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HISTORY OF BUDDHISM IN NASHIK

(BASED ON THE INSCRIPTIONS AT TRIRASHMI BUDDHIST CAVES) Introduction: Inscriptions h !" #$ %s &""n #oo'"( )pon s th" con*ir+ tor% so)rc" o* histor%, +or" so in +)#ti-c)#t)r"( co)ntr% #i'" In(i . Th"s" inscriptions r"pr"s"nt th" histor% o* th"ir p"rio( n( h"#p histori ns n( # %+"n to )n("rst n( th" soci #/ po#itic #/ n( r"#i0io)s n( co++"rci # histor% o* th" p st. N shi' h s &""n r"cor("( s on" o* th" nci"nt citi"s o* In(i . Th" inscriptions s""n on th" Trir sh+i C !"s (tiranhas in P #i) sh"( #i0ht on th" po#itic # histor% s $"## s th" contri&)tion o* ! rio)s 'in0s n( # %+"n to B)((his+ in N shi'. History: M h r shtr h s &""n r"0ion o* 0r" t nti1)it%. Th" c)#t)r # histor% o* M h r shtr c nnot &" co+p#"t" $itho)t th" c !"s/ hemadpanthi t"+p#"s n( *orts. Th" roc' c)t c !"s o* M h r shtr r" )ni1)" ()" to th"ir sh""r n)+&"rs n( rchit"ct)r # ("si0ns. Th" c !"s in In(i $"r" *irst c r!"( in th" B r & r +o)nt ins o* Bih r, ho$"!"r $ithin c"nt)r% this conc"pt spr" ( cross M h r shtr n( to( % M h r shtr &o sts o* n" r#% 23 4 c !"s o* In(i or ppro5. 233 o(( c !"s. On" o* th" + 6or r" sons *or so # r0" nos. o* c !"s pr"s"nt in M h r shtr is ()" to th" pr"s"nc" o* & s #t roc' n( h r( &# c' roc' +o)nt ins *or+"( ()" to !o#c nic "r)ptions. Th"s" n t)r # con(itions * !or"( roc' rchit"ct)r". Th" s"con( r" son is th t th" c#i+ tic con(ition o* M h r shtr is !"r% * !or &#" *or !"0"t tion n( * r+in0. This + (" th" r"0ion 1)it" prosp"ro)s. D)" to th" #on0 co st#in" n( ports/ co++"rc" $ s possi&#" n( th" "ntir" north"rn p rt +"rch nts h ( to p ss !i M h r shtr *or s)pp#% n( p)rch s" o* 0oo(s to th" ports/ + 'in0 M h r shtr 0oo( co++"rc" c"ntr". Th"s" con(itions * !or"( th" B)((hist +on's to + '" M h r shtr s c"ntr" o* th"ir cti!it% n( th" prosp"ro)s r"0ion7s h"#p*)# ttit)(" *)rth"r h"#p"( B)((his+ to 0ro$.

Inscriptions con*ir+ th t in 89: B.C./ E+p"ror Asho' s"nt Yon ' Dh ++ r 'hit to M h r shtr r"0ion. H" "nt"r"( M h r shtr thro)0h Ap r nt (pr"s"nt Kon' n). Th" B)((hist +on's co)#( h !" " si#% &)i#t #o0 h)t to st % sinc" M h r shtr h ( p#"nt% o* $oo(, ho$"!"r ()" to h" !% r in* ## n( s p"r th" Vin % / th" +on's $"r" s)ppos"( to st % $ % *ro+ th" # %+"n in p" c"*)# "n!iron+"nt, so+" n t)r # c !"s &"c +" th" &"st option. Th)s c !" rchit"ct)r" *#o)rish"( in M h r shtr s " r#% s ;r( c"nt. B.C. n( contin)"( ti## <833 A.D. Th"s" c !"s $"r" &)i#t c#os" to th" tr (" ro)t" $hich o**"r"( +on's th" r"1)ir"( h"#p in t"r+s o* (on tions *or th" +on st"r%. Sinc" th" tr (" "nrich"( th" St t" n( #oc #s/ th"% too $"r" in*#)"nc"( to h"#p th" +on st"r%. Nashik Caves: B s"( on th" st%#" o* rchit"ct)r" n( not tions n( st%#" o* inscriptions/ r"s" rch"r n( scho# r - S.N 0 r 6) st t"s th t th" N shi' c !"s ( t"( &"t$""n 8n( c"nt. B.C to ;r( c"nt A.D.i N shi' $ s n i+port nt cit% on th" ro ( *ro+ P ith n to S)pp r' (Sop r ) n( h"nc" *or+"( r"stin0 p# c" *or th" +"rch nts. =h"n th" B)((hist +on's tr !"##"( thro)0h M h r shtr / N shi' n t)r ##% &"c +" th"ir choic" o* st % ()" to prosp"rit% n( c#i+ tic con(itions. V rio)s inscriptions s""n on th" Trir sh+i C !"s (tir nh s) sho$s th t th" r)#"rs/ +"rch nts s $"## s # %+"n h"#p"( &)i#( th" c !"s. Th" inscriptions s""n in th" Trir sh+i c !"s r" $ritt"n in North"rn Br +hi script n( th" # n0) 0" is Pr 'rit n( P #i. Th" 8 + 6or 'in0s $ho * !or"( B)((his+ $"r" S t ! h n n( th" Ksh tr p s. Satavahana period Inscriptions: Th" o#("st inscriptions &"#on0 to C !" no.<9 s""n in 8 #in"s on th" ri0ht si(" $in(o$ o* th" c !"s. B)h#"r/ Bh 0$ n# # n( S"n rt h !" r" ( n( tr ns# t"( this inscription n( ( t"( it to 8n( c"nt. B.C.ii Th" inscription st t"s th t/

saadvaahnakulao knho raijanaI

naaisakona

samaNaona mahamaatoNa laoNa kairt


i.". >?.th" ("sc"n( nt o* th" S t ! h n s/ Kin0 Krishn (or("r"() N shi'7s mahamatra S + n to ("si0n this c !">. This sho$s th t th" S t ! h n 'in0s * !or"( B)((his+. In th" ch it% (c !" no.<2)/ inscriptions r" !"rtic ##% $ritt"n on th" 8 pi## rs sit) t"( on th" ri0ht h n( si(".iii

"rayaamaca Arhlayasa cailasaIlaNaksa duhutuya mahahkuisa irya BaTpailakaya rayaamacasa AigayatNaksa BaMDakairk yasa Baairyaaya kpNaNakmaatuya caoityaGarM itrNhuima inazpaipt"
i.". Fro+ (p# c") Ch #isi# n/ th" 'in07s +inist"r Arh # % 7s ( )0ht"r n( th" 0r n(-( )0ht"r o* M h h ')siri- Bh tp #i' $ho is th" $i*" o* th" +inist"r o* stor"s A0i% t n ' n( +oth"r o* K p nn ' co+p#"t"( this c !". Anoth"r inscription o* S t ! h n s c n &" s""n in C !" no.; on th" $ ## &o!" th" (oor. This is on" o* th" &i00"st inscriptions o* << s"nt"nc"s. i! Th" inscription in*or+s )s th t this c !" $ s (on t"( &% @)""n A )t +i B # shri n( on th" <B th thron" cc"ssion nni!"rs r%/ h"r 0r n(son -Kin0 P)#)+ %i son o* A )t +ip)tr S t' rni (on t"( !i## 0" >Pis chip ( '> to th" +on's *or prop"r + int"n nc" o* this c !" in r"sp"ct o* his * th"r n( 0r n(-+oth"r. On th" !"r n( h o* C !" no.;/ 9 #in"s r" inscri&"( $hich st t"s th t P)#)+ %i (on t"( !i## 0" n +"( Sh +#ip (r inst" ( o* " r#i"r

S)( rsh n !i## 0" to th" +on's o* B"n ' t ' r"si(in0 in Trir sh+i c !"s. This sho$s th t th" +on's r"si(in0 t N shi' c +" *ro+ B"n ' t r"0ion on th" & n's o* V in0 n0 ri!"r. It is not"$orth% to+"ntion h"r" th t B"n ' t $ s * +o)s B)((hist c"ntr" s s""n *ro+ th" "5c ! tion t P )ni in Bh n( r (istrict!. On th" s +" !"r n( h/ on th" roo*/ th"r" r" C #in"s inscri&"( *o##o$"( &% >swastika" n( & # nc" : #in"s r" $ritt"n. This inscription st t"s th t S t' rni or("r"( Vishn)p #it # to (on t" 833- cr" !i## 0" to th" B)((hist +on' r"si(in0 t Trir sh+i +o)nt in n( to + '" this !i## 0" *r"" *ro+ ## t 5"s. This (on tion $ s 0i!"n &% S t' rni *t"r his !ictor% o!"r Ksh tr p N h p n . Western Kshatrapas Inscriptions: Th" inscriptions o* th" Ksh tr p Rish &h( tt r" s""n in C !" no.<3 in th" !"r n( h. Th" inscription is o* C #in"s $ritt"n in Br +hi script n( Pr 'rit # n0) 0". Th" sp"ci # *" t)r"s r" - +"ntion o* *i0)r"s in tho)s n(s/ +"ntion o* > vaYa-> (%" r) inst" ( o* >savaM%sar> n( th" inscriptions r" $ritt"n in ;%" rs p"rio( - 9</ 98 D 9E. Th" inscription st t"s th t in Sako 42, Ksh tr p N h p n 7s son-in# $ n( Dini' 7s son Rish &h( tt (on t"( this c !" n( *or + int"n nc" s $"## &"in0 o* th" +on's ("posit"( ;333 ' rsh p n s (0o#( coin) $ith th" #oc # +"rch nt. On th" "ntr nc" &o!" ri0ht si(" roo+ o* C !" no.<3/ th"r" is inscription o* D 'sh +itr / $i*" o* Rish &h ( tt . It st t"s th t !i n

isa aM! ra"ao #ahratsa #a$psa nahpna sa dIihtu dInaIkpu$sa %&avadatsa kDuMi'ainaya doya aMmaM Aaovarkao
+" nin0 > #"rtF/ Kin0 'sh h r t Ksh tr p N h p n 7s ( )0ht"r n( Dini' 7s son Rish &h( tt7s $i*" - D 'sh +itr (on t"( this roo+ to th" +on's>

d(ima$aya

Anoth"r inscription o* Ksh tr p N h p n on C !" <3 st t"s th t h" or("r"( p)rch s" o* * r+ on " st"r Ao! r(h n (N shi') *or 9333 ' rsh p n s n( (on t"( th" pro()c" (* r+) to ## th" +on's st %in0 in th" cit%. Conclusion: Th)s it c n &" s""n th t &oth th"s" 'in0s not on#% * !or"( B)((his+/ &)t $"nt o)t to "ns)r" th t th" +on's $"r" not tro)&#"( &% +o!in0 ro)n( n"ith"r *or #+s/+"(icin" or *or chivars (c#oth $orn &% +on's). This is s""n *ro+ th" ("posit '"pt &% Ksh tr p N h p n $ith th" #oc # +"rch nts. Th" 1)""ns too *"#t it no&#" (""( to (on t" roo+ or (on tion to th" Sangha. V rio)s oth"r inscriptions sho$ (on tion to$ r(s (i00in0 o* $ t"r $"## *or th" S n0h . Th" $"##s r" str t"0ic ##% #oc t"( so th t th" +on's h !" " s% cc"ss to $ t"r. Tho)0h th" S t! h n s n( Ksh tr p s h ( "n0 0"( in $ r o!"r t"rritor% n( " ch h ( th"ir t)rn to r)#" N shi', ho$"!"r &oth $"r" !"r% 0"n"ro)s in h"#pin0 th" B)((hist +on's. This co)#( &" ()" to th" # r0" spr" ( pr"s"nc" o* B)((his+ o!"r th" "ntir" contin"nt n( 1)it" n t)r ##%/ th" Kin0s *"#t th t it $ s th"ir ()t% to h"#p B)((hist +on's in "!"r% possi&#" $ %. This 0"n"ro)s h"#p *ro+ th" 'in0s h"#p"( th" +on's to pr ctic" in p" c" n( spr" ( th" i(" #s o* B)((his+. Th" c !" rchit"ct)r" ("picts th t th"r" $"r" +on's o* (i**"r"nt s"cts st %in0 p" c"*)##% $ith " ch oth"r.

At)# Bhos"' r M.A-II

S.N 0 r 6) - B)((hist Archit"ct)r" o* ="st"rn In(i / <B2</ p0.;<8 H.G)("rs - Gist o* Br h+i Inscriptions,no.<<99 H.G)("rs - Gist o* Br h+i Inscriptions,no.<<9<, Epi0r phi in(ic , !o#.2/ p0.B< H.G)("rs - Gist o* Br h+i Inscriptions,no.<<8;, Epi0r phi in(ic , !o#.2/ p0.C3 V.V.Mir shi - S nsho(h n M)'t $ #i, 2, p0.83; S"n rt - Epi0r phic In(ic , !o#.2, G)("rs no.<<;9

ii

iii

i!

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