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Technology Solutions

MEMS Technology
Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are micronsize devices that can sense or manipulate the physical world. MEMS are created using micro machining processes, similar to those used to produce integrated circuit (IC) devices. This allows a two- or threedimensional mechanical Courtesy Sandia National Laboratories system to be created in the same small area typical of an SUMMiT Technologies IC device. Because the fab process is similar to that of IC fabrication, MEMS are most typically created on silicon wafers but can also employ other substrate types as well. Due to their size, tens of thousands of these devices can be fabricated on a single wafer. MEMS technology has actually been demonstrated in research and development facilities for over 25 years. In some forms it has been in production for over 20 years, specifically in the area of pressure sensors. For example, the auto pressure sensor and disposable blood pressure sensor became a commercial reality in the 1980's. Today, the use of MEMS as accelerometers and gyroscopes in the automotive sector is commonplace. Presently, new techniques have enabled the formation of many more types of surface structures, and true micromachines have been enabled by recently developed thin film and etching techniques. MEMS now span a wide range of applications including sensors, telecommunications, micro-switches, and medical devices. Every day industry is realizing new applications for MEMS in different technology areas.

Benefits of MEMS
Customers today are demanding smaller, lighter products with more features. Manufacturers are therefore being challenged to develop technology that satisfies this demand. Precisely because MEMS are a combination of mechanical and electrical features on a very small scale, they can be used where traditional mechanical structures would be too bulky. MEMS are extremely small and can therefore be capable of faster, more precise and more reliable operation than their larger mechanical counterparts. For example, RF MEMS components are mostly tunable, and offer low loss switching and high quality factors not possible with conventional components. Similarly, in optical switching applications where bandwidth and data volume trafficking must be maximized, the use of advanced optical modulation technologies is finding application in the form of Micro Optical Electronic Machines (MOEMS). The areas where performance/size/ cost benefits can be Digital Light Processing realized using MEMS are (Photo courtesy of Texas Instruments) almost unlimited.

MEMS Applications
Amkor Technology is the world's leader in micro electronic packaging technologies and the worlds largest outsource provider of Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Micro Optical Electronic Mechanical Systems (MOEMS). Inertial Measurements - Accelerometers, gyroscopes, rate sensors, vibration sensors Pressure Measurements - pressure sensors, altimeters and various industrial applications Display Technology - Optical MEMS in projectors and displays Acoustic Sensors - MEMS microphone for acoustic input devices RF Technology - Tunable filters, RF switches, antennas, phase shifters, passive components (capacitors, inductors) Chemical Measurements - Microfluidics: Lab-On-Chip devices, DNA test structures, micro-dispensing pumps, hazardous chemical and biological agent detectors

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TS103F Rev Date: 5/10

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Packaging Technology
MEMS devices typically require an extra fabrication process where the device wafer is bonded to a second wafer which effectively encapsulates the MEMS structure. This method RF MEMS 2-D Tunable Capacitor A variable capacitor features with tethers, bonding pad, leaves the device compliant flexure, 5 x 5 posts and 4 x 4 plates free to move on the host silicon substrate. within a vacuum or an inert gas atmosphere. These bonds are typically hermetic and therefore prevent moisture contamination and subsequent failure of the microstructure. Once protected in this way, devices are considered robust. They can then be assembled into any standard package. However, MEMS devices can exhibit sensitivities that must be accounted for in the packaging solution. Device performance can be affected by stresses imparted to the body of the die by the packaging materials. Options developed to address this type of issue include cavity packages (CSP-cavity LGA or premolded) and specially designed die coat and transfer molding processes.

MEMS Technology
Existing packages in this arena include CERDIP, Ceramic LCC, SOIC and MLF derivatives. The CSP-cavity LGA package variation leverages the CABGA process flow with lid/shield attach replacing the overmold process. These applications also typically include the packaging of more than one die per package, and all of the aforementioned package solutions offer multi-die capability. Protection is a key element in packaging MEMS and MOEMS because corrosion, moisture, and debris can prevent the devices from working. Amkor presently builds MEMS in a variety of hermetic packages for air bag and rollover detection sensors for automotive applications. Amkor has also developed System in Package (SiP) solutions that combine multiple chips and passives into one package. These SiP solutions are aimed at reducing the cost of MEMS packaging, and increasing functionality through greater levels of integration.

Packaging Options
Since MEMS is an enabling technology rather than a package platform, Amkor strives to assist customers in selecting from their broad, existing package platforms to best match the product functionality, form factor, and cost requirements. Once a match is found, Amkor's dedicated MEMS development team works closely with customer and suppliers to make necessary adjustments or modifications for package platform to reduce cost and risk to investment and to shorten product time-to-market. In special cases when no good matching can be found the Amkor team works with customers to develop specialized package solutions.

MEMS Product Positioning

ASP (normalized)





S rA




CSP Cavity

Leadframe Cavity



CSP Molded Leadframe Molded

NRE (normalized) 1x 1.5x 5x 10x

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TS103F Rev Date: 5/10

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Amkor's Value Proposition
MEMS packaging is a highly integrated technology that requires both a range of process capabilities and a sound command of materials and their characterization. Amkor is the world's leading service provider in MEMS packaging Digital Light Processing technology and offers a (Photo courtesy of Texas Instruments) variety of modeling and characterization expertise to complement a proven high volume manufacturing (HVM) capability. This combination uniquely positions Amkor to assist customers quickly through the development phase and into HVM with new applications.

MEMS Technology
Amkor Presently Conducts MEMS Related Activities at the Following Strategic Manufacturing Locations
Philippines (ATP) Hermetic, SOIC, MLF, SiP, BGA, LGA Taiwan (ATT) Optical MEMS Korea (ATK) MLF-C, MLF, BGA, LGA, FlipChip, CSP-cavity LGA, R&D

Package and Board Level Reliability

Amkor boasts a full offering of reliability test capabilities in multiple locations.

Amkor Technology Certifications Status

Assembly and Test ISO-9002, ISO-9001, QS-9000, ISO9001:2000, TS-16949, OHSAS 18001 Design ISO-9001, ISO-9001:2000, TS-16949, OHSAS 18001

Material Characterization
DMA, DSC, TGA, TMA, thermo moir, Universal mechanical testing, FTIR, interferometer, hardness, ARES, diffusivity, solubility and more.

Modeling and Simulation

Complete electrical and thermo-mechanical capabilities (Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical, EMI/RFI modeling).

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With respect to the information in this document, Amkor makes no guarantee or warranty of its accuracy or that the use of such information will not infringe upon the intellectual rights of third parties. Amkor shall not be responsible for any loss or damage of whatever nature resulting from the use of, or reliance upon it and no patent or other license is implied hereby. This document does not in any way extend or modify Amkors warranty on any product beyond that set forth in its standard terms and conditions of sale. Amkor reserves the right to make changes in its product and specifications at any time and without notice. 2013, Amkor Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

TS102M Rev Date: 1/13

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