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The encyclopedia- Americana (international edition) 1968 volume 2 book no.

2 page 669 Audiovi ual education Is education by such means as slides, tape recordings, models, television, and motion pictures. The methods of educational communication by sight and by sound developed more or less separately, and the name of the field evolved accordingly. In the 1920s and early 1930s it as called !visual education" and included the use of blac#boards, charts and graphs, maps and globes, bulletin boards, e$hibits, models, museums, field trips, slides, opa%ue pro&ectors, flat pictures, photographs, silent motion pictures, and other primarily visual media. 'hen disc, ire, and tape recordings, radio, and sound motion pictures came into use in the schools in the 19(0s, the field broadened and became #no n as !audio visual education." The ne media ere used in varying degrees to supplement the traditional media of instruction)the teachers voice and the printed page. Today an increasing array of communications media combine photographic, mechanical, and electronic devices into teaching*learning systems for individual as ell as for large*group instruction. The essential purpose is to employ modern communications technology to help solve the educational problems arising from the population boom, the e$plosion of human #no ledge, the comple$ity of the information to be taught and learned, the need for individuali+ed instruction, and the shortage of %ualified teachers in certain critical areas. The result of this combination of forces has been a shift in emphasis, the field is becoming #no n as !educational communication" or !audiovisual communication." !evelopment o" audiovi ual education concept -ince ancient times, pictures and sculptures have preserved and transmitted an interpretive record of events and values. .ormal education, ho ever, as generally limited to verbal e$ercises until the educational reform movements of the 1/ th and 10th centuries, inspired by 1ohn 2mos 3omenius and 1ohann 4eirich 5estalo++i. 3omenius, a 6oravian bishop, preached a doctrine that as the forerunner of the modern audiovisual education movement. 4is influence as greatest in the reforming of language teaching and te$tboo# riting. 4e believed that systematic instruction using both ords and pictures ould alleviate some of the meaningless verbalism practiced by teacher of his time. 4is reader, Orbis pictus (The World Pictured), included some 170 pictures, each providing a topic for a lesson, 5estalo++i, too, believed that children learned best by concrete e$perience, and his school as based primarily on direct observation and education of the senses. The study of science, by its very nature, contained many elements of hat later became #no n as visual education, including field trips, dra ings, e$hibits, models, and the li#e. The 19th*century scientists 8ouis 2gassi+ and Thomas 4. 4u$ley advocated the teaching laboratory as a problem*solving approach to the study of biological science, rather than sole reliance on te$tboo#s and lectures. This philosophy is e$pressed today in the !discovery" approach to science teaching and in the preparation of audiovisual materials in this field.

6ost formal educational systems in 19th century 'estern 9urope, ho ever, continued to be based on boo#ish #no ledge and on learning by rote. The emphasis of the 8atin grammar schools of :e 9ngland, hich derived their methodology from the ;ritish schools, as on memori+ation, recitation, and lecture. There is little mention of even the simplest instructional devices, such as the blac#board, until 1000, and the use of slates by individual students as not common until mid*century. In the grammar schools and academies that spread across the <nited -tates in the early 19 th century, simple spelling boo#s)the !hornboo#" and !blue*bac# speller") ere not replaced by the illustrated 6c=uffey readers until almost midcentury. 8ater, there ere significant improvements in maps, pro&ected images, and the printing of pictures in te$tboo#s than#s to the development of photography and the halftone process. ;ut the concept of audiovisual education made every little progress in formal education form the colonial period to 1900. The real e$periences and preparation for living for most young people in the <nited -tates during this period ere limited to their lives on the farms and in the small to n of the gro ing nation.

5age >/3 The p ychology o" audiovi ual education There is an easy tendency to describe the field of audiovisual education in terms of e%uipment and materials, but the effectiveness of these methods obviously depends upon the support and direction provided by research in the process of teaching and learning. The psychology of audiovisual instruction is based on the principle that learning results from ne e$periences gained through the senses and that audiovisual impressions may be effective substitutes for some