" #hile the son of 5amada'ni #as sittin' at ease, he fell into a reverie. EI. :I did not understand even a little of #hat Samvarta told me #hom I met formerl" on the #a".: E8. :I have also for'otten #hat I as)ed m" @uru. I heard from him the @ospel of Tripura, ..... E9. ....... %ut it is not $lear to me #hat Samvarta said in repl" to m" ,uer" on $reation.: 17. :+e mentioned the stor" of ;ala)rit, %ut #ent no further, )no#in' that I #as not fit for it.: 11. :Even no# I understand nothin' of the #or)in's of the universe. from, in all its 'randeur<: here does it rise

1E. : here does it end< +o# does it e*ist< I find it to %e alto'ether transient.: 11. :&ut #orldl" happenin's seem permanentC #h" should that %e< Su$h happenin's seem stran'el" enou'h to %e un$onsidered.: 14. :+o# stran'eJ The" are on a par #ith the %lind man led %" the %lindJ: 1F. :(" o#n $ase furnishes an e*ample in point. I do not even remem%er #hat happened in m" $hildhood.: 12. :I #as different in m" "outh, a'ain different in m" manhood, still more so no#C and in this #a", m" life is $onstantl" $han'in'.: 1I818. : hat fruits have %een reaped as the result of these $han'es is not $lear to me. The end 3ustifies the means as adopted %" individuals a$$ordin' to their temperaments in different $limes and in different times. hat have the" 'ained there%"< -re the" themselves happ"<

19. :The 'ain is onl" that #hi$h is $onsidered to %e so %" the unthin)in' pu%li$. I ho#ever $annot deem it so, seein' that even after 'ainin' the so8$alled end, the attempts are repeated. >oteH 8 Sin$e there is no a%idin' satisfa$tion in the 'ain, it is not #orth havin'. 47841. : ell, havin' 'ained one purpose, #h" does man loo) for another< Therefore, #hat the man is al#a"s after should %e esteemed the onl" real purpose 8 %e it a$$ession of pleasure or removal of pain. There $an %e neither, so lon' as the in$entive to effort lasts.: 4E. :The feelin' of a need to #or) in order to 'ain happiness /%ein' the inde* of miser"0 is the miser" of miseries. +o# $an there %e pleasure or removal of pain so lon' as it $ontinues< 4184F. :Su$h pleasure is li)e that of soothin' un'uents pla$ed on a s$alded lim%, or of the em%ra$e of one4s %eloved #hen one is l"in' pier$ed %" an arro# in the %reastC or of the s#eet melodies of musi$ heard %" an advan$ed $onsumptiveJ 42. :Onl" those #ho need not en'a'e in a$tion, are happ"C the" are perfe$tl" $ontent, and self8$ontained, and the" e*perien$e happiness #hi$h e*tends to all the pores of the %od". 4I. :Should there still %e a fe# pleasura%le moments for others, the" are similar to those en3o"ed %" one #ho, #hile #rithin' #ith an a%dominal pain, inhales the s#eet odour of flo#ers. 48. :+o# sill" of people #ith innumera%le o%li'ations ever to %e %us" see)in' su$h moments of pleasure in this #orldJ: 49. : hat shall I sa" of the pro#ess of undis$riminatin' men< The" propose to rea$h happiness after $rossin' intermina%le hurdles of effortsJ: F7. :- %e''ar in the street la%ours as mu$h for happiness as a mi'ht" emperor.: F18FE. :Ea$h of them havin' 'ained his end feels happ" and $onsiders himself %lessed as if he had rea$hed the 'oal of life. I too have %een un#ittin'l" imitatin' them li)e a %lind man follo#in' the %lind. Enou'h of this foll"J I #ill at on$e return to that o$ean of mer$" 8 m" (aster.: F1. :?earnin' from him #hat is to %e )no#n, I #ill $ross the o$ean of dou%ts after %oardin' the %oat of his tea$hin's.: F4. +avin' resolved thus, =arasurama of pure mind immediatel" des$ended the hill in sear$h of his (aster. FF. 6ui$)l" rea$hin' the @andhmadan (ountain, he found the @uru sittin' in padmasana posture as if illuminin' the #hole #orld.

F2. +e fell prone %efore the (aster4s seat and, holdin' the @uru4s feet #ith his hands, pressed them to his head. FI. On =arasurama salutin' him thus, !attatre"a 'ave him his %lessin's, his fa$e lit #ith love, and he %ade him rise sa"in'H F8. :9hildJ rise up. I see "ou have returned after a lon' time. Tell me ho# are "ou< -re "ou in 'ood health<: F9. +e rose as $ommanded %" his @uru, and too) his seat in front of and $lose to him as dire$ted. 9laspin' his hands, =arasurama spo)e #ith pleasure. >oteH 8 9laspin' the t#o hands #ith fin'ers dire$ted to#ards the o%3e$t, is a si'n of respe$t. 27. :Sri @uruJ O$ean of (er$"J 9an an" one dren$hed #ith Th" )indness ever %e affli$ted %" ailments even if destin" so de$ree<: 21. :+o# $an the %urnin' pains of illness tou$h one #ho is a%idin' in the refreshin' moon of Th" ne$tarli)e )indness<: >oteH 8 The moon is %elieved to %e the store of ne$tar #ith #hi$h the pitris feed themselves. 2E824. :I feel happ" in %od" and mind, %ein' refreshed %" Th" )indness. >othin' affli$ts me e*$ept the desire to remain in un%ro)en $onta$t #ith Th" hol" feet. The ver" si'ht of Th" hol" feet has made me perfe$tl" happ", %ut there are a fe# lon'standin' dou%ts in m" mind.: 2F. : ith Th" )ind permission I desire to propound them.: 22. +earin' the #ords of =arasurama, !attatre"a, the O$ean of )indness, #as pleased and said to him. 2I. :-s) at on$e, O &har'ava, #hat "ou so mu$h #ant to )no# and #hat "ou have so lon' %een thin)in' a%out. I am pleased #ith "our devotion and shall ans#er "our ,uestions #ith pleasure.: +!-s en"s t!e .irst C!a/ter $no#n as t!e ,nterro0ator1 o2 %!ar0a3a in Sri +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER II

O&?I@-TORD SE>SE TO -R!S -9TIO> 9O>!E(>E! ->! I>.ESTI@-TIO> RE9O((E>!E!

1. :Ordered thus, =arasurama a'ain salutin' the son of Saint -tri #ith humilit" %e'an to as)H E. :&ha'avan, dear and esteemed (asterJ Oh, Omnis$ient oneJ O$ean of (er$"J On$e %efore for 'ood reason I #as furious #ith the )in'l" $lass. 1. :T#ent"8one times I strode the land e*terminatin' them all, in$ludin' su$)in' %a%es and those in the #om% $olle$tin' their %lood in a pool. 4. :(" forefathers #ere pleased #ith m" devotion to themC ho#ever, the" ordered me to desist from su$h $arna'e. (" #rath #as at last appeased. F. :On hearin' of the reno#ned Rama the ver" in$arnation of +ari in -"odh"a, m" #rath #as re)indled. &linded %" fur" and proud of m" pro#ess, I $hallen'ed him. 2. :I #as defeated %" that 'reat ?ord and m" pride #as hum%led. +o#ever, out of his innate )indness he let me 'o #ith m" life %e$ause I #as a &rahmin. I. :-s I #as returnin' mortified %" defeat, I realised the vanit" of the #a"s of the #orld. 8. :Bne*pe$tedl" I met Samvarta, the ?ord of the -vadhutas, and instin$tivel" re$o'nised him to %e li)e fire in em%ers. >oteH 8 Samvarta, the %rother of &rihaspati, loo)ed li)e a mania$ #anderin' in the forests. >arada on$e dire$ted the emperor >ivritta to him and instru$ted him ho# Samvarta $ould %e re$o'nised. The ;in' a$$ordin'l" met the Sa'e and pra"ed for his help in the performan$e of a sa$rifi$e, in #hi$h &rihaspati prompted %" Indra had refused to offi$iate. Samvarta a'reed, thou'h hesitatin'l", and later $ompleted it in spite of the #rath of Indra. Indra attempted to %rea) up the fun$tion %ut #as rendered impotent %" the Sa'e /vide -svamedha =arva in the (aha%harata0. 9. :+is 'reatness #as li)e red hot $oal hidden in em%ers. Ever" in$h of his %od" filled one #ith e*hilaration so that I had a refreshin' feelin' in his mere pro*imit". >oteH 8 Sensation of =ea$e or of ananda is the s"mptom of Satsan'a. 17. :I as)ed him to tell me a%out his state. +is ans#er #as $lear $ut and e*pressive of the essen$e of the s#eet ne$tar of Eternal life.

11. :I $ould not pursue the $onversation then and felt li)e a %e''ar maid %efore a ,ueen. +o#ever I pra"ed to him and he dire$ted me to Thee. 1E. :-$$ordin'l" I have sou'ht shelter at Th" hol" feet, 3ust as a %lind man #ho is entirel" dependent on his friends. 11. : hat Samvarta said is not at all $lear to me. I have learnt the @ospel of Tripura #ell. It is undou%tedl" an in$entive to devotion to +er. 14. :She is in$arnate as Thou, and al#a"s a%ides in m" heart. &ut #hat have I 'ained after all< >oteH 8 =ra"ers to @od are onl" selfish in the %e'innin', "et the" not onl" fulfil one4s desires %ut also purif" the mind so that devotion to @od 'ro#s in intensit" and the devotee desires nothin' more than @od. Then @od sho#s +is @ra$e %" manifestin' as his @uru. 1F. :?ord, )indl" e*plain #hat Samvarta told me %efore. It is $ertain that I $annot realise the 'oal until it is made )no#n to me. 12. : hatever I do in i'noran$e thereof loo)s li)e mere $hild4s pla". 1I. :Formerl" I pleased the @ods, in$ludin' Indra, #ith various $eremonies, o%servan$es, 'ifts and presents of food. 18. :?ater I heard Samvarta sa" that the fruits of all these a$ts are onl" trivial. I $onsider those a$ts of no a$$ount #hi$h "ield onl" triflin' results. 19. :(iser" is not a%sen$e of happiness, %ut limited happiness. For as happiness re$edes miser" pours in. E7. :This is not the onl" misera%le result of a$tion, %ut there remains a still #orse one, the fear of death, #hi$h $annot %e miti'ated %" an" amount of a$tivit". E1. :(" devotional pra$ti$es %efore Tripura are similar. -ll these mental $on$eptions are nothin' %ut $hild4s pla". EE. :The pra$ti$es ma" %e a$$ordin' to Th" instru$tions, or different. -'ain the" ma" %e #ith dis$ipline or #ithout dis$ipline, sin$e the Sastras differ a%out this. E1. :(editations ma" also differ a$$ordin' to individual tastes and temperaments. +o# $an that %e< !evotion is 3ust as imperfe$t as ;arma. E4. :+o# $an transient mental $on$epts of devotion produ$e intransient results of hi'h Truth< (oreover, the pra$ti$es are $ontinuous and there seems to %e no end to these o%li'ator" duties.

EF. :I have noti$ed that Samvarta, the ?ord, is ,uite happ", %ein' $ompletel" free from an" sense of o%li'ation to a$t and its disastrous results. E2. :+e seems to lau'h at the #a"s of the #orld, to stride un$on$erned up the road of fearlessness, li)e a ma3esti$ elephant refreshin' itself in a ta)e of melted sno# #hen the surroundin' forest is on fire. EI. :I found him a%solutel" free from an" sense of o%li'ation and at the same time perfe$tl" happ" in his realisation of Eternal &ein'. +o# did he 'ain that state< -nd #hat did he tell me< E8. :;indl" e*plain these points, and so res$ue me from the 3a#s of the monster of ;arma.: E9. =ra"in' so, he fell prostrate and too) the (aster4s feet in his hands. Seein' =arasurama doin' so and feelin' that he #as no# read" for Realisation. 17. Sri !atta, #hose ver" %ein' #as love, said 'entl"H :Oh $hild &har'avaJ ?u$)" are "ou 8 "our mind %ein' thus disposed. 11811. :5ust as a man sin)in' in the o$ean suddenl" finds a %oat to res$ue him, so also "our virtuous a$tions of the past have no# pla$ed "ou on the most sa$red hei'hts of Self8 Realisation. That !evi Tripura, #ho is the $ons$ious $ore of the heart and therefore )no#s ea$h one intimatel", s#iftl" res$ues +er uns#ervin' devotees from the 3a#s of death, after manifestin' +erself in their hearts. 14. :-s lon' as a man is afraid of the ni'htmare, o%li'ation, so lon' must he pla$ate it, or else he #ill not find pea$e. 1F. :+o# $an a man stun' %" that .iper, o%li'ation, ever %e happ"< Some men have 'one mad as if some poison had alread" entered their %lood and #ere torturin' their #hole %ein'. 12. : hile others are stupefied %" the poison of o%li'ation and una%le to dis$riminate 'ood from %ad. 1I. : ron'l" do the" ever en'a'e in #or), %ein' deludedC su$h is the pli'ht of humanit" stupefied %" the poison of the sense of o%li'ation. 18. :(en are from time immemorial %ein' s#allo#ed up %" the terrifi$ o$ean of poison, li)e some travellers on$e on the .indh"a ran'e. 19. :Oppressed %" hun'er in the forest, the" mistoo) the de$eptive >u* .omi$a fruits for some deli$ious oran'es.

47. :-nd in their vora$ious hun'er the" ate them up #ithout even dete$tin' the %itter taste. The" then suffered torment from the effe$ts of the poison. 41. :+avin' ori'inall" mista)en the poisonous fruit for an edi%le fruit, their reason %ein' no# %linded %" poison, the" ea'erl" sou'ht relief from pain. 4E. :-nd in their a'on" the" too) hold of and ate thorn8apples, thin)in' them to %e rose8 apples. >oteH 8 Thorn8apples are used for e*tra$tin' a poisonous al)aloid. The fruit is fatal or produ$es insanit". 41. The" %e$ame mad and lost their #a". Some %e$omin' %lind fell into pits or 'or'esH 44. :Some of them had their lim%s and %odies $ut %" thornsC some #ere disa%led in their hands, feet or other parts of the %od"C others %e'an to ,uarrel, fi'ht and shout amon' themselves. 4F. :The" assaulted one another #ith their fists, stones, missiles, sti$)s, et$., till at len'th thorou'hl" e*hausted, the" rea$hed a $ertain to#n. 42. :The" happened to $ome to the outs)irts of the to#n at ni'htfall, and #ere prevented %" the 'uards from enterin'. 4I849. :Bna#are of the time and pla$e and una%le to 'au'e the $ir$umstan$es, the" assaulted the 'uards and #ere soundl" thrashed and $hased a#a"C some fell into dit$hesC some #ere $au'ht %" $ro$odiles in deep #atersC some fell headlon' into #ells and #ere dro#nedC a fe# more dead than alive, #ere $au'ht and thro#n into prison. F7. :Similar is the fate of the people #ho, deluded #ith the ,uest of happiness, have fallen into the snares of the tas)8master of a$tion. The" are %e#ildered in their frenK" and destru$tion a#aits them. F18FE. :Dou are fortunate, &har'ava, in havin' trans$ended that distra$ted state. Investi'ation is the root8$ause of all, and it is the first step to the supreme re#ard of indes$ri%a%le %liss. +o# $an an" one 'ain se$urit" #ithout proper investi'ation< F1. : ant of 3ud'ment is $ertain death, "et man" are in its $lut$hes. Su$$ess attends proper deli%eration till eventuall" the end is #ithout dou%t a$$omplished. F4. :Indeli%eration is the ever8present #ea)ness of the !ait"as and Datudhanas /-suras and Ra)shasas0C deli%eration is the $hara$teristi$ of the !evas /@ods0, and therefore the" are al#a"s happ".

FF. :O#in' to their dis$rimination the" depend on .ishnu and inevita%l" $on,uer their enemies. Investi'ation is the seed $apa%le of sproutin' and nourishin' into the 'i'anti$ tree of happiness. F2. :- deli%eratin' man al#a"s shines over others. &rahma is 'reat %e$ause of deli%erationC .ishnu is #orshipped %e$ause of it. FI8F8. :The @reat ?ord Siva is omnis$ient for the same reason. Rama, thou'h the most intelli'ent of men, $ame to disaster for #ant of 3ud'ment %efore attemptin' to $apture the 'olden deerC later #ith due deli%eration, he spanned the o$ean, $rossed over to ?an)a, the island of the Ra)shasa %rood, and $on,uered it. >oteH 8 The referen$e is to the Rama"ana. Ravana, the ar$h enem" of Rama, indu$ed one of his lieutenants to assume the shape of a 'olden deer and enti$e Rama a#a" from his hermita'e so that Ravana $ould for$i%l" $arr" a#a" Sita, #ho #ould thus %e left unprote$ted. The ruse su$$eededC and later ensued the 'reat %attle in #hi$h Ravana and others #ere )illed and Sita #as re$overed. Thus did Rama vindi$ate himself. F9. :Dou must have heard ho# &rahma also %e$omin' on an o$$asion infatuated, a$ted rashl" li)e a fool and $onse,uentl" paid the penalt" #ith one of his five heads. >oteH 8 &rahma had ori'inall" five heads. +e and .ishnu #ere on$e $ontestin' ea$h other4s superiorit". 5ust then a hu'e $olumn of li'ht appeared in front of them and the" #ondered #hat it #as. The" a'reed that he #ho found either end of the $olumn earlier, should 'et the palm. .ishnu %e$ame a %oar and sou'ht the %ottomC &rahma %e$ame a s#an and fle# up to#ards the top. .ishnu returned disappointed. &rahma at the point of despair $ame a$ross a s#re#pine flo#er. +e stopped its des$ent and as)ed #herefrom it #as $omin'. -ll that it )ne# #as that it #as fallin' from spa$e and nothin' more. &rahma persuaded it to %ear false #itness and $laimed superiorit" over his rival. Siva #as enra'ed, snipped off that head #hi$h spo)e the lie, and de$lared himself as the $olumn of li'ht. 27. :Bnthin)in'l", (ahadeva $onferred a %oon on the -sura and #as immediatel" o%li'ed to flee in terror for fear of %ein' redu$ed to ashes. >oteH 8 There #as on$e an -sura %" name &hasma. +e did penan$e and pleased Siva #ho appeared %efore him and as)ed him #hat he #anted. &hasma desired that his mere tou$h should redu$e an" o%3e$t to ashes. Siva $onferred the %oonC &hasma #anted to test it on himH Siva too) to fli'ht. In order to save him from that predi$ament, .ishnu appeared as a voluptuous damsel %efore the pursuin' -sura and enti$ed him. +e %e$ame amorous and made advan$es to her. She as)ed him to 'o to a sprin' in front of them and ru% himself #ith #ater, %efore em%ra$in' her. +e #as ta)en in. On his hand tou$hin' his %od", he fell do#n, a heap of ashes. 21. :On one o$$asion, +ari havin' )illed the #ife of &hri'u %e$ame the vi$tim of a terri%le $urse and suffered untold miseries.

2E. :Similarl" have other !evas, -suras, Ra)shasas, men and animals %e$ome misera%le %" #ant of 3ud'ment. 21. :On the other hand, 'reat and valiant are the heroes, O &har'ava, #hom 3ud'ment ever %efriends. Eternal homa'e to them. 24. :9ommon people, %e$omin' foolishl" involved in re'ard to their sense of a$tion, are perple*ed at ever" turnC if on the other hand, the" thin) and a$t, the" #ill %e free from all miser". 2F. :The #orld has %een in the $oils of i'noran$e from time immemorialC ho# $an there %e dis$ernment so lon' as i'noran$e lasts< 22828. :9an the s#eet #aters of de# $olle$t in tropi$al sand" deserts #hi$h are alread" s$or$hed %" heat< Similarl", $an the refreshin' tou$h of dis$ernment %e sou'ht in the red8 hot flue over the furna$e of lon' %urnin' i'noran$e< !is$ernment is, ho#ever, 'ained %" proper methods, the most effe$tive of #hi$h is also the %est of all, and that is the supreme 'ra$e of the @oddess #ho inheres as the +eart ?otus in ever" one. ho has ever a$$omplished an" 'ood purpose, #ithout that @ra$e< 29. :Investi'ation is the Sun for $hasin' a#a" the dense dar)ness of indolen$e. It is 'enerated %" the #orship of @od #ith devotion. I7. : hen the Supreme !evi is #ell pleased #ith the #orship of the devotee, She turns into vi$hara in him and shines as the %laKin' Sun in the e*panse of his +eart. >oteH 8 !eviH @oddess. .i$haraH !is$rimination, investi'ation, deli%eration, 3ud'ment. !evi is there in i'noran$e, in #orship, in vi$hara and later, li)e fat in the mil), the $urds and the $hurned %utter su$$essivel". I18IE. :Therefore that Tripura, the Supreme For$e, the &ein' of all %ein's, the %lessed, the hi'hest, the one $ons$iousness of Siva, #ho a%ides as the Self of self, should %e #orshipped sin$erel", e*a$tl" as tau'ht %" the @uru. The fore8runner of su$h #orship is devotion and praise#orth" earnestness. I18I2. :The ante$edent $ause of these is a'ain said to %e the learnin' of the mahatm"a /@ospel0. Therefore, O Rama, the mahatma"a #as first revealed to "ouC havin' heard it, "ou have no# pro'ressed #ell. .i$hara is the onl" #a" to attain the hi'hest @ood. I #as indeed an*ious a%out "ouC and there is ver" 'ood reason for su$h an*iet" until the mind turns to#ards vi$hara from the overpo#erin' disease of i'noran$e, 3ust as one is an*ious for a patient #ho is delirious, until one sees that the s"stem sho#s si'ns of a favoura%le turn.

II. :If on$e vi$hara ta)es root, the hi'hest 'ood has for all pra$ti$al purposes, %een rea$hed in this life. -s lon' as vi$hara is a%sent from a human %ein', the most desira%le form of %irth, so lon' is the tree of life %arren and therefore useless. The onl" useful fruit of life is vi$hara. I9881. :The man #ithout dis$rimination is li)e a fro' in the #ellC 3ust as the fro' in the #ell does not )no# an"thin' either of 'ood or of %ad and so dies in his i'noran$e in the #ell8itself, in the same #a" men, vainl" %orn in &rahmanda, /E'' of &rahma /i.e., the Bniverse00 do not )no# either 'ood or %ad re'ardin' themselves and are %orn onl" to die in i'noran$e. 8E. :9onfoundin' dispassion /vaira'"a0 #ith miser", and pleasures of the #orld #ith happiness /su)ha0, a man suffers in the $"$le of %irths and deaths, po#erful i'noran$e prevailin'. 81884. :Even thou'h affli$ted %" miser", he does not $ease further indul'en$e in those $auses ante$edent to it /namel", #ealth, et$.0C 3ust as a 3a$)8ass pursues a she8ass even if )i$)ed a hundred times %" her, so also is it #ith the man and the #orld. &ut "ou, O Rama, %e$omin' dis$riminatin' have trans$ended miser".: +!-s en"s t!e Secon" C!a/ter in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER III

T+E ->TE9E!E>T 9-BSE FOR ?E-R>I>@ T+E @OS=E?. -SSO9I-TIO> IT+ T+E ISE (BST =RE9E!E :.I9+-R-:

1. +avin' listened to !attatre"a4s #ords, =arasurama #as deli'hted and $ontinued his ,uestions in all humilit"H E. :O &ha'avanJ It is pre$isel" as m" ?ord @uru has 3ust said. Trul", a man #ill ever head for destru$tion in his i'noran$e. 1. :+is salvation lies in investi'ation /vi$hara0 alone. The remote and pro*imate $auses have also %een mentioned %" Thee, and the" have %een tra$ed to mahatm"a. I am in 'reat dou%t on this point. 4. :+o# does that happen and #hat is a'ain its pro*imate $ause< 9an it %e that it is natural /li)e $oura'e to a hero0< Then #h" is it not shared %" all<

F82. : h" have I not 'ot it as "et< -'ain, there are others #ho are more trou%led and more sufferin' than I. h" have the" not 'ot this means< ;indl" tell me.: Thus as)ed, !atta, the O$ean of (er$", ans#eredH I. :?isten, RamaJ I shall no# tell "ou the fundamental $ause of salvation. -sso$iation #ith the #ise is the root $ause for o%literatin' all miser". 889. :-sso$iation #ith the sa'es is alone said to lead to the hi'hest 'ood. Dour $onta$t #ith Samvarta has led "ou to this sta'e of enli'htenment, #hi$h is the fore8runner of eman$ipation. On %ein' approa$hed, the sa'es tea$h the 'reatest 'ood. 17. :+as an" one ever 'ot an"thin' 'reat, #ithout $onta$t #ith the #ise< In an" $ase, it is the $ompan" #hi$h determines the future of the individual. 11. :- man undou%tedl" reaps the fruits of his $ompan". I shall relate to "ou a stor" to illustrate thisH 1E. :There #as on$e a )in' of !asarna %" name (u)ta$huda. +e had t#o sonsH +ema$huda and (ani$huda. 11. :The" #ere $omel", #ell8%ehaved and #ell8learned. -t one time the" led a huntin' part", $onsistin' of a 'reat retinue of men and #arriors, into a deep forest on the Sah"a (ountains #hi$h #as infested #ith ti'ers, lions and other #ild animals. The" #ere themselves armed #ith %o#s and arro#s. 14. :There the" shot several deer, lions, %oars, %isons, #olves, et$., havin' )illed them %" the s)ilful use of their %o#s. 12. :-s more #ild animals #ere %ein' hunted do#n %" the ro"al hunters, a tornado %e'an to rase, pourin' do#n sand and pe%%les. 1I. :- thi$) $loud of dust s$reened the s)"C and it %e$ame dar) li)e ni'ht, so that neither ro$)s, trees nor men $ould %e seen. 18. :The mountain #as shrouded in dar)ness, so that neither hills nor valle"s $ould %e seen. The retinue hurried a#a" affli$ted %" the sands and pe%%les hurled do#n %" the tornado. 19. :- fe# of them too) shelter under ro$)s, others in $aves, and still others under trees. The ro"al pair mounted on horses and rode a#a" into the distan$e. E7. :+ema$huda ultimatel" rea$hed the hermita'e of a sa'e, #hi$h had %een %uilt in a fine 'arden of plantain, date and other trees. E1. :There he sa# a $harmin' maiden #hose %od", %ri'ht as 'old, shone li)e a flame of fire.

EE8E1. :The prin$e #as %e#it$hed at the si'ht of the 'irl, #ho loo)ed li)e the @oddess of Fortune, and spo)e to her thusH 4 ho are "ou, fair lad", #ho live fearlessl" in su$h a dreadful and solitar" forest< hose are "ou< h" are "ou here< -re "ou alone<4 E4. :On %ein' spo)en to, that spotless maiden repliedH 4 el$ome, prin$eJ =lease sit do#n. EF. +ospitalit" is the sa$red dut" of the pious. I noti$e "ou have %een overta)en %" the tornado and affli$ted. E2. :Tie "our horse to the date8palm. Sit here and ta)e rest, and then "ou #ill %e a%le to listen to me in $omfort.: EI8E9. :She 'ave him fruits to eat and 3ui$es to drin). -fter he had refreshed himself, he #as further treated #ith her $harmin' #ords #hi$h dropped li)e s#eet ne$tar from her lips. 4=rin$eJ There is that #ell8)no#n sa'e, ."a'hrapada, and ardent devotee of Siva, %" #hose penan$e all the #orlds have %een trans$ended, and #ho is ea'erl" #orshipped even %" the 'reatest saints for his unparalleled #isdom %oth #ith re'ard to this and other #orlds. 17. :I am his foster $hild 8 +emale)ha is m" name. There #as a .id"adhari /$elestial damsel0 / 8 .id"apra%ha %" name0 and ver" %eautiful. 11. :One da" she $ame here to %athe in this river, the .ena, to #hi$h Sushena, the ;in' of .an'a, also $ame at the same time. 1E. :+e sa# the $elestial %eaut" %athin'. She #as the fairest in the #orld, lithe in %od" and #ith the most %eautiful %reasts. 11. :+e fell in love #ith her #hi$h love she returned. 14. :Their love $onsummated, he returned home leavin' her pre'nant. 1F. :-fraid of slander, she $aused an a%ortion. I #as ho#ever %orn alive from that #om%. 12. :-s ."a'hrapada $ame to the river %an) for his evenin' a%lutions, he pi$)ed me up %e$ause of his 'reat love for all, in order to %rin' me up #ith a mother4s $are. 1I. :+e #ho offers ri'hteous prote$tion is said to %e the father. I am therefore his dau'hter %" virtue of this and devoted to him. 18819. :There is $ertainl" no fear for me an"#here on earth on a$$ount of his 'reatness. &e the" @ods or -suras, the" $annot enter this hermita'e #ith %ad motivesC if the" did the" #ould onl" %e $ountin' their o#n ruin. I have no# told "ou m" stor". ait here, =rin$e, a little.

47. :That same lord, m" foster8father, #ill soon %e here. Salute him and hear him #ith humilit"C "our desire #ill %e fulfilled, and "ou ma" leave here in the mornin'.4 41. :+avin' heard her and %e$omin' enamoured of her, he #as silent for fear of 'ivin' offen$eC "et he %e$ame distressed in mind. 4E842. :>otin' the prin$e love8stri$)en, that hi'hl" a$$omplished 'irl $ontinuedH 4&ravo =rin$eJ &e stead"J (" father is a%out to $ome. Tell him all.4 -s she #as sa"in' this ."a'hrapada the 'reat saint arrived, $arr"in' a %as)et of flo#ers $ulled from the forest for #orship. Seein' the sa'e $omin', the prin$e rose up from his seat, prostrated %efore him mentionin' his o#n name, and then too) his seat as dire$ted. The sa'e noti$ed that the man #as love8stri$)enC ta)in' in the #hole situation %" his o$$ult po#ers, he pondered on #hat #ould %e the %est $ourse in the $ir$umstan$esC and ended %" %esto#in' +emale)ha on the "oun' man as his life8partner. 4I849. :The prin$e #as filled #ith 3o" and returned #ith her to his o#n $apital. (u)ta$huda, his father, #as also ver" pleased and ordered festivities in the )in'dom. +e then had the marria'e performed $eremoniousl", and the lovin' $ouple passed a ver" happ" hone"moon in the pala$e, in forest retreats, and in holida" resorts. &ut the infatuated prin$e noti$ed that +emale)ha #as not as amorous as himself. F7. :Feelin' that she #as al#a"s unresponsive, he as)ed her in privateH 4(" dearJ +o# is it "ou are not as attentive to me as I am to "ou< F1. :Thou fairest of 'irls radiant #ith smilesJ +o# is it that "ou are never )een on see)in' pleasure or en3o"in' it< -re not these pleasures to "our taste< FE. :Dou loo) indifferent even durin' the 'reatest pleasures. +o# $an I %e happ" if "our interest is not a#a)ened< F1. :Even #hen I am $lose to "ou, "our mind seems to %e else#hereC #hen spo)en to, "ou do not seem to listen. F4. :-s I hold "ou in $lose em%ra$e for a lon' #hile, "ou seem un$ons$ious of me, and then as) me, 4?ord, #hen did "ou $ome<4 FF. :>one of the $arefull" planned arran'ements seem to interest "ou and "ou do not ta)e part in them. F2. : hen I turn a#a" from "ou, "ou remain #ith "our e"es $losedC and so "ou $ontinue #henever I approa$h "ou. FI. :Tell me ho# I $an derive pleasure #ith nothin' %ut an artist4s model #hi$h is #hat "ou are, seein' "our indifferen$e to all en3o"ments.

F8. : hat does not please "ou $annot please me either. I am al#a"s loo)in' to "ou, tr"in' to please "ou li)e a lil" loo)in' up at the moon. >oteH 8 ;umuda, a $ertain lil", %lossoms onl" in the ni'ht and is therefore said to %e the %eloved of the (oon, as the lotus %lossomin' in the da" is said to %e the %eloved of the Sun. F9. :Spea), dearJ h" are "ou li)e this< Dou are dearer to me than even life. I ad3ure "ouJ Spea) and so relieve m" mind.: +!-s en"s t!e +!ir" C!a/ter in t!e section on t!e /otenc1 o2 t!e association #it! t!e #ise, in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER I.

!IS@BST FOR

OR?!?D E>5OD(E>T IS I>9B?9-TE!

SO T+-T !IS=-SSIO> (I@+T &E !E.E?O=E!

181. :On hearin' the s#eet #ords of her infatuated lover, #ho #as all the time pressin' her to his %osom, that stainless 'irl, #ishin' to tea$h him, smiled 'entl" and spo)e #ith 'ood sense as follo#sC 4?isten to me, O =rin$e. It is not that I do not love "ou, onl" that I am tr"in' to find #hat the 'reatest 3o" in life is #hi$h #ill never %e$ome distasteful. I am al#a"s sear$hin' for it, %ut have not attained it as "et. 4. 4Thou'h al#a"s loo)in' for it, I have not rea$hed an" definite de$ision, as is a #oman4s #a". ill "ou not )indl" tell me #hat e*a$tl" it is and so help me <4 F. :&ein' thus $oa*ed, +ema$huda lau'hed derisivel" and told his %elovedC 4 omen are indeed sill".4 288. :For do not even the %irds and %easts, na" the $ra#lin' inse$ts )no# #hat is 'ood and #hat is %ad< Other#ise, ho# are the" 'uided in the pursuit of 'ood, and ho# do the" es$ape from %ad< That #hi$h is pleasin' is $learl" 'ood and that #hi$h is not so, is %ad. hat is there in it, m" dear, that "ou are al#a"s 'iven to thin)in' a%out it< Is it not sill"<4 +earin' her lover spea) thus, +emale)ha $ontinuedH 9. :True that #omen are sill" and $annot 3ud'e ri'htl". Therefore should I %e tau'ht %" "ou, the ri'ht dis$erner.

17. :On %ein' ri'htl" tau'ht %" "ou, I shall stop thin)in' li)e that. -lso, I shall then %e a%le to share in "our pleasures to "our entire satisfa$tion. 11. :O ;in', su%tle 3ud'e that "ou are, "ou have found happiness and miser" to %e the results of #hat is pleasin' or other#ise. 1E. :The same o%3e$t "ields pleasure or pain a$$ordin' to $ir$umstan$es. the finalit" in "our statement< here is then

11. :Ta)e fire for e*ample. Its results var" a$$ordin' to seasons, the pla$es and its o#n siKe or intensit". 14. :It is a'reea%le in $old seasons and disa'reea%le in hot seasons. =leasure and pain are, therefore, fun$tions of seasonsC similarl" of latitudes and altitudes. 1F. :-'ain, fire is 'ood for people of $ertain $onstitutions onl" and not for others. Still a'ain, pleasure and pain depend on $ir$umstan$es. 1281I. :The same reasonin' applies to $old, to ri$hes, to sons, to #ife, to )in'dom and so on. See ho# "our father, the (ahara3a, is dail" #orried even thou'h he is surrounded %" #ife, $hildren and #ealth. h" do not others 'rieve li)e this< hat has happened to en3o"ments in his $ase< +e is $ertainl" on the loo)8out for happinessC are not his resour$es all dire$ted to that end< 18. :>o one seems to possess ever"thin' that is suffi$ient for happiness. The ,uestion arisesH 9annot a man %e happ", even #ith su$h limited means< I shall 'ive "ou the ans#er. 19. :That $annot %e happiness, m" ?ord, #hi$h is tin'ed #ith miser". (iser" is of t#o )inds, e*ternal and internal. E7. :The former pertain to the %od" and is $aused %" the nerves, et$., the latter pertains to the mind and is $aused %" desire. E1. :(ental distra$tion is #orse than ph"si$al pain and the #hole #orld has fallen a vi$tim to it. !esire is the seed of the tree of miser" and never fails in its fruits. EE. :Overpo#ered %" it, Indra and the !evas, thou'h livin' in $elestial re'ions of en3o"ment and fed %" ne$tar, are still slaves to it and #or) da" and ni'ht a$$ordin' to its di$tates. E1. :Respite 'ained %" the fulfilment of one desire %efore another ta)es its pla$e, is not happiness %e$ause the seeds of pain are still latent. Su$h respite is en3o"ed %" the inse$ts also /#hi$h $ertainl" do not t"pif" perfe$t happiness0.

E4. :Det is their en3o"ment distin$tl" %etter than that of men %e$ause their desires are less $omple*. EF. :If it is happiness to have one desire amon' man" fulfilled #ho #ill not %e thus happ" in this #orld< E2. :If a man, s$alded all over, $an find happiness %" smearin' un'uents on himself, then ever"one must %e happ". EI. :- man is happ" #hen em%ra$ed %" his %elovedC he is unhapp" in the same a$t under other $ir$umstan$es. GGGGG GGGGG 17. :..... Or do "ou mean to sa" that the en3o"ment of man is enhan$ed %" his sense of %eaut"< 11. :&eaut" is onl" a mental $on$ept, as is evident from the similar feelin' in similar en3o"ments of lovers in dreams. /I shall tell "ou a stor" to illustrate the point.0 There #as on$e a most handsome s$ion of a )in' 8 fairer than 9upid himself. 1E. :+e #as #edded to an e,uall" %eautiful damsel and #as ver" devoted to her. 11. :&ut she fell in love #ith a servant of the ro"al household #ho de$eived the "oun' prin$e ver" s)ilfull". 14. :This servant used to serve li,uor in e*$ess so that the prin$e 'ot drun) and lost his senses, on retirin', a #ill" harlot #as sent to )eep him $ompan". 1F818. :The un$haste prin$ess and the servant #ere then a%le to $arr" onC and the foolish prin$e #as em%ra$in' the other #oman in his into*i$ation. Det he thou'ht #ithin himself that he #as the happiest of men to have su$h an an'el for his #ife #ho #as so devoted to him. -fter a lon' time, it happened that the servant in the pressure of #or) left the li,uor on the prin$e4s ta%le and o$$upied himself other#ise. The prin$e did not drin) as mu$h as usual. 1984E. :&e$omin' voluptuous, he hastil" retired to his %ed8room, #hi$h #as sumptuousl" furnished, and en3o"ed himself #ith the strumpet, #ithout re$o'nisin' her in the heat of passion. -fter some time, he noti$ed that she #as not his #ife and on this $onfusion as)ed her 4#here is m" %eloved #ife<4 41848. :She trem%led in fear and remained silent. The prin$e, #ho suspe$ted foul pla", fle# into a ra'e and holdin' her %" her hair dre# his s#ord and thus threat8ended her, 4Spea) the truth or "our life #ill not %e #orth a moment4s pur$hase.4 -fraid of %ein'

)illed, she $onfessed the #hole truth, ta)in' him to the tr"stin'8pla$e of the prin$ess. There he found her #ith her lovel" and deli$ate %od" in $lose and lovin' em%ra$e of the dar), u'l", loathsome sava'e #ho #as his servant..... F1. :The prin$e #as sho$)ed at the si'ht. FE. :Shortl" after#ards he pulled himself to'ether and %e'an to refle$t as follo#sH 4Shame on me #ho am so addi$ted to drin)J F1. :Shame on the fools infatuated #ith love for #omen. %irds flittin' a%ove the tree tops. omen are li)e nothin' %ut

F4. :-ss that I #as, all the time lovin' her even more than life. FF. : omen are onl" 'ood for the en3o"ment of le$herous fools. +e #ho loves them is a #ild ass. F2. : omen4s 'ood faith is more fleetin' than strea)s of autumnal $louds. FI8F9. :I had not till no# understood the #oman #ho, unfaithful to me entirel" devoted, #as in illi$it love #ith a sava'e, all the time fei'nin' love to me, li)e a prostitute to a le$herous fool. 27. :I did not in m" drun)enness suspe$t her in the leastC on the other hand, I %elieved that she #as as mu$h #ith me as m" o#n shado#. 21824. :FieJ is there a fool #orse than m"self, #ho #as de$eived %" this u'l" harlort at m" side and enthralled %" her professions of love< -'ain, #hat has the other #oman found in preferen$e to me in a loathsome %rute< 2F. :The prin$e then left so$iet" in dis'ust and retired into a forest.: /+emale)ha $ontinued0. :So "ou see, O =rin$e, ho# %eaut" is onl" a $on$ept of the mind. 22. : hat pleasure "ou have in "our apprehension of %eaut" in me, is sometimes even e*$eeded %" others in their love of their dear ones 8 %e the" fair or u'l". I #ill tell "ou #hat I thin) of it. 2I. :The fair #oman that appears as the o%3e$t is onl" the refle$tion of the su%tle $on$ept alread" in the su%3e$tive mind. 28829. :The mind dra#s an ima'e of her %eaut" in $onformit" #ith its o#n repeated $on$eptions. The repeatedl" dra#n ima'e %e$omes $learer and $learer until it appears solidl" as the o%3e$t. -n attra$tion sprin's up /and enslaves the mind0 %" $onstant mental asso$iations.

I7. :The mind, %e$omin' restless, stirs up the senses and see)s the fulfilment of its desires in the o%3e$tC a $omposed mind is not e*$ited even at the si'ht of the fairest. I1. :The reason for the infatuation is the oftrepeated mental pi$ture. >either $hildren nor self8$ontrolled "o'is are e*$ited in the same #a" /%e$ause their minds do not d#ell on su$h thin's0. IE. :So #hoever finds pleasure in an"thin', the %eaut" therein is onl" mental ima'er". I1. :B'l" and loathsome #omen too are loo)ed upon as deli'htful an'els %" their hus%ands. I4. :If the mind $on$eives an"thin' as loathsome and not deli'htful, there #ill %e no pleasure in su$h. IF. :Fie on human %ein's #ho appraise the foulest part of the %od" as the most deli'htful. GGGG II. :?isten =rin$eJ the idea of %eaut" lies in one4s o#n desire innate in the mind. I8. :If, on the other hand, %eaut" is natural to the o%3e$t of love, #h" is it not re$o'nised %" $hildren too, as s#eetness in edi%les is re$o'nised %" them< I9881. :The form, the stature and $omple*ion of people differ in different $ountries and at different timesC their ears ma" %e lon'C their fa$es distortedC their teeth lar'eC their nose prominentC %odies hirsute or smooth, their hair red, %la$), or 'olden, li'ht or thi$), smooth or $url"C their $omple*ion fair, dar), $opper", "ello# or 're". 8E. :-ll of them derive the same )ind of pleasure as "ou, =rin$eJ 81. :Even the most a$$omplished amon' men have fallen into the ha%it of see)in' pleasure from #oman, for all $onsider her the %est huntin' 'round for deli'ht. 84. :Similarl" also a man4s %od" is thou'ht %" #oman to %e the hi'hest sour$e of en3o"ment. &ut $onsider the matter #ell, =rin$eJ 8F882. :Shaped of fat and flesh, filled #ith %lood, topped %" the head, $overed %" s)in, ri%%ed %" %ones, $overed #ith hair, $ontainin' %ile and phle'm, a pit$her of fae$es and urine, 'enerated from semen and ova, and %orn from the #om%, su$h is the %od". 5ust thin) of itJ 8I. :Findin' deli'ht in su$h a thin', ho# are men an" %etter than #orms 'ro#in' in offal<

88. :(" ;in'J Is not this %od" /pointin' to herself0 dear to "ou< Thin) #ell over ea$h part thereof. 89. :-nal"se #ell and $arefull" #hat it is that forms "our food materials #ith their different flavours, )inds and $onsisten$ies< 97. :Ever" one )no#s ho# the $onsumed foods are finall" e3e$ted from the %od". 91. :Su$h %ein' the state of affairs in the #orld, tell me #hat is a'reea%le or other#ise.: :On hearin' all this, +ema$huda developed dis'ust for earthl" pleasures. 9E. :+e #as amaKed at the stran'e dis$ourse he heard. +e later pondered over all that +emale)ha had said. 91. :+is dis'ust for earthl" pleasures 're# in volume and in for$e. +e a'ain and a'ain dis$ussed matters #ith his %eloved so that he understood the ultimate truth. 94. :Then realisin' the pure $ons$iousness inherin' as the Self to %e that self8same Tripura, he %e$ame a#are of the One Self holdin' all, and #as li%erated. 9F. :+e #as li%erated #hile "et alive. +is %rother (ani$huda and his father (u)ta$huda #ere %oth 'uided %" him and #ere also li%erated. 92. :The ,ueen #as 'uided %" her dau'hter8in8la# and #as li%eratedC so also did the ministers, $hieftains and $itiKens 'ain #isdom. 9I. :There #as no one %orn in that $it" #ho remained i'norant. The $it" #as li)e that of &rahma, the a%ode of happ", pea$eful and $ontented people. 98. :It #as )no#n as .isala and %e$ame the most reno#ned on Earth, #here even the parrots in the $a'es used to repeatH 4(editate, O (an, on the Self, the -%solute 9ons$iousness devoid of o%3e$tsJ There is nau'ht else to )no# %esides pure $ons$iousnessC it is li)e a self8luminous mirror refle$tin' o%3e$ts #ithin. 177. :4That same $ons$iousness is also the o%3e$ts, that is the su%3e$t, and that is all 8 the mo%ile and the immo%ileC all else shine in its refle$ted li'htC it shines of itself. 171. :4Therefore, O (an, thro# off delusionJ Thin) of that $ons$iousness #hi$h is alone, illuminatin' all and pervadin' all. &e of $lear vision. 17E8171. :Those hol" saints .amadeva and others havin' on one o$$asion heard these sa$red #ords of the parrots, #ondered at the #isdom of even the %irds of that $it" and named it the 9it" of isdom.

174. :The $it" is to8da" still $alled %" that name,: !attatre"a $ontinued. :-sso$iation #ith the sa'es, O Rama, is thus the root $ause of all that is auspi$ious and 'ood. 17F. :&" asso$iation #ith +emale)ha, all people 'ained 3nana /#isdom0. ;no# then, the satsan'a /asso$iation #ith the #ise0 is alone the root $ause of salvation4.: +!-s en"s t!e .o-rt! C!a/ter on t!e 2r-its ot satsan0a in t!e Section o2 Hemac!-"a in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER .

O> &O>!-@E ->! RE?E-SE

1. =arasurama, on hearin' the master4s dis$ourse on the 'reatness of satsan'a, #as hi'hl" pleased and $ontinued to as). E. :Dou have trul" said, O ?ord, that satsan'a is the har%in'er of all that is #orth", and illustrated the fa$t #ith a stor". 1. :One4s en3o"ments are determined %" the ,ualit" of one4s $ompan". The hi'hest 'ood #as a$$omplished %" all o#in' to their asso$iation dire$t or indire$t, #ith +emale)ha, thou'h she #as onl" a #oman. 4. :I am an*ious to hear ho# +ema$huda #as further 'uided %" her. =lease tell me, Thou ?ord of (er$"J: F. Thus re,uested, !attatre"a said to =arasuramaH :?isten, O &har'ava, I shall no# $ontinue the hol" narrative. 2. :+avin' heard #hat she had to sa", the en3o"ments $eased to interest him, he developed a dis'ust for them, and %e$ame pensive. I. :&ut the for$e of ha%it still remained #ith him. +e #as therefore una%le either to en3o" himself or to desist all of a sudden. 8. :+e #as ho#ever too proud to $onfess his #ea)ness to his %eloved. Some time passed in this #a". 9. : hen his ha%its for$ed him into the old #a"s he #as still mindful of his #ife4s #ords, so that he en'a'ed himself in them #ith relu$tan$e and shame.

17811. :+e repeatedl" fell into his old #a"s %" for$e of ha%itC and ver" often he %e$ame repentant, realisin' the evil of those #a"s and remem%erin' his #ife4s #ise #ords. +is mind #as thus movin' to and fro, li)e a s#in'. 1E. :>either deli$ious foods, nor fine $lothes, nor ri$h 3e#els, nor $harmin' damsels nor $aparisoned horses, nor even his dear friends $ontinued to interest him. 11814. :+e %e$ame sad as if he had lost his all. +e #as una%le to resist his ha%its at on$e nor #as he #illin' to follo# them )no#in'l". +e 're# pale and melan$hol". 1F. :+emale)ha, al#a"s a#are of the $han'e in him, #ent to him in his private $ham%er and said, :+o# is it, m" ?ord, that "ou are not as $heerful as %efore< 12. :Dou loo) sad. h" so< I do not see s"mptoms of an" parti$ular ailment in "ou.

1I. :!o$tors ma" hold out the fear of disease amidst the pleasure of lifeC diseases are due to loss of harmon" in the three tempers of the %od". 18. :!iseases remain latent in all %odies %e$ause disharmon" of tempers $annot al#a"s %e prevented. 19. :Tempers 'et displa$ed %" food $onsumed, $lothes #orn, #ords uttered or heard, si'hts seen, o%3e$ts $onta$ted, $han'es of seasons and travel in different $ountries. E7. :&ein' ines$apa%le, the dislo$ation of tempers need not $laim one4s $onstant attention. There are remedies pres$ri%ed for diseases arisin' from it. E1. ... diseases. >o# tell me, dear, #h" "ou are so sad.: EE. : hen +emale)ha had finished, the prin$e replied, 4I #ill tell "ou the $ause of m" miser". ?isten to #e, dear.4 E1. :4 hat "ou said on the last o$$asion has %arred all means of pleasure for me, so that I $an no# find nothin' to ma)e me happ". E4. :45ust as a man under orders to %e e*e$uted $annot relish the lu*uries provided for him %" the State, so also I do not relish an"thin'. EF. :45ust as a man is for$ed %" ro"al $ommand to do somethin' in spite of himself, so also must I en'a'e in old #a"s %" for$e of ha%it. >o# I as) "ou, dear, tell me ho# I $an 'ain happiness.4 E2. :&ein' thus approa$hed, +emale)ha thou'htH 4This dispassion is $ertainl" due to m" #ords.

EI. :4There is the seed of the hi'hest 'ood in that field #here su$h s"mptoms appear. +ad m" #ell8$al$ulated #ords not produ$ed even the sli'htest turn in this dire$tion, there #ould %e no hope of eman$ipatin' him. This state of dispassion onl" arises in one #ith #hose $ontinued devotion Tripura inherent in the +eart as the Self, is #ell pleased.: Thin)in' thus, that #ise lad" #as ea'er to reveal #isdom to her hus%and. 17. :;eepin' her o#n #isdom se$ret at the same time, she spo)e #ith measured #ordsH 4?isten, =rin$e, to the stor" of m" o#n past. 11. :(" mother formerl" 'ave me a lad"8in8#aitin' #ho #as 'ood %" nature, %ut later asso$iated #ith an undesira%le friend. 1E. :This friend #as $lever in $reatin' ne# and #onderful thin's. I also #ithout m" mother4s )no#led'e asso$iated #ith her. 11. :That lad"8in8#aitin' %e$ame ver" friendl" #ith that undesira%le $ompanion, and I #as o%li'ed to do the same %e$ause I loved m" friend more than life. 14. :For, I $ould not remain #ithout her even for a se$ondC so mu$h did she enthral me %" her undou%ted purit". 1F. :-l#a"s lovin' m" friend, I ,ui$)l" %e$ame part of herself. She for her part #as all the time $lose to her friend, a #i$)ed strumpet, #ho #as ever 'eneratin' ne# and fas$inatin' thin's. 12818. :In se$ret that #oman introdu$ed her son to m" friend. That son #as an i'norant fool #ith e"es %lood8shot #ith drin). -nd m" friend #ent on en3o"in' him in m" ver" presen$e. &ut she, thou'h $ompletel" overpo#ered %" him and %ein' en3o"ed %" him da" after da", never left me, and I, too, did not a%andon her. -nd out of that union #as %orn a fool of the same t"pe as his father. 19841. :+e 're# up to %e a ver" restless "oun' fello#, full" inheritin' his father4s dullness and his 'randmother4s #i$)edness and $reativeness. This %o", (r. In$onstant %" name, #as %rou'ht up and trained %" his father, (r. Fool and his 'randmother (adame I'noran$e, and he %e$ame s)illed in their #a"s. +e $ould ne'otiate the most diffi$ult pla$es #ith perfe$t ease and surmount o%sta$les in a tri$e. 4E. :In this manner, m" friend, thou'h ver" 'ood %" nature, %e$ame affli$ted and sill" %e$ause of her asso$iation #ith #i$)ed people. 41844. : hat #ith love for her friend, devotion for her lover, and affe$tion for her son, she %e'an 'raduall" to forsa)e me. &ut I $ould not %rea) #ith her so easil". 4F842. :>ot %ein' self8reliant, I #as dependent on her so remained #ith her. +er hus%and, (r. Fool, thou'h al#a"s in en3o"ment of her, mistoo) me for one of the same

sort and tried to ravish me. &ut I #as not #hat he too) me to %e. I am pure %" nature and onl" led %" her, for the time %ein'. 4I. :Even so, there #as #ide8spread s$andal a%out me in the #orld, that I #as al#a"s in (r. Fool4s hold. 48. :(" friend, entrustin' her son (r. In$onstant to me, #as al#a"s in the $ompan" of her lover. 49. :(r. In$onstant 're# up in m" $are and in due $ourse married a #ife #ith his mother4s approval. F7. :Bnstead" %" name, she #as ever restless and $han'eful and $ould put on different forms to please her hus%and4s #him. F1. :&" her #onderful $apa$it" to $han'e and %" her e*$eedin' s)ill and $leverness, she %rou'ht her hus%and $ompletel" under her $ontrol. FE. :(r. In$onstant, too, used to fl" hundreds of miles in a t#in)lin' and return, 'o here, there and ever"#here, %ut "et $ould find no rest. F18F4. : henever (r. In$onstant #ished to 'o an"#here and #hatever he #anted to have in an" measure, (adame Bnstead" #as read" to meet his desires $han'in' herself a$$ordin'l" and $reatin' ne# environments to please her hus%and. She thus #on his affe$tion entirel". FF. :She %ore him five sons #ho #ere devoted to their parents. Ea$h one #as s)illed in his o#n #a". The" #ere also entrusted to m" $are %" m" friend. F2821. :Out of love for m" friend, I %rou'ht them up #ith $are, and made them stron'. Then those five sons of (adame Bnstead" individuall" ere$ted splendid pala$es, invited their father to their homes and entertained him $ontinuall" in turns. The eldest of them entertained him in his mansion #ith different )inds of s#eet musi$, #ith in$antations of the .edas, the readin' of s$riptures, the hummin' sounds of %ees, the t#itterin' of %irds and other sounds s#eet to hear. 2E824. :The father #as pleased #ith the son, #ho arran'ed for still further sounds for him #hi$h #ere harsh, fearful and tumultuous li)e the roar of the lion, the peal of thunder, the ra'in' of the sea, the rum%lin's of earth,ua)es, the $ries from l"in'8in8$ham%ers, and the ,uarrels, moans and lamentations of man" people. 2F82I. :Invited %" his se$ond son, the father #ent to sta" in his mansion. There he found soft seats, do#n" %eds, fine $lothes and some hard thin's, others hot or #arm or $old, or refreshin' thin's #ith various desi'ns, and so on. +e #as pleased #ith the a'reea%le thin's and felt aversion to the disa'reea%le ones.

28. :Then 'oin' to the third son, he sa# $harmin' and varie'ated s$enes, thin's red, #hite, %ro#n, %lue, "ello#, pin), smo)" 're", ta#n", red8%ro#n, %la$) and spotted, others fat or lean, short or lon', %road or round, %ent or #av", pleasin' or horri%le, nauseous, %rilliant or sava'e, unsi'htl" or $aptivatin', some pleasin' and others other#ise. IE. :The father #as ta)en to the fourth son4s mansion and there he had fruits and flo#ers to order. +e had drin)s, thin's to %e li$)ed, to %e su$)ed, and to %e masti$ated, 3ui$" thin's, some refreshin' li)e ne$tar, others s#eet, sour, pun'ent or astrin'ent, some de$o$tions of similar flavours, and so on. +e tasted them all. I28I9. :The last son too) the father to his home and treated him #ith fruits and flo#ers, #ith various s$ented 'rasses, her%s and thin's of different odours, s#eet or putres$ent, mild or a$rid, others stimulatin' or soporifi$ and so on. :In this manner, he en3o"ed himself uninterruptedl", one #a" or another, in one mansion or another, %ein' pleased #ith some and repulsed %" others. 87. :The sons too #ere so devoted to their father that the" #ould not tou$h an"thin' themselves in his a%sen$e. 81. :&ut (r. In$onstant not onl" en3o"ed himself thorou'hl" in his sons4 mansions, %ut also stole a#a" thin's from them and shared them in se$ret #ith his dear #ife, (adam Bnstead", in his o#n home, un)no#n to his sons. 81. :?ater, one .ora* fell in love #ith (r. In$onstant and he #edded herC the" %e$ame ver" devoted to ea$h other, (r. In$onstant loved (adam .ora* heart and soul. 8488I. :+e used to fet$h enormous provisions for her, she $onsumed them all in a moment and #as still hun'r" for moreC therefore she )ept her hus%and al#a"s on his le's, to $olle$t her foodC and, too, he #as in$essantl" in ,uest of provision for her. She #as not satisfied #ith the servi$e of the father and his five sons put to'ether, %ut #anted still more. Su$h #as her insatia%le hun'er. She used to order all of them a%out for her needs. In a short time she 'ave %irth to t#o sons. 88. :The" #ere (aster Flamin'8mouth the elder and (aster (ean the "oun'er 8 %oth of $ourse ver" dear to their mother. 89891. : henever (r. In$onstant sou'ht (adam .ora* in priva$", his %od" #as %urnt %" the #rathsome flames of (aster Flamin'8mouthC %ein' thus affli$ted, he fell do#n un$ons$ious. :-'ain, #henever he fondled the "oun'er son out of his love, he #as hated %" all the #orld and he himself %e$ame as if dead. (r. In$onstant thus e*perien$ed untold miser".

9E. :Then m" $ompanion, 'ood %" nature, #as herself affli$ted %e$ause of her son (r. In$onstant4s 'rief. 9189F. :&ein' also asso$iated #ith her t#o 'randsons, (r. Flamin'8mouth and (r. (ean, she %e$ame ,uite misera%le and 'ave #a" under the pu%li$ odium. I too, dear, $ollapsed in s"mpath" #ith her. Thus passed several "ears until (r. In$onstant dominated %" (adam .ora* lost all initiative and #as entirel" in her hands. 92817I. :+e #as foredoomed and %etoo) himself to the $it" of ten 'ates. There he lived #ith (adam .ora* his sons and his mother, al#a"s see)in' pleasure %ut onl" sharin' miser" da" and ni'ht. &urnt %" the #rath of Flamin'8mouth and treated #ith $ontempt %" (r. (ean, he s#un' hither and thither 'reatl" a'itated. +e #ent into the homes of his other five sons %ut #as onl" perple*ed, #ithout %ein' happ". (" $ompanion too #as so affe$ted %" her son4s pli'ht that she a'ain $ollapsed, and "et she $ontinued to live in the same $it". (adam .ora* #ith her t#o %o"s (r. Flamin'8mouth and (r. (ean #as %ein' fed %" (adam I'noran$e 8 her hus%and4s 'randmother, and %" (r. Fool, her father8in8 la#. She 'ot on #ell #ith her $o8#ife (adam Bnstead" and #as even intimate #ith her. /In'ratiatin' herself #ith all of them0, she $ompletel" dominated her hus%and (r. In$onstant. GGGG :I too $ontinued to live there %e$ause of m" love for m" friend. Other#ise, none of them $ould remain in the to#n #ithout me #ho #as their prote$tress, thou'h I #as mori%und o#in' to m" friend4s mori%undit". :I #as sometimes suppressed %" (adam I'noran$e, #as made a fool of %" (r. Fool, %e$ame in$onstant on a$$ount of (r. In$onstant, 're# unstead" #ith (adam Bnstead", $onta$ted #rath #ith Flamin'8mouth and loo)ed $ontempti%le #ith (r. (ean. I refle$ted #ithin m"self all the moods of m" friend, for she #ould have died if I had left her even a minute. &e$ause of m" $ompan", the $ommon people al#a"s mis3ud'ed me for a strumpet, #hereas dis$riminatin' men $ould see that I have al#a"s remained pure. 1788111. :For that Supreme @ood One, m" mother, is ever pure and $lear, more e*tensive than spa$e and su%tler than the su%tlestC she is omnis$ient, "et of limited )no#led'eC she #or)s all, "et remains ina$tiveC she holds all, herself %ein' unsupportedC all depend on her, and she is independentC all forms are hers, %ut she is formlessC all %elon' to her, %ut she is unatta$hedC thou'h illuminin' all, she is not )no#n to an" one under an" $ir$umstan$esC she is &liss, "et not %lissfulC she has no father nor motherC innumera%le are her dau'hters, li)e me. 11E8111. :(" sisters are as man" as the #aves on the sea. -ll of them, O =rin$e, are 3ust li)e me involved in their $ompanions4 affairs. Thou'h sharin' the lives of m" friends, I am in possession of the most potent spell, %" virtue of #hi$h I am also e*a$tl" li)e m" mother in nature.

114. /The tale is resumed.0 11F. : hen m" friend4s son retired to rest, he al#a"s slept soundl" on the lap of his motherC as (r. In$onstant #as asleep, all others, in$ludin' his sons, #ere also asleep, for no one $ould remain a#a)e. 112. :On su$h o$$asions, the $it" #as 'uarded %" (r. (otion, the intimate friend of (r. In$onstant, #ho #as al#a"s movin' to and fro %" t#o upper 'ate#a"s. 11I. :(" friend, the mother of (r. In$onstant, alon' #ith him and her #i$)ed friend 8 the same #as her mother8in8la# 8 #at$hed the #hole sleepin' famil". 118. :I used to see) m" mother in that interval and remain %lissful in her fond em%ra$e. &ut I #as o%li'ed to return to the $it" simultaneousl" #ith the #a)in' of the sleepers. 119. :This (r. (otion, the friend of (r. In$onstant, is most po#erful and )eeps them all alive. 1E781E1. :Thou'h sin'le, he multiplies himself, manifests as the $it" and $itiKens, pervades them all, prote$ts and holds them. 1EE. : ithout him, the" #ould all %e s$attered and lost li)e pearls #ithout the strin' of the ne$)la$e. 1E1. :+e is the %ond %et#een the inmates and m"selfC empo#ered %" me, he serves in the $it" as the strin' in a ne$)la$e. 1E4. :If that $it" de$a"s, he $olle$ts the inmates to'ether, leads them to another and remains their master. 1EF8111. :In this #a" (r. In$onstant rules over $ities al#a"s, he himself remainin' under the s#a" of his friend. Thou'h supported %" su$h a po#erful friend, thou'h %orn of su$h a virtuous mother and %rou'ht up %" me, he is never other#ise than misera%le, %e$ause he is tossed a%out %" his t#o #ives and several sons. +e is torn asunder %" his sons and finds not the least pleasure %ut onl" intense miser". Tempted %" (adame Bnstead", he 'rievesC ordered a%out %" (adam .ora*, he runs a%out in sear$h of food for herC stri$)en %" Flamin'8mouth he %urns #ith ra'e, loses his sense and is %affledC approa$hin' (r. (ean, he is openl" despised and reviled %" others and %e$omes as one dead under shame of odium. 11E8114. :-lread" of disreputa%le heredit", and no# infatuated %" love for, and tossed a%out %" his #i$)ed #ives and sons, he has %een livin' #ith them in all )inds of pla$es, 'ood or %ad, in forests #ith #oods or thorn" %ushes and infested #ith #ild %easts, in deserts %urnin' hot, in i$" tra$ts pier$ed %" $old, in putrid dit$hes or in dar) holes and so on.

11F. :-'ain and a'ain m" friend #as stri$)en #ith 'rief on a$$ount of her son4s $alamities and nearl" died #ith sorro#. 112. :I too, thou'h sane and $lear %" nature, dear, 'ot involved in the affairs of her famil" and %e$ame sad also. 11I. : ho $an hope for even the least happiness in %ad $ompan"< One ma" as #ell see) to ,uen$h one4s thirst %" drin)in' #ater from a mira'e. 118. :En'ulfed in sorro#, m" friend on$e sou'ht me in private. 119. :-dvised %" me, she soon 'ained a 'ood hus%and, )illed her o#n son and imprisoned his sons. 147. :Then a$$ompanied %" me, she ,ui$)l" 'ained m" mother4s presen$e, and %ein' pure, she often em%ra$ed m" mother. 141. :She at on$e dived in the sea of &liss and %e$ame &liss itself. In the same manner, "ou too $an $on,uer "our #ron' #a"s #hi$h are onl" a$$retions. 14E. :Then, m" ?ord, attain the mother and 'ain eternal happiness. I have no# related to "ou, m" ?ord, m" o#n e*perien$e the pedestal of &liss4.: +!-s en"s t!e C!a/ter on %on"a0e in t!e Section o2 Hemac!-"a in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER .I

O> T+E (ERITS OF F-IT+ FOR @-I>I>@ T+E @O-? ->! O> T+E +-R(FB?>ESS OF !RD =O?E(I9S

1. +ema$huda #as astonished at the fantasti$ tale of his %eloved. &ein' i'norant, he smiled derisivel" at the tale and as)ed that #ise prin$essH E. :(" dear, #hat "ou have %een sa"in' seems to %e nothin' %ut invention. Dour #ords have no relation to fa$ts and are alto'ether meanin'less. 1. :Dou are $ertainl" the dau'hter of an -psaras /$elestial damsel0, and %rou'ht up %" Rishi ."a'rapada in the forestC "ou are still "oun' and not "et full" 'ro#n.

4. :&ut "ou tal) as if "ou #ere several 'enerations old. Dour lon'8#inded spee$h is li)e that of a 'irl possessed and not in her senses. F. :I $annot %elieve that ri'marole. Tell me #here "our $ompanion is and #ho is the son she )illed. 2. : here are those $ities< hat is the si'nifi$an$e of "our stor"< here is "our friend<

I. :I )no# nothin' of "our lad"8in8#aitin'. Dou ma" as) m" mother if "ou li)e. There is no other lad" %esides "our mother8in8la# in m" father4s pla$e. 8. :Tell me ,ui$)l" #here su$h a lad" is to %e found and #here her son4s sons are. I thin) "our tale is a m"th li)e the tale of a %arren #oman4s son. 9811. :- $lo#n on$e related a stor" that a %arren #oman4s son mounted a $hariot refle$ted in a mirror and de$orated #ith silver ta)en from the sheen of mother8of8pearl, armed himself #ith #eapons made of human horn, fou'ht in the %attle8field of the s)", )illed the future )in', su%dued the $it" of aerial hosts and en3o"ed himself #ith dream maidens on the %an)s of the #aters of a mira'e. 1E. :I ta)e "our #ords to mean somethin' similar. The" $an never %e the truth.: -fter listenin' to the #ords of her lover, the #ise 'irl $ontinuedH 11. :?ord, ho# $an "ou sa" that m" para%le is meanin'less< li)e me $an never %e nonsense. ords from the lips of those

14. :Falsehood undermines the effe$ts of one4s penan$eC so ho# $an it %e suspe$ted in virtuous people< +o# $an su$h a one %e stainless and num%ered amon' the sa'es< 1F. :(oreover, one #ho entertains an earnest see)er #ith hollo# or false #ords, #ill not prosper in this #orld nor advan$e in the ne*t. 12. :?isten, =rin$e. - pur%lind man $annot have his e"e8si'ht restored %" merel" hearin' the pres$ription read. 1I. :+e is a fool #ho mis3ud'es 'ood pre$epts for falsehood. !o "ou thin), m" dear, that I, "our #ife, #ould de$eive "ou #ith a m"th #hen "ou are so mu$h in earnest< 18819. :Reason #ell and $arefull" e*amine these apparent untruths of mine. Is not an intelli'ent man a$$ustomed to 3ud'e %i' thin's in the #orld %" verif"in' a fe# details in them< I no# present "ou m" $redentials. E7. :Some thin's used to please "ou %efore. me on the last o$$asion< h" did the" $ease to do so, after "ou heard

E1. :(" #ords %rou'ht a%out dispassionC the" are similarl" %ound to do so even more in future. +o# else $an it %e< 5ud'e "our o#n statements from these fa$ts. EE. :?isten to me, ;in', #ith an unsophisti$ated and $lear intelle$t. (istrust in a #ell8 #isher4s #ords is the surest #a" to ruin. E1. :Faith is li)e a fond mother #ho $an never fail to save her trustin' son from dan'erous situations. There is no dou%t a%out it. E4. :The fool #ho has no faith in his #ell8#isher4s #ords is forsa)en %" prosperit", happiness and fame. - man #ho is al#a"s suspi$ious $an never 'ain an"thin' #orth#hile. EF. :9onfiden$e holds the #orld and nourishes all. +o# $an a %a%e thrive if it has no $onfiden$e in its mother< E2. :+o# $an a lover 'ain pleasure if he does not trust his %eloved< Similarl", ho# is the a'ed parent to %e happ" #ho has no $onfiden$e in his sons< EI. : ould the hus%andman till the land, if he had no $onfiden$e< (utual distrust #ill put an end to all transa$tions. E8. :+o# $an humanit" e*ist #ithout universal $onfiden$e< If "ou should sa", on the other hand, that it is the la# of $ause and effe$t, I #ill tell "ouC listen to me. E9. :=eople %elieve in the la# that su$h a $ause produ$es su$h a result. Is that not faith< 17. :So then, a man #ill not dare to %reathe in the a%sen$e of Sraddha /faith0 for fear of patho'eni$ infe$tion, and $onse,uentl" perish. Therefore %elieve %efore "ou aspire for supreme %eatitude. 11. :If a'ain, =rin$e, "ou hesitate to depend on an in$ompetent person, as "ou ma" thin) me to %e, that is %e$ause "ou %elieve that a $ertain end must %e a$$omplished. 1E. :+o# else $an the desired end %e approa$hed<: +earin' his %eloved4s ar'uments, +ema$huda said to the fair spea)erH 11. :If faith should %e pla$ed on an" one, m" dear, it should $ertainl" %e pla$ed on those #orth" of it, in order that one4s ends ma" %e served. 1481F. :+e #ho is %ent on the hi'hest 'ood should never trust an in$ompetent person. Other#ise, he $omes to 'rief, li)e a fish attra$ted %" the temptin' %ait at the end of a fishin' line. Therefore, faith $an onl" %e put in the #orth" and not in the un#orth". 12. :Fishes and all those men #ho have ruined themselves in the one #a" and prospered in the other, $an verif" m" statement.

1I. :I $an onl" %elieve "ou therefore after full as$ertainment of "our #orthC not other#ise. h" then do "ou as) me if the desired end $an %e approa$hed<: /vide slo)a 1E ante.0 18. -fter hearin' him, +emale)ha repliedH :?isten, =rin$e, to #hat I am 'oin' to sa" no#. 19. :I ans#er "our point. +o# is one to %e 3ud'ed, #hether one is 'ood or %ad< 47. :Is it %" referen$e to a$$epted standards< hat is the authorit" %ehind su$h standards< -re the authors themselves #orth" or un#orth"< In this #a", there #ill %e no end to ar'ument. 41. :(oreover, the o%server4s $ompeten$e must %e ta)en into a$$ount. /Thus, too, there #ill %e no finalit" rea$hed.0 Therefore life moves %" faith onl". 4E84F. :I shall tell "ou the rationale of rea$hin' the Supreme @oal %" means of faith. &e attentive. =eople #ill not 'ain an"thin', either durin' their life8time or after death, %" endless dis$ussions or %lind a$$eptan$e. Of the t#o, ho#ever, there is hope for the latter and there is none for the former.: /The follo#in' ane$dote illustrates the point.0 :On$e there lived a saint, %" name ;ausi)a, on the Sah"a +ill near the %an)s of the @odavari. 42. :+e #as serene, pure, pious, havin' )no#led'e of the Supreme Truth. Several dis$iples attended on him. 4I. :On$e #hen the master had 'one out, the dis$iples started to dis$uss philosoph", a$$ordin' to their o#n li'hts. 48. :There appeared on the s$ene a &rahmin of 'reat intelle$t and #ide learnin', Soon'a %" name, #ho su$$essfull" refuted all their ar'uments %" his s)ill in lo'i$. 498F7. :+e #as a man #ithout faith and #ithout $onvi$tion, %ut an a%le de%ater. hen the" said that the truth must %e as$ertained %" referen$e to some standard, he ar'ued on the %asis of an unendin' series of standards and refuted them. F18FF. :+e rounded off his spee$h #ith the follo#in'H 4?isten, "ou &rahmins, standards are not appli$a%le for as$ertainin' merits or demerits and so arrivin' at the truth. For erroneous standards are no 'ood as tests. To start #ith, their $orre$tness must %e esta%lished. Other standards are re,uired to $he$) them. -re the" in their turn infalli%le< =ro$eedin' in this #a", no finalit" $an %e rea$hed. Therefore no tests are possi%le. -s$ertainment of Truth %ein' impossi%le #ithout %ein' tested, nothin' $an therefore %e Truth. This enun$iation itself $annot %e true, nor the enun$iator either. hat then is the

de$ision arrived at< That all are nothin', void. This too $annot %e supported %" relia%le fa$tsC hen$e, the statement that all are void ends in void also.4 F2. :+earin' his dis$ourse, some of them #ere impressed %" the for$e of Soon'a4s lo'i$ and %e$ame s$holiasts of the void. FI827. :The" 'ot lost in the maKe of their philosoph". The dis$riminatin' ones amon' the hearers pla$ed Soon'a4s ar'uments %efore their master and #ere enli'htened %" him. Thus the" 'ained pea$e and happiness. Therefore, %e#are of arid polemi$s paradin' as lo'i$. Bse it in the manner in #hi$h the hol" %oo)s have done. That #a" lies the salvation.: Thus addressed %" that eminent heroine, +ema$huda #as 'reatl" astonished and saidH :(" dear, I did not realise "our su%limit" earlier. 21. :&lessed are "ou that "ou are so #iseJ &lessed am I that I have fallen into "our $ompan". Dou sa" that faith %esto#s the hi'hest 'ood. +o# does it do so< 2E821. : here is faith e*pedient, and #here not< The s$riptures differ in their tea$hin'sC the tea$hers differ amon' themselvesC the $ommentaries similarl" differ from one anotherC to add to this, one4s reasonin' is no 'uide. hi$h of them is to %e follo#ed and #hi$h re3e$ted< 24. :Ea$h one stamps his o#n vie#s #ith the seal of authorit" and $ondemns the rest, not onl" as #orthless %ut also as harmful, m" dearJ 2F. :That %ein' the $ase, I $annot de$ide for m"self. of the void turns round on others and atta$)s them. hat "ou $ondemned as the s$hool

22. : h" should not that s$hool %e respe$ted< It has its o#n adherents and its o#n s"stem of philosoph". E*plain to me, dear, all these thin's $learl". The" must indeed %e alread" $lear to "ou.: +!-s en"s t!e C!a/ter ), on Sra""!a (.ait!' in Hemac!-"a Section in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER .II

T+-T T+E @O-? IS @-I>E! O>?D -FTER -S9ERT-I>I>@ @O! &D F-IT+, EFFORT ->! -==RO.E! ?O@I9, ->! !E.OTIO> TO +I(

1. hen +emale)ha #as thus as)ed %" her hus%and, she #ith her saintl" pra$ti$al )no#led'e of the state of the universe, spo)e to him #ith in$reased )indnessH E8F. :!earest, listen to me attentivel". hat is )no#n as the mind is, after all, al#a"s li)e a restless mon)e". So the ordinar" man is al#a"s affli$ted #ith trou%les. Ever"%od" )no#s that a restless mind is the $hannel of endless trou%lesC #hereas one is happ" in sleep in the a%sen$e of su$h restlessness. Therefore )eep "our mind stead" #hen "ou listen to #hat I sa". +earin' #ith a distra$ted mind is as 'ood as not hearin', for the #ords serve no useful purpose, resem%lin' the fruit8laden tree seen in a paintin'. 2. :(an is ,ui$)l" %enefited if he turns a#a" from dr", ruinous lo'i$ and en'a'es in purposeful dis$ussion. I. :-ppropriate effort must follo# ri'ht dis$ussionC for a man profits a$$ordin' to the Keal a$$ompan"in' his efforts. 8. :Dou find, m" dear, that aimless dis$ussions are fruitless and that earnest efforts are fruitful in the #orld. 9. :!is$riminatin' Keal is #hat ena%les the hus%and8man to plou'h the field in season and the assa"er to assa" the #orth of 'old, silver, pre$ious stones, medi$inal her%s and the rest. >o pra$ti$al #or) #ill %e done if people spend all their lives in vain dis$ussions alone. Therefore, one should dis$ard aimless tal) and %e'in immediatel" to a$$omplish the hi'hest aim of life as as$ertained %" appropriate sin$ere dis$ussion. >or should one refrain from individual effort, as is the #ont of the follo#ers of Soon'a. 1E. :- man #ho is in earnest need never %e at a lossC #ill sustained effort ever fail in its purpose< 11. :(en earn their food, 'ods their ne$tar, pious as$eti$s the hi'hest %eatitude and others their desires, %" individual e*ertion alone. 14. :Thin) #ell and tell me #here, #hen, ho# and #hat profit #as ever 'ained %" an" man #ho #ithout en'a'in' in a$tion #as ta)en up #ith dr" polemi$s. 1F. :If some stra" $ases of failure should ma)e one lose faith in individual e*ertion, that one is $ertainl" a$$ursed of @od, %e$ause he is his o#n ruin. 12. :@uided %" proper deli%eration, a$$ompanied %" Keal and en'a'ed in individual efforts, one must ta)e one4s o#n unfailin' #a" to eman$ipation. 1I. :There are said to %e man" #a"s to that end. 9hoose that one amon' them #hi$h is the surest. 18. :9hoi$e is made %" ri'ht dis$ussion and a$$ordin' to the e*perien$e of the #ise. Then %e'in the pra$ti$e immediatel". I shall no# e*plain them in detail. -ttend.

19. :That is %est #hi$h does not a'ain "o)e "ou to sufferin'. To a dis$riminatin' man, pain is apparent in all aspe$ts of life. E78EE. : hatever has the impress of miser" on it $annot %e 'ood. Su$h are #ealth, $hildren, #ife, )in'dom, treasur", arm", fame, learnin', intelle$t, %od", %eaut" and prosperit". For the" are all of them transient and alread" in the 3a#s of death, other#ise $alled time. E1. :9an that %e 'ood #hi$h is onl" the seed read" to sprout as pain and 'ro# into miser"< E4. :The ri'ht means lies %e"ond these. +o#ever, the desire to possess them is %orn of delusion. The (aster iKard is (ahesvara. +e %ein' the $reator of the universe, all are deluded %" +im. EF817. :Even a 3u''ler of limited po#ers is a%le to de$eive his audien$e althou'h onl" to a limited de'ree. The ma3est" $annot %e seen throu'h #ithout referen$e to him. Of $ourse, the #hole audien$e #ill not %e deluded %" him, %ut #ho $an es$ape the illusion of (ahadeva< :5ust as there are a fe# #ho )no# ho# to see throu'h the illusor" tri$)s of the 3u''ler and are not m"stified %" them, so also men $an learn to over$ome the universal (a"a /illusion0 if onl" the ?ord is 'ra$ious to them. The" $an never es$ape from (a"a, #ithout +is 'ra$e. :Therefore he should %e #orshipped %" those #ho are an*ious to $ross the O$ean of (a"a. 11. :+e #ith #hom @od is 'ra$iousl" pleased is endo#ed #ith (ahavid"a, the supreme )no#led'e %" means of #hi$h his $rossin' of the O$ean of (a"a is $ertain. 1E. :Other methods are also put for#ard as servin' this supreme end, %ut the" are %ound to fail in their purpose if the ?ord4s 'ra$e %e not forth$omin'. 11. :Therefore #orship the =rimal 9ause of the universe as the startin' pointC %e devoted to +imC +e #ill soon ena%le "ou to su$$eed in "our attempts to destro" the illusion. 14. :9learl" the universe must have some ori'in. 1F. :-lthou'h the ori'in is shrouded in m"ster", let us investi'ate the $ause from the visi%le effe$t and %e 'uided %" the hol" s$ripturesC and then the $on$lusion #ill %e rea$hed that there is a 9reator in no #a" $ompara%le to an" )no#n a'ents. 12. :9ontentious statements to the $ontrar" have %een lo'i$all" refuted %" man" authoritative s$riptural te*ts.

1I. :That s"stem #hi$h admits onl" sensor" eviden$e is merel" an apolo'" for philosoph" and leads no#here. Salvation is not its end %ut damnation is its fruit. 18847. :!r" lo'i$ also must %e $ondemned. -nother s"stem de$lares that the universe is eternal, #ithout %e'innin' or end. It follo#s that the universe and its phenomena are self8 e*istentC thus lifeless insentient matter is its o#n a'ent and )eeper, #hi$h is a%surd, %e$ause a$tion implies intelli'en$e and no e*ample $an %e $ited to the $ontrar". S$riptures also sa" that the =rimal 9ause is an intelli'ent prin$iple, and #e )no# that a$tion al#a"s ori'inates from an intelli'ent sour$e alone. 41841. :The #orld is thus tra$ed to its 9reator #ho differs entirel" from an" a'ent )no#n to us. 5ud'in' from the ma'nitude of the $reation, +is po#er must %e immeasura%le in the same proportion as the unima'ina%le vastness of the $reation. Su$h a one must also %e a%le to prote$t and elevate +is o#n $reatures. Surrender therefore unreservedl" unto +im. 448F7. :I shall addu$e an e*ample as a proof of this. e find in ever"8da" life that a $hief, if pleased, even thou'h his means are limited, al#a"s ensures the prospe$ts of the man #ho is sin$erel" devoted to him. :If the ?ord of the #orld %e pleased, #ill an"thin' %e #ithheld from the devotee< Tell me. +e is the onl" Sola$e of the devotees #hereas the $hiefs are man" in the #orld and not ne$essaril" )indC ma" %e the" are $ruel and un'rateful also. Their patrona'e is also #averin' and short8lived. The Supreme ?ord has infinite mer$" for +is devotees, is most 'rateful and has unlimited po#ers. Other#ise, #ould people $ontinue to #orship +im from untold a'es< ;in'doms not #ell ordered are )no#n to disinte'rate. /&ut this universe $ontinues as ever0. Therefore this ?ord of mer$" is #ell esta%lished and also ri'htl" famed. :Surrender "ourself dire$tl" and unhesitatin'l" to him. +e #ill ordain the %est for "ou and "ou need not as) for it. F18F9. :-mon' the methods of approa$h to @od, there are /10 #orship to over$ome trou%les, /E0 #orship to 'ain #ealth, et$., and /10 lovin' dedi$ation of oneself. The last one is the %est and surest in its results. :In pra$ti$al life too, a $hief entreated %" a man in trou%le dul" affords him relief. The man is ho#ever unhelped if he has not sho#n proper attention to the patron. So also the servi$e %orn of am%ition, %ears indeterminate and limited fruits a$$ordin' to its intensit". !evoted servi$e #ith no ulterior motive ta)es a lon' time to %e re$o'nisedC "et it ma)es even the pett" $hief amia%le. - human master ma" ta)e lon' to re$o'nise unselfish #or)C %ut @od, the ?ord of the universe, the !#eller in our hearts, )no#s ever"thin' and soon %esto#s appropriate fruits. In the $ase of other )inds of devotees, @od has to a#ait the $ourse of destin" 8 that %ein' +is o#n ordainmentC #hereas for the selfless devotee, @od, the ?ord and the sole Refu'e, is all in all and ta)es $are of him #ithout referen$e to the devotee4s predestin" or +is o#n ordained la#s. +e $ompensates the devotee ,ui$)l", and that is %e$ause +e is supreme and self8$ontained #ithout dependin' on an"thin' else.

27821. :=redestin" or divine #ill is po#erless %efore +im. Ever" one )no#s ho# +e set aside predestin" and divine la#s in the $ase of +is famous devotee, (ar)ande"a. I #ill e*plain to "ou no# the fitness of this. ?isten, m" dearestJ >oteH 8 - rishi (ri)andu, %" name, #ho #as $hildless, pleased Siva %" his penan$e. hen Siva appeared to him, he pra"ed that a son mi'ht %e %orn to him. Siva as)ed him if he #ould have a dull %o" lon'8lived, or a sharp %o" short8lived. (ri)andu preferred the latter. So Siva saidH 4Dou #ill have a ver" %rilliant sonC %ut he #ill onl" live for si*teen "ears.4 -$$ordin'l" a son #as %orn #ho #as ver" 'ood and dutiful, and most intelli'ent and pious, $harmin' all #ho sa# him. The parents #ere deli'hted #ith him %ut 're# sad as he 're# up. +e as)ed them the reason for their sadness and the" told him of Siva4s %oon. +e said, 4>ever mind. I #ill see4 and too) to penan$e. Siva #as pleased #ith his intense devotion, and ordained that he should remain si*teen "ears of a'e for all eternit". 2E. :The $urrent notion that one $annot es$ape one4s destin" is appli$a%le onl" to #ea)8 minded and senseless #astrels. 21. :Do'is #ho pra$tise $ontrol of %reath $on,uer fate. Even fate $annot impose its fruits on "o'is. 24822. :!estin" seiKes and holds onl" senseless people. 9onformin' to and follo#in' nature, destin" forms part of nature. >ature a'ain is onl" the $ontrivan$e for enfor$in' @od4s #ill. +is purpose is al#a"s sure and $annot %e prevented. Its ed'e $an, ho#ever, %e %lunted %" devotion to +im and if it is not so %lunted, the predisposin' $ause must therefore %e $onsidered a most po#erful fa$tor in a man4s life. 2I. :Therefore, es$he# hi'h vanit" and ta)e refu'e in +im. +e #ill spontaneousl" ta)e "ou to the +i'hest State. 28. :This is the first run' in the ladder to the pedestal of &liss. >othin' else is #orth #hile. 29. /!attatre"a $ontinued0 :O =arasurama, hearin' this spee$h of his #ife, +ema$huda, #as deli'hted and $ontinued to as) herH I7. :Tell me, dear, #ho is this @od, the 9reator, the Self8$ontained One and the Ordainer of the universe to #hom I should $onse$rate m"self. I18IE. :Some sa" +e is .ishnu, others Siva, @anesa, the Sun, >arasimha or similar other avatarsC others sa" &uddha or -rhatC still others .asudeva, the life8prin$iple, the (oon, Fire, ;arma, >ature, primordial nature and #hat not. I1. :Ea$h se$t 'ive a different ori'in for the universe. Tell me #hi$h of them is true. I4. :I veril" %elieve that there is nothin' un)no#n to "ou %e$ause that famous and omnis$ient sa'e ."a'hrapada has %een 'ra$ious to "ou, and profound #isdom shines in

"ou thou'h "ou are of the #ea)er se*. =lease tell me out of "our love to me, o fair one, spea)in' #ords of eternal lifeJ: IF. Thus re,uested, +emale)ha spo)e #ith pleasureH :?ord, I shall tell "ou the final Truth a%out @od. ?istenJ I28I8. :@od is the -ll8Seer #ho 'enerates, permeates, sustains and destro"s the universe. +e is Siva, +e is .ishnu, +e is &rahman, the Sun, the (oon, et$. +e is the One #hom the different se$ts $all their o#nC +e is not Siva, nor .ishnu, nor &rahma nor an" other e*$lusivel". I9891. :I #ill tell "ou father. +eed meJ To sa", for instan$e that the =rimal &ein' is Siva #ith five fa$es and three e"es. The 9reator #ould in that $ase %e li)e an ordinar" potter ma)in' pots, endo#ed #ith a %od" and %rain. True, there is no art found in the #orld, #ithout a %od" and some intelle$t. In fa$t, the $reative fa$ult" in men %elon's to somethin' %et#een, the %od" and pure intelli'en$e. >oteH 8 &od" %ein' insentient $annot a$t of its o#n a$$ordC nor $an intelle$t do so #ithout a tool. :Therefore the mind operates apart from the 'ross %od", in dreamsC %ein' intelli'ent it $reates environment suita%le to its latent desires. This $learl" indi$ates that the %od" is onl" a tool for a purpose and the a'ent is intelli'en$e. Instruments are ne$essar" for human a'ents %e$ause their $apa$ities are limited and the" are not self8$ontained. hereas the 9reator of the universe is perfe$t in +imself and $reates the #hole universe #ithout an" e*ternal aid. This leads to the important $on$lusion that @od has no %od". Other#ise, +e #ould %e redu$ed to a 'lorified human %ein', re,uirin' innumera%le a$$essories for #or) and influen$ed %" seasons and environments, in no #a" different from a $reature, and not the ?ord. (oreover, pre8e*isten$e of a$$essories #ould ,uash +is uni,ue master" and impl" limits to +is po#ers of $reation. This is a%surd, as %ein' $ontrar" to the ori'inal premises. Therefore, +e has no %od" nor the other aids, "et +e still $reates the #orld, O ?ord of m" lifeJ Fools are ta)en in %" the notion of 'ivin' a %od" to the trans$endental &ein'. Still, if devotees #orship and $ontemplate +im #ith a %od" a$$ordin' to their o#n in$linations, +e sho#s them @ra$e, assumin' su$h a %od". For +e is uni,ue and fulfils the desires of +is devotees. :>evertheless, the $on$lusion must %e rea$hed that +e is pure intelli'en$e and +is $ons$iousness is a%solute and trans$endental. Su$h is the $ons$iousness8intelli'en$e in purit", -%solute &ein', the One 6ueen, =arames#ari /Trans$endental @oddess0 over#helmin' the three states and hen$e $alled Tripura. Thou'h She is undivided #hole the universe manifests in all its variet" in +er, %ein' refle$ted as it #ere, in a self8 luminous mirror. The refle$tion $annot %e apart from the mirror and is therefore one #ith it. Su$h %ein' the $ase, there $annot %e differen$e in de'rees /e.'., Siva, or .ishnu %ein' superior to ea$h other0. &odies are mere $on$eptions in the lo#er order of %ein's and the" are not to the point in the $ase of @od. Therefore, %e #ise, and #orship the one pure, un%lemished Trans$enden$e.

94. :If una%le to $omprehend this pure state, one should #orship @od in the $on$rete form #hi$h is most a'reea%le to himC in this #a", too, one is sure to rea$h the 'oal, thou'h 'raduall". 9F. :Thou'h one attempted it in millions of %irths, one #ould not advan$e e*$ept in one of these t#o #a"s.: +!-s en"s t!e C!a/ter on t!e Nat-re o2 (o" in t!e Section o2 Hemac!-"a in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER .III

;ED TO T+E =-R-&?E OF 9+-=TER .

181. +avin' learnt from the mouth of his #ise #ife, the true si'nifi$an$e of Tripura, #ho is =ure Intelli'en$e and @od in Truth, and also the te$hni,ue of Tripura4s #orship from $ompetent tea$hers as prompted %" divine 'ra$e, +ema$huda 'ained pea$e of mind and too) to the #orship #ith intense devotion. - fe# months passed in this manner. >oteH 8 @od4s 'ra$e is the sine ,ua non of an" )ind of )no#led'e of @od. 4. :The Supreme (other4s 'ra$e des$ended on him, and he %e$ame totall" indifferent to pleasure %e$ause his mind #as entirel" a%sor%ed in the pra$ti$al investi'ation of the Truth. F. :Su$h a state is impossi%le for an" one #ithout the @ra$e of @od, %e$ause the mind en'a'ed in pra$ti$al sear$h for truth is the surest means of eman$ipation. 2. :=arasuramaJ 9ountless aids #ill not 'ive eman$ipation if an earnest sear$h for truth is not made. I. :On$e more +ema$huda sou'ht his #ife alone, his mind a%sor%ed in the ,uest for Truth. 889. :She sa# her hus%and $omin' to her apartment, so she #ent to meet him, #el$omed him and offered him her seat. She #ashed his feet and prostrated %efore him, as #as due to one of his ran), and spo)e meltin' #ords of s#eet love.

17814. :!earestJ I see "ou a'ain after su$h a lon' time. -re "ou in 'ood health< Of $ourse, the %od" is sometimes lia%le to illness. !o tell me #h" "ou have %een ne'le$tin' me all these da"s. >ot a da" passed %efore #ithout "our seein' me and $onversin' #ith me. +o# have "ou %een passin' "our time< I $ould never have dreamt that "ou #ould %e so indifferent to meJ hat ma)es "ou so< +o# do "ou spend "our ni'hts< Dou used to sa" that a moment #ithout me #as li)e eternit" to "ou, and that "ou $ould not %ear it.: Sa"in' this, she em%ra$ed him fondl" and appeared distressed. 1F81I. Thou'h em%ra$ed lovin'l" %" his dear #ife, he #as not moved in the least and said to her :!ear, I $an no lon'er %e de$eived %" "ou. I am $onvin$ed of "our stren'th and that nothin' $an affe$t "our inherent happiness. Dou are a sa'e and unpertur%ed. Dou )no# this #orld and %e"ond. +o# $ould an"thin' affe$t "ou li)e this< I am here to as) "our advi$e. >o# please listen. E*plain to me that tale "ou on$e related to me as the stor" of "our life. 18. : ho is "our mother< ho is "our friend< ho is her hus%and< Tell me, #hat relationship have all these people to me< ho are her sons<

19. :I do not $learl" understand it. I no lon'er thin) it is a lie. I am sure "ou told me a para%le #hi$h is full of si'nifi$an$e. E7. :Tell me ever"thin' in full so that I ma" understand it $learl". I %o# to "ou reverentl". ;indl" $lear these dou%ts.: E18E1. +emale)ha #ith a smilin' and deli'hted fa$e heard her hus%and and thou'ht #ithin herselfH 4+e is no# pure in mind and %lessed of @od. +e is evidentl" indifferent to the pleasures of life and is also stron' in mind. This must %e due to @od4s @ra$e alone and his former virtues are no# %earin' fruit. The time is no# ripe for him to %e enli'htened, so I #ill enli'hten him.4 She said, :?ord, @od4s @ra$e is upon "ou, and "ou are %lessedJ E48EF. :!ispassion $annot arise other#ise. It is the $riterion of @od4s @ra$e that the mind should %e rapt in the ,uest for truth, after %e$omin' deta$hed from sensual pleasures. I shall no# solve the puKKle of m" life8stor". E2. :(" mother is Trans$enden$e 8 pure 9ons$iousnessC m" friend is intelle$t /dis$ernin' fa$ult"0C i'noran$e is (adam !ar), the undesira%le friend of intelle$t. EI. :The $apri$es of i'noran$e are too #ell )no#n to need elu$idation, she $an delude an" one, ma)in' a rope seem to %e a serpent and stri)in' terror in the loo)er8on. E8811. :+er son is the 'reatest of illusions 8 the mindC his #ife is thou'ht or $on$eption or ima'inationC her sons are five in num%er, namel", audition, taste, si'ht, tou$h and smell, #hose mansions are the respe$tive senses. hat the mind #as said to steal from them is en3o"ment of sensual o%3e$ts #hi$h leaves an impress on the mind to develop later into the pro$livities of the mind. Sharin' stolen o%3e$ts #ith his #ife is manifestation of

pro$livities in dreams. !ream is the dau'hter8in8la# of !elusion /i.e., i'noran$e0. (adam .ora* is desireC her sons are an'er and 'reedC their $it" is the %od". hat #as said to %e m" most potent talisman is Realisation of the Self. (ind4s friend 'uardin' the $it" is the vital prin$iple #hi$h )eeps movin' as the life8%reath. The different $ities peopled %" them are hells passed in the eternal passa'e of the soul. The $onsummation of the dis$ernin' fa$ult" is Samadhi. (" admission into m" mother4s $ham%er is final eman$ipation.: 14. :Su$h is in %rief the tale of m" life. Dours is li)e#ise. Thin) #ell and %e a%solved.: +!-s en"s t!e C!a/ter on t!e Co-rse o2 Li2e in t!e Section o2 Hemac!-"a in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER IA

+O

T+-T +E(-9+B!- RE-?ISE! T+E SE?F IT+I>

-FTER ->-?DSI>@ +IS O > (I>! ->! =?B>@I>@

1. hen +ema$huda understood the si'nifi$an$e of his #ife4s para%le he #as a'reea%l" surprised. +is voi$e $ho$)ed #ith pleasure as he said to herH E. :(" dear, "ou are indeed %lessed, and $lever tooH ho# shall I des$ri%e the profound #isdom of the stor" of "our life, narrated to me in the form of a para%le. 1. :Bp to no# I did not )no# "our pro'ress. It has all %een made as $lear to me as a 'oose%err" restin' on the palm of m" hand. 48F. :I no# understand the end of humanit" and realise #onderful nature. =lease tell me further no#H #ho is this mother of "ours< +o# is she #ithout %e'innin'< ho are #e< hat is our real nature<: -s)ed thus, +emale)ha told her hus%andH 2. :?ord, listen $arefull" to #hat I am 'oin' to sa", for it is su%tle. Investi'ate the nature of the Self #ith intelle$t made transparentl" $lear. I. :It is not an o%3e$t to %e per$eived, nor des$ri%edC ho# shall I then tell "ou of it< Dou )no# the mother onl" if "ou )no# the Self.

8. :The Self does not admit of spe$ifi$ation, and therefore no tea$her $an tea$h it. +o#ever, realise the Self #ithin "ou, for it a%ides in un%lemished intelle$t. 9. :It pervades all, %e'innin' from the personal @od to the amoe%aC %ut it is not $o'nisa%le %" the mind or sensesC %ein' itself unillumined %" e*ternal a'en$ies, it illumines all, ever"#here and al#a"s. It surpasses demonstration or dis$ussion. 17. :+o#, #here, #hen, or %" #hom has it %een spe$ifi$all" des$ri%ed even in$ompletel"< hat "ou as) me, dear, amounts to as)in' me to sho# "our e"es to "ou. 1181E. :Even the %est tea$hers $annot %rin' "our e"es to "our si'ht. 5ust as a tea$her is of no use in this instan$e, so in the other. +e $an at %est 'uide "ou to#ards it and nothin' more. I shall also e*plain to "ou the means to realisation. ?isten attentivel". 11. :-s lon' as "ou $ontaminated #ith notions of me or mine /e.'., m" home, m" %od", m" mind, m" intelle$t0, the Self #ill not %e found, for it lies %e"ond $o'nition and $annot %e realised as 4m" Self4. 14. :Retire into solitude, anal"se and see #hat those thin's are #hi$h are $o'nised as mineC dis$ard them all and trans$endin' them, loo) for the Real Self. 1F. :For instan$e, "ou )no# me as "our #ife and not as "our self. I am onl" related to "ou and not part of "ou mu$h less "our ver" %ein'. 12. :-nal"se ever"thin' in this #a" and dis$ard it. hat remains over, trans$endin' at all, %e"ond $on$eption, appropriation, or relin,uishment 8 )no# That to %e the Self. That )no#led'e is final eman$ipation.: 1I. -fter re$eivin' these instru$tions from his #ife, +ema$huda rose hurriedl" from his seat, mounted on his horse and 'alloped from the $it". 18. +e entered a ro"al pleasure8'arden %e"ond the outs)irts of the to#n and into a #ell8 furnished $r"stal pala$e. 198E7. +e dismissed his attendants and ordered the )eepersH :?et no one enter these rooms #hile I am in $ontemplation 8 %e the" ministers, elders or even the )in' himself. The" must #ait until "ou o%tain m" permission.: E1. Then he #ent up to a fine $ham%er in the ninth store" #hi$h loo)ed out in all dire$tions. EE. The room #as #ell furnished and he sat do#n on a soft $ushion. +e $olle$ted his mind and %e'an to $ontemplate thusH E1817. :Trul" all these people are deludedJ >o one of them )no#s even the frin'e of the SelfJ &ut all are a$tive for the sa)e of their o#n selves. Some of them re$ite the

s$riptures, a fe# stud" them and their $ommentariesC some are %us" a$$umulatin' #ealthC others are rulin' the landC some are fi'htin' the enem"C others are see)in' the lu*uries of life. hen en'a'ed in all this selfish a$tivit" the" never ,uestion #hat e*a$tl" the Self ma" %eC no# #h" is there all this $onfusion< OhJ hen the Self is not )no#n, all is in vain and as if done in a dream. So I #ill no# investi'ate the matter. :(" home, #ealth, )in'dom, treasure, #omen, $attle 8 none of these is me, and the" are onl" mine. I $ertainl" ta)e the %od" for the Self %ut it is simpl" a tool of mine. I am indeed the )in'4s son, #ith 'oodl" lim%s and a fair $omple*ion. These people, too, are ta)en up %" this same notion that their %odies are their e'os.: 11812. Refle$tin' thus, he $onsidered the %od". +e $ould not identif" the %od" as the Self, and so %e'an to trans$end it. This %od" is mine, not me. It is %uilt up of %lood and %ones, and is $han'in' ea$h moment. +o# $an this %e the $han'eless, $ontinuous me. It loo)s li)e a $hattelC it is apart from me as is a #a)in' %od" from the dream, et$. 4I4 $annot %e the %od" nor $an the vital for$e %e the SelfC mind and intelle$t are $learl" m" tools so the" $annot %e 4I4. 4I4 am surel" somethin' apart from all these, %e'innin' from the %od" and endin' #ith the intelle$t. L>ote. 8 The intermediates are /10 the senses, /E0 the mind in$ludin' the thin)in', reasonin' and $oordinatin' fa$ulties, /10 vital for$e.M I am al#a"s a#are, %ut do not realise that pure state of a#areness. The reason of this ina%ilit" is not $lear to me. 1I818. O%3e$ts are $o'nised throu'h the senses, not other#iseC life is re$o'nised %" tou$h, and mind %" intelle$t. &" #hom is the intelle$t made evident< I do not )no#.... I no# see I am al#a"s a#are 8 realisation of that pure a#areness is o%stru$ted %" other fa$tors /pertainin' to the non8self0 %uttin' in 8 >o# I shall not ima'ine them 8 The" $annot appear #ithout m" mental ima'er" of them and the" $annot o%stru$t the 'lor" of the Self, #ithout appearin'. 19. Thin)in' thus, he for$i%l" arrested his thou'hts. 47841. Instantaneousl" %lan) superseded. +e, at the same time, de$ided that it #as the Self, so %e$ame ver" happ" and on$e a'ain he %e'an to meditate. :I #ill do it a'ain,: he said and plun'ed #ithin. 4E. The restlessness of the mind %ein' thus resolutel" $he$)ed, he sa# in an instant a %laKin' li'ht #ith no $ir$umferen$e. 4184F. Re'ainin' human $ons$iousness, he %e'an to #onder ho# this $ould happen. 4There is no $onstan$" in the e*perien$e. The Self $annot %e more than one. I #ill repeat and see,4 he said and dived a'ain. This time he fell into a lon' sleep and dreamt #onderful dreams. On #a)in' up, he fell furiousl" to thin)H 42848. :+o# is it that I #as overpo#ered %" sleep and started to dream< The dar)ness and li'ht #hi$h I sa# %efore must also %e in the nature of dreams. !reams are mental

ima'er", and ho# shall I over$ome them< :I shall a'ain repress m" thou'hts and see,: he said, and plun'ed #ithin. +is mind #as pla$id for a time. +e thou'ht himself sun) in %liss. 498F4. Shortl" after, he re'ained his ori'inal state, o#in' to the mind a'ain %e'innin' to fun$tion. +e refle$tedH : hat is all this< Is it a dream or a hallu$ination of the mind< (" e*perien$e is a fa$t %ut it surpasses m" ima'ination. : h" is that %liss ,uite uni,ue and unli)e an" that I have e*perien$ed %efore< The hi'hest of m" )no#n e*perien$es $annot $ompare #ith even an infinitesimal part of the state of %liss I #as in 3ust no#. It #as li)e sleep in so far as I #as not e*ternall" a#are. &ut there #as a pe$uliar %liss at the same time. The reason is not $lear to me %e$ause there #as nothin' to impart pleasure to me. -lthou'h I attempted to realise the Self, I do not do so. I pro%a%l" realise the Self and also see others li)e dar)ness, li'ht, dreams or pleasure, et$. Or is it possi%le that these are the sta'es of development for the realisation of the Self< I do not understand it. ?et me as) m" re$ondite #ife.: FF821. +avin' thus resolved, the prin$e ordered the door8)eeper to as) +emale)ha to $ome to him. ithin an hour and a half, she #as $lim%in' the steps of the mansion li)e the 6ueen of >i'ht movin', a$ross the s)". She dis$overed the prin$e, her $onsort, in perfe$t pea$e of mind, $alm, $olle$ted and of happ" $ountenan$e. She ,ui$)l" #ent to his side and sat %" him. -s she nestled $lose to him he opened his e"es and found her sittin' $lose to him. !ire$tl" he did so, she ,ui$)l" and fondl" em%ra$ed him and 'entl" spo)e s#eet #ords of loveH :?ord, #hat $an I do for Dour +i'hness< I hope "ou are #ell. =lease tell me #h" "ou $alled me up to this pla$e<: Thus addressed, he spo)e to his #ife in his turnH 2E822. :(" dearJ I have, as advised %" "ou, retired to a solitar" pla$e #here I am en'a'ed in investi'atin' the Self. Even so, I have diverse visions and e*perien$es. Thin)in' that the $onstant Self8a#areness is dimmed %" the un$alled8for interferen$e of mental a$tivities, I for$i%l" repressed m" thou'hts, and remained $alm. !ar)ness superseded, li'ht appeared, sleep supervened and finall" a uni,ue %liss overpo#ered me for a little #hile. Is this the Self, or somethin' different< =lease anal"se these e*perien$es of mine and tell me, m" dear, so that I ma" $learl" understand them. 2I829. :-fter listenin' to him $arefull" +emale)ha, the )no#er of this #orld and %e"ond, spo)e s#eetl" thus. 4?isten to me, m" dear, $losel". hat "ou have no# done to repress thou'hts #ith the mind turned in#ard is 'ood %e'innin' and praised %" the #orth" as the %est #a". ithout it, no one has ever %een su$$essful an"#here. +o#ever, it does not produ$e Self8 realisation for the Self remains realised at all times. I7. :If a produ$t, it $annot %e the Self. For, ho# $an the Self %e 'ot ane#< So then, the Self is never 'ained. @ain is of somethin' #hi$h is not alread" possessed. Is there an"

moment #hen the Self is not the Self< >either is $ontrol of mind used to 'ain it. I shall 'ive "ou some e*amplesH IE. :5ust as thin's unseen in dar)ness are found on its removal %" means of a lamp, and are therefore said to %e re$overed from o%livion. I18I4. :5ust as a $onfused man for'ets his purse, %ut remem%ers and lo$ates it on )eepin' his mind unruffled and stead", "et still sa"s that he has 'ained the lost purse, thou'h the stead"in' of his mind did not produ$e it. IF. :So also the $ontrol of "our mind is not the $ause of "our Self8realisationC thou'h the Self is al#a"s there, it is not re$o'nised %" "ou even #ith a $ontrolled mind %e$ause "ou are not $onversant #ith it. I2. :5ust as a "o)el una$,uainted #ith the s"stem $annot understand the daKKlin' li'hts of the ro"al audien$e8$ham%er at ni'ht and so i'nores its ma'nifi$en$e at first si'ht, so it is that "ou miss the Self. II. :-ttend dearJ &lan) dar)ness #as visi%le after "ou $ontrolled "our thou'hts. In the short interval %efore its appearan$e and after the $ontrol of mind there remains a state free from the effort to $ontrol and the per$eption of dar)ness. I8. :-l#a"s remem%er that state as the one of perfe$t and trans$endental happiness. -ll are de$eived in that state %e$ause their minds are a$$ustomed to %e turned out#ard. I9. :Thou'h people ma" %e learned, s)ilful and )een, still the" sear$h and sear$h, onl" to %e th#arted and the" do not a%ide in that hol" state. 87. :The" 'rieve da" and ni'ht, #ithout )no#in' this state. (ere theoreti$al )no#led'e of s$ulpture $an never ma)e a man a s$ulptor. 81. :Thou'h he %e a pandit #ell 'rounded in the theor" and the dis$ussion of the philosoph" of the Self, he $annot realise the Self %e$ause it is not realisa%le %ut alread" realised. Realisation is not attained %" 'oin' far, %ut onl" %" sta"in' still not %" thou'ht /intelle$tion0 %ut %" $essation of thou'ht. 8188F. :Effort to#ards Realisation is li)e the attempt to stamp #ith one4s foot on the shado# $ast %" one4s head. Effort #ill al#a"s ma)e it re$ede. :5ust as an infant tries to ta)e hold of his o#n refle$tion %ein' una#are of the mirror, so also $ommon people are ta)en in %" their mental refle$tions on the mirror of the pure, luminous Self and are not a#are of the mirror, %e$ause the" have no a$,uaintan$e #ith the Self. :-lthou'h people understand spa$e, the" are not a#are of it %e$ause the" are ta)en up %" the o%3e$ts in spa$e.

82888. :The" understand the universe in spa$e %ut have no re'ard for spa$e itself. Similarl", it is #ith them in re'ard to the Self. :(" ?ord, $onsider #ell. The #orld $onsists of )no#led'e and the o%3e$ts )no#n. Of these the o%3e$ts are non8self and per$eived %" sensesC )no#led'e is self8evidentC there is no #orld in the a%sen$e of )no#led'e. ;no#led'e is the dire$t proof of the e*isten$e of o%3e$ts #hi$h are therefore dependent on )no#led'e. ;no#led'e is dependent on the )no#er for its e*isten$e. The )no#er does not re,uire an" tests for )no#in' his o#n e*isten$e. The )no#er therefore is the onl" realit" %ehind )no#led'e and o%3e$ts. That #hi$h is self8evident #ithout the ne$essit" to %e proved, is alone realC not so other thin's. 89891. :+e #ho denies )no#led'e has no 'round to stand on and so no dis$ussion is possi%le. :The su%3e$t of )no#led'e settled, the ,uestion arises re'ardin' the e*isten$e of o%3e$ts in the a%sen$e of their )no#led'e. O%3e$ts and their )no#led'e are onl" refle$tions in the eternal, self8luminous, supreme 9ons$iousness #hi$h is the same as the )no#er and #hi$h alone is real. The dou%t that the refle$tion should %e of all o%3e$ts simultaneousl" #ithout referen$e to time and pla$e /$ontrar" to our e*perien$e0, need not arise %e$ause time and spa$e are themselves )no#a%le $on$epts and are e,uall" refle$tions. The spe$ifi$ nature of the refle$tions is the o%verse of the o%3e$ts found in spa$e. 9E. :Therefore, =rin$e, realise #ith a still mind "our o#n true nature #hi$h is the one pure, undivided 9ons$iousness underl"in' the restless mind #hi$h is $omposed of the #hole universe in all its diversit". 91. :If one is fi*ed in that fundamental %asis of the universe /ie., the Self0, one %e$omes the -ll8doer. I shall tell "ou ho# to inhere thus. I assure "ou 8 "ou #ill %e That. 94. :Realise #ith a still mind the state %et#een sleep and #a)efulness, the interval %et#een the re$o'nition of one o%3e$t after another or 'ap %et#een t#o per$eptions. >ote. 8 The $ommentator $ompares the ra"s of li'ht pro$eedin' from the Sun %efore the" impin'e on materials. The" are themselves invisi%le, %ut $apa%le of illuminin' o%3e$ts. This e*plains the third statement a%ove. +e also sa"s that $ons$iousness is li)e #ater flo#in' throu'h a $hannel and later assumin' the shape of the %eds #atered. 9F. :This is the real Self, inherin' in #hi$h one is no lon'er deluded. Bna#are of this Truth, people have %e$ome inheritors of sorro#. >ote. 8 The $ommentator adds that a sa'e realisin' the #orld as the refle$tion of the mind treats it as su$h and is thus free from miser". 9289I. :Shape, taste, smell, tou$h, sound, sorro#, pleasure, the a$t of 'ainin', or the o%3e$t 'ained 8 none of these finds pla$e in that Trans$enden$e #hi$h is the support of all

there is, and #hi$h is the %ein' in all %ut not e*$lusivel" so. That is the Supreme ?ord, the 9reator, the Supporter and the !estro"er of the universe and the Eternal &ein'. 98. :>o# let not "our mind %e out'oin'C turn it in#ardC $ontrol it 3ust a little and #at$h for the Self, al#a"s remem%erin' that the investi'ator is himself the essen$e of %ein' and the Self of Self. >ote. 8 The $ommentar" on this slo)a sa"sH This slo)a $ontains #hat is not to %e done /namel", the mind should not %e permitted to %e out'oin'0, #hat is to %e done /the mind is to %e turned in#ards0 and #hat is to %e en'a'ed in /#at$hfulness0. 5ust a short $ontrol is enou'hC no lon' $ontrol is ne$essar" for the purpose. The ,uestion arisesH ho# to loo)< The investi'ator, investi'ation and the o%3e$t investi'ated are all one. The mind should %e %rou'ht to the $ondition of a ne#8%orn %a%". Then he feels as if he #ere separate from all 'ross materials and onl" the feelin' 4I am4 persists. hen the mind is $ontrolled a little, a state #ill %e evident at the end of the effort in #hi$h the Self $an %e realised as pure %ein', underl"in' all phenomena %ut undivided %" them, similar to the %a%" sense. 99. :&e also free from the thou'ht 4I see4C remain still li)e a %lind man seein'. trans$ends si'ht and no si'ht that "ou are. &e ,ui$).: hat

>ote. 8 +ere the $ommentar" sa"sH The Self trans$ends also the feelin' 4I see4. -dheren$e to that sensation divor$es one from the Self. Therefore, let that feelin' also vanish, for that state is a%solutel" unstained %" #ill, sensation or thou'ht. Other#ise, there #ill %e no perfe$tion in spite of innumera%le efforts. -'ain the #ord 4si'ht4 in$ludes the a#a)e and dream states and 4no si'ht4 si'nifies deep sleep. That #hi$h is threadin' throu'h these three states and even surpassess the sense 4I am4 is #hat "ou are. This is the fourth state Turi"a /#hi$h is the strin' on #hi$h all the diverse o%3e$ts of the universe are strun' and the #hole is a 'arland to Sri RamanaJ Tr.0 177. +ema$huda did a$$ordin'l", and havin' 'ained that state referred to %" his #ife, he remained pea$eful a lon' time, una#are of an"thin' %eside the Self. >ote. 8 The $ommentator sa"s that he #as in >irvi)alpa Samadhi. +!-s en"s t!e C!a/ter on 4eace in t!e Section on Hemac!-"a in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER A

O> FBRT+ER I>STRB9TIO>S &D +IS &E?O.E!,

+E @OT S-(-!+I I> S=ITE OF +IS EATER>-? -9TI.ITIES ->! RE(-I>E! I> T+E ST-TE OF E(->9I=-TIO> E.E> -?I.E +I?E

18F. :+emale)ha noti$ed that her hus%and had attained supreme =ea$e and so did not distur% him. +e a#o)e in an hour and a half, opened his e"es and sa# his #ife near%". Ea'er to fall into that state on$e more, he $losed his e"esC and immediatel" +emale)ha too) hold of his hands and as)ed him s#eetl"H 4(" ?ord, tell me #hat "ou have as$ertained to %e "our 'ain on $losin' "our e"es, or "our loss on openin' them, m" dearest. I love to hear "ou. !o sa" #hat happens on the e"es %ein' $losed or left open.4 2. :On %ein' pressed for an ans#er, he loo)ed as if he #ere drun) and replied relu$tantl" and lan'uidl", as follo#sH I814. :4(" dear, I have found pure untainted happiness. I $annot find the least satisfa$tion in the a$tivities of the #orld as sorro# in$reases #hen the" finish. Enou'h of themJ The" are tasteless to me li)e a su$)ed oran'e, onl" indul'ed in %" #asters, or li)e $attle in$essantl" $he#in' the $ud. hat a pit" that su$h people should %e to this da" una#are of the %liss of their o#n SelfJ 5ust as a man 'oes a8%e''in' in i'noran$e of the treasure hidden under his floor, so did I run after sensual pleasures una#are of the %oundless o$ean of %liss #ithin me. orldl" pursuits are laden #ith miser" and pleasures are transient. Still I #as so infatuated that I mistoo) them for endurin' pleasures, #as often 'rief8stri$)en, "et did not $ease to pursue them over and over a'ain. The pit" of itH (en are fools, una%le to dis$riminate pleasure from pain. The" see) pleasures %ut 'ain sorro#. Enou'h of these a$tivities #hi$h in$rease the relish for su$h pleasure. :(" dear, I %e' "ou #ith hands $lasped. ?et me fall a'ain into the pea$e of m" %lissful self. I pit" "ou that thou'h )no#in' this state, "ou are not in it %ut are ever en'a'ed in vain.: 1F8EI. :The #ise 'irl 'entl" smiled at all this, and said to himH 4(" lord, "ou do not "et )no# the hi'hest state of san$tit" /#hi$h is not %esmir$hed %" dualit"0, rea$hin' #hi$h the #ise trans$end dualit" and are never perple*ed. That state is as far from "ou as the s)" is from the earth. Dour small measure of #isdom is as 'ood as no #isdom, %e$ause it is not un$onditional, %ut remains $onditioned %" $losin' or openin' "our e"es. =erfe$tion $annot depend on a$tivit" or the reverse, on effort or no effort. +o# $an that state %e a perfe$t one if mental or ph"si$al a$tivit" $an influen$e it or if the displa$ement of the e"elid %" the #idth of a %arle" 'rain ma)es all the differen$e to it< -'ain, ho# $an it %e perfe$t if lo$ated onl" in the interior< hat shall I sa" of "our muddled #isdomJ +o# ridi$ulous to thin) that "our e"elid one in$h lon', $an shut up the e*panse in #hi$h millions of #orlds revolve in one $orner aloneJ4

:?isten =rin$eJ I #ill tell "ou further. -s lon' as these )nots are not $ut asunder so lon' #ill %liss not %e found /The )no#led'e a$,uired is thus not effe$tive0. These )nots are millions in num%er and are $reated %" the %ond of delusion #hi$h is no other than i'noran$e of Self. These )nots 'ive rise to mista)en ideas, the $hief of #hi$h is the identifi$ation of the %od" #ith the Self, #hi$h in its turn 'ives rise to the perennial stream of happiness and miser" in the shape of the $"$le of %irths and deaths. The se$ond )not is the differentiation of the #orld from the Self #hose %ein' $ons$iousness is the mirror on #hi$h the phenomena are simpl" refle$ted. Similarl" #ith the other )nots in$ludin' the differentiation of %ein's amon' themselves and from the universal Self. The" have ori'inated from time immemorial and re$ur #ith un%ro)en i'noran$e. The man is not finall" redeemed until he has e*tri$ated himself from these num%erless )nots of i'noran$e. E8818. :The state #hi$h is the result of "our $losin' the e"es, $annot %e enou'h, for it is pure intelli'en$e and eternal truth trans$endin' an"thin' else "et servin' as the ma'nifi$ent mirror to refle$t the phenomena arisin' in itself. =rove, if "ou $an, that ever"thin' is not $ontained in it. hatever "ou admit as )no#n to "ou, is in the )no#led'e $onve"ed %" that $ons$iousness. Even #hat ma" %e surmised to %e in another pla$e and at a different time, is also #ithin "our $ons$iousness. (oreover, #hat is not apparent and un)no#n to that intelli'en$e is a fi'ment of ima'ination li)e the son of a %arren #oman. There $annot %e an"thin' that is not held %" $ons$iousness, 3ust as there $annot %e refle$tion #ithout a refle$tin' surfa$e. :Therefore I tell "ou that "our $onvi$tionH 4I shall lose it %" openin' m" e"es4 or 4I )no# it,4 is the )not a#aitin' to %e $ut, and there #ill %e no attainment thou'h, remem%er, it $annot %e the perfe$t state if it $an %e attained. hat "ou $onsider the happ" state as a$$omplished %" the movements of "our e"elids, $annot indeed %e perfe$t %e$ause it is $ertainl" intermittent and not un$onditional. Is an" pla$e found #here the efful'en$e is not, m" lord, of the fire %laKin' at the dissolution of the universe< -ll #ill resolve into that fire and no residue #ill %e left. Similarl" also the fire of realisation #ill %urn a#a" all "our sense of dut" so that there #ill %e nothin' left for "ou to do. &e stron', root out "our thou'hts and $ut off the deep8rooted )nots from "our heart, namel", 4I #ill see4, 4I am not this4, 4This is non8Self4, and su$h li)e. :Find #herever "ou turn the one undivided, eternal %lissful SelfC also #at$h the #hole universe refle$ted as it arises and su%sides in the Self. See the Self %oth #ithin and #ithout "ouC "et do not $onfound the seein' Self #ithin as the Seer of the universal Self #ithout, for %oth are the same. Inhere in the pea$e of "our true internal Self, devoid of all phenomena.: 1984E. -t the end of her spee$h, +ema$huda4s $onfusion #as $leared up, so that he 'raduall" %e$ame #ell esta%lished in the perfe$t Self %ereft of an" distin$tion of #ithin and #ithout. &ein' al#a"s e,ua%le, he led a ver" happ" life #ith +emale)ha and others, rei'ned over his )in'dom and made it prosperous, en'a'ed his enemies in #ar and $on,uered them, studied the s$riptures and tau'ht them to others, filled his treasur",

performed the sa$rifi$es pertainin' to ro"alt" and lived t#ent"8thousand "ears, eman$ipated #hile "et alive /5ivanmu)ta0. >ote. 8 S$holars sa" that :One thousand: is a pe$uliar e*pression for 4four.4 Thus t#ent"8 thousand stands for ei'ht". 41821. :The )in' (u)ta$huda havin' heard that his son +ema$huda had %e$ome a 5ivanmu)ta, $onsulted his other son (ani$huda. &oth a'reed that +ema$huda #as not as %efore, %ut that he had $han'ed so that he #as no lon'er affe$ted %" the 'reatest of pleasures or the #orst of sorro#s that he treated friend and foe ali)eC that he #as indifferent to loss or 'ainC that he en'a'ed in ro"al duties li)e an a$tor in a pla"C that he seemed li)e a man al#a"s into*i$ated #ith #ineC and that he did his dut" #ell not#ithstandin' his a%sent8minded or other #orldl" loo). The" pondered the matter over and #ondered. Then sou'ht him in private and as)ed him the reason of his $han'e. hen the" had heard him spea) of his state, the" too desired to %e instru$ted %" him, and finall" %e$ame 5ivanmu)tas li)e +ema$huda. The ministers #ere in their turn desirous of attainin' that state, and eventuall" rea$hed it after re$eivin' proper instru$tions from the )in'. So #ere the $itiKens, the artisans and all $lasses of people in that $it". -ll of them 'ained the summum %onum /hi'hest 'ood0 of life and trans$ended desire, an'er, lust, et$. Even the $hildren and the ver" old people #ere no lon'er moved %" passions. There #ere still #orldl" transa$tions in this ideal state, %e$ause the people $ons$iousl" a$ted their parts as the a$tors in a drama, in a$$ord #ith the rest of $reation. - mother #ould ro$) the $radle #ith lulla%ies e*pressive of the hi'hest TruthC a master and his servants dealt #ith one another in the ?i'ht of that TruthC pla"ers entertained the audien$e #ith pla"s depi$tin' TruthC sin'ers san' onl" son's on TruthC the $ourt fools $ari$atured i'noran$e as ludi$rousC the a$adem" onl" tau'ht lessons on @od8)no#led'e. The #hole State #as thus $omposed onl" of sa'es and philosophers, %e the" men or #omenC servant8%o"s or servant8maidsC dramati$ a$tors or fashiona%le fol)C artisans or la%ourersC ministers or harlots. The" nevertheless a$ted in their professions in harmon" #ith $reation. The" never $ared to re$apitulate the past or spe$ulate on the future #ith a vie# to 'ain pleasure or avoid pain, %ut a$ted for the time %ein', lau'hin' re3oi$in', $r"in' or shoutin' li)e drun)ards, thus dissipatin' all their latent tenden$ies. 2E. :The rishis, Sana)a and others $alled it the 9it" of isdom #hen the" visited it.

21828. :Even parrots and $o$)atoos in their $a'es spo)e #ord of #isdom, e.'., 49onsider the Self as pure intelli'en$e %ereft of o%3e$tive )no#led'e.4 : hat is )no#n is not different from that intelli'en$e, it is li)e a series of ima'es refle$ted in a mirror. -%solute $ons$iousness is the universeC it is 4I4, it is all, sentient and insentient, mo%ile and immo%ile. Ever"thin' else is illuminated %" it #hereas it is alone and Self8luminous. Therefore let those sensi%le people #ho are desirous of $hit /pure intelli'en$e0 turn a#a" from illusor" )no#led'e and $ontemplate their o#n Self 8 the a%solute $ons$iousness 8 #hi$h illumines all the rest, and #hi$h is their %ein' too. The to#n #here even the lo#er animals $onve" su$h supreme #isdom is famous to this da" as the 9it" of isdom on Earth, #hi$h reputation it o#es to that one #ise prin$ess

+emale)ha %" #hose advi$e +ema$huda %e$ame a 5ivanmu)ta, all the rest follo#in' in his #a)e.: 29. !attatre"a $ontinuedH :Thus, "ou see, =arasurama, the primar" $ause of eman$ipation is asso$iation #ith the #ise. Therefore, follo# that advi$e first and foremost.: +!-s en"s C!a/ter 5 on t!e Section o2 Hemac!-"a in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER AI

T+-T T+E 9OS(OS IS >OT OT+ER T+-> I>TE??I@E>9E

1. -fter he had listened to this su%lime stor" of +ema$huda, &har'ava #as $onfused and as)edH E8F. :?ord, m" (asterJ hat "ou have related as a #onderful tea$hin' appears to me a'ainst the e*perien$e of all people in ever" #a". +o# $an the ma'nifi$ent, o%3e$tive universe %e no other than tenuous $ons$iousness, #hi$h is not seen, %ut onl" inferred< =ure intelli'en$e devoid of )no#n o%3e$ts $annot %e ima'ined and therefore $annot %e postulated. Thus the #hole theme %ased on it is not at all $lear to me. I pra" "ou )indl" to elu$idate the su%3e$t so that I ma" understand it.: Thus re,uested, !attatre"a $ontinuedH 2817. :I #ill no# tell "ou the truth of the o%3e$tive #orld, as it is. hat is seen is a%solutel" nothin' %ut si'ht. I shall no# 'ive "ou the proof of this statement. ?isten #ith attention. -ll that is seen has an ori'in and there must therefore %e an ante$edent $ause for it. hat is ori'in e*$ept that the thin' ne#l" appears< The #orld is $han'in' ever" moment and its appearan$e is ne# ever" moment and so it is %orn ever" moment. Some sa" that the %irth of the universe is infinite and eternal ea$h moment. Some ma" $ontest the point sa"in' that the statement is true of a spe$ifi$ o%3e$t or o%3e$ts %ut not of the #orld #hi$h is the a''re'ate of all that is seen. The s$holiasts of .i3nana ans#er them thusH The e*ternal phenomena are onl" momentar" pro3e$tions of the anamnesis of the $ontinuous lin), namel", the su%3e$t and the #orldl" a$tions are %ased on them. &ut the intelle$t #hi$h $ollates time, spa$e and phenomena is infinite and eternal at ea$h moment of their appearan$e and it is $alled .i3nana %" them. Others sa" that the universe is the a''re'ate of matter 8 mo%ile and immo%ile. /The atomists maintain that the universe is made up of five elements, earth, air, fire, #ater and ether #hi$h are permanent and of thin's li)e a pot, a $loth, et$., #hi$h are transient. The" are still una%le to prove the e*ternal e*isten$e of the #orld, %e$ause the" admit that happenin's in life impl" their $on$eptual nature. It follo#s that the o%3e$ts not so involved are useless.0

:&ut all are a'reed that the universe has an ori'in. / hat is then the point in sa"in' that the momentar" $reations are eternal and infinite< The momentar" nature $annot %e modified %" the ,ualifi$ations mentioned. There is no use in dressin' a $ondemned man %efore the e*e$utioner4s a*e is laid on him.0 To sa" ho#ever that $reation is due to nature /a$$idental<0 is to overstret$h the ima'ination and therefore un#arranted. The 9harva)as, nihilists, ar'ue that some effe$ts are not tra$ea%le to their effi$ient $auses. There are o$$urren$es #ithout an" ante$edent $auses. 5ust as a $ause need not al#a"s foretell an event, so also the event need not al#a"s have a $ause. The $on$lusion follo#s that the #orld is an a$$ident. :If a thin' $an appear #ithout a $ause there is no relation %et#een $ause and effe$t, and there $an %e no harmon" in the #orld. - potter4s #or) ma" lead to a #eaver4s produ$ts, and vi$e versa, #hi$h is a%surd. The interdependen$e of $ause and effe$t is as$ertained %" their lo'i$al se,uen$e and proved %" its role in pra$ti$al life. +o# then $an an universe %e a$$ident< :The" infer the $ause #here it is not o%vious, and tra$e the $ause from the effe$t. This $onforms to the universal pra$ti$e. Ea$h o$$urren$e must have a $ause for itC that is the rule. Even if the $ause is not o%vious, it must %e inferredC other#ise the #orld a$tivities #ould %e in vain 8 #hi$h is a%surd. The $on$lusion is then rea$hed that ever" event is a produ$t of a $ertain $ondition or $onditionsC and this fa$t ena%les people to en'a'e in purposeful #or). So it is in the pra$ti$al #orld. Therefore the theor" of a$$idental $reation is not admissi%le. :The atomists premise a material $ause for $reation and name it impondera%le atoms. -$$ordin' to them, the impondera%le atoms produ$e the tan'i%le #orld, #hi$h did not e*ist %efore $reation and #ill not remain after dissolution. /The e*isten$e of the #orld %efore or after is onl" ima'inar" and untrue, li)e a human horn 8 the" sa".0 +o# $an the same thin' %e true at one time and untrue at another< -'ain if the primar" atoms are impondera%le, #ithout ma'nitude and "et are permanent, ho# $an the" 'ive rise to material and transient produ$ts endo#ed #ith ma'nitude<: :+o# $an the same thin' %e "ello# and not "ello# 8 %ri'ht and dar) 8 at the same time< These ,ualities are not in harmon"C the #hole theor" is $onfused, it is as if one #ere tr"in' to mi* up the immis$i%les. -'ain, ho# did the primordial atoms %e'in to unite to produ$e diatoms or triatoms< as it of their o#n a$$ord< /#hi$h is impossi%le %e$ause, the" are insentient0 or %" @od4s #ill< /Then the a$tion is @od4s and not of the atoms. Other#ise it #ould %e li)e a )in' in his pala$e #ho, %" merel" #illin' to )ill the enem", sent his #eapons fl"in' a%out in the a$t of destru$tion0. /It has alread" %een pointed out that @od $annot %e supposed to operate atoms for the purpose of $reation, as a potter does #ith $la".0 >ote. 8 Thus the idea of the %e'innin' of $reation is alto'ether refuted. :It is also a%surd to sa" that the insentient atoms of matter %e'an $reation #hen the e,uili%rium of the three for$es Satva, Ra3as and Tamas, #as distur%ed. /One of the

s"stems of philosoph" %elieves that three ,ualities, %ri'htness, a$tivit" and dar)ness, are al#a"s there in e,uili%rium. hen distur%ed, $reation %e'insC #hen the" revert to e,uili%rium, the universe is dissolved.0 +o# are the $han'es in the state of e,uili%rium %rou'ht a%out< 9han'e is not possi%le #ithout an intelli'ent $ause. So none of the s"stems $an satisfa$toril" a$$ount for $reation. S$riptures alone are the 'uide for $omprehendin' the metaph"si$al and the trans$endental. The rest are not authoritative %e$ause of the individual4s limitations, the a%sen$e of relia%le tests for their a$$ura$", and of the repeated failures of attempts #hi$h i'nore @od. The universe must have a 9reator, and +e must %e an intelli'ent prin$iple, %ut +e $annot %e of an" )no#n t"pe %e$ause of the vastness of the $reation. +is po#er is past understandin' and is dealt #ith in the S$riptures, #hose authorit" is in$ontroverti%le. The" spea) of the uni,ue 9reator, the ?ord #ho #as %efore $reation, %ein' self8$ontained. +e $reated the universe %" +is o#n po#er. It is in its entiret" and all its details, a pi$ture on the s$reen of +is Self li)e the dream #orld on the individual $ons$iousness. The individual en$ompasses his o#n $reation #ith his e'o /as 4I40C so does the ?ord pla" #ith the universe. 5ust as the dreamer is not to %e $onfounded #ith the dream so is the ?ord not to %e $onfounded #ith the $reation. 5ust as a man survives his dream, so does the ?ord survive the dissolution of +is $reation. 5ust as "ou remain ever as pure $ons$iousness apart from the %od", et$., so is the ?ord, un%ounded $ons$iousness apart from the universe, et$. Is it not after all onl" a pi$ture dra#n %" +im on +is Self< +o# $an this uni,ue $reation %e apart from +im< There $an indeed %e nothin' %ut $ons$iousness. Tell me of an" pla$e #here there is no $ons$iousnessC there is no pla$e %e"ond $ons$iousness. Or $an an" one prove in an" manner an"thin' outside $ons$iousness< 9ons$iousness is ines$apa%le. 1181E. :(oreover, this $ons$iousness is the onl" e*isten$e, $overin' the #hole universe, and perfe$t all throu'h. 5ust as there $annot %e %rea)ers apart from the o$ean and li'ht #ithout the Sun, so also the Bniverse $annot %e $on$eived #ithout $ons$iousness. The Supreme @od is thus the em%odiment of pure 9ons$iousness. 11814. :This #hole universe $onsistin' of the mo%ile and the immo%ile, arises from, a%ides in, and resolves into +im. This is the final and #ell8)no#n $on$lusion of the S$ripturesC and the S$riptures never err. The 'uide %" #hi$h one $an apprehend the metaph"si$al and trans$endental matters is S$ripture alone. 1F. :(ira$ulous po#ers possessed %" 'ems and in$antations $annot %e denied, nor $an the" %e fathomed %" a man of limited )no#led'e. 12847. :&e$ause the s$riptures pro$eed from the all8)no#in' ?ord, the" parta)e of +is omnis$ient ,ualit". The &ein' mentioned in them is eternall" e*istin' even %efore the %irth of the universe. +is $reation has %een #ithout an" material aids. Therefore @od is supreme, perfe$t, pure and self8$ontained. The $reation is not an o%3e$t apartC it is a pi$ture dra#n on the $anvas of supreme $ons$iousness, for there $annot possi%l" %e an"thin' %e"ond =erfe$tion. Ima'ination on the $ontrar", is impra$ti$al. The universe has thus ori'inated onl" as an ima'e on the surfa$e of the mirror of the -%solute. This $on$lusion is in harmon" #ith all fa$ts.

4184F. :9reation is li)e a ma'i$ian4s tri$), and is a $it" %orn of divine ima'ination. O =arasurama, "ou are a#are of the mental $reations of da"8dreamers #hi$h are full of people, life and #or), similar to this. There are also dou%ts, tests, dis$ussions and $on$lusions 8 all ima'inar" arisin' in the mind and su%sidin' there. 5ust as $astles in the air are mental fi'ments of men so also is this $reation a mental fi'ment of Siva. Siva is a%solute -#areness, #ithout an" form. Sri Tripura is Sa)ti /ener'"0 and itness of the #hole. That &ein' is perfe$t all round and remains undivided. 4284I. :Time and spa$e are the fa$tors of division in the #orldC of these, spa$e refers to the lo$ation of o%3e$ts and time to the se,uen$e of events. Time and spa$e are themselves pro3e$ted from $ons$iousness, ho# then #ould the" divide or destro" their o#n %asis and still $ontinue to %e #hat the" are< 488F1. :9an "ou sho# the time or pla$e not permeated %" $ons$iousness< Is it not #ithin "our $ons$iousness #hen "ou spea) of it< The fa$t of the e*isten$e of thin's is onl" illumination of them, and nothin' more. Su$h illumination pertains to $ons$iousness alone. That alone $ounts #hi$h is self8shinin'. O%3e$ts are not so, for their e*isten$e depends upon per$eption of them %" $ons$ious %ein's. &ut $ons$iousness is self8 efful'ent 8 not so the o%3e$ts, #hi$h depend on $ons$ious %ein's for %ein' )no#n. FE8F4. :If on the other hand, "ou $ontend that o%3e$ts e*ist even if not per$eived %" us, I tell "ou 8 listenJ There is no $onsisten$" in the #orld re'ardin' the e*isten$e or non8 e*isten$e of thin's. Their $o'nition is the onl" fa$tor determinin' it. 5ust as refle$tions have no su%stan$e in them, outside of the mirror, so also the thin's of the #orld have no su%stan$e in them outside of the $o'nisin' fa$tor, viK., Intelli'en$e. The detail and tan'i%ilit" of thin's are no ar'uments a'ainst their %ein' nothin' %ut ima'es. FF821. :Those ,ualities of refle$ted ima'es depend on the e*$ellen$e of the refle$tin' surfa$e, #e $an see in the $ase of #ater and polished surfa$e. (irrors are insentient and are not self8$ontained. hereas, $ons$iousness is al#a"s pure and self8$ontainedC it does not re,uire an e*ternal o%3e$t to $reate the ima'e. Ordinar" mirrors are lia%le to %e soiled %" e*traneous dirt #hereas $ons$iousness has nothin' forei'n to it, %ein' al#a"s alone and undividedC and therefore its refle$tions are uni,ue. 9reated thin's are not self8 luminous and are illumined %" another4s $o'nitive fa$ult". 9o'nition of thin's implies their ima'es on our intelli'en$e. The" are onl" ima'es. The $reation therefore is an ima'e. It is not self8shinin'C and thus it is not self8a#are, %ut %e$omes a fa$t on our per$eption of it. Therefore I sa" that the universe is nothin' %ut an ima'e on our $ons$iousness. 9ons$iousness shines not#ithstandin' the formation of ima'es on itC thou'h impalpa%le, it is steadil" fi*ed and does not falter. 5ust as the ima'es in a mirror are not apart from the mirror, so also the $reations of $ons$iousness are not apart from it. 24. :O%3e$ts are ne$essar" for produ$in' ima'es in a mirrorC the" are not ho#ever ne$essar" for $ons$iousness %e$ause it is self8$ontained.

2F822 .... :O =arasuramaJ note ho# da"8dreams and hallu$inations are $learl" pi$tured in the mind even in the a%sen$e of an" realit" %ehind them. +o# does it happen< The pla$e of o%3e$ts is ta)en up %" the pe$uliar ima'inative ,ualit" of the mind. hen su$h ima'ination is deep, it ta)es shape as $reationC $ons$iousness is pure and un%lemished in the a%sen$e of ima'ination. 2I. :Thus "ou see ho# $ons$iousness #as a%solute and pure %efore $reation and ho# its pe$uliar ,ualit" or #ill %rou'ht a%out this ima'e of the #orld in it. 28829. :So the #orld is nothin' %ut an ima'e dra#n on the s$reen of $ons$iousnessC it differs from a mental pi$ture in its lon' durationC that is a'ain due to the stren'th of #ill produ$in' the phenomenon. The universe appears pra$ti$al, material and perfe$t %e$ause the #ill determinin' its $reation is perfe$t and independentC #hereas the human $on$eptions are more or less transitor" a$$ordin' to the stren'th or the #ea)ness of the #ill %ehind them. I7. :The hamperin' of limitations is to some e*tent over$ome %" the use of in$antations, 'ems and her%s, and an un%ro)en $urrent of 4I4 is esta%lished. I1. : ith the aid of that pure "o'a, O Rama o%serve the $reation manifested %" one4s #ill li)e the hallu$inations %rou'ht a%out %" a ma'i$ian. >ote. 8 There are said to %e some live 'ems #hi$h have e*traordinar" properties. The" are lustrous even in the dar) and do not ta)e on different lustres a$$ordin' to the %a$)'round. The" also illumine the o%3e$ts $lose to them. One )ind is said to %e $ool to tou$h and it does not %e$ome #arm even on $onta$t #ith the %od"C another is said to s#eat in moonli'htC still another ma)es the o#ner prosperousC "et another ruins him /e.'., the 4+ope4 diamond0, and so on. - vivid a$$ount is 'iven of a ma'i$ian4s performan$e in Ran3it Sin'h4s $ourt. +e thre# a rope into the air #hi$h stood taut. - man $lim%ed up the rope and disappeared. IE. O%3e$ts in the #orld $an %e handled and put to use, #hile mental $reations /e.'., dreams0 present the same phenomenon. I1. :- ma'i$ian4s $reations are onl" transitor"C a "o'i4s $reations ma" %e permanentC %oth are e*ternal to the $reator, #hereas the divine $reation $annot %e apart from the omnipresent ?ord. >ote. 8 .isvamitra, a 'reat Rishi, is reputed to have $reated a dupli$ate Bniverse, a part of #hi$h $onsists of the $onstellations $omposin' S$orpio, Sa'ittarius, and the Southern 9ross. Some trees, plants and her%s in imitation of #ell8)no#n spe$ies /e.'., palm"ra $orrespondin' to $o$oanut, 3un'le potatoes and onions insipid to taste and useless, et$.0 are amon' his $reations.

I4. :&e$ause the ?ord of $ons$iousness is infinite, the $reation $an remain onl" #ithin +im and the $ontrar" is pure fan$". IF. :Sin$e the Bniverse is onl" a pro3e$tion from and in the mirror of $ons$iousness, its unreal nature $an %e$ome $lear onl" on investi'ation, and not other#ise. I2. :Truth $an never $han'e its nature, #hereas untruth is al#a"s $han'in'. See ho# $han'eful the nature of the #orld isJ II8I8. :!istin'uish %et#een the $han'eless truth and the $han'eful untruth and s$rutinise the #orld $omprised of these t#o fa$tors, $han'eful phenomena and $han'eless su%3e$tive $ons$iousness, li)e the un$han'in' li'ht of the mirror and the $han'in' ima'es in it. I9. :The #orld $annot stand investi'ation %e$ause of its $han'in' unreal nature. 5ust as the o#l is daKKled and %linded %" %ri'ht sunli'ht, so the #orld parades in 'lor" %efore i'noran$e and disappears %efore ri'ht anal"sis. >ote. 8 The man sees %" sunli'ht and is helpless in its a%sen$e. The o#l sees in dar)ness and is %linded in sunli'ht. hose si'ht is the %etter of the t#o< This $annot %e determined satisfa$toril" so that investi'ation %e$omes lame. 87884. : hat is food for one, is poison for another /e.s., de$omposed food for #orms and men0. hat is one thin' to "o'is and $elestials, is another to others. - lon' distan$e %" one vehi$le is short %" another. :?on' intervals of spa$e refle$ted in the mirror are themselves in it and "et unreal. :In this #a", investi'ation %e$omes indeterminate %" itself. Investi'ation and the o%3e$t investi'ated are %oth indeterminate, and the onl" $onstant fa$tor underl"in' %oth is $ons$iousness. >othin' else $an stand %eside it. 8F. :That #hi$h shines as 4Is4 is +er (a3est" the -%solute 9ons$iousness. :Thus the universe is onl" the Self 8 the One and one onl".: +!-s en"s t!e C!a/ter 5, on t!e Ascertainment o2 +r-t! in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER AII

T+E -==E-R->9E OF T+E RE-?ITD OF T+E B>I.ERSE

!E=E>!S O> T+E STRE>@T+ OF

I?? OF 9RE-TIO>

1. Even after listenin' to !attatre"a patientl", =arasurama #as still perple*ed and as)edH E. :O ?ord, #hat "ou have said so far a%out the Bniverse is the truth. 1. :Even so, ho# is it that it appears to %e real to me and to others #ho are %oth intelli'ent and shre#d< 4. : h" does it $ontinue to seem to %e real to me even thou'h I have heard "ou sa" other#ise< =lease prove to me its unrealit" and remove m" present illusion.: F. Thus re,uested, !attatre"a, the 'reat sa'e, %e'an to e*plain the $ause of the illusion #hi$h ma)es one %elieve the #orld to %e real. 2. :?isten, RamaJ This illusion is ver" old, %ein' no other than the deep8rooted i'noran$e #hi$h mista)es one thin' for another. I. :See ho# the true Self has %een i'nored and the %od" has %e$ome identified #ith the Self. 9onsider this foul %od" $omprised of %lood and %ones %eside that un%lemished, pure intelli'en$eJ 8. :Even the 'ross %od" %e$omes mista)en for $r"stal8$lear $ons$iousness %" mere for$e of ha%it. 9. :So also the universe has repeatedl" %een ta)en to %e real so that it no# loo)s as if it #ere a$tuall" real. The remed" lies in a $han'e of outloo). 17. :The #orld %e$omes for one #hatever one is a$$ustomed to thin) it. This is %orne out %" the realisation of "o'is of the o%3e$ts of their lon' $ontemplation. 1181E. :I shall illustrate this point %" an an$ient and #onderful in$ident. There is a ver" hol" to#n, Sundara, in the $ountr" of .an'a. +ere on$e lived a ver" #ise and famous )in', Susena %" name. +is "oun'er %rother, (ahasena, #as his lo"al and dutiful su%3e$t. 11. : The )in' ruled his )in'dom so #ell that all his su%3e$ts loved him. On one o$$asion he performed the horse8sa$rifi$e. >ote. 8 This sa$rifi$e $an %e performed onl" %" the most po#erful )in's. - horse $hosen and dedi$ated for sa$rifi$e is allo#ed to roam #herever it pleases. The sa$rifi$er or his lieutenant or 'roup of lieutenants, follo#s the horse at a distan$e. The horse is a $hallen'e to the )in's in #hose $ountr" it roams, so that %attles are fou'ht until the horse is su$$essfull" %rou'ht %a$) and the sa$rifi$e performed.

14. :-ll the most valiant prin$es follo#ed the horse #ith a 'reat arm". 1F. :Their $ourse #as vi$torious until the" rea$hed the %an)s of the Irra#add". 12. :The" #ere so elated that the" passed %" the pea$efull" sittin' ro"al sa'e, @ana, #ithout salutin' him. 1I. :@ana4s son noti$ed the insult to his father and #as e*asperated. +e $au'ht the sa$rifi$ial horse and fou'ht the heroes 'uardin' it. 188E1. :The" surrounded him on all sides %ut he to'ether #ith the horse entered a hill, @anda, %efore their e"es. >oti$in' his disappearan$e in the hill, the invaders atta$)ed the hill. The sa'e4s son re8appeared #ith a hu'e arm", fou'ht the enem", defeated them and destro"ed Susena4s arm". +e too) man" prisoners of #ar, in$ludin' all the prin$es and then re8entered the hill. - fe# follo#ers #ho es$aped fled to Susena and told him ever"thin'. Susena #as surprised and said to his %rother E4817. :&rotherJ 'o to the pla$e of the sa'e, @ana. Remem%er that penan$e doers are #onderfull" po#erful and $annot %e $on,uered even %" 'ods. Therefore ta)e $are to please him so that "ou ma" %e allo#ed to %rin' %a$) the prin$es and the horse in time for the sa$rifi$e #hi$h is fast approa$hin'. =ride %efore sa'es #ill al#a"s %e hum%led. If enra'ed, the" redu$e the #orld to ashes. -pproa$h him #ith respe$t so that our o%3e$t ma" %e fulfilled. :(ahasena o%e"ed and immediatel" started on his errand. +e arrived at @ana4s hermita'e and found the sa'e seated pea$efull" li)e a ro$), #ith his senses, mind and intelle$t under perfe$t $ontrol. The sa'e, #ho #as immersed in the Self, loo)ed li)e a $alm sea #hose #aves of thou'ht had ,uieted do#n. (ahasena spontaneousl" fell prostrate %efore the sa'e and %e'an to sin' his praises, and here he remained for three da"s in reverential attitude. 11842. :The sa'e4s son #ho had %een #at$hin' the ne# visitor #as pleased, and $omin' to him said, 8 I am pleased #ith the respe$t "ou sho# for m" father, tell me #hat I $an do for "ou and I #ill do it at on$e. I am the son of this 'reat @ana, the uni,ue hermit. =rin$e, listen to me. This is not the time for m" father to spea). +e is no# in ;evala >irvi)alpa Samadhi and #ill $ome out of it onl" after t#elve "ears, of #hi$h five have alread" passed and seven "et remain. :Tell me no# #hat "ou desire from him and I #ill do it for "ou. !o not underestimate me and thin) that I am onl" a headstron' "outh not #orth" of m" father. There is nothin' impossi%le for "o'is en'a'ed in penan$e.: :-fter hearin' him, (ahasena, %ein' #ise, saluted him #ith $lasped hands and saidH 4Oh $hild of the sa'eJ If "ou mean to fulfil m" desire I #ant to ma)e a short re,uest to "our #ise father #hen he has $ome out of his samadhi. ;indl" help me to that end if "ou please.4 -fter he had thus re,uested, the sa'e4s son repliedH 4;in', "our re,uest is hard to

'rant. +avin' promised fulfilment of "our desire, I $annot no# 'o %a$) on m" #ord. I must no# as) "ou to #ait an hour and a half and #at$h m" "o'i$ po#er. This, m" father, is no# in trans$endental pea$e. ho $an #a)e him up %" e*ternal efforts< aitJ I shall do it forth#ith %" means of su%tle "o'a.4 :Sa"in' so, he sat do#n, #ithdre# his senses, united the in8'oin' and out8'oin' %reaths, e*haled air and stopped motionless for a short timeC in this #a" he entered the mind of the sa'e and after a'itatin' it, re8entered his o#n %od". Immediatel" the sa'e $ame to his senses and found (ahasena in front of him, prostratin' and praisin' him. +e thou'ht for a moment ta)in' in the #hole situation %" his e*traordinar" po#ers. 4I849. :=erfe$tl" pea$eful and $heerful in mind, he %e$)oned to his son and said to himH 4&o", do not repeat this fault. rath #re$)s penan$e. =enan$e is onl" possi%le and $an pro'ress #ithout o%stru$tion %e$ause the )in' prote$ts "o'is. To interfere #ith a sa$rifi$e is al#a"s reprehensi%le and never to %e $ountenan$ed %" the 'ood. &e a 'ood %o" and return the horse and the prin$es immediatel". !o it at on$e so that the sa$rifi$e ma" %e performed at the appointed hour.4 F7. :!ire$ted thus, the sa'e4s son #as immediatel" appeased. +e #ent into the hill, returned #ith the horse and the prin$es and released them #ith pleasure. F18F1. :(ahasena sent the prin$es #ith the horse to the to#n. +e #as surprised at #hat he sa# and salutin' the sa'e as)ed him respe$tfull"H :?ord, please tell me ho# the horse and the prin$es #ere $on$ealed in the hill.: Then the sa'e repliedH F4822. :?isten, O ;in', I #as formerl" an emperor rulin' the empire %ounded %" the seas. -fter a lon' #hile the @ra$e of @od des$ended on me and I 're# dis'usted #ith the #orld as %ein' %ut trash in the li'ht of $ons$iousness #ithin. I a%di$ated the )in'dom in favour of m" sons and retired into this forest. (" #ife, %ein' dutiful, a$$ompanied me here. Several "ears #ere passed in our penan$e and austerities. On$e m" #ife em%ra$ed me and this son #as %orn to her #hen I #as in samadhi. She %rou'ht me to m" senses, left the %a%e #ith me and died. This %o" #as %rou'ht up %" me #ith love and $are. hen he 're# up, he heard that I had on$e %een a )in'C he #ished to %e one also and %esou'ht me to 'rant his pra"er. I initiated him in "o'a #hi$h he pra$tised #ith su$h su$$ess that he #as a%le %" the for$e of his #ill to $reate a #orld of his o#n in this hill #hi$h he is no# rulin'. The horse and prin$es #ere )ept there. I have no# told "ou the se$ret of that hill.: -fter hearin' it (ahasena as)ed a'ainH 2I. :I have #ith 'reat interest heard "our #onderful a$$ount of this hill. I #ant to see it. 9an "ou 'rant m" pra"er<: 28. :&ein' so re,uested, the sa'e $ommanded his son sa"in'H 4&o"J sho# him round the pla$e and satisf" him.4 29. :+avin' said thus, the sa'e a'ain lapsed into samadhiC and his son #ent a#a" #ith the )in'.

I7. :The sa'e4s son entered the hill #ithout trou%le and disappeared, %ut (ahasena #as not a%le to enter. So he $alled out for the sa'e4s son. I1. :+e too $alled out to the )in', from the interior of the hill. Then he $ame out of it and said to the )in'H IE8I4. :O ;in', this hill $annot %e penetrated #ith the slender "o'i$ po#ers that "ou possess. Dou #ill find it too dense. >evertheless "ou must %e ta)en into it as m" father ordered. >o#, leave "our 'ross %od" in this hole $overed #ith %ushesC enter the hill #ith "our mental sheath alon' #ith me.4 The )in' $ould not do it and as)edH IF. :Tell me, saint, ho# I am to thro# off this %od". If I do it for$i%l", I shall die. I2. :The saint smiled at this and saidH 4Dou do not seem to )no# "o'a. e"es.4 ell, $lose "our

II. :The )in' $losed his e"esC the saint forth#ith entered into him, too) the other4s su%tle %od" and left the 'ross %od" in the hole. I8. :Then %" his "o'i$ po#er the saint entered the hill #ith this su%tle %od" snat$hed from the other #hi$h #as filled #ith the desire of seein' the empire #ithin the %o#els of the hill. I9. :On$e inside he roused up the sleepin' individual to dream. The latter no# found himself held %" the saint in the #ide e*panse of ether. >ote. 8 The ativahi)a sarira /astral %od"0, e*haustivel" treated in Do'a .asishta. 8788E. :+e #as alarmed on loo)in' in all dire$tions and re,uested the saint, 4!o not forsa)e me lest I should perish in this illimita%le spa$e.4 The saint lau'hed at his terror and said, 4I shall never forsa)e "ou. &e assured of it. >o# loo) round at ever"thin' and have no fear.4 8189F. :The )in' too) $oura'e and loo)ed all round. +e sa# the s)" a%ove, enveloped in the dar)ness of ni'ht and shinin' #ith stars. +e as$ended there and loo)ed do#n %elo#C he $ame to the re'ion of the moon and #as %enum%ed #ith $old. =rote$ted %" the saint, he #ent up to the Sun and #as s$or$hed %" its ra"s. -'ain tended %" the saint, he #as refreshed and sa# the #hole re'ion a $ounterpart of the +eaven. +e #ent up to the summits of the +imala"as #ith the saint and #as sho#n the #hole re'ion and also the earth. -'ain endo#ed #ith po#erful e"e8si'ht, he #as a%le to see far8off lands and dis$overed other #orlds %esides this one. In the distant #orlds there #as dar)ness prevailin' in some pla$esC the earth #as 'old in someC there #ere o$eans and island $ontinents traversed %" rivers and mountainsC there #ere the heavens peopled %" Indra and the @ods, the asuras, human %ein's, the ra)shasas and other ra$es of $elestials. +e also found that the saint had divided himself as &rahman in Sat"alo)a, as .ishnu in .ai)unta, and as Siva in ;ailasa #hile all the time he remained as his ori'inal8self the

)in' rulin' in the present #orld. The )in' #as stru$) #ith #onder on seein' the "o'i$ po#er of the saint. The sa'e4s son said to himH 4This si'htseein' has lasted onl" a sin'le da" a$$ordin' to the standards prevailin' here, #hereas t#elve thousand "ears have passed %" in the #orld "ou are used to. So let us return to m" father.4 92. :Sa"in' so, he helped the other to $ome out of the hill to this outer #orld.: +!-s en"s t!e C!a/ter 5,, on si0!t6seein0 in t!e (an"a Hi77 in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER AIII

+O

-;EFB?>ESS ->! !RE-( -RE SI(I?-R I> >-TBRE ->! O&5E9TS -RE O>?D (E>T-? I(-@ES

18E. The sa'e4s son made the )in' sleep, united his su%tle %od" #ith the 'ross one left in the hole, and then #o)e him up. 1. On re'ainin' his senses, (ahasena found the #hole #orld $han'ed. The people, the river $ourses, the trees, the tan)s, et$., #ere all different. 4817. +e #as %e#ildered and as)ed the saintH :O 'reat oneJ +o# lon' have #e spent seein' "our #orld< This #orld loo)s different from the one I #as a$$ustomed toJ :Thus as)ed, the sa'e4s son said to (ahasenaH 4?isten ;in', this is the #orld #hi$h #e #ere in and left to see that #ithin the hill. The same has under'one enormous $han'es o#in' to the lon' interval of time. e spent onl" one da" loo)in' round the hill re'ionC the same interval $ounts for t#elve thousand "ears in this landC and it has a$$ordin'l" $han'ed enormousl". ?oo) at the differen$e in the manners of the people and their lan'ua'es. Su$h $han'es are natural. I have often noti$ed similar $han'es %efore. ?oo) hereJ This is the ?ord, m" father in Samadhi. +ere "ou stood %efore, praisin' m" father and pra"in' to him. There "ou see the hill in front of "ou. :&" this time, "our %rother4s pro'en" has in$reased to thousands. hat #as .an'a, "our $ountr", #ith Sundara, "our $apital, is no# a 3un'le infested #ith 3a$)als and #ild animals. There is no# one .ira%ahu in "our %rother4s line #ho has his $apital .isala on the %an)s of the ;shipra in the $ountr" of (al#aC in "our line, there is Susarma #hose $apital is .ardhana in the $ountr" of the !ravidas, on the %an)s of the Tam%ra%harani. Su$h is the $ourse of the #orld #hi$h $annot remain the same even for a short time. For in this period, the hills, rivers, la)es, and the $ontour of the earth have altered. (ountains

su%sideC plains heave hi'hC deserts %e$ome fertileC plateaus $han'e to sand" tra$tsC ro$)s de$ompose and %e$ome siltC $la" hardens sometimesC $ultivated farms %e$ome %arren and %arren lands are %rou'ht under tilla'eC pre$ious stones %e$ome valueless and trin)ets %e$ome invalua%leC salt #ater %e$omes s#eet and pota%le #aters %e$ome %ra$)ishC some lands $ontain more people than $attle, others are infested #ith #ild %eastsC and "et others are invaded %" venomous reptiles, inse$ts and vermin. Su$h are some of the $han'es that happen on the earth in $ourse of time. &ut there is no dou%t that this is the same earth as #e #ere in %efore.: (ahasena heard all that the sa'e4s son said and fainted from the sho$). Then %ein' %rou'ht round %" his $ompanion, he #as over$ome %" 'rief and mourned the loss of his ro"al %rother and %rother4s son and of his o#n #ife and $hildren. -fter a short time, the sa'e4s son assua'ed his 'rief #ith #ise #ordsH :&ein' a sensi%le man, #h" do "ou mourn and at #hose loss< - sensi%le man never does an"thin' #ithout a purpose, to a$t #ithout dis$ernment is $hildish. Thin) no#, and tell me #hat loss 'rieves "ou and #hat purpose "our 'rief #ill serve.: -s)ed thus, (ahasena, #ho #as still in$onsola%le retortedH :@reat sa'e that "ou are, $an "ou not understand the $ause of m" sorro#< +o# is it that "ou see) the reason of m" 'rief #hen I have lost m" all< - man is 'enerall" sad #hen onl" one of his famil" dies. I have lost all m" friends and relatives and "ou still as) me #h" I am sad.: 11848. The sa'e4s son $ontinued derisivel". :;in'J tell me no#. Is this lapse into sorro# a hereditar" virtue< #ill it result in sin if "ou do not indul'e in it on this o$$asion< Or do "ou hope to re$over "our loss %" su$h 'rief< ;in'J Thin) #ell and tell me #hat "ou 'ain %" "our sorro#. If "ou $onsider it irresisti%le, listen to #hat I sa". :Su$h loss is not fresh. Dour forefathers have died %efore. +ave "ou ever mourned their loss< If "ou sa" that it is %e$ause of %lood relationship that it no# $auses "our 'rief, #ere there not #orms in the %odies of "our parents, livin' on their nourishment< h" are the" not "our relatives and #h" does not their loss $ause "ou sorro#< ;in', thin)J ho are "ou< hose deaths are the $ause of "our present 'rief< :-re "ou the %od", or other than that< The %od" is simpl" a $on'lomerate of different su%stan$es. +arm to an" one of the $onstituents is harm to the #hole. There is no moment in #hi$h ea$h of the $omponents is not $han'in'. &ut the e*$retions do not $onstitute a loss to the %od". :Those #hom "ou $alled "our %rother and so on are mere %odiesC the %odies are $omposed of earthC #hen lost, the" return to earthC and earth resolves ultimatel" into ener'". here then is the loss< :In fa$t "ou are not the %od". Dou o#n the %od" and $all it "our o#n, 3ust as "ou do a 'arment "ou happen to possess. here lies the differen$e %et#een "our %od" and "our 'arment< +ave "ou an" dou%t re'ardin' this $on$lusion< &ein' other than "our o#n %od", #hat relation is there %et#een "ou and another %od"< !id "ou ever $laim similar

relationship, sa" #ith "our %rother4s $lothes< h" then mourn over the loss of %odies, #hi$h are in no #a" different from 'arments< :Dou spea) of 4m"4 %od", 4m"4 e"es, 4m"4 life, 4m"4 mind and so on, I as) "ou no# to tell me #hat pre$isel" "ou are.: &ein' $onfronted thus, (ahasena %e'an to thin) over the matter, and una%le to solve the pro%lem he as)ed leave to $onsider it $arefull". Then he returned and said #ith all humilit" :?ord, I do not see #ho I am. I have $onsidered the matter, and still I do not understand. (" 'rief is onl" naturalC I $annot a$$ount for it. :(aster, I see) "our prote$tion. ;indl" tell me #hat it is. Ever" one is overpo#ered %" 'rief #hen his relative dies. >o one seems to )no# his o#n selfC nor does one mourn all losses. :I su%mit to "ou as "our dis$iple. =lease elu$idate this matter to me.: &ein' thus re,uested, the sa'e4s son spo)e to (ahasenaH 49. :;in', listenJ =eople are deluded %" the illusion $ast %" +er !ivine (a3est". The" parta)e of miser" that is due to the i'noran$e of their selves. Their miser" is meanin'less. F7. :-s lon' as the i'noran$e of the self lasts, so lon' #ill there %e miser". F18FE. :5ust as a dreamer is foolishl" alarmed at his o#n dreams or as a fool is deluded %" the serpents $reated in a ma'i$ performan$e, so also the man i'norant of the Self is terrified. F18FF. :5ust as the dreamer a#a)ened from his fearful dream or the man attendin' the ma'i$ performan$e informed of the unreal nature of the ma'i$ $reations, no lon'er fears them %ut ridi$ules another #ho does, so also one a#are of the Self not onl" does not 'rieve %ut also lau'hs at another4s 'rief. Therefore, O valiant hero, %atter do#n this impre'na%le fortress of illusion and $on,uer "our miser" %" realisation of the Self. In the meantime %e dis$riminatin' and not so foolish.: F28F8. -fter hearin' the sa'e4s son, (ahasena said, 4(aster, "our illustration is not to the point. !ream or ma'i$ is later realised to %e illusor" #hereas this hard $on$rete universe is al#a"s real and purposeful. This is unassailed and persistent. +o# $an it %e $ompared to the evanes$ent dream<4 Then the sa'e4s son ans#eredH F9. :?isten to #hat I sa". Dour opinion that the illustration is not to the point is a dou%le delusion li)e a dream in a dream. >ote. 8 The $ommentar" sa"s that the first delusion is the idea of separateness of the universe from oneself and that the se$ond is the idea that dream o%3e$ts are an illusion in $ontradistin$tion to those seen #hile a#a)e. This is $ompared to the illusion that a

dreamer mista)es the dream8rope for a dream8serpent. /The dream is itself an illusion and the mista)e is an illusion in the illusion0. 278I7. :9onsider the dream as a dreamer #ould and tell me #hether the trees do not afford shade to the pedestrians, and %ear fruits for the use of others. Is the dream realised to %e untrue and evanes$ent in the dream itself< :!o "ou mean to sa" that the dream is rendered false after #a)in' from it< Is not the #a)in' #orld similarl" rendered false in "our dream or deep sleep< :!o "ou $ontend that the #a)in' state is not so %e$ause there is $ontinuit" in it after "ou #a)e up< Is there no $ontinuit" in "our dreams from da" to da"< :If "ou sa" that it is not evident, tell me #hether the $ontinuit" in the #a)eful #orld is not %ro)en up ever" moment of "our life. :!o "ou su''est that the hills, the seas and the earth itself are reall" permanent phenomena, in spite of the fa$t that their appearan$e is $onstantl" $han'in'< Is not the dream8#orld also similarl" $ontinuous #ith its earth, mountains, rivers, friends and relatives< :!o "ou still dou%t its a%idin' nature< Then e*tend the same reasonin' to the nature of the #a)eful #orld and )no# it to %e e,uall" evanes$ent. :The ever8$han'in' o%3e$ts li)e the %od", trees, rivers, and islands are easil" found to %e transitor". Even mountains are not immuta%le, for their $ontours $han'e o#in' to the erosion of #aterfalls and mountain torrentsC rava'es %" men, %oars and #ild animals, inse$tsC thunderC li'htnin' and stormsC and so on. Dou #ill o%serve similar $han'e in the seas and on earth. :Therefore I tell "ou that "ou should investi'ate the matter $losel". /Dou #ill pro%a%l" ar'ue as follo#sH0 I18I2. :!ream and #a)efulness resem%le ea$h other in their dis$ontinuous harmon" /li)e a $hain made up of lin)s0. There is no un%ro)en $ontinuit" in an" o%3e$t %e$ause ever" ne# appearan$e implies a later disappearan$e. &ut $ontinuit" $annot %e denied in the fundamentals underl"in' the o%3e$tsJ :&e$ause a dream $reation is o%literated and rendered false %" present e*perien$e 8 #hat distin$tion #ill "ou dra# %et#een the fundamentals underl"in' the dream o%3e$ts and the present o%3e$ts< :If "ou sa" that the dream is an illusion and its fundamentals are e,uall" so, #hereas the present $reation is not so o%literated and its fundamentals must therefore %e true, I as) "ou #hat illusion is. It is determined %" the transitor" nature, #hi$h is nothin' %ut appearan$e to, and disappearan$e from, our senses.

:Is not ever"thin' o%literated in deep sleep< If "ou maintain ho#ever, that mutual $ontradi$tion is unrelia%le as eviden$e and so proves nothin', it amounts to sa"in' that self8evident si'ht alone furnishes the %est proof. 6uite so, people li)e "ou do not have a true insi'ht into the nature of thin's. II8I9. :Therefore, ta)e m" #ord for it, the present #orld is onl" similar to the dream #orld. ?on' periods pass in dreams also. Therefore, purposefulness and endurin' nature are in ever" #a" similar to %oth states. 5ust as "ou are o%viousl" a#are in "our #a)in' state, so also "ou are in "our dream state. 87. :These t#o states %ein' so similar, #h" do "ou not mourn the loss of "our dream relations< 81. :The #a)eful universe appears so real to all onl" %" for$e of ha%it. If the same %e ima'ined va$uous it #ill melt a#a" into the void. 8E881. :One starts ima'inin' somethin'C then $ontemplates itC and %" $ontinuous or repeated asso$iation resolves that it is true unless $ontradi$ted. In that #a", the #orld appears real in the manner one is used to it. (" #orld that "ou visited furnishes the proof thereofC $ome no#, let us 'o round the hill and see.: 8F. Sa"in' so, the sa'e4s son too) the )in', and #ent round the hill and returned to the former spot. 8288I. Then he $ontinuedH :?oo), O ;in'J the $ir$uit of the hill is hardl" t#o miles and a half and "et "ou have seen a universe #ithin it. Is it real or false< Is it a dream or other#ise< hat has passed as a da" in that land, has $ounted for t#elve thousand "ears here, #hi$h is $orre$t< Thin), and tell me. O%viousl" "ou $annot distin'uish this from a dream and $annot help $on$ludin' that the #orld is nothin' %ut ima'ination. (" #orld #ill disappear instantl" if I $ease $ontemplatin' it. :Therefore $onvin$e "ourself of the dream8li)e nature of the #orld and do not indul'e in 'rief at "our %rother4s death. 97. :5ust as the dream $reations are pi$tures movin' on the mind s$reens, so also this #orld in$ludin' "ourself is the o%verse of the pi$ture depi$ted %" pure intelli'en$e and it is nothin' more than an ima'e in a mirror. See ho# "ou #ill feel after this $onvi$tion. ill "ou %e elated %" the a$$ession of a dominion or depressed %" the death of a relative in "our dream< 91. :Realise that the Self is the self8$ontained mirror pro3e$tin' and manifestin' this #orld. The Self is pure un%lemished $ons$iousness. &e ,ui$)J Realise it ,ui$)l" and 'ain trans$endental happinessJ: +!-s en"s t!e C!a/ter on t!e )ision o2 t!e Hi77 Cit1 in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

9+-=TER AI.

+O +O

T+E B>I.ERSE IS (ERE I(-@I>-TIO>C I?? +I9+ 9-> 9RE-TE ITC

TO @-I> T+-T STRO>@

->! T+E +I@+EST TRBT+

182. +avin' heard the sa'e4s son, (ahasena %e'an to thin) $learl" and seriousl"C he $on$luded the #orld to %e dream8li)e and over$ame his 'rief. @ro#in' stron' in mind, he #as not pertur%ed. Then he as)ed his $ompanionH :@reat and #ise saintJ Dou )no# this #orld and %e"ond. I do not %elieve that there is an"thin' that "ou do not )no#. =lease ans#er me no#H +o# $an "ou sa" that the #hole is pure ima'ination< +o#ever mu$h I ma" ima'ine, m" ima'ination does not materialise. &ut "ou have $reated a universe %" the for$e of "our #ill. -nd "et, ho# do time and spa$e differ in these $reations< =lease tell me.: On %ein' thus as)ed, the sa'e4s son repliedH I. :The #ill $on$eives either effe$tivel" or ineffe$tivel" a$$ordin' as it is uniform or %ro)en up %" inde$ision. 8. :!o "ou not )no# this #orld to %e the result of &rahma4s desire< This loo)s real and permanent %e$ause the ori'inal desire is so po#erful. 9. : hereas the #orld of "our $reation no one ta)es seriousl", and "our o#n mistrust ma)es it useless. 1781F. :9on$eptions materialise for various reasons as follo#sH %" virtue of the natural fun$tion as #ith &rahma, the 9reatorC %" the possession of live8'ems as #ith Da)shas and Ra)shasas /$lasses of $elestial %ein's0C %" the use of her%s as #ith @ods /ne$tar is reputed to $ontain the e*tra$ts of super% her%s0C %" the pra$ti$e of "o'a as #ith "o'isC %" the mira$ulous po#er of in$antations as #ith a fe# siddhasC %" the for$e of penan$e as #ith some sa'esC and %" virtue of %oons as #ith the -r$hite$t of the universe /.is#a)arma0. :One should for'et the old asso$iations in order to ma)e one4s ne# $on$eption effe$tive and this endures onl" so lon' as it is not o%stru$ted %" the old one. - $on$eption is for$eful unless o%stru$ted %" an ante$edent one and thus destro"ed. It is effe$tive onl" #hen for$efulC in that #a" even 'reat thin's ma" %e a$hieved.

12. :Dour $on$eptions do not materialise for the aforesaid reason. Therefore "ou must pra$tise fo$ussin' of thou'ht if "ou desire "our o#n $reations to endure. 1I8E1. :I shall tell "ou no# a%out the differen$e in time and spa$e. Dou are not profi$ient in the affairs of the #orld, and therefore "ou are m"stified. I shall no# ma)e it $lear ho# these differen$es appear. The Sun helps all to see %ut %linds the o#lsC #ater is the a%ode of fishes %ut dro#ns manC fire %urns a man %ut is food to tittiri /a spe$ies of %ird0C fire is ordinaril" put out %" #ater %ut it flourishes in the middle of o$ean at the time of dissolution. Similar dis$repan$ies are evident else#here. (en and animals en'a'e in a$tivities #ith their lim%s and senses, #hereas spirits do so #ith %odies of others. Instan$es li)e these are innumera%le. Their e*planation is as follo#sH E48EF. :Si'ht is of the e"e and $annot %e #ithout it. - 3aundi$ed e"e sees ever"thin' "ello# and m"opia produ$es the dou%le ima'e of a sin'le o%3e$t. E281E. :-%normal visions are thus the dire$t result of a%normal e"es. The ;aranda)as, in an Eastern island, are said to see ever"thin' redC so also the inha%itants of Ramana)a isle see ever"thin' upside do#n. One hears man" more stran'e stories of the )ind, all of #hi$h are %ased on a%normalities of vision. The" $an all %e remedied %" proper treatment. The same applies to other senses in$ludin' the mind. The relation %et#een spa$e and o%3e$ts and %et#een time and events is a$$ordin' to "our estimate of themC there is no intrinsi$ relationship %et#een them. 11. :/+avin' so far proved the o%3e$ts and events to %e onl" #ithin, he pro$eeds to esta%lish that there is no 4e*terior4 to the self0. 4 hat is desi'nated as e*terior4 %" people, is simpl" the ori'in and prop of the universe li)e the s$reen #ith relation to the pi$ture on it. 14847. :There $ould %e nothin' e*ternal to that 4e*terior4 e*$ept it %e one4s o#n %od". +o# $an that %e e*ternalised from the 4e*terior4< For e*ample, #hen "ou sa" 4outside the hill4 the hill is #ithdra#n from the spa$e %e"ondC it is not in$luded in it. &ut the %od" is seen in spa$e 3ust as a pot is seen. :The %od" must therefore %e e*ternal to the seer. hat is visi%le lies #ithin the ran'e of illuminationH if #ithout, it $annot %e seen. Therefore the illumined o%3e$ts must %e #ithin the vision of the illuminant. The %od", et$., are the illumined, %e$ause the" are themselves o%3e$tified. The illumined and the illuminant $annot %e identi$al. :-'ain the illuminant $annot %e o%3e$tifiedC for #ho is the seer apart from it< and ho# $an the illumination %" #hi$h he sees %e apart from him< That the illuminant affords the li'ht and serves as an o%3e$t standin' apart from the seer, is impossi%le to maintain. Therefore the illuminant $annot admit of an" forei'n admi*ture in it, and he is the illumination in perfe$tion 8 onl" one, and the %ein' of all. 41. :+e e*tends as time and spa$eC the" are infinite and perfe$t, %ein' involved as the illuminant, illumination and the illumined.

4E. :-s re'ards #ithin or #ithout, ever"thin' is in$luded in illumination. +o# $an then an"thin' %e 4outer4 unless it is li)e a pea) on a mountain< 41. :The #hole universe is thus in the illumination #hi$h shines self8suffi$ient, %" itself, ever"#here, and at all times. 4484F. :Su$h illumination is +er Trans$endental (a3est" Tripura, the Supreme. She is $alled &rahma in the .edas, .ishnu %" the .aishnavites, Siva %" the Saivites, and Sa)ti %" the Sa)tas. There is indeed nothin' %ut She. 42. :She holds ever"thin' %" +er pro#ess as a mirror does its ima'es. She is the illuminant in relation to the illumined. 4I849. :The o%3e$t is sun) in illumination li)e the ima'e of a $it" in a mirror. 5ust as the $it" is not apart from the mirror, so also the universe is not apart from $ons$iousness. 5ust as the ima'e is part and par$el of the $lear, smooth, $ompa$t and one mirror, so also the universe as part and par$el of the perfe$t, solid and unitar" $ons$iousness, namel" the Self. F7. :The #orld $annot %e demonstra%l" as$ertained. Spa$e is simpl" void servin' for the lo$ation of materials. F1. :The universe is, al#a"s and all8throu'h, a phenomenon in the Self. The ,uestion then arises ho# $ons$iousness, %ein' void, is dense at the same time. FE. :5ust as a mirror, thou'h, dense and impenetra%le, $ontains the ima'e, so also pure $ons$iousness is dense and impenetra%le and "et displa"s the universe %" virtue of its self8suffi$ien$". F1. :Thou'h $ons$iousness is all8pervadin', dense and sin'le, it still holds the mo%ile and immo%ile $reation #ithin it, #onderful in its variet", #ith no immediate or ultimate $ause for it. F48FF. :5ust as the mirror remains unaffe$ted %" the passa'e of different ima'es and "et $ontinues to refle$t as $learl" as %efore, so also the one $ons$iousness illumines the #a)in' and dream states #hi$h $an %e verified %" proper meditation. F2. :O ;in'J E*amine a'ain "our da"8dreams and mental ima'er". Thou'h the" are perfe$t in detail, "et the" are no less mental. FI. :9ons$iousness permeatin' them o%viousl" remains un%lemished %efore $reation or after dissolution of the #orldC even durin' the e*isten$e of the #orld, it remains unaffe$ted as the mirror %" the ima'es.

F8. :Thou'h unpertur%ed, un%lemished, thi$), dense and sin'le the a%solute $ons$iousness %ein' self8suffi$ient manifests #ithin itself #hat loo)s 4e*terior4, 3ust li)e a mirror refle$tin' spa$e as e*ternal to itself. F9827. :This is the first step in $reationC it is $alled i'noran$e or dar)nessC startin' as an infinitesimal fra$tion of the #hole, it manifests as thou'h e*ternal to its ori'in, and is a propert" of the e'o8sense. The alienation is on a$$ount of the latent tenden$ies to %e manifested later. &e$ause of its non8identit" #ith the ori'inal $ons$iousness, it is no# simple, insentient ener'".: >ote. 8 The $ommentar" has itH hat is a%solute $ons$iousness 'oes under the name of (a"a 3ust %efore $reation, and is later $alled -vid"a /or i'noran$e0 #ith the manifestation of the e'o. The a'itation in the ,uietness is due to su%tle time fru$tif"in' the latent tenden$ies of the e'o #hi$h had not mer'ed in the primordial state at the time of the dissolution of the Bniverse. 21. :That $ons$iousness #hi$h illumines the 4e*terior4 is $alled Sivatattva, #hereas the individual feelin' as 4I4 is Sa)titattva. >ote. 8 Siva is a#areness of the 4e*terior4C Sa)ti is the d"nami$ for$e operatin' the potential tenden$ies in the individual self. 2E. : hen the a#areness of the 4e*terior4, $om%ined #ith the 4I4, en$ompasses the entire ima'ined spa$e as 4I4 it is $alled Sada8Siva8tattva. 21. : hen, later, dis$ardin' the a%stra$tion of the Self and the e*terior, $lear identifi$ation #ith the insentient spa$e ta)es pla$e, it is $alled Isvara8tattva. The investi'ation of the last t#o steps is pure vid"a /)no#led'e0. 24. :-ll these five tattvas are pure %e$ause the" relate to an as8"et8undifferentiated $ondition li)e potentialities in a seed. 2F. :-fter the differentiation is made manifest %" #ill8for$e the insentient part predominates over the other, as opposed to the $ontrar" $ondition %efore. 22. :That insentient predominan$e is $alled (a"a Sa)ti after differentiation is $learl" esta%lished, li)e the sprout from a seed. 2I829. :The sentient phase no# $onta$ts %ein' rele'ated to a minor position, and ta)es on the name of =urusha %ein' $overed %" five sheaths, namel" )ala /somethin' of doership0, vid"a /some )no#led'e0, ra'a /desire0 )ala /time 8 allotted life0 and ni"ati /fi*ed order of thin's0. I7. :-namnesis of individuals made up of the pro$livities a$,uired as a result of en'a'in' in diverse a$tions in previous %irths, is no# supported %" intelli'en$e and remains as pra)riti /nature0.

I1. :This pra)riti is tripartite %e$ause the fruits of a$tions are of three )indsC She manifests as the three states of life #a)efulness, dream and deep sleep, She then assumes the name, $hitta /mind0. IE. :The anamnesis 'oes %" the name of =ra)riti in dreamless slum%er, and 9hitta in the other states. It is al#a"s $omprised of the insentient phase of the pro$livities of the mind and the sentient phase of intelli'en$e. I1. : hen the pro$livities still remain in a%e"an$e #ithout %ein' used up, its totalit" is $alled av"a)ta /unmanifested0C differen$es arise onl" in $hitta, there is no differen$e amon' individuals in sleep and so it is pra)riti, the same assumin' the name of $hitta #hen differen$es manifest. >ote. 8 Sleep is $hara$terised %" undifferentiation and so it is the same for all, irrespe$tive of propensities of the mind. Simultaneous #ith the a#areness of the %od" the other states manifest. Individual en3o"ments 8 pleasure and pain 8 lie onl" in the #a)eful and dream states, a$$ordin' as the innate tenden$ies of the mind mature and "ield fruits. hen one $rop is over sleep supervenes, then there is no en3o"ment and no distin$tion a$$ordin' to $rops. -s the anamnesis is read" #ith the ne*t $rop, sleep is sha)en off and differen$es arise. So it is $lear ho# the one undifferentiated $ondition manifests as the universe in all its diversit" and resolves into itself periodi$all". IF. :Therefore the mind /$hitta0 is purusha /the individual0 #hen the sentient phase is assertive, and the same is a"a)ta /unmanifest0 #hen pra)riti /nature0, the insentient phase, is assertive. I2. :That $hitta is tripartite a$$ordin' to its fun$tions, namel", e'o, intelle$t and mind. II. : hen influen$ed %" the three ,ualities, it manifests in 'reater details as follo#sH %" satva /%ri'htness0, it %e$omes the five senses, hearin', si'ht, tou$h, taste and smellC %" ra3as /a$tivit"0 spee$h, hands, feet, or'ans of e*$retion and of pro$reationC %" tamas /dar)ness0 earth, air, fire, #ater and ether. I8. :The supreme intelli'en$e $o,uets #ith the universe in this manner, remainin' all the time unaffe$ted, a #itness of its o#n $reation. I9. :The present $reation is the mental produ$t of &rahma or +iran"a'ar%ha, appointed $reator %" the #ill8for$e of the =rimal &ein', Sri Tripura. 87. :The $o'nition 4"ou4 and 4I4 is the essen$e of an" )ind of $reationC su$h $o'nition is the manifestation of trans$endental $ons$iousnessC there $annot %e an" differen$e /3ust as there is no differen$e in spa$e, %ounded %" a pot or not %ounded %" it0. 81. :The diversities in $reation are solel" due to ,ualifi$ations limitin' the $ons$iousnessC these ,ualifi$ations /i.e., %od", limitin' of a'e0 are the mental ima'er" of the $reator

/$onsistent #ith the individual4s past merits0C #hen the $reative #ill8for$e #ears a#a" there is dissolution and $omplete undifferentiation results. 8E. :-s for "our #ill8po#er, it is overpo#ered %" the $reator #hen that impediment is surmounted %" the methods alread" mentioned, "our #ill8po#er #ill also %e$ome effe$tive. 81. :Time, spa$e, 'ross $reations, et$., appear in it a$$ordin' to the ima'er" of the a'ent. 84882. :- $ertain period is onl" one da" a$$ordin' to m" $al$ulation #hereas it is t#elve thousand "ears a$$ordin' to &rahmaH the spa$e $overed %" a%out t#o miles and a half of &rahma is infinite a$$ordin' to me and $overs a #hole universe. In this #a", %oth are true and untrue at the same time. 8I888. :Similarl" also, ima'ine a hill #ithin "ou, and also time in a su%tle sense. Then $ontemplate a #hole $reation in themC the" #ill endure as lon' as "our $on$entration endures 8 even to eternit" for all pra$ti$al purposes, if "our #ill8po#er %e stron' enou'h. :Therefore I sa" that this #orld is a mere fi'ment of ima'ination. 89. :O ;in'J it shines in the manifest $ons$ious Self #ithin. Therefore #hat loo)s li)e the e*ternal #orld is reall" an ima'e on the s$reen of the mind. 97. :9ons$iousness is thus the s$reen and the ima'e, and so "o'is are ena%led to see lon' distan$es of spa$e and realise lon' intervals of time. 91. :The" $an traverse all distan$e in a moment and $an per$eive ever"thin' as readil" as a 'oose%err" in the hollo# of one4s palm. 9E. :Therefore re$o'nise the fa$t that the #orld is simpl" an ima'e on the mirror of $ons$iousness and $ultivate the $ontemplation of 4I am4, a%ide as pure %ein' and thus 'ive up this delusion of the realit" of the #orld. 9189I. :Then "ou #ill %e$ome li)e m"self one in %ein' self8suffi$ient.: !attatre"a $ontinuedH :On hearin' this dis$ourse of the sa'e4s son, the )in' over$ame his delusionC his intelle$t %e$ame purified and he understood the ultimate 'oal. Then he pra$tised samadhi, and %e$ame self8$ontained, #ithout dependin' on an" e*ternal a'en$", and led a lon' and happ" life. +e $eased to identif" himself #ith the %od", and %e$ame a%solute as trans$endental spa$e until he #as finall" li%erated. So "ou see, &har'ava, that the universe is onl" mental ima'e, 3ust as firm as one4s #ill8po#er, and no more. It is not independent of the Self. Investi'ate the matter "ourself, and "our delusion #ill 'raduall" lose hold of "ou and pass off.:

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1. On hearin' !attatre"a relate the #onderful stor" of the +ill 9it", =arasurama marvelled more and more. E. +e, #ith a $lear mind, pondered over the tea$hin's of his (aster, and then returned to him and as)ed him a'ainH 1. :?ord, I have $onsidered the purport of "our tea$hin's in the shape of the ma'nifi$ent stories "ou told me. 4. :I understand that intelli'en$e alone is real and sin'le, and that o%3e$ts are onl" unreal ima'es li)e a $it" refle$ted in a mirror. F. :+er Trans$endental (a3est", the (ahes#ari, is that $ons$iousness manifestin' as Intelli'en$e $o'nisant of the #hole ran'e of phenomena %e'innin' from the unmanifest state of sleep and endin' #ith this #orld passin' in ,ui$) su$$ession #ithin itself. 2. :-ll these are apparentl" due to the self8suffi$ien$" of that $ons$iousness and the" $ome into %ein' #ithout an" immediate $ause. This mu$h I have understood after deep $onsideration. I. :&ut this intelli'en$e is said to %e %e"ond $o'nition %e$ause it al#a"s remains as pure )no#led'e itself. 8. :I do not see ho# it $an %e realised if it surpasses )no#led'e. The 'oal is not a$hieved #ithout realisin' it. 9. :The 'oal is li%eration. hat is its nature< If one $an %e li%erated #hile alive, still ho# is the $ourse of his eman$ipated life re'ulated, if that is at all possi%le< 17. :There are sa'es #ho are a$tive. their pure $ons$ious %ein'< hat is the relation %et#een the #orld of a$tion and

11. :+o# $an the" en'a'e in a$tion #hile all the time the" inhere in a%solute $ons$iousness< Su$h $ons$iousness $an %e of onl" one )ind, and li%eration also $an %e onl" one in order to %e effe$tive. 1E81I. :+o# then are these differen$es noti$ed in the lives of the 3nanis< Some of them are a$tiveC some tea$h s$ripturesC some #orship deitiesC some a%stra$t themselves into samadhiC some lead an austere life and ema$iate themselvesC some 'ive $lear instru$tions to their dis$iplesC some rule )in'dom ,uite 3ustl"C some openl" hold disputations #ith other s$hools of thou'htC some #rite do#n their tea$hin's and e*perien$esC others simulate i'noran$eC a fe# even reprehensi%le and loathsome a$tionsC %ut all of them are famous as #ise men in the #orld. 18. :+o# $an there %e su$h differen$es in their lives #hen there $an %e no differen$e in the state of li%eration $ommon to all< Or are there 'rades in )no#led'e and li%eration< 19. :;indl" enli'hten me on these points, %e$ause I am ea'er to learn the truth and su%mit to "ou as m" sole Tea$her.: E7. Thus re,uested, !attatre"a appeared pleased #ith the ,uestions and ans#ered the #orth" dis$iple as follo#sH E1. : orth" RamaJ Dou are indeed fit to rea$h that 'oal %e$ause "ou have no# turned to#ards the ri'ht #a" of investi'ation. EE. :This is due to the @ra$e of @od #hi$h puts "ou in the ri'ht #a" of investi'ation. ho $an attain an"thin' #orth", #ithout divine @ra$e< E1. :The %enefi$ent #or) of the self8inherin' divine @ra$e is finished #hen the in#ard turnin' of one4s mind in$reases in stren'th da" %" da". E48EF. : hat "ou have said so far is ,uite trueC "ou have ri'htl" understood the nature of $ons$iousness %ut have not realised it. - )no#led'e of the propert" of a thin' #ithout a$tual e*perien$e of the thin' itself is as useless as no )no#led'e. E2. :True e*perien$e of the Self is the una#areness of even 4I am4. 9an the #orld persist after su$h una#areness< Se$ond8hand )no#led'e is no %etter than the re$olle$tion of a dream. EI. :5ust as the a$$ession of treasure in a dream is useless, so also is se$ondhand )no#led'e. E8. :I shall illustrate it #ith a ver" an$ient stor". There #as formerl" a ver" virtuous )in' rulin' over .ideha. E9. :+e #as 5ana)a %" name, ver" #ise and $onversant #ith %oth this #orld and %e"ond. -t one time he #orshipped #ith sa$rifi$ial rites the @oddess, inherin' as the Self.

17. :There $ame for the o$$asion, all the &rahmins, pandits, hermits, $riti$s, those versed in the .edas, those a$$ustomed to share in sa$rifi$ial rites and sa$rifi$es, et$. 11. :-t the same time, .aruna, the @od of #aters, #anted to perform a similar sa$rifi$e, %ut #orth" men did not a$$ept the invitation. 1E81I. :For the" #ere pleased #ith 5ana)a #ho respe$ted them dul". :Then .aruna4s son, #ho #as a 'reat diale$ti$ian, $ame to them. +e dis'uised himself as a &rahmin, in order to de$o" the &rahmin 'uests. On enterin' the ro"al $ham%er he dul" %lessed the )in' and addressed him thus %efore all the assem%l". 4O ;in', "our assem%l" is not as 'ood as it should %e. It loo)s li)e a lovel" la)e of lotuses rava'ed %" $ro#s, 3a$)da#s and heronsC it #ould %e %etter #ithout this medle" of in$ompetents. I do not find a sin'le individual here #ho #ill %e an ornament to a 'reat assem%l" li)e a s#an to a lovel" la)e of lotuses. (a" @od %less "ouJ I shall have nothin' to do #ith this multitude of fools.4 18841. :&ein' thus insulted %" .aruna4s son, the #hole assem%l" stood up to a man and said in an'erH :Dou $harlatan of a &rahminJ +o# dare "ou insult ever"%od" here< hat learnin' have "ou #hi$h is #antin' in us< i$)ed man that "ou are, "ou are onl" a %lufferJ Dou shall not leave this pla$e until "ou have proved "our superiorit" over us. There are 'reat pandits assem%led here from all over the #orld. !o "ou hope to su%due all of them %" "our learnin'< Tell us "our spe$ial su%3e$t in #hi$h "ou ima'ine "ourself more profi$ient than usJ4 Thus $hallen'ed, .aruni repliedH 4E841. :I #ill in a minute outdo "ou all in de%ateC %ut that shall %e onl" on the $ondition that if I am defeated, "ou #ill thro# me into the seaC and if "ou are defeated, I #ill $onsi'n "ou to the sea, one after another. If "ou a'ree to this $ondition, let us have a de%ate. 4484F. :The" $onsented and the de%ate %e'an in ri'ht earnest. The pandits #ere shortl" defeated %" the falla$ious lo'i$ of the opponent and the" #ere sun) in the sea %" hundreds. 42. :.aruna4s follo#ers then too) a#a" the sun)en pandits to his sa$rifi$e #here the" #ere re$eived #ith respe$t #hi$h mu$h pleased them. 4I. :There #as one %" name ;ahoela, amon' those #ho #ere thus sun). +is son -shtava)ra, havin' heard of his father4s fate, hastened to 5ana)a4s $ourt and $hallen'ed the de%ater s)illed in falla$". The mas,uerader #as no# defeated and strai'hta#a" $ondemned to the sea %" the "oun' aven'er. Then .aruni thre# off his mas) in the $ourt and restored %a$) all the men formerl" dro#ned in the sea. ;ahoela4s son #as no# puffed

#ith pride and %ehaved offensivel" %efore the assem%led $ourt. The pandits #ere made to feel mortified %efore the "outh. F18FE. :5ust then, a female as$eti$ appeared in their midst, to #hom the offended assem%l" loo)ed for help. En$oura'in' them in their hopes, the $harmin' maiden #ith matted lo$)s and hermit4s $lothes #as hi'hl" honoured %" the )in' and she spo)e in s#eet and "et firm tonesH F1. :4Oh $hildJ Son of ;ahoelaJ Dou are indeed ver" a$$omplished, for these &rahmins have %een res$ued %" "ou after "ou defeated .aruni in de%ate. F48F2. :4I #ant to as) of "ou a short ,uestion, to #hi$h please 'ive a strai'ht ans#er, e*pli$it and unreserved. hat is that $ondition rea$hin' #hi$h there #ill %e all8round immortalit"H )no#in' #hi$h all dou%ts and un$ertainties #ill disappearC and esta%lished in #hi$h all desires #ill vanish< If "ou have realised that un%ounded state, please tell me dire$tl".4 :&ein' approa$hed %" the as$eti$, the son of ;ahoela replied #ith $onfiden$eH FI8F8. :4I )no# it. ?isten to #hat I sa". There is nothin' in the #orld not )no#n to me. I have studied all the sa$red literature #ith 'reat $are. Therefore hear m" ans#er. F9821. : hat "ou as) is the primal and effi$ient $ause of the universe, %ein' itself #ithout %e'innin', middle or end, and uneffe$ted %" time and spa$e. It is pure, un%ro)en, sin'le 9ons$iousness. The #hole #orld is manifested in it li)e a $it" in a mirror. Su$h is that trans$endental state. On realisin' it, one %e$omes immortalC there is no pla$e for dou%ts and un$ertainties, as there is no more reason for i'noran$e as at the si'ht of innumera%le refle$ted ima'esC and there #ill %e no more room for desire, %e$ause trans$enden$e is then e*perien$ed. :It is also un)no#a%le %e$ause there is no one to )no# it, %esides itself. :-s$eti$J I have no# told "ou the truth as $ontained in the S$riptures.4 248I1. :-fter -shtava)ra had finished, the hermit spo)e a'ainH 4Doun' sa'eJ hat "ou sa", is ri'htl" said and a$$epted %" all. &ut I dra# "our attention to that part of "our ans#er #here "ou admitted its un)no#a%ilit" for #ant of a )no#er outside of $ons$iousnessC and also that its )no#led'e $onfers immortalit" and perfe$tion. +o# are these t#o statements to %e re$on$iled< Either admit that $ons$iousness is un)no#a%le, is not )no#n to "ou, and thus $on$lude its non8e*isten$eC or sa" that it is, and that "ou )no# it 8 and therefore it is not un)no#a%le. :Dou evidentl" spea) from se$ondhand )no#led'e, 'athered from the s$riptures. 9learl", "ou have not realised it and so "our )no#led'e is not personal.

:Thin) no# 8 "our #ords amount to this 8 "ou have a personal )no#led'e of the ima'es %ut not of the mirror. +o# $an that %e< :Tell me no# if "ou are not ashamed of this prevari$ation %efore ;in' 5ana)a and his assem%l".4 :&ein' thus reprimanded %" the as$eti$, he $ould not spea) for some time %e$ause he felt mortified and ashamedC so he remained #ith %ent head thin)in' it over. IE8I1. :+o#ever, the &rahmin "outh $ould not find an" satisfa$tor" ans#er to her ,uestion, so he su%mitted to her in 'reat humilit"H 4O as$eti$J Trul" I $annot find the ans#er to "our ,uestion. I su%mit to "ou as "our dis$iple. =ra" tell me ho# the t#o s$riptural statements are to %e re$on$iled. &ut I assure "ou that I have not told a deli%erate lie, for I )no# that an" merits a liar ma" have are $ountera$ted %" his lies so that he is $ondemned as un#orth".4 I4. :Thus re,uested, the as$eti$ #as pleased #ith -shtava)ra4s sin$erit" and said to him in the hearin' of the assem%l". IF884. :49hild, there are man" #ho %ein' i'norant of this su%lime truth, live in a state of delusion. !r" polemi$s #ill not help one to Realit" for it is #ell 'uarded on all sides. Of all the people no# assem%led here, no one has e*perien$ed Realit", e*$ept the )in' and m"self. It is not a su%3e$t for dis$ussion. The most %rilliant lo'i$ $an onl" approa$h it %ut never attain it. -lthou'h unaffe$ted %" lo'i$ $oupled #ith a )een intelle$t, it $an ho#ever %e realised %" servi$e to one4s @uru and the 'ra$e of @od. :O thou #ho art th"self the son of a Sa'e, listen to me $arefull", for this is hard to understand even #hen hearin' it e*plained. +earin' it a thousand times over #ill %e useless unless one verifies the tea$hin's %" means of investi'ation into the Self #ith a $on$entrated mind. 5ust as a prin$e la%ours under a misapprehension that the strin' of pearls still $lin'in' to his ne$) has %een stolen a#a" %" another and is not persuaded to the $ontrar" %" mere #ords %ut onl" %elieves #hen he finds it around his ne$) %" his o#n effort so also, O "outh, ho#ever $lever a man ma" %e, he #ill never )no# his o#n self %" the mere tea$hin' of others unless he realises it for himself. Other#ise he $an never realise the Self if his mind is turned out#ard. 8F. :- lamp illumines all around %ut does not illumine itself or another li'ht. It shines of itself #ithout other sour$es of li'ht. Thin's shine in sunli'ht #ithout the ne$essit" for an" other )ind of illumination. &e$ause li'hts do not re,uire to %e illumined, do #e sa" that the" are not )no#n or that the" do not e*ist< :Therefore, as it is thus #ith li'hts and thin's made a#are %" the $ons$ious self, #hat dou%t $an "ou have re'ardin' a%stra$t $ons$iousness, namel" the Self< :?i'hts and thin's %ein' insentient, $annot %e self8a#are. Still, their e*isten$e or manifestation is under no dou%t. That means the" are self8luminous. 9an "ou not

similarl" investi'ate #ith an in#ard mind in order to find out if the all8$omprehendin' Self is $ons$ious or not $ons$ious< :That 9ons$iousness is a%solute and trans$ends the three states /#a)efulness, dream and slum%er0 and $omprises all the universe ma)in' it manifest. >othin' $an %e apprehended #ithout its li'ht. : ill an"thin' %e apparent to "ou, if there %e no $ons$iousness< Even to sa" that nothin' is apparent to "ou /as in sleep0 re,uires the li'ht of $ons$iousness. Is not "our a#areness of "our una#areness /in sleep0 due to $ons$iousness< :If "ou infer its eternal li'ht, then $losel" investi'ate #hether the li'ht is of itself or not. Ever"%od" falls in this investi'ation ho#ever learned and profi$ient he ma" %e, %e$ause his mind is not %ent in#ard %ut restlessl" moves out#ard. -s lon' as thou'hts $rop up, so lon' has the turnin' in#ard of the mind not %een a$$omplished. -s lon' as the mind is not in#ard, so lon' the Self $annot %e realised. Turnin' in#ard means a%sen$e of desire. +o# $an the mind %e fi*ed #ithin if desires are not 'iven up< :Therefore %e$ome dispassionate and inhere as the Self. Su$h inheren$e is spontaneous /no effort is needed to inhere as the Self0. It is realised after thou'hts are eliminated and investi'ation $eases. Re$apitulate "our state after "ou %rea) off from it, and then #ill )no# all and the si'nifi$an$e of its %ein' )no#a%le and un)no#a%le at the same time. Thus realisin' the un)no#a%le, one a%ides in immortalit" for ever and ever. :I have no# finished. Salutations to "ouJ Fare#ellJ :&ut "ou have not "et understood m" #ords %e$ause this is the first time "ou hear the truth. This )in', the #isest amon' men, $an ma)e "ou understand. So as) him a'ain and he #ill $lear "our dou%ts.: : hen she had finished, she #as honoured %" the )in' and the #hole assem%l", and then she instantl" dissolved in air and disappeared from human si'ht. :I have no# related to "ou, O Rama, the method of Self8Realisation.: +!-s en"s t!e C!a/ter 5) on As!ta3a$ra Section in +ri/-ra Ra!as1a.

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