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first Sound waves arrive at the tympanic membrane by auricle and external audito ry meatus.

<<< 2\Movement of the tympanic membrane causes displacement of the aud itory ossicles that transmits and amplifies sound pressure at oval window (to ov ercome resistance of perilymph fluid).<<<\Movement of the stapes at the oval win dow establishes pressure waves in the perilymph of the vestibular duct<<< 4\move d its perilymph <<<5\moved vestibular membrane<<< 6\moved endolymph<<< -7\moved basilar membrane in a pattern determined by : a-the frequency of sound b-intensity of sound<<< \Vibration of the basilar membrane causes vibration of h air cells against the tectorial membrane<<< 9\produce a receptor potential<<< \i nitiates action potentials in cochlear nerve<<<< \open mechanical gated K+ chann els <<< \K+ influx from K+ rich endolymph <<<13\depolarized graded potential<<< Ca2+ influx 15\glutamate release <<<depolarizes afferent neuron in contact with hair cell

????? : Auditory Pathway 1- 1st order neurons <<<cell bodies are located on spiral ganglion of cochlear d ivision of 8th Cranial nerve<<< relay on ventral & dorsal Cochlear nuclei in pon s (2nd order neurons) 2- the axons of 2nd order neurons relay on Superior olivary+Trabezoid nuclei (3r d order neurons) 3- axons from 3rd order neurons cross at tegmentum of pons ( Trabezoid body) the n they ascend as Lateral Lemniscus ( so each lateral Lemniscus conveys hearing s ensation mainly from the opposite ear) <<< Lateral lemniscus ascend in pons & mi d brain to end as follows: a- End on medial geniculate body in thalamus ( most fibers) b- Few fibers end on inferior colliculus ( center for auditory reflexes) . 4- 4th order neurons (cell bodies in medial geniculate bodies <<< their axons pa ss in the sublentiform part of the internal capsule forming the auditory radiati on 5- These fibers end on the auditory area in cerebral cortex which situated in th e middle of the superior temporal gyrus & in the anterior transverse temporal gy rus of temporal lobe (areas 41, 42)

????? : deafness It is of 2 types : <<<Conductive & NeuroSensory 1- Conductive deafness <<<impaired sound transmission in external or middle ear 2- Neurosensory deafness<<< damage to hair cells or neural pathways . Causes of Conductive deafness : a- Plugging of external auditory meatus by wax or foreign bodies b- Destruction of auditory ossicles c- Thickening of ear drum ( tympanic membrane) after repeated otitis media d- Abnormal rigidity of attachment of stapes to oval window Causes of neurosensory deafness : a- Toxic degeneration of the hair cells by Gentamicin & Streptomycin (antibiotic s) which concentrate on the endolymph b- Damage of outer hair cells by prolonged exposure to noise c- Tumors of the 8th cranial nerve ( vestibulocochlear nerve ) & cerebellopontin e agle d- Vascular damage in medulla