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Charging Argument

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t the EFT greedy algorithm for the JISP problem is a 2-approximation algorithm; that is, ||OP T | 2|EF T |. This is bascially the same as the argument showing that EF T is optimal for ISP . In fact, we are going to prove something stronger, namely we will dene a function h : OP T EF T such that h is 2-1; that is, for every Ik EF T , there are at most two intervals, say Ij and I such that h(Ij ) = h(I ) = Ik . Without loss of generality we will restrict attention to intervals I in OP T EF T for if I is in EF T as well as OP T , then h(I ) = I and there cannot be another I in OP T that intersects I . The function is dened by mapping any Ij in OP T to the left-most interval (say Ik ) in EF T that is not compatible; that is, Ik intersects Ij or has the same job class number (i.e. cj = ck ). Since EFT is greedy, there must be such an Ik or else Ij would be taken by EF T and then h(Ij ) = Ij . Let Ik be any interval in EF T (and by our assumption assume Ik / OP T . It remains to show that h is 2-1. That is, there are at most two intervals in OP T that can be mapped to Ik . It is clear that there can be at most one interval (say Ij ) such that cj = ck . Whenever that is the case, we will map Ij to Ik . So it only remains to show that there can be at most one Ij OP T that is charged to Ik because of interval intersection. So suppose Ij intersects Ik and h(Ij ) = Ik . We will need to consider some cases: 1. Case 1 fj < fk . Since we are assuming that Ij / EF T , there has to be a reason that EFT did not take Ij before it took Ik . That is, there must have been another I EF T with < k that is not compatible with Ij . But then h would map Ij to that I . 2. Case 2: fk fj (a) Case 2a: If sj sk , then interval Ij includes Ik and therefore no other interval I in OP T can intersect Ik . (b) Case 2b: sk < sj < fk fj . If there is another Ir OP T that intersects Ik , it must be that fr < sj since otherwise fj < sr and hence Ir cannot intersect Ik . Hence fr < fk . But then as in case 1, the reason that Ir was not taken by EF T is because it is incompatible with some interval I with < k and hence Ir would have been mapped to that I . CLAIM: We will see (on the next page) how to clean up this proof by abstracting away the geometry. But sometimes (as in the m machine interval scheduling problem) we need the geometry.

We say that a graph G = (V, E ) is a chordal graph if it has a perfect elimination ordering of its vertices; namely an ordering v1 , v2 , . . . , vn such that the inductive neighbourood N bhd(vi ) {vi+1 , . . . , vn } is a clique (equivalently has at most on3 independent vertex). We observe that as interval graph G = (V,E) induced by intervals I1 , . . . , In is chordal by ordering the vertices representing intervals so that f1 f2 . . . fn . We generalize the EFT algorithm to a greedy algorithm for ISP and JISP (I guess we could call it PEO-greedy) for chordal graphs. Namely we use the PEO as the ordering of vertices and then accept greedily. We prove that this PEO-greedy is optimal for the ISP problem by a charging argument; namely we show that there is a 1-1 function h : OP T PEO-greedy. Again without loss of generality we need only consider vertices in OPT but not in PEOgreedy. Dne h(vj ) = vk where k = argmink {(vj , vk ) E and vk PEO-greedy. As before h is a well dened function and it only remains to show that h is 1-1. Let vk PEO-greedy. Suppose that there are two (or more) vertices vj and v in OPT (not in greedy) such that h(vj ) = h(v ) = vk . We have two cases: 1. Case 1: At least one of these intervals (say j) is such that j < k . i Then there must be a reason PEO-greedy didnt take j since we are assuming vj / PEO-greedy. Namely, there is a vertex vr PEO-greedy with r < j < k such that (vr , vj ) E . But then vj should have been mapped to vr . 2. Case 2: k < j < . But then N bhd(vk ) {vk+1 , . . . , vn } has at least two independent vertices contradicting the assumption that v1 , . . . , vn is a PEO. That completes the proof. To extend this proof to show that PEO-greedy is a 2approximation for JISP, we note that the intersection graph for this problem leads to a class of graphs where there is an ordering of vertices such that N bhd(vi ) {vi+1 , . . . , vn } has at most two independent vertices. And then the same proof shows that the same mapping h is 2-1. An equally easy proof shows that using the reverse of a PEO ordering and then greedily colouring becomes an optimal greedy algorithm for colouring a chordal graph.

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