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THEFLORIDASTATEUNIVERSITY COLLEGEOFMUSIC ROBERTOSIERRASMISSALATINA:MUSICALANALYSIS ANDHISTORICALPERPECTIVES By JOSERIVERA ADissertationsubmittedtothe CollegeofMusic inpartialfulfillmentofthe requirementsforthedegreeof DoctorofPhilosophy DegreeAwarded: SummerSemester,2006 Copyright2006 JoseRivera AllRightsReserved

TomylovelywifeMabel,andchildrenCarlaandCristian fortheirunconditionalloveandsupport. ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thisworkhasbeenpossiblewiththecollaboration,inspirationand

encouragementofmanyindividuals.TheauthorwishestothankadvisorsDr. TimothyHoekmanandDr.KevinFentonfortheirguidanceandencouragement throughoutmygraduateeducationandinthewritingofthisdocument.Dr.Judy Bowers,hasshepherdmethroughoutmygraduatedegrees.SheisaMaster TeacherwhomIdeeplyadmireandrespect.Thankyouforsharingyourpassion forteachingmusic.Dr.AndreThomasbeenaconstantsourceofinspirationand lightthroughoutmycollegemusiceducation.Thankyouforalwaysreminding yourstudentstoaimformusicalexcellencefromtheirmind,heart,andsoul. ItiswithdeepestgratitudethattheauthorwishestoacknowledgeDavid

Murray,SubitoMusicPublishing,andcomposerRobertoSierraforgranting permissiontoreprintchoralmusicexcerptsdiscussedinthisdocument.Iwould alsoliketothankLeonardSlatkin,NormanScribner,JosephHolt,andthestaffof theChoralArtsSocietyofWashingtonforallowingmetoattendtheirrehearsals. IamindebtedtoAnnaRuthGarrison,andRachaelDumasfortheir

editingexpertise.Icouldnothavefinishedthisdocumentwithouttheirsupport andguidance.IwouldespeciallyliketoacknowledgeDr.LuisOlivieri,Donald Thomspon,Dr.RobertSmith,andDr.DaleOlsenfortheirencouragement. Finally,IwouldliketothankcomposerRobertoSierraforhissupportand generositythroughoutthisstudy.

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TABLEOFCONTENTS ListofFigures......vi ListofTables.......vii Abstract..viii Chapter 1.INTRODUCTION....1 2.HISTORICALPRECEDENTS5 DevelopmentoftheChoralMusicTraditioninPuertoRico.5 EarlyDevelopmentTheSacredBackground....7 20thCenturyChoralMusicofPuertoRico..18 3.ROBERTOSIERRA:INTRODUCTIONTOHISLIFE ANDMUSIC...29 EarlyyearsandMusicEducation.37 CompositionalStyleandOutput.....33 ChoralWorks...38 4. ANALYTICALNOTATIONSONSIERRASMISSALATINA Background....47 PremiereandReception....................................49 StylisticConsiderations52 MusicalAnalysis:Introitus.....55 MusicalAnalysis:Kyrie.......................60 MusicalAnalysis:Gloria..................................64 MusicalAnalysis:Credo...........................77 MusicalAnalysis:Offertorium.....................89 MusicalAnalysisSanctus:.......................93 MusicalAnalysis:AgnusDei..99 5. SUMMARYANDCONCLUSIONS..105 iv

APPENDIXA:MISSALATINASTEXT...111 APPENDIXB:SIERRASLISTOFWORKS.....117 APPENDIXC:SELECTEDDISCOGRAPHY...123 APPENDIXD:COPYRIGHTPERMISSION....148 REFERENCES....126 BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH.............132 v

LISTOFFIGURES Figure Page 3.1 CantosPopulares.CantoMatutino...........39 3.2 CantosPopulares.Nocturno.Superimposedrhythmicpatterns.40 3.3 GuakiaBaba.Tresillofigurecyclicalpatternsjuxtaposition43 3.4 LuxAeterna.Canonicrhythmicpassages..46 4.1 DapacemdomineoriginalchantinDPhrygian..56 4.2 Introit.DapacemdomineinDPhrygian...56 4.3 Introitus.SuperimposedGloriapatriandLaetatussumtexts58 4.4 IntroitusCoda.Introductionofthetresillorhythmicfigure...60 4.5 Kyrie.Introduction(Octotonic) 61 4.6 Kyrie.Introductionofthetresillomotive. 62 4.7 Christeeleison.Tresilloandquintillorhythmicmotives.. 63 4.8 Gloriainexcelsis.Tresillousedasameter.. 67 4.9 BaritoneincipitLaudamustesmontunosection............................ 68 4.10 Gloria.Glorificamuste...................................................................... 69 4.11 Gloria.DomineDeusfinalphrase... 72 4.12 Gloria.QuisedesadeteramPatris...... 73 4.13 Gloria.InGloriadeiPatris.Subject.Fugatosection 75 4.14 Gloria.Fugatosection.Subjectinvertedandtransposed. 76 4.15 Gloria.ReturnoftheAsection. 77 4.16 Credo.Credoprincipalmotives 79 4.17 Credo.InunumDominummotive... 80 4.18 Credo.Etincarnatusest...... 83 4.19 Credo.Etresurrexitpassagewordpainting... 85 4.20 Credo.Etascenditincaelum 86 4.21 Credo.Texturalvariationtodepictmanychurchesandmanyfaiths88 4.22 Offertory.Orchestraprelude.. 90 4.23 Offertorium.RogateJerusalem(Baritonesolo) 90 4.24 Offertory.DepictionofSion 91 4.25 Offertory.Crossrhythms. 92 4.26 Santus.Openingmeasures.Polyrhythmsandmixedmeters... 94 4.27 Sanctus.Plenisuntcaelimotive.Cubansonprogression. 95 4.28 Sanctus.Plenisuntcaelimotive 96 4.29 Sanctus.Benedictus.ChoirandSoloists.. 97 4.30 Sanctus.Returnofprincipalmotive. 98 4.31 AgnusDei.Texturaldensityillustrationonpeccatamundi 101 4.32 Agnusdei.Pacemrelinquovobis,acapellapassage... 102 4.33 AgnusDei.Alleluiasection.Callandresponse... 103 vi

Table Page Table4.1.Movement1(Introitus).FormalStructure..59 Table4.2.Movement2(Kyrie).FormalStructure...64 Table4.3.Movement3.(Gloria)FormalStructure65 Table4.4.Movement4(Credo)Formalstructure ..82 Table4.5.Movement5(Offertorium)Formalstructure93 Table4.6.Movement6(Sanctus)Formalstructure...99 Table4.7.Movement7(AgnusDei)Formalstructure.104

LISTOFTABLES

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ABSTRACT ThisdissertationpresentsanexaminationofRobertoSierrasMissaLatina (20032005).MissaLatinawascocommissionedandpremieredonFebruary2, 2006bytheNationalSymphonyOrchestraandtheWashingtonChoralArts SocietyunderthedirectionofLeonardSlatkin.Thisseventyfiveminuteworkfor sopranoandbaritonesoloists,choirandfullmodernorchestrareceivedcritical acclaimandhasbeenreferredtoasamodernmasterwork. RobertoSierraschoralmusicisconsideredthroughhistoricalperspectives

andmusicalanalysis.HistoricalperspectivesincludeabiographyofSierrawhich describeshismusicaloutputandfocusesonhischoralmusic,particularly SierrasuseofCaribbeanrhythmicelementsandcontemporaryidiomsrootedin thefabricofhismusic.TheanalysisoftheMissaLatinaalsoexaminesthe unifyingcompositionalelements.Inaddition,thisstudyexaminesthePuerto Ricanchoralmusictradition.Itishopedthatthiscomprehensiveoverviewofthe MissaLatinawillprovideunderstandingofthestructureofthisworkandserve asaresourceforitsperformance.

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CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION ThemoderneraofPuertoRicanchoralmusicoriginatedinthelate19th

century.Sincethen,politicalandculturaleventshavesetthestageforthe emergenceofnativecomposerswhohavemadesignificantcontributionstothe islandswealthofchoralmusic.Ahandfulofthesecomposershavetranscended theirgeographicalbarrierstobecomerecognizedbyabroaderinternational audience.Amongthemostoutstandingandprolificofthesecomposersis RobertoSierra. Today,RobertoSierra(b.1953)isconsideredoneofLatinAmericasmost activecontemporarycomposers.Hisoutputincludessymphony,concerto, oratorio,mass,chamber,choral,songcycle,chamberopera,andinstrumental pieces.Anumberofhisworkshavebeencommissionedandpremieredby variousnationalandinternationalorchestrasandarebecomingincreasingly recognizedasstandardrepertoire.In2003,RobertoSierrawasawardedthe prestigiousAwardinMusicbytheAmericanAcademyofArtsandLetters. Additionally,SierrabecamethefirstPuertoRicancomposernominatedfora GrammyAwardintheclassicalcategoryin1999.1 Inrecentyears,Sierrahasproducedasignificantbodyofinstrumental

works.SomeofthemostrecentlyperformedincludeSinfonia#3Salsa, premieredbytheMilwaukeeSymphonyOrchestra,ConcertoforSaxophoneand Orchestra,premieredbytheIndianapolisSymphonyOrchestra,andaDouble ConcertoforViolin,Viola,andOrchestra,cocommissionedbythePittsburgand PhiladelphiaSymphonyOrchestras.SierraschoralmusicincludesCantos

http://www.prpop.org/biografias/r_bios/roberto_sierra.shtml

Populares,foracapellachoir(ca.9);LuxAeterna,forSATBchorus(ca.5);Guakia Baba;foracappellachoir(ca.5);andIdilio,forSATBchorusandorchestra(ca.7). OneofSierrasmostrecentlyperformedextendedchoralworksishis mass,MissaLatinaforSoprano,Baritone,Chorus,andOrchestra(ca.71). LeonardSlatkinaskedSierratowritealargechoralscoretohelptheorchestra celebratetheanniversaryoftheNationalSymphonyOrchestra.TheChoralArts SocietyofWashingtoncocommissionedSierratowriteaworktocommemorate the75thseasonoftheNationalSymphonyOrchestraandthe40thanniversaryof theChoralArtsSocietyofWashington.ThiscommissionresultedinwhatSlatkin describedas,Oneofthemasterpiecesofourtimes.2T.L.Ponickdescribesthis masssignificancetochoralliteratureinanarticlefromtheWashingtonTimes: [...]themostsignificantsymphonicpremiereintheDistrictsince thelateBenjaminBrittensstunningWarRequiemwasfirstperformed inthestillunfinishedWashingtonNationalCathedralinthelate1960s [...]3 Purpose Thefocusofthisstudyisthreefold.First,itwillprovideanadditional scholarlyresourcedevotedtothelife,musicaloutput,andachievementsof RobertoSierra.Second,thestudywillprovideadetailedanalysisofRoberto Sierraschoralwork,MissaLatina.Third,thestudywillprovideahistorical overviewofthechoralmusictraditionofPuertoRico,identifyingsomeofthe mostsignificantcontemporarychoralcomposers.Thefollowingresearch questionsguidedthisstudy:
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http://www.subitomusic.com/thecomposer_news.htm Tim Page, "The Joyful Noise of Missa Latina." The Washington Post (February 3, 2006) C1-4.

1. WhatistheextentofRobertoSierrasmusicalcontribution? 2. WhatarethemoderncompositionaltechniquesandLatinmusical elementsusedthroughoutMissaLatina?Howdotheyunifythis work? 3. Whatwerethepoliticalandculturaleventsthatpromotedthe developmentofchoralmusictraditioninPuertoRico. Delimitations InvestigationsledbyErnestoRiveraAlonzo(2002)4,JamesBall(1992)5, andRobertoJ.Gonzalez(1983)6reflectageneralanalysisofselectedinstrumental worksbyRobertoSierra.AlthoughthereisnecessityforfurtherstudyofSierras orchestralandunaccompaniedchoralworks,thisstudyonlyprovidesa descriptiveanalysisofSierrasMissaLatina,alargescaleworkforSopranoand Baritonesoloists,chorus,andorchestra. NeedfortheStudy Inrecentyears,asmallyetgrowingbodyofscholarshiprelatedtothe instrumentalmusicofPuertoRicancomposershasbeguntoemerge.Thisisnot thecaseinthechoralcounterpart.Anextensiveinvestigationofstudies regardingthechoralmusicofnativePuertoRicancomposersillustratesthat scholarlyresourcesonchoralworksbysignificantPuertoRicancomposersare primarilylimitedtobibliographicalstudies,historicalpublications,orcritical

ErnestoAlonsoRivera,TheStringQuartetinPuertoRico:Repertoryand OrganizationsDAI(CatholicUniversityofAmerica),2002,p.196204. 5JamesBall,AConductorsGuidetoSelectedContemporaryAmericanOrchestral CompositionsDAI(UniversityofMissouriKansasCity),1992,p.156172. 6RobertoJ.Gonzalez,SelectedOrchestralWorksbyPuertoRicanComposersBorn Between1945and1956DAI(BallStateUniversity),1983,p.6169.


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commentaries.Inaddition,publishedanalyticalandtheoreticalscholarship regardingthechoralmusicofPuertoRicancomposersisnotavailable. Methodology PrimarysourcesaboutthelifeandchoralworksofRobertoSierrainthis

dissertationwillincludemusic,analysisofmusic,personalinterviewswiththe composer,broadcastinterviews,apostperformanceinterviewsession,reviews ofperformances,conversationsoverthephone,andemailstoandfromthe composer.Secondarysourceswillinclude:textbooks,encyclopedias, dissertations,theses,articles,periodicals,andinternetwebsites. OrganizationoftheStudy Thisdocumentiscomposedoffivechapters.Aftertheintroduction, Chapter2offersahistoricalperspectiveoftheoriginsanddevelopmentofthe choralmusictraditionofPuertoRicofromthe19thcenturytothepresent. Chapter3includesareviewofthemusicalinfluencesthatshapedRoberto Sierrasmusicalstyle,hisbiographicalinformation,andanoverviewofSierras musicaloutput.Chapter4providesbackgroundinformationsurroundingthe MissaLatinaspremiereandreception,followedbyanindepthmusicalanalysis ofeachofthemovementsofthework.Chapter5summarizesthefindingsand offersconcludingremarksregardingtheanalysis.TheAppendicesincludethe completetextofMissaLatina(withEnglishtranslationswrittenbythecomposer), aselectedlistofworksandadiscography. 4

CHAPTER2 HISTORICALPRECEDENTS DevelopmentoftheChoralMusicTraditioninPuertoRico ThedevelopmentofchoralmusicinPuertoRicoisconsidereda contemporaryphenomenonofthe19thcentury.7Itsorigins,however,havebeen tracedtotraditionsstemmingfromEuropeansacredmusicbroughttoPuerto RicobytheSpanishinthe18thcentury.Sincethen,bothnativeandforeign composershavemadesignificantcontributionstotheislandswealthofchoral literature.Suchgrowthhasbeenattributedtothevarioussignificantsocio economicandpoliticaleventsthatarereflectedintheuniqueflavorofPuerto Ricanchoralliterature. Severalresearchershavereviewedtheliteratureinanattempttotracethe originsanddevelopmentofPuertoRicoschoralmusic.8Composerand musicologistHectorCamposParsirecordedthehistoryofPuertoRicanmusicin avolumeoftheGranEnciclopediadePuertoRico(1976).CamposParsiincludeda briefsummaryoftheinfluencesofindigenouspeoplecalledtainos,colonialism, andAfricanmusictraditiononthedevelopmentoftheislandscultureand nationalmusicallanguage. Heprovidedanoverallaccountofthemusicalhistoryinthe19thand 20thcenturies.Furthermore,Parsiincludedthemusicalcontributionsofall
LuisOlivieri,AShortHistoryofChoralMusicinPuertoRico,inInternationalChoral Bulletin20/2,(2000),p.24. 8HctorCamposParsi,LaGranEnciclopediadePuertoRico,7.Madrid:EdicionesR. (1976):240248.AlsoinDanielMendozadeArces,DomingoDelgadoGomez(180556):Puerto Ricanmastercomposer,inLatinAmericanMusicReview,16/2(1995):16;andinOlivieris,A shorthistoryofchoralmusicinPuertoRico.AlsoinDonaldThompsonandAnnieThompson, MusicinPuertoRicofromtheAgeofColumbustoModernTimes:AnAnnotativeBibliography, Metuchen,NJ:ScarecrowPress,(1991).
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nativeandnonnativecomposersandmusicians.Hisbookisoneofthefew sourcesthatincludethehistoryofchurchanduniversitychoralensembles.The lastchapterisdedicatedtocomposerswhoestablishedasignificantmusical legacyinthe20thcentury,includingPabloCasals. Asecondresearcher,DanielMendozadeArce(1989),tracedachronology oftheSpanishsuccentorswhoservedattheSanJuanCathedralfrom1749to 1857.9Succentorswerethemusicdirectorsofthetime.Inthisreview,Mendozade Arceprovideddetailedhistoricalreferencesofthechurchsappointedbishops, organization,andmusicpersonnel.Healsoprovidedvaluableinformation regardingthemusicalcontributionsthatimportantfiguressuchasDomingo Delgadomadetosacredmusic. Inaddition,LuisOlivieri(2000)conductedathoroughhistoricalreview thatprovidedacondensedversionofthehistory,currentconditions,andfuture challengesofchoralmusicinPuertoRico.10Thiselaboratereviewwaswritten withseveralpurposes.First,theauthortracedthechoraltraditionoftheislandto churchhistoryanddiscussedthechurchsinfluencesonthedevelopmentof choralmusictopresenttimes.Second,Olivieridiscussedthemaincontributions thatnativecomposersmadetothechoralhistoryoftheisland.Third,Olivieri examinedthehistoricalinfluenceofProtestantchoralmusic,aswellasthe historyofpublicschoolmusic,thecollegechoirmovement,andtheformationof severalnewindependentchoirs.Fourth,Olivieriincludedinformationonsacred andprofessionalchoralfestivalsheldinPuertoRicotheCasalsFestival,in particular.Finally,Olivieriincludedalistofavailablepublishedchoralsacred andnonsacredanthologies.

DanielMendozadeArce,PanoramaofthemusicintheCathedralofSanJuan,Puerto Rico17491857LatinAmericanMusicReview,10/1(1989):10 10LuisOlivieri(2000)


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Earlydevelopmentthesacredbackground PreviousstudiesofchoralmusicinPuertoRicoacknowledgethat

traditionalPuertoRicanchoralmusicbeganwithsacredmusicpracticedby Catholicchurches.11ThehistoryofchurchmusicinPuertoRicocanbetracedto early17thcenturydocuments.Forinstance,theSpanishCapitularyActsof1600 mandatedtheinstallationofapermanentmusicalstaffintheSanJuanCathedral, includinganorganistandasuccentor.Inaddition,thereisevidencedatingfrom 1756oftheexistenceofamaestrodicappella,orinstructor,andothermusicstaff.12 Fromthatpoint,historiansclaim,importedSpanishmusicians,includingboth clergyandlaymen,providedmostofthemusicalinstructionintheisland. Bythemid19thcentury,foreignandnativecomposershadestablished

churchchoirsthatperformedworkswrittenintheisland.Thelastappointed SpanishsuccentorattheSanJuanCathedralwasDomingoDelgado(18141856). DelgadowasbornintheCanaryIslandsandwassent,alongwithanorganist,to PuertoRicoin1836tofillthesecondsuccentorposition.Thecomposerhad previouslyservedassinger,copyist,secondorganist,andsuccentoratLaLaguna CathedralintheCanaryIslands. AmongDelgadosworksforchoirisPsalm6(DomineinFurore)fortenor, bass,choir,andorchestra,whichmaybetheoldestPuertoRicanchoralwork preserved.13OthercompositionsincludeMisadelaProvidencia,fortenor,bass, choirandorchestra,whichwascomposedin1856.InadditiontoDelgadosmass, thePuertoRicoGeneralArchivepossessesmanuscriptsforhisSalvea2for violins,clarinet,andbass,Misaa2forviolins,clarinets,frenchhorns,andbass, andInvitatorioOfficioGrande,forwhichonlytheclarinetscoreexists.
Ibid,2000 FranciscoCallejo,MsicayMsicosPuertorriqueos.SanJuan:EditorialCoqu(1976):18 13Olivieri,AshorthistoryofchoralmusicinPuertoRico.
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AlthoughhewasborninSpain,Delgadohasbeenreferredtoasthefirst PuertoRicanmastercomposerwhocreatedabeautifulrepertoireofsacredmusic thathassurvived.14Unfortunately,justafewwrittenpiecesofhismusical legacyareavailableatLaLagunaCathedralandSanJuanCathedralarchives. TheConventofSantaCatalinaatLaLagunapossessessomeofDomingos manuscripts,includingmasses,amagnificat,motets,andabenedictus,among otherminorworks.Delgadosmusicwasconceivedprimarilyforreligious services,ratherthanforthetheaterorconcerthall.Hismusiccontainsmelodic lyricismratherthanaconservativeharmonictreatment,whichisattributedtohis Iberianmusicalbackground,whichincludedItalianopera.Delgadoisconsidered bymanytobetheforemostcomposerofreligiousmusicinPuertoRicoduring thesecondhalfofthe19thcentury. AnothercomposerofthetimewasJuanMorelCampos(18571896),who servedasorganistatthePonceCathedral.Hecomposedmasses,litanies,and salvesforhischurchchoir.MorelCamposalsofocusedoncomposingfolk music,forwhichheismostremembered.LikeMorelCampos,JoseGaudieralso composedmusicforchorus,organ,andorchestra,muchofwhichwasused duringGoodFridayservices,andhasbecomealongheldtraditionwithinthe CatholicChurch.Aroundthesametime,composerBraulioDueoColn(1854 1934)servedasorganistandchoraldirectorattheParroquiadelaSantaCruzin Bayamn.Hissacredworksincludemasses,salves,andlitanies.HisSalvefor contraltoandorchestrawonFirstPrizeattheCertamendelAteneo Puertorriqueoin1910.

14Callejo,MsicayMsicosPuertorriqueos:1822.

In1858,QueenElizabethIIofSpaincreatedadecreethatallowedforthe creationoftheMusicChapelintheSanJuanCathedral.NativecomposerFelipe GutierrezEspinosa(18251899)becamethefirstChapelMasterappointedtothis position.ThedecreesfinancialendowmentallowedGutierrezEspinosatohire singersandinstrumentalistsforsacredservices.Consequently,Gutierrez Espinosacreatedanextensivebodyofchoralmusic,followingtraditional practices,whichmostEuropeancathedralshadalreadyundertaken.Gutierrez Espinosasmusicalcontributionsreachedfarbeyondhischurchdutiesashe establishedareputationasasuccessfulmusiceducator.In1870,Gutierrez EspinosacreatedtheAcademyofMusicinSanJuan.Theacademysopen enrollmentofferedmusicalinstructionandorganizeda250voicechorus. AccordingtoMenendez(1995),GutierrezEspinosaschoralrepertoireis consideredoneofthemostextensivecollectionsofnativesacredliterature.15 GutierrezEspinosasorchestralmusichasbeendescribedasreflectiveof theAustroGermansymphonismof1780to1850.16Hisreligiouspiecesreflectan originalandbrilliantcompositionalstyleevidentinworkssuchasMassinC Majorforchorusandorgan,MisadelaProvidencia(1856)forchorus,tenor,and baritonewithorchestra,SalveReginaforchorusandorgan,TeDeum17,and litaniesandpassions.Furthermore,EspinosawasthefirstPuertoRicancomposer towriteanopera,Guarionex.Hiscompositionswerecompiledandpublishedby MenendezMaysonetfromtheUniversityofPuertoRico.Thereareatotalof118 compositionsinthiscollection,ofwhich91arevocalsacredworks.
GuillermoMenedezMaysonet,Nuestroprimermaestrocoral:FelipeGutierrezy Espinosa,Choral,11/1,(1995):8 16MendozadeArce,DomingoDelgadoGomez(180556):PuertoRicanmaster composer. 17LuisOlivieri,NotassobreelTeDeumdeFelipeGutierrezEspinosa,Coral,11/1, (1995):8
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Thehistoricalpoliticalinfluencesattheturnofthecentury In1898,PuertoRicobecameaUnitedStatesterritorythroughtheTreatyof ParisasaconsequenceoftheSpanishUSAmericanWar,settingforthaneraof adjustmentfeltalmostimmediatelyinchurchmusic.Eliminationofgovernment supportforthechurchmeanttheinevitableeradicationofsalaries formembersofchurchorchestras.Thiseventhadadevastatingeffectonthe musicaltraditionoftheSanJuanCathedral,andmorespecifically,itimpacted traditionalconcertsthatGutierrezEspinosahadconductedfordecades. Additionally,itmeanttheeliminationofnumerousorganistpostsatchurches throughouttheisland.Furthermore,abacklasheffectmarkedtheendof governmentscholarshipsformusicalstudiesabroad,which,accordingto Thompson(1984),onlycontributedtothegeneralfeelingofdisappointmentand frustrationamongmusicians.18 Continuingthetraditionofchoralmusic,othercomposersstartedto

explorenewtrendsthatwerereflectedintheirworks.ComposerJosIgnacio Quintn(18811925)servedasorganistandchoraldirectoratLaParroquiaSan BlasdeYllescasinCoamo.Asacomposer,QuintnappropriatedClassicalforms inaRomanticidiomwhilesearchingfornewsonoritiesinhiscompositions.19 Quintnsmostextensivesacredwork,theRequiemMass(1903),was originallyorchestratedforflute,twoclarinets,twoeuphoniums,trombone, violin,bass,andtwofemalevoices.ThereisnoconclusiveevidencethatQuintn evercompletedorheardhisRequiemduringhislifetime.Theoriginalscorewas

DonaldThompson,LamsicacontemporneaenPuertoRico,RevistaMusical Chilena,38/162,(1984):110117.
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19AmauryVeray,PresentacindeJosQuintn,Coral,4/1(1981):3.

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lostforover70yearsuntilmusicologistandcomposerAmauryVeraydiscovered portionsofthemassin1973.20Verayrestoredandreorchestratedthe workformixedchorus,andtheresultingpiecepremieredatQuintonshome churchin1974.21Eventually,thispiecewouldbeexpandedandreorchestrated forfullorchestraandchorusbycomposerRobertoSierraforitsCarnegieHall debutinNovemberof2003.Quintonsremainingsacredworkswerecompiled andpublishedinObrasCompletasdeJosIgnacioQuintn,VolumeIV(1986).22 Anothercomposer,BraulioDueoColn(18541934),wasaflutistand orchestraconductoraswellasacomposer.Inadditiontohiswellknowndanza compositions,heservedasorganistandchoirdirectoratSantaCruzChurchin Bayamn.HissacredworksincludeSalveforcontraltoandorchestra,AveMaria, andvariouslitanies. AccordingtoOlivieri(2000),musicattheSanJuanCathedralbeganto expandduringRamonMorlaTrenchs(18751953)tenure,duringwhichthe organistandcomposerconductedspecialmusicwithuptothirtyfivesingers accompaniedbyaninstrumentalensemble.Someofhismostoutstandingsacred choralorchestralworksincludehisrenditionoftheSevenLastWordsofChrist writtenforchorus,soloists,andorchestra,andtheMisaCarmelitana(1905)for mixedchoir,soloists,andorchestra.Thecompositionwaslaterawardedatthe prestigiousCertamendelAteneoPuertorriqueoin1914.
Ramon Rivera Bermudez, Biografa de Jos Ignacio Quintn Boletn de la Academia de Artes y Ciencias de Puerto Rico, 7/1, (1976):47-59. 21JosRivera,PersonalinterviewwithRobertoSierra.ComposerRobertoSierra performedinthechoralensembleperformingQuintonsreorchestratedRequiemdirectedby AmauryVeray. 22 AmauryVeray,PresentacindeJosQuintn
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Protestantinfluencesinchoralsacredmusic AftertheoccupationofPuertoRico,Americanmissionariesbeganefforts tofacilitateProtestantchurchdevelopment.Asaresult,thepracticeofsinging hymnsatserviceswassoonadopted,enablingthefastdevelopmentofchoral singinginnewlyformedevangelicalchurches.Contrarily,theCatholicChurch continuedconductingatraditionalLatinmasswhiletheProtestantchurchused thevernacularlanguage.AccordingtoOlivieri,thefirstchurchchoralensemble consistedofonlyenoughvoicestoformaquartetattheEvangelicalSeminaryof PuertoRicoin1920. Thefirsttwoevangelicalchoirsestablishedintheislandwereorganized bytwoAmericanmissionariesin1928.First,SisterHallieLemongathered parishionerstoformthechoirCoralMajorattheSegundaIglesiaCristianade Bayamn(SecondMissionChurchofBayamon).In1978,thischoirwasrenamed CoraldeSalvadorGuardiola.Second,Ms.AliceRyderorganizedachoiratthe PrimeraIglesiaBautistadeRioPiedras(FirstBaptistChurchofRioPiedras). Thesechoirsquicklybegantoperformatotherevangelicalchurchesaroundthe island,servingasmodelsforfuturechurchchoirs.Consequently,severalchoral groupsemergedthroughouttheislandtheCaguasBaptistChurchChoir(1939), InterdenominationalChoirofSanJuan(1944),InterdenominationalChoirof Ponce(1949),ChristianChurchofBayamn(1948),andtheBayamnLutheran Choir(CorodeBayamn),tonameafew. Developmentofchoirsinhighereducationinstitutions Theearlypartofthe20thcenturymarkstheinitialstagesofchoralmusicin

collegeinstitutionsofPuertoRico.Dr.BartolomBover(19031984)hasbeen

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recognizedastheinitiatorofthemoderneraofchoralmusicinPuertoRico.23 Dr.BoverarrivedinPuertoRicoin1931andwasordainedaCatholicpriest,later joiningtheEpiscopalChurchandearningdoctoratesinphilosophyandtheology. In1932,BoverreceivedaninvitationtojointhefacultyatthePolytechnic University,laterknownasInterAmericanUniversityofSanGerman.Bover becamethefirstmusiciantodirectachoralensembleataPuertoRicaninstitution ofhighereducation.Whileworkingthere,BoverfoundedLaMasaCoraldel InstitutoPolitcnicodeSanGermn,whichhedirectedfrom1932to1950.Its repertoireconsistedofsacredandsecularchoralclassicsofthemastersandfolk musicarrangementsfromnativecomposers.Boverschoirperformedatmany schools,universities,andculturalinstitutions,andhethusbecamethefirst conductortoperformPuertoRicanchoralmusicinaforeigncountry,the DominicanRepublic,in1939. Boverisconsideredthepioneerofuniversitychoralmusicbymany historiansandmusicologists.24Afterhefoundedandconductedthechoiratthe PolytechnicUniversity,hecontinuedtoestablishothercollegeandcommunity choirssuchastheGleeClubdelAirearoundtheisland.In1958,someofhis formerstudentsfollowedBovertoformLaCoraldeSanJuan,achoirwhose primaryengagementsincludedliveradioperformances.Hisensembles engagementsincludedpresentationsatmanyculturaleventswiththeProArt SocietyofPuertoRico.Inaddition,Boverschoirsmadeconcertappearancesin theUnitedStatesandtheVirginIslands.

AngelMattos,SemblanzadeBartolomBover:iniciadordeunaeracoralinCoral,1/1 (1993),p.79. 24CamposParsi,LamsicaenPuertoRico,240248.AlsoinMattos,Semblanzade BartolomBover:iniciadordeunaeracoral,79;AlsoinLuisOlivieris,BartolomBover: PionerodelaMsicaCoralUniversitariaenPuertoRico,Coral,11/1(1995),p.3.


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BovertaughtandconductedchoirsattheUniversityofPuertoRicofrom 1951until1953,andatthePuertoRicanJuniorCollegefrom1958until1975. BoveralsoservedasmusicdirectorattheCathedralEpiscopaldeSanJuanfor overfortyyears.Hisexemplaryteachingandcommitmenttochoralmusic performanceinspiredmanyofhispupils,someofwhomeventuallybecame prominentmusicians:sopranoMaraEstherRobles,conductorAngelMattos Nieves,composerPabloFernndezBadillo,andbaritonePabloElvira.Boveralso encouragedconductorAugustoRodrigueztoorganizetheUniversityofPuerto RicoChorusin1936.25 Anotherimportantleaderinthedevelopmentofuniversitychoirswas AugustoRodriguez(19041993).RodriguezbeganhismusicalstudiesinSan Juan.Atage28,hetraveledtotheUnitedStatestopursuefurthereducationat HarvardUniversityandtheNewEnglandConservatoryofMusicunderthe directionofWalterPiston,FrederickS.Converse,andArchibaldT.Davidson. RodriguezlaterreturnedtotheislandandtaughtmusicattheUniversityof PuertoRico(UPR),becomingtheuniversitysfirstchoraldirectorin1936.26For manyyears,helednumerousconcerts,includingthefirstPuertoRicanchoral concertperformanceatCarnegieHall(1949).Inaddition,underhisleadership theUPRchoiralsobecameanexponentofnativechoralmusictointernational audiencesconsistingofpeoplefromtheUnitedStates,Haiti,Panama,Chile, Peru,Colombia,andVenezuela.Rodriguezsfourdecadesaschoralconductor, musicologist,composer,pianist,andchoralarrangerattheUniversityofPuerto Ricoestablishedanundisputedtraditionofchoralexcellenceatoneoftheoldest collegiateinstitutionsoftheisland.

25 26

Mattos,SemblanzadeBartolomBover:iniciadordeunaeracoral PedroGonzlezPadr,AlamemoriadeAugustoRodriguez,Coral11/2,(1999):p.89

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InspiredbyRodriguez,otherchoirsbegantoemergeatnewcollege institutionsandregionalbranchesoftheUniversityofPuertoRicoandtheInter AmericanUniversity.Currently,theUniversityofPuertoRicohasapproximately 10branches,eachofwhichhasatleastoneconcertchoir.Similarly,theInter AmericanUniversityalsoformedchoirsinthreemajorcities.Othercollege choirswerealsoformedattheCatholicUniversityofPuertoRicobycomposer andconductorAbeldiMarcoandattheConservatoryofPuertoRicobyAugusto Rodriguez.TheMetropolitanUniversity,TuraboUniversity,Polytechnic University,andAdventistUniversityoftheAntillesalsoformedchoirsaround thistime. Aneraofeconomicalandculturalrenaissancethe1950s In1952,theUnitedStatesgrantedPuertoRicoCommonwealthstatus.This politicaleventwouldsubsequentlyunleashachainofeconomicactivities, creatinganeraofculturalrenaissanceledbygovernmentsponsoredinstitutions andcommissionsofmusicalperformancesthroughouttheisland.Oneofthefirst governmentagenciescreatedbyGovernorLuisMuozMarintopromote culturaldevelopmentwasthePuertoRicanInstituteofCulturein1955. Anotherimportanteventinthedevelopmentofclassicalmusicwasthe cellistPabloCasalscommitmenttothedevelopmentofmusicalartsinthe island.CasalsestablishedhisresidenceinPuertoRicoaftervisitinghismothers hometownin1955.Hedecidedtocontributetotheislandsartisticdevelopment, makinghispresenceimmediatelyfeltamongmusicians.Scholarshipsinhis namewereawardedtogiftedmusiciansenablingthemtostudyabroad.The Spanishborncomposervoicedhisdreamsofcreatingaconservatoryanda symphonyorchestra.

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Thecurrentgovernor,MuozMarn,incorporatedCasalssideasintohis socioeconomicdevelopmentplans.Consequently,threevitalagenciessoon becamethemainconduitsforachievingadreamthatCasalsandothersbefore himshared.TheCasalsFestivalwasfirstestablishedasaculturalcomplementto PuertoRicosindustrializationprogramin1957.Thefestivalsprimarygoalwas tofeaturestandardclassicalrepertoireofthemasters.AsCasalsoncestated, PuertoRicanswillbeexposedtothebestmusicperformedbythebest musicians.27 Thenewlyformedfestivalservedasavitalvenueforintroducingclassical music,includingchoralorchestralrepertoires,beginningwithitsensemblesfirst performanceofBeethovensChoralFantasyin1959.Duringtheinitialstagesof thefestival(19601964),CasalsextendedaninvitationtotheClevelandOrchestra ChoirunderthedirectionofRobertShaw.Shawbecamethefirstdirectorto performmajorchoralworksbyBeethoven,Faur,Schubert,andHaydninPuerto Rico.Sincethen,thefestivalhasfeaturedtheClevelandOrchestraChoirand otherchoirsinannualperformancesofmajorchoralworksfromBach,Handel, Haydn,BeethovenandBrahmstoBerlioz,Orff,Dvorak,Verdi,Stravinsky,and PendereckiunderthedirectionofvariousconductorsincludingRobertShaw, EugeneOrmandy,ZubinMetha,andKrzysztof Penderecki. Consequently,twoothermusicalagencieswerefoundedassubsidiariesto thePabloCasalsCorporation.ThefirstwasthePuertoRicoSymphonyOrchestra (1958),whichhasservedastheprincipalorchestrafortheFestivalsince1981.In addition,theorchestrahasperformednumerousnativechoralorchestralworks aspartofitsconcertseasons.Finally,thePuertoRicangovernmentcreateda ConservatoryofMusic,chargedtoofferthehighestlevelofmusiceducation
Donald Thompson and Annie Thompson, Music in Puerto Rico: A Readers Anthology, Lanham: Scarecrow Press Inc., (2002), p. 54
27

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possible.ThankstoitsadvisorycommitteeandCasalsclosecollaborationwith thegovernor,thePuertoRicanConservatoryofMusicbecametheprimary institutionresponsiblefortrainingprofessionalmusiciansintheisland.By1965, theConservatoryofMusicschoirwasperformingalongwiththeCleveland ChorusattheCasalsFestivalunderconductorRobertShaw.Sincethen,thechoir hasperformedattheCasalsFestivaleveryyear. Initsformativeyears,theCasalsFestivalschoralrepertoirehadprimarily featuredmainstreamclassicalmasterworks.Inspiteofthosecontributions,critics claimedthatthefestivalhadmarginalizednativecomposersbyexcludingtheir compositions.Therefore,by1976theNationalAssociationofComposersbegan topersuadefestivalorganizerstoincludeworksbynativecomposers.Asa result,worksbyCamposParsi,Delano,andVeraywereperformedatthe Festivalin1976nearlytwentyyearsafteritsinauguralconcert. Independentchoirs Sincethe1950s,agrowingnumberofindependentchoirsthatwerenot

necessarilyaffiliatedwithanyreligiousoreducationalinstitutionbeganto emerge.Thesechoirsmadeinvaluablecontributionstothedevelopmentof choraltraditionbyperformingamorespecializedchoralrepertoirefroma cappellamusictosymphonicworks.AmongthefirstweretheGleeClubdelAire (1951)foundedbyBover,CorodeBayamn(1950),andCoraldeSanJuan(1958). Inaddition,CoralPolifnicadePonce(1964)andCoraldeAugustoRodrguez (1970)quicklybecameknownassomeofthebestchoralensemblesintheisland. Subsequently,otherchoirswereformedtomeetthevocaldemandsof performancesoflargechoralworks. ElCoroSinfnicodePuertoRicobeganin1982andhaspresentedannual performancesofHandelsMessiahandBachsSt.MathewsPassion.Thischoir, 17

currentlyconductedbyJamesRawie,hasperformedandhostedseveralchoral festivals.AmongthemostrecentchoralensemblesincludeCoralFilarmnicade SanJuan,CasalsFestivalChorus(1986),CamerataCoral(1991),CoroSchola Cantorum(1992),EscaloniaFilarmnica,CoralBelCanto,andOrfenSanJuan Bautista(1994).Inaddition,theindependentchildrenschoirshavebecomea respectedtraditionsinceElCorodeNiosdeSanJuanwasformedin1966by ProfessorEvaLuco.OtheractivechildrenschoirsincludeCorodeNiosde PonceandCorodeNiosdeCaguas. 20thCenturyChoralMusicofPuertoRico TheinfluenceofthePuertoRicandanzaonchoralmusic Thechoralworkofnativecomposershasinfluencedthetraditional

instrumentalgenres.Forexample,choralliteraturedatedinthe20thcentury initiatedtheuseoftextinnativegenressuchasthedanza.Althoughtheoriginof thePuertoRicandanzaisstilldebatedamongstmusicologists,thereisgeneral consensusthatitoriginatedaround1840.Thedanzaisamusicalcomposition writtenin2/4meter,anditsformalstructureconsistsoftwomainsections:paseo andmerengue.Thispopulargenre,performedbybandsandorchestras,becamea danceformforsocialeventsduringthelate19thcentury28.Thepaseoservesasan introductiontothedanzasmainsection,knownasthemerengue.Thepaseosection usuallyconsistsofeightmeasures,inwhichitsmajesticandelegantcharacter allowsdancecouplestopromenadearoundtheballroomuntilitsfinaldominant chordisheardinanticipationoftheprincipaldancesection.Themerengue consistsofthreemainsections.Thefirsttwonormallycontainsixteenmeasures eachandaresimilarincharacter,whilethefinalsectionstonalandmusical
NlidaFronteradeMuoz,ASelectedNineteenCenturyPuertoRicanComposers andtheirMusicalOutput,DAI(NewYorkUniversity),1988,p.8796
28

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characteroffersarichcontrasttoitsprecedingsections.Itiscustomarytohear thefirstthemeofthemerenguerepeatedinitsrecapitulation.Danzasoften includedcodasectionsaftertherecapitulationtoendthedance. Bytheendofthe1930s,mostmajornativecomposers,includingManuel A.Tavarez,JoseI.Quintn,andJuanMorellCampos,hadnotonlycomposed differentstylesofdanzasbutwereemployingthemassignaturepiecesinconcert performances.Consequently,theislanderssoonbegantoembraceandadoptthis musicasasymbolofnationalpride.Thedanzastyleofmusicwasoriginally conceivedasaninstrumentaldanceformusedatsocialgatheringsandwas performedbypiano,band,ororchestra;therefore,itwastypicallynotsettotext. AccordingtoRoberts(1995),composerslaterbegantosetthispopular styleofmusictopreexistingpoems.29AclassicexampleisfoundinAngel MislnsmusicalsettingofGustavoA.BecquerspoemTuyYo.Thisisalso evidentinVirgilioDvilaspoemLaCriolla,whichissettothemusicofBraulio DueoColn.Incontrast,textcouldalsobeaddedtopreexistingmusicasfound inRodrguezsRitmoArdiente,originallywrittenforpiano.Inthiscase, Rodrguezmadeachoraltranscriptionofhismusicandaddedthetextfroma preexistingpoem. Accordingtohistoricalwriters,choraldanzasarerelativelyyoung,inview ofthefactthatbythemid19thcentury,folkmusichadalreadybeenarrangedfor choirsinothercountries.Dr.BartolomBoverbecamethefirstchoralarrangerof PuertoRicandanzas,includingLaBorinquea(PuertoRicosnationalanthem)by Astol,MisAmoresbyCampos,ElCoqubyQuintn,andMargaritabyTavarez.30 ThesedanzaswereincludedinhiscollectionentitledArreglosCoralesdelDr. BartolomBover.
29 30

Evelyn Roberts, La danza Puertorriquea en la msica coral, Coral, 11/1, (1995), p.6. Ibid, Roberts

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Similarly,AugustoRodrguezalsomadechoralarrangementsofdanzas, folk,andpopularsongsfortheUniversityofPuertoRicoschoir.Thechoirsfirst documentedperformanceofachoraldanza,Tormento,byJuanMorelCampos, occurredin1937.SomeofRodrguezsbestknowndanzaarrangementsincluded CriollabyBraulioDueoColn,aswellasConga,NoMeToques,LaurayGeorgina, andTormento,originallywrittenbycomposerJuanMorelCampos.Rodrguez establishedanextensivebodyofPuertoRicanchoralworksincludingover125 arrangementsandcompositionsofnativeandinternationalfolkandpopular music.AsmallsampleofRodrguezsmusiccanbefoundintwopublished worksentitledCuadernodeMsicaCoral(Danzas)andCuadernodeMsicaCoral (MsicadeAugustoRodrguez).Inaddition,Rodrguezwasknownforcultivating theartofacappellamusic.SomeofhismostpopularworksincludeRitmo Ardiente,adanzaformixedchoirormenschorus,JesucristoEsTuSoloRescate, andElPiragero. ThefirstPuertoRicanmusicologist,FernandoCas,concludedthat Rodrguezsdanzacompositionsforpianoremainprimarilywithinthetradition ofMorelCamposandQuintonsmusic,andhisrhythmicingenuitysurpasses thatofhispredecessors.31Furthermore,Olivieri(2000)statedthatRodrguezs artsongscomposedbetween1935and1938areconsideredtobeamonghisbest compositionalworks.Furthermore,Rodrguezdescribedtheimpressionistic influencesfoundinhisrecitedmelodies,statingthatancientscales, impressionisticharmonies,andrhythmicflexibilityaccentuatingmusical intentionwereallcombinedtoreflectanidealizedatmosphere.Alongwith Bover,Rodrguezestablishedatraditionofperformingfolkmusicincluding danzas,villancicos,plena,andaguinaldoarrangementsatnationalandinternational

31

Fernando Cas in Pedro Gonzlez Padro, A la memoria de Augusto Rodriguez, (1999).

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concerts.Otherearlycomposerswhocontinuedtoexpandthefolkchoral literatureincludePabloFernndezBadillo,RubenColnTarrants,andEsther Alejandro.32 Folkmusicchoralcomposersandarrangers PabloFernndezBadillo(b.1917)hasinspiredhundredsofsingersofall agesthroughhismusic.Asapublicschoolteacherofchorusandband,Badillo enrichedthelivesofmanystudentsatthecitiesofAguadillaandArecibo. BadillostudiedattheUniversityofSanGermanunderBartolomBoverandlater studiedcompositionattheConservatoryofPuertoRico.Hispublishedworks includeArborI(1969)andArborII(1971),whichcontainacollectionofoverone hundredchildrenssongsforunisonchorusandpiano,Albaricias,aChristmas musicaldrama,andCantarRiqueo(revisededitionin1975),acollectionof37 secular,sacredandChristmassongsformixedchoirs.Manyofthesesongswere laterrecordedbytheInterAmericanUniversityChoirofSanGermn,underthe directionofDr.RobertSmith,forthePuertoRicoInstituteofCulturein1973. Badillospopularcompositionsandchoralarrangementshavebeenperformedat manyschoolanduniversityconcerts,includingthechoralfestivalshostedbythe DepartmentofEducationunderAugustoRodrguez.Furthermore,Fernndez BadillopublishedahymnbookentitledHimnarioCriollo(1977),acollectionof104 originalhymns. Anothermajorcontributioncomesfromcomposerandchoralconductor RubenColnTarrats(1940),whobeganhisstudiesattheFreeSchoolofMusic. HeattendedtheInterAmericanUniversityinSanGermanforhisundergraduate musicdegreeunderDr.RobertL.Smith,Dr.RoyHarris,andDr.JamesMcCoy.
KerlinaDelgansandLuisE.Pabn,CatlogodeMsicaClsicaContemporneadePuerto Rico,RioPiedras,PuertoRico:ProArteContemporneo,(1989),p.56.
32

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Later,hetraveledtotheUnitedStatestopursuegraduatestudiesatTemple University.ColnTarratssnumerousworksandarrangementsoffolk,sacred, popular,anddanzamusicincludeRegalodeReyesandPonce(choraldanzas), AlegresPascuas,PerladelCaribe,Sara,GuakiaBaba,andCantaresNavideos(a collectionofChristmasmusicarrangements),amongmanyothers. Sacredmusiccomposersofthe20thcentury Oneoftheearliestsacredmusiccomposersinthe20thcenturywasIgnacio

MoralesNieva(1928),originallyfromValdepeas,Spain.Nievastudied OrchestralConductingattheManhattanSchoolofMusic,butin1954hemoved toPuertoRicopermanently.HetaughtatUniversidadofTuraboandthe ConservatoryofMusic.Hiscompositionsincludenumerousorchestraland choralworks:CantataParalaPascuadelSeorwrittenformixedchorus,soprano soloist,andorchestra;LasSietePalabras(SevenLastWordsofChrist),formixed chorusandchamberorchestra;Magnificatforchorus,soloist,organ,andtimpani; AnglicanTeDeumforchorus,organandharp;MisaPaleocristianaforchorusand organ;ServicioSabticoforchorusandorgan;MisadeSanCrisstomosformixed chorus.Nievaalsocomposednumerouscantatasforsolovoiceandinstrumental ensembles. AnothernoteworthycomposerofsacredmusicisFatherAbelDiMarco

(1931),whosecompositionsareprimarilybasedonLatintextfromtheRoman Catholicliturgy.Hissacredchoralworksincludeover40arrangementsfor mixedchoirincludingCantateDomino,SalveVirgo,IesuDulcisMemoria,andMissa Brevis.EnelPortaldeBelnisoneofhismostrecognizedSpanishsongs. Inaddition,composerRobertoMilano(1936),whowasborninNewYork

buthaslivedintheislandsince1972,madegreatcontributionstothefieldof sacredmusic.HejoinedthefacultyattheConservatoryofMusicasprofessorof 22

theoryandcomposition.AccordingtoOlivieri,halfofhiscompositionalworks werewrittenforchoirs,includingSinfoniaSacradeAdvientoforthreemixed choirs,symphonicband,andorgan.Thisworkwaspremieredbythe InterdenominationalChoir(1987).MilanoalsowroteInDulciJubiloforthree mixedchoirs,brassensemble,andorgan(1985),EcceVirgo,consistingofthree motetsandpremieredbyCoralPolifnicadePonce(1990),TeDeumfordouble choirandorgan(1998),andLuxMundi,amotetfordoubleacapellachoir, premieredbytheConservatoryofMusicConcertChoir(1990).AmongMilanos compositionsareEspejodeUnaReina(1991),achildrensopera,ApagatosAlelus (1993)forchorusandorchestrapremieredbyCamarataCoral,andSinfona Colombina,forchoir,sopranosoloistandorchestra,aswellasmanyotherpieces. 1950presentClassicalcomposers Soonaftertheturnofthecentury,manyrapidpoliticalandcultural changesincitedamovementamongClassicalmusiccomposersoftheisland.The movementfocusedonamplifiedtraditionalfolkmusicwithintheframeof EuropeanClassicalforms.33ComposersJackDelano,AmauryVeray,andHector CamposParsibecameknownasthePuertoRicanNationalisticSchoolof Composers. Thefollowingisachronologicallistofthosewhohavemademajor contributionsandtheirprimaryworks.JackDelano(19141997),aRussianborn photographerandmusician,wasbroughttotheUnitedStatesasachild.34He studiedviolaandcomposition(19241932)atthePennsylvaniaAcademyofFine Arts.Aftervisitingtheislandin1941,hedecidedtoreturn,andsettledinPuerto
33WilliamOrtz,APanoramicViewofPuertoRicanNewMusicinWorldNewMusic

Magazine,6(September1996),12. 34 Donald Thompson, Jack Delano, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Ed. S. Sadie & Tyrell. London: McMillian (2001)

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Ricoin1946andassumedvariousrolesinseveralgovernmentagencies.Delanos worksincludemusicalscoresforfilms,incidentalmusic,ballets,orchestral works,andsongs.HischoralworksincludeEstaLunaEsMa(1962),forwomens chorusandsopranosolo,MeVoypaPonce(1965),achoralsuitedepictingthe musicalflavoroftheregion,formixedchoir,Burundanga(1988),anAfro Caribbeancantatabasedonnativefolkelementsforchorus,soloists,and orchestra,LaRosayelColibrformixedchorusandtrumpet(1992),andPtalode Rosaforchildrenschoir(1993).Delanosmusichasbeendescribedas conservativeinstylebutpleasantlyspicedwithdissonance.35Inaddition,Delano becamethefirstcomposertoincorporateandblendnativerhythmicandmelodic elementsintomodernClassicalmusic. AnotherprominentcomposerofthePuertoRicannationalistschoolwas musicologistAmauryVeray(19221995)whostartedhisstudieswithOlympia Morel,thedaughterofthegreatcomposerJuanMorelCampos.Hegraduated fromtheUniversityofPuertoRicoandcontinuedhisstudiesattheNewEngland ConservatoryandtheManhattanSchoolofMusic.Later,Veraypursued postgraduatestudiesinRomebeforehejoinedthefacultyatthePuertoRico ConservatoryofMusic.Hewrotenumerouscompositionsfororchestraand instrumentalensembles,aswellasincidentalmusicalscoresforfilmandart songs.36VerayschoralcompositionsincludeGloriaandAgnusDei(1952)for soprano,mixedchorus,andorgan,ElNiodeAguadilla(1955)forsoprano, narrator,femalechorus,andorchestra,DosMotetesReligiosos(1956)formixed chorus,LaHijadeIorio(1956),incidentalmusicformixedchorusguitar, percussion,pianoandorgan,LaVirgenVaCaminando(1968)formixedchorus,
DonaldThompson,LamsicacontemporneaenPuertoRicoinRevistaMusical Chilena,38/162(1984),110. 36 Cirilo Toro, Diccionario Biogrfico de Compositores Puertorriqueos, Ponce, Puerto Rico: Ediciones Guayacn, (2003), p.113.
35

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andDeProfundis(1970)fornarrator,mixedchorus,percussion,piano,harp,and strings. Next,HctorCamposParsi(19251998)beganhismusicalstudiesatthe UniversityofPuertoRicoandwasawardedascholarshiptocontinuehisstudies attheNewEnglandConservatoryofMusicandwithAaronCopelandat Tanglewood.HelatertraveledtoParistostudywithNadiaBoulanger.This illustriouscomposerbecameaproponentofthenationalisticmovementinmusic byintegratingfolkelementsintohisworks.37Camposnumerouscompositions includeincidentalmusic,ballet,andmusicforpiano,orchestra,tape,film,organ, voice,andstrings.HischoralworksformixedchorusincludeAleluya(1948),Ave Maria(1954),CantodeYerba(1948),LaPastorcita(1951),Aguinaldo,andLaRosa MsBlanca(1951).38HealsowroteacantatatitledTheSalutations(1952)forvoices andpiano,followedbyachoralorchestralcompositioncalledUbaoMoin(1968) foralto,malenarrator,narratingchorus,singingchorus,andorchestra.His musicalcontributionsincludehisworkasamusicologist,composer,teacher,and administrator. Continuingthelistofthosewhohaveearnedfameinthe20thcenturyis theAmericancomposerFrancisSchwartz,whostudiedattheJulliardSchoolof MusicandheldvariouspositionsattheUniversityofPuertoRicofrom1971until 1986.HealsoreviewedmanyClassicalmusicconcertsfortheSanJuanStar. Schwartzmusicmadeasignificantimpactinthelatesixtieswhenheand colleagueRafaelAponteLedeformedtheFluxusgroup.39Thegroupsmain purposewastopromoteavantgardemusicandexploreanalternativetothe
AureliodelaVega,LatinAmericancomposersintheUnitedStates,LatinAmerican MusicReview,1/2(1980),p.162175. 38 Suzanne Tiemstra, The Choral Music of Latin America: A Guide to Composition and Research, New York: Greenwood Press, 1992 39WilliamOrtiz,ApanoramicviewofPuertoRicanNewMusic,WorldNewMusic Magazine,6(1996),p.12.
37

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existingnationalisticmusicaltrends.Schwartzmusicalstyleisknownbecauseof itsuseofPolyArtaesthetics,whichtriestoevokeatotalphysicalresponse throughthestimulationofthesensorydomains.40Thisconceptisfurther exploredinSchwartzmusicthroughtheintegrationofcorporalmovement, humor,aroma,synesthesia,hightechnology,chanceelements,andaudience participation.HischoralworksincludePazenlaTierra,formixedchoirandtape, Plegaria,(1973)41forsolovoice,mixedchorusandorchestra,LeTempledelaFleur (1978)forfemaleandmalevoice,mixedchorus,fluteguitar,percussionand aromas,andCantataJuvenildelNuevoMundo,(1992)forchildrenschorus,tenor, andpiano. YetanothersignificantmusicalcontributorisEstherAlejandro(b.1947), thefirstfemalegraduatefromthePuertoRicoConservatoryofMusicin composition.ShelaterstudiedcompositioninFrancewithNadiaBoulanger.Her choralworksincludedanzasandsacredworkssuchasIdilio,adanzabyJ.M. Camposformixedchoir,GloriaaDios(1984)indanzastylewrittenformixed choirandorchestraorpiano,andMadrugada,formixedchoir.Hersacredworks includePopuleMeus,amotetforSATB,BrillUnaEstrella,HoyHaNacido,Padre Nuestro(TheLordsPrayer),andAdormosteCristo.42 WilliamOrtz(b.1947)isanotherveryactivecomposerwhoseworks includechamber,orchestral,electronic,computermusic,opera,artsongs,and choralmusic.AstudentofCamposParsiattheConservatoryofMusic,hewas latergrantedadoctoraldegreeincompositionfromofNewYorkState

WilliamOrtz,APanoramicViewofPuertoRicanNewMusic,12. DonaldThompson,ReviewofthefinalconcertsofthethirdannualCaribbean ComposersForum,SanJuanStar,October,30,1990inDonaldThompsonandFrancisSchwartz, ConcertLifeinPuertoRico,SanJuan,PuertoRico:UniversityofPuertoRico(1998). 42LuisOlivieri,SeccindePartiturasCoral,4/2,(1981)


40 41

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UniversityatBuffalo.HischoralworksincludeAcappella(1983)andCancin NacidadeLucha(1985)forunaccompaniedmixedchorus. CarlosVzquez(b.1952)isyetanotherPuertoRicancomposerwhois consideredaleadingexponentofelectronicandcomputermusicintheisland. HebeganhisstudiesattheUniversityofPuertoRicounderAponteLede.His choralworksincludeLaCaradeunAngelito(1980)formixedchorusnarratorand tape,andSerenataparaCoro(1983). Additionally,RaymondTorresSantoshasreceivedinternationalaccolades forhismusiccompositions.TorresSantosbeganstudyingcompositionwith VerayattheCasalsConservatoryofMusicinPuertoRico.Helatercontinuedat StanfordUniversityandwasgivenascholarshipbytheWestGerman governmenttostudyattheInstituteofNewMusicatDarmstadt.Hereturnedto CaliforniaandreceivedhisPh.D.fromtheUniversityofCaliforniain1985.His commissionedworkshavebeenperformedbyorchestrasinLatinAmerica,the UnitedStates,andbyseveralEuropeanensembles.RaymondSantosworks includeawidepalateofstylesrangingfromcommercial,electronic,filmmusic, orchestral,chamber,songcycles,andchoralworksincludingBellaEstrella, PastoresaBeln(1989),acarolformixedchoirandorchestra,GuakiaBaba(1988) fortwomixedchoruses,CancindelasAntillasforchoirsoloistsandorchestra, JerseyPolyphonyfortwochoruses,pianoandpercussion,EstaEsTodaMiVida (1979),acantataformixedchorusandorchestra,PastoresaBelnforSATB,piano ororchestra,ElegadeReyes(1981)43,acantatafornarrator,chorus,rondalla,and chamberorchestra,andhisRequiem(1995)forsoloists,childrenschoir,SATB choir,andorchestra.

43

Luis Olivieri, Elegia de Reyes, Coral, 4/3 (1987):9. This unique work commissioned by the InterAmerican University utilizes native folkloric elements combined with jazz and vanguard musical languages.

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Finally,RobertoSierra(1953)hasbeenreferredtoasoneofLatin Americasmostactivecontemporarycomposers.44Hisprolificoutputincludes symphonies,concerti,oratorio,choral,chamber,ballet,instrumentalpieces,song cycles,filmscores,andnumerousarrangements.RobertoSierrapursuedearly studiesattheConservatoryofMusicandtheUniversityofPuertoRico. Aftergraduation,SierrawenttoEuropetofurtherhismusicalknowledge, studyingfirstattheRoyalCollegeofMusicandtheUniversityofLondon,and laterattheInstituteforSonologyinUtrecht.Between1979and1982hedid advancedworkincompositionattheHochschulefrMusikinHamburgunder therenownedGyrgyLigeti.SierrabecamethefirstPuertoRicancomposer nominatedforaGrammyAwardintheclassicalcategory. Inconclusion,thebodyofchoralmusicliteratureofPuertoRican

composersreflectstheinfluenceofvariousmusicaltraditionsthathavemerged inthePuertoRicanculture.Thesecompositionsreflectpatrioticsentiments mergedwithinfluencesfromotherculturesinwhichmanyoftheseremarkable composersstudiedorweretrained.RobertoSierrasmusicfollowsthetraditions ofBartok,Stravinsky,Chavez,Ginastera,andothersignificantcomposerswho infusedtheirnativemusicalidiomsintocontemporaryclassicalforms.


44RobertoSierra,ComposersBiography,

http://www.schirmer.com/composers/sierra/bio.html

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CHAPTER3 ROBERTOSIERRA:INTRODUCTIONTOHISLIFEANDMUSIC RobertoSierraisconsideredtodaytobeoneoftheleadingAmerican composersofhisgeneration.In1987,Sierracametoprominencewhenthe MilwaukeeSymphonyOrchestraperformedhisfirstmajororchestral composition,Jubilo,atCarnegieHall.Sincethen,hisworkshavebeenperformed bythemajororchestrasofPhiladelphia,Pittsburgh,Atlanta,Houston,Chicago, Milwaukee,Minnesota,Dallas,Detroit,SanAntonioandPhoenix,aswellasby theAmericanComposersOrchestra,theNewYorkPhilharmonic,theLos AngelesPhilharmonic,theNationalSymphonyOrchestra,theKronosQuartet, ContinuumandVoicesofChange. Internationalorganizationswhichhaveperformedhisworksinclude EnglandsBBCSymphony,theRoyalScottishNationalOrchestra.Somenotable festivalswhichhavefeaturedRobertoSierrascompositionsareWolfTrap,the SantaFeChamberMusicFestival,FestivalCasals,theSchleswigHolsteinFestival inGermany,andFrancesFestivaldeLille.Fromthisexpansiveandprestigious listing,onecanappreciateSierrasoutstandingreputation. Earlyyears&MusicEducation SierrawasbornonOctober9,1953inVegaBaja,PuertoRico,aplace wherelocalpopularandfolkmusicsuchassalsaandbombaareaubiquitouspart oflife.AccordingtoSierra,thesesounds[salsaandbomba]wereeverywhere. TheseedsthatbloomedintothisgreatcareerwereplantedinSierrasearly childhoodwhenhisparents,DesiderioSierraandGloriaEnriquez,purchaseda

29

pianointendedforhissisterstraining.45Afterseveralyearsofautodidactic study,Sierrabeganprivatelessonsatagefifteen.Thatsameyearalsomarkeda tragiceventinSierraslife:thesuddendeathofhisfather,which,accordingto Sierra,wasoneofthemostdifficultsituationshehadeverdealtwith.However, hisselfmotivationandloveformusicenabledhimtoembarkonthestudyof classicEuropeanrepertoire. SierrawaswelcomedasapianistintothePreparatoryDivisionofthe PuertoRicoConservatoryofMusic,wherehisacademiccourseworkincluded theoryandharmony.Promptedbytheknowledgeintroducedtohiminthese classes,Sierrabeganplayingwiththeideaofcomposing.Hecontinuedpiano studiesandperforming,butcompositionsoonbecamehisfocus.46 Afterhighschool,SierracontinuedstudyingattheUniversityofPuerto Rico(19701975)andthePuertoRicoConservatoryofMusic(19691976),both fromwhichheeventuallyreceivedundergraduatedegreesinHumanitiesandin MusicComposition,respectively.Afterfinishinghisschooling,Sierrasoonbegan tolookelsewhereforartisticinspiration.Whilestillincollege,hehadvisited EuropeandbecameinterestedinthecityofLondon.Heeventuallyrelocated theretobeginstudiesattheRoyalCollegeofMusicobtainingaCertificateof AdvancedStudiesinComposition,andlater,earningaMasterofMusicdegree inCompositionfromtheUniversityofLondon(19761978). AccordingtoSierra,Londonwasaparticularlylivelyplaceinthe contemporarymusicworldatthistime:IwouldhearpiecesbyPierreBoulez, KarlheinzStockhausen,LucianoBerio[]whenapiecegetswritten,itwill inevitablybeperformed[inLondon]withinweeks.InLondon,Sierraattended

45 46

McIntyre, http://www.subitomusic.com/st_sierra-2.htm Ibid. McIntyre

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manyconcertsofBoulezsmusicandfrequentedtheleviathanPromsFestivalat theRoyalAlbertHall.47 FromLondon,SierramovedtoHollandtostudyelectronicandcomputer musicattheInstituteforSonologyinUtrecht(197879)andlearnedthatthe renownedHungariancomposerGyrgyLigeti(19232006)wouldbeleadinga seminarattheprestigiousAixauProvenceFestivalthefollowingsummer.Upon arrivalinAixauProvence,hejoinedonehundredothercomposersinoneof Ligetisclasses.Themaestrosuggestedtohisfledglingstudentsthattheyleave copiesoftheirscoreswithhimforperusalandfeedback. Despitethelargenumberofstudents,LigetitookakeeninterestinSierras music.Consequently,Ligetiaskedtheyoungcomposerabouthisplansforthe followingyearandinvitedhimtotraveltoHamburg,Germanyforprivate study.SierraimmediatelyacceptedandjoinedLigetisstudioforanentire academicyear. Duringtheperiodbetween1979and1982,Sierrapursuedadvancedwork incompositionattheHochschulefrMsikinHamburg.Ofhislessonswith Ligeti,Sierraobserved,Itwasafantasticandimportantexperienceforme.He wasalwayssearchingfortheinnervoiceinmywork.Thisisprimarytostudy withhim.48 AccordingtotheLigetischolarRichardToop,theHamburgclasses attractedmanytalentedyoungcomposerswhowereeagertolearnfromoneof themostrespectedofalllivingcomposers.Likewise,someofthesecurious youngcomposerswerealsoasourceofstimulusforLigeti.Forexample,Sierra drewLigetisattentiontothecomplexpolyrhythmsofCaribbeanandSouth

47 48

Ibid, McIntyre Ibid, McIntyre

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Americanmusic,someofwhichfoundtheirwayintoLigetisworksofthe1980s (PianoConcerto).49 AfterlivinginEuropeforsixyears,Sierradecidedtoreturntohisnative PuertoRico(1982).HeacceptedadministrativepositionsattheUniversityof PuertoRico(DirectorofCulturalActivities)andthePuertoRicoConservatoryof Music(Chancellor).Withinafewyears,hebecameDeanofCompositionand thenDirector.Hisgrowingcompositionalprowessandenrichingtravelswere beingrewardedbytheveryorganizationthathelpedsethimonthispath.He wasactiveinthisacademicleadershipforseveralyears.Then,inearly1989,he receivedaphonecallfromtheMilwaukeeSymphony,offeringhimathreeyear tenureasitsComposerinResidence. SierrastimeinMilwaukeeprovedtobeveryproductiveonmanylevels. Hisresidentialdutiesincludeddevelopingacompetition(thewinnersofwhich wouldreceiveaperformancebytheorchestra).Sierrasotherresponsibilities includedadvisingintheprogrammingofcontemporaryliteratureand composingmusic.Attheendofthreeyears,theMilwaukeeSymphonyreleased arecordingonKossClassicsofSierrasworks.Beyondorchestralwork,Sierras MilwaukeeeraoutputincludesachamberpieceentitledPiezasCaratersticas (1991).Thecomposeroffersabriefdescriptionofthiswork:
[InPiezasCaractersticas,]eachmovementusesadistinctiveinterval asitsmainstructuralfeature.Thecoloroftheintervalplaysarolein themoodofeachindividualmovement.Theworkisinflectedwith Latinelements.50

WhenhistimeintheMidwestendedearlyin1992,Sierrawasconsidering amovebacktohishomeland.Simultaneously,thegreatCzechcomposerand educatorKarelHusahadrecentlysteppeddownfromhisteachingpositionat


49 50

RichardToop,GyrgyLigeti.PhaidonPressLimited:London,England(1999):185. Roberto Sierra, http://www.robertosierra.com

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CornellUniversityinIthaca,NewYork,leavingavacancy.Sierraappliedforthe position,andinthefallundertookhiscurrentpositionattheschool.His extensiveinvolvementintheteachingofcontemporarymusicresultedinhis teachingarangeofclasses.Thoseclassesincludedprivatelessonsin composition,historicalsurveycoursesin20thcenturymusic,andgraduate seminarsfocusingonthemusicofOlivierMessiaenandhisformerinstructor, Ligeti.OtherteachingresponsibilitiesincludeservingasVisitingProfessorat YaleUniversityfrom1995to2002.Amidsthisbusyteachingschedule,Sierrahas maintainedanimpressivelevelofcompositionaloutput.Hisuniquestylegained prominencewithintheclassicalmusicworld. CompositionalstyleandOutput SierrasPuertoRicanmusicalrootsareeverpresentinhiscompositions attimesovertly,atothertimesobliquely.Asmentionedabove,thesounds associatedwithhisnativecountrypermeatethecultureand,therefore,arepart oftheDNAofthecomposerswork.Alsowovenintothedoublehelixofhis aestheticistheinfluenceoftwopillarsofmodernmusic:IgorStravinskyand BelBartok.51InSierraswords,Stravinskyhasbeenalwaysacomposerthatis presentbecauseofhisuseofrhythm.Mymusicdoesntsoundlikehis,ofcourse, butIthinkhisrhythmicsensehasinfluencednotonlyme,butalsocomposers throughoutthepastcentury.Bartokslyricismisimportanttome,andhisuseof avernacularapproachhasbeenanprofoundmodelaswell.52 AsRobertoSierrasstylehasevolved,hehassynthesizedEuropean modernism.WithLigeti,hedevelopedanabstractthoughtprocesswith elementsofPuertoRicanandLatinAmericanfolksong,jazz,salsa,andAfrican
51 52

McIntyre, www.subitomusic.com/st_sierra.htm Laurie Shulman, The New Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. 23, p 364-365.

33

rhythmsaprocesshecallstropicalization.53Sierrasmusicisdeeplyrootedin theLatinAmericantradition,fullofcolorandbrillianceandpulsatingrhythm. However,Sierrahastakenhisheritageintothemainstreamoftwentiethcentury westernmusic,creatingmusicofsubstanceandoriginality.54 Evenwithintheseinfluences,Sierrasattractiontodualityispresent(e.g. rhythmicimpulseversuslinearconstruction).Sierraembracesthistruthin differentways,manipulatingbasicarchitecturalelementsofcomposition,at timesinjuxtaposition.Forinstance,InAlegra(1996),thebrightrhythmicdriveof 2beatspermeasure(in6/8time)isoffsetbytheconstantuseofsyncopated passagesbetweenthemelodiclineandtheinstruments.Inaddition,thethird movementofConciertoparaOrquesta(1999)alternatesbetweenangularthematic materialinthebrass,andmomentsofbittersweetmelodicfragmentsbythe winds.55 AnotherexampleofSierrasmanipulationofcompositionalelementsis evidentinFandangos(2000).FandangosisdecidedlyPuertoRicaninoverallstyle, veeringperiodicallyintoadventurousharmonicmaterial.Furthermore,it interspersesdenseaccumulationsoforchestralcolorthatburstforthfromwithin arelativelystraightforwardhomophonictexture.56Consequently,Fandangoshas becomeoneofSierrasmostfrequentlyperformedcompositions.Inareviewfor TheGuardianLondon,AndrewClementswrote: ItisanexpertlyscoredpiecethattakesadancebySolerandpassesit repeatedlythroughtheprismofcontemporaryharmonicandrhythmic procedures;theresultisattractive[...]57

53 54

Ibid, Shulman Ibid, McIntyre 55 Sierra, http://www.robertosierra.com/reviews 56 Ibid , Sierra 57 Ibid, Sierra

34

CommissionedWorks CommissionedbyLeonardSlatkinandtheNationalSymphonyOrchestra (NSO),FandangoshasbeenfeaturedonnumerousNSOprograms,includinga Europeantour,andinresidenciesaroundtheUnitedStates.Afteritspremiere, SlatkinsaidtoSierra:Thisisapiecethatwillbedonebymanyotherconductors andorchestras.58Hispredictionwasindeedprescient,asFandangoshas receivedperformancesbygroupsincludingtheClevelandandMinnesota Orchestras,PhoenixSymphony,andtheLosAngelesandBuffaloPhilharmonics. Inaddition,MaestroSlatkinledtheBBCSymphonyOrchestraperformanceof FandangosattheopeningconcertoftherenownedLondonPromsinJuly2002. OthercommissionsofSierrasworksincludeConmadera,metalycuero,co commissionedbytheLosAngelesPhilharmonic,theRoyalScottishNational Orchestra,andtheCasalsFestival.Consequently,thisworkspremierewaspart oftheBBC20thCenturyRetrospectiveSoundingtheCentury.Additionally, Fanfarria,ariaymovimientoperpetuoforviolinandpianowascommissionedby theLibraryofCongresstocelebrateCoplandscentennial.SierrasConcertofor OrchestrawascommissionedbytheKoussevitzkyMusicFoundationandthe PhiladelphiaOrchestraforthecentennialcelebrationsofthePhiladelphia Orchestra.RobertoSierraslatestguitarconcerto,Folias,writtenfortheworld acclaimedguitarvirtuosoManuelBarrueco,premieredinOctober2002. AnotherrecentcriticalandpopularsuccesswasSierrasConcertofor SaxophonesandOrchestra(2003),premieredbytheacclaimedsaxophonistJames CarterandtheDetroitSymphonyOrchestra(DSO)conductedbyNeemeJrvi. ReviewingthepieceintheDetroitNews,LawrenceB.Johnsonsaid,
[Sierras]threemovementconcerto,whichhasthesoloistswitchingoff betweentenorandsopranosaxophones,isadelightandathriller,idiomatic

58

Roberto Sierra, Interview with composer. February 1, 2006, Washington, D.C.

35

andchallenginginitsjazzylanguage,affectinginitsbluesyballadturns, electrifyinginitssoloflightsandascolorfullyfashionedfortheorchestra asitisforthemanwiththehorn.59

Infact,thepiecewassowellreceivedthattheDetroitSymphonyOrchestra programmeditssecondrunofperformancesseveralmonthslater. OneofSierrasrecentlycommissionedworks(SinfoniaNo.1)wonthe2004 KennethDavenportCompetitionfororchestralworks.Sierrasfirstworkinthe traditionalsymphonicformwasperformedbytheSt.PaulChamberOrchestra (SPCO).RobertoSierrastructurallymodeledhisSinfoniaNo.1afterBeethovens firstsymphony.Aboutthiswork,thecomposercommented,Iwantedtodo somethingwiththesharpnessandclarityoftheearlyBeethovenpieces.Beyond overallstructure,thereis,infact,athematicreferencewithintheworksscherzo movement.60Sierradescribeshisworkinthisstatement:
DuringthelastdecadeIhavewrittenseverallargescaleorchestralworks:Tropicalia duringmycomposerinresidenceyearswiththeMilwaukeeSymphonyOrchestra,and ConcertoforOrchestra,writtenmorerecently(2000)duringmyresidencywiththe PhiladelphiaOrchestra.However,thisworkisthefirstofthemultimovementworks thatItitleSymphony.Thereisonegoodreasonforit;itisindeedasymphonyinterms ofthestructure,notfar(exceptforaspectsoftonality)towhatBeethovendidinhisfirst symphony.Infact,ImodeledmyworklooselyonBeethovens1st.Forexample,thefirst movementstartswithaslowexpressiveadagio,followedbyanallegrothatclearly containsthebasicformalelementsofsonataform.Thesecondmovementburstswith emotionandintenseorchestralcolors.Thescherzothatfollowslooksagainat Beethovensclassicism,althoughherethetimesignatureisnottheusual3/4butrathera bouncy5/4.Thesymphonycloseswithanothermovementinsonataformprecededbya slowintroductionthatleadstoanexpositioninfusedwithrhythmsevocativeoftheclave beatinsalsamusic.61

Anothercompositionreceivingitsfirstperformancein2004wasSierras Kandinskyforpianoquartet,whichhaditsworldpremiereinCoolidge AuditoriumattheLibraryofCongressinWashington,D.C.onFebruary13,2004.


LawrenceB.Johnson,DetroitNews,October18,2003. http://www.subitomusic.com/st_sierra2.htm 61SchoolofFineandPerformingArts,StateUniversityofNewYorkatPaltz, http://www.newpaltz.edu/artsnews/release.cfm?id=262
59 60

36

Kandinskycontains11shortmovements,eachnamedafterworksbytheRussian abstractionistpainterWassilyKandinsky(18661944). MostRecentCommissions SomeofSierrasmostrecentcommissionsincludeSinfonaNo.2, commissionedbytheUniversityofMiami,SchoolofMusicAbrahamFrost CommissionSeriesandSinfonaNo.3,commissionedbytheMilwaukee SymphonyOrchestrawithfundingfromtheJoyceFoundationofChicago. Inaddition,SierrarecentlycompletedDoubleConcertoforviolinandviola,co commissionedbythePittsburghandPhiladelphiaOrchestras,Bongo+, commissionedbytheJuilliardSchoolincelebrationofits100thanniversary,and lastly,Borikn,afourteenminutelongorchestralwork,commissionedand performedbytheCasalsFestivaltocelebrateits50thanniversaryinFebruary 2006. Upcomingcommissions SierrasupcomingcommissionsincludeaworkfortheDallasSymphony

OrchestratobepremieredinNovember,2006,aguitarconcertofortheOrchestra deCastillaLeoninSpain,andthreeorchestrationsforMeettheComposer,a musicorganizationinCalifornia.Inaddition,Sierraiscompletingapiano concertoforpianistIanHopsonandasongcycleforsopranoandstringquartet, dedicatedtosopranoHeidiGrantMurphy,pianistKevinMurphyandtheSt. LawrenceStringQuartet. 37

ChoralWorks CantosPopulares(1983) TheNewLondonChamberChoircommissionedandpremieredCantos

PopularesattheFestivalofNewMusicinHuddersfield,England,underthe directionofJamesWood.Inthisfiveminuteacappellasettingformixedchoir, thecomposerdepictsthetropicalatmosphereofmorning(CantoMatutino), sunset(Ensueo),andevening(CantoNocturno)withoutanyuseofwords.Inan interviewconductedbyLuisOlivieri,SierracommentedthatCantosPopulares evokesHispanicCaribbeanfolkloricandpopularelementsbymergingthe variousmelodicandrhythmicelementsoftheisland(PuertoRico),yetdoesnot focusonaspecificgenreofmusic.Interestingly,Sierraalsoexpressedhisdesire tocomposeasettingofthetraditionalMassinthenearfuture.62 InCantosPopulares,thecomposercreatesthreepicturesqueillustrations,

depictingeachpartofthedaybyutilizingawiderangeofvocalcolors.Thefirst section,CantoMatutino,translatedasMorningSong,beginsasasongthat graduallytransformsitselfintoacacophonyofpercussivesound.Thisprocess climaxesinapitchlessandhighlysyncopatedpassageresembling,inSierras words,atypeofwhitenoise.63Fortheremainderofthesection,Sierrauses thisprocessinreverse,culminatingwiththeinitialsongheardinthe introductorypassage. Alsointhisfirstsection,Sierrareliesonhiscreativeuseofunvoiced fricatives,aspirates,andplosiveconsonantsinvariousvocalregistersand dynamiclevels.Thecomposeremploystextualdensity,splittingthechoirinto sixteenseparatepartstoachievewhatSierradescribesasamusicaleffect

LuisOlivieri,CantosPopulares:ObracoralpuertorriqueaestrenadaenInglaterra, Coral,5/3(1989):3 63 Ibid, Olivieri,(1989)

62

38

resemblingtheseabreeze64(seefigure3.1).Forthemiddlesection (Ensueos),Sierrajuxtaposesdifferentrhythmicpassagescontainingtriplet figures,asymmetricalbeatsubdivisions,andhorizontalandverticalhemeolas. Sierrasystematicallyintroducestheserhythmicmotives,creatingadensetexture filledwithpercussiveandappealingsonoritieswhiledepictingthetropical imagesheardbetweennoonanddawn.

Figure3.1CantosPopulares.CantoMatutino.

64

Ibid,Olivieri,(1989).

39

Sierrasspiritedfinalsection(CantoNocturno)usesuniquevocaleffectsto showthefestivecharacterofthetropicalnocturnalorchestracreatedbyitsfauna andnativeinsects,includingthesoundsofthecoqu.65Sierraagainjuxtaposes variousrhythmicpatternsincludingthepopularclave(seefigure3.2)

Figure3.2.CantosPopulares.Nocturno.Superimposedrhythmicpatterns.

CoquisatinytreefrogfoundinPuertoRico.Coquisthealsothesoundthemales producewhenthesungoesdownatdusk.Theirmelodyserenadesislanderstosleep.Coques singallnightlonguntildawnwhentheystopsingingandheadforthenest.PuertoRicanslove theircoquesandhavewrittenpoems,stories,andaguinaldosaboutthem.


65

40

InareviewbyPeterJacobifortheHeraldTimes,hewrote:
[...]Thefirst[CantosPopulares]actuallyrecalledthemoreavantgardemusicofGyrgy LigetiandKrzystofPenderecki;itsoneofthoseconcoctionsfeaturingstaggered chorallinesthatmakealistenerthinknooneistakingabreathbecause themusicneverpauses[]66

Idilio(1990) IdilioisauniqueworkforSATBtextlesschorusandorchestrawhich,

accordingtoNickStrimple,[]recreatesanatmosphereofajungle.67Sierra utilizestheorchestraandchorustoimitatethesoundsofnatureinanabstract manner.Thiscomposition(ca7)waswrittenduringSierrasresidencywiththe MilwaukeeSymphonyOrchestra,andwaspremieredandrecordedin1990. AmericanMusicreviewerWalterAaronClarkwrote:


SierrarepresentsanewgenerationofAmericancomposerswhoseekways tocombineaprogressivemusicalidiomwithmoreaccessibletraditional elements,particularlythosedrawnfromfolkandpopularmusic.Sierrais askillfulandimaginativecreator,andthesourcesofhismusicalinspiration haveenduringappeal.Theprogrammaticelementiskeyinbridgingthegulf betweenamoribundavantgardeandconcertaudienceswhomustbewon backforcontemporaryclassicalmusic.RobertoSierraiswinningthemback[...]68

Inaddition,theMilwaukeeSentinelreviewstated: Sierras[]Idilio[...],asensuoustributetothePuertoRicanrainforest
incorporatingwordlesschorus,reaffirmedoneofthestrongestcompliments thatcanbepaidtoacomposertodaywhochoosestoworkwithtraditional toolsofmelody,harmony,andrhythm:Hismusicrepresentsauniquevoice, strikinginitsoriginalityandbearingnotracesofderivationorimitation.69

PeterJacobi,http://www.music.indiana.edu/publicity/press/ ArticlesPreviews&Reviews/articles/200503/20050307HTJacobi2.shtml. 67 Nick Strimple, Choral Music in the Twentieth Century, Amadeus Press, LLC Pompton Plains, NJ, (2002):207 68WalterAaronClark.SocietyofAmericanMusic,16/1,(1998):110. 69G.SchirmerInc.,AssociatedMusicPublishers,Inc., http://www.schirmer.com/default.aspx?TabId=2420&State_2874=2&WorkId_2874=33176
66

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GuakiaBaba(1992) SierrasetsthisSATBacappellaworktothepoemoftheillustriousPuerto

RicancomposerCayetanoCollyToste.Thispoemismadefromthelinguistic constructionofTanowords.TheTanoswerethenativeIndiansthatinhabited PuertoRicobeforeColumbusarrival.Thetextusedinthissettingissimilarto theLordsPrayer.ThetexttoCalletanoCollyTostesGuakiaBabaisasfollows:


Ourfatherisinheaven Lordofearthandwater Lordofmoonandsun Cometuus Good,exalted,great,generous; Giveusrain,plants Boniato(sweetpotato),bread; Evilspirits,no Death,no Goodspirits,yes OfGodIamaservant Sobeit.

GuakiaBabaalsocontainsmanyexamplesofpolyrhythmicandcross rhythmicactivity.Ashasbeennoted,thesesimilarfeaturesareatrademarkof RobertoSierrasmusicandarefeaturedthroughoutmostofhisinstrumentaland choralworks,includingMissaLatina.Manyoftheserhythmicfiguresarederived fromtheadditiverhythmicfigure(3+3+2),alsoreferredtoasthemothercellor tresillo.ThisfigurefunctionsastherhythmicbackbonetomostPuertoRican folkmusic,asstatedbyRafaelGonzlezBothwell:


ThefoundationoffolkloricmusicofPuertoRicoisbaseduponthederivationof rhythmicfiguresfromoriginals,whichatthesametime,derivefromthemothercell (3+3+2).70

Rafael Gonzalez Brothwell, An original composition, La Cosecha for Orchestra, and La Clave: A Cultural Identity. DAI (Louisiana State University), 2005, p.167

70

42

Inaddition,thetresillorhythmicfigure,alsocommonlyreferredtoasthe clave,appearsinmanytypesoffolkandpopularmusicoftheCaribbean. Althoughclavesarenotperformed(asmeters)inPuertoRicanfolkmusic,they arecommonlyperformedinacyclicalpatterninthefolkandpopularmusicof theCaribbean,includingsalsamusic.71Likewise,Sierrassettingusesthis mothercellandotherderivedfiguresastherhythmicbaseinhisunique portrayalofCollyTostesindigenousprayer(seefigure3.3).

Figure.3.3GuakiaBaba.Tresillofigurecyclicalpatternsusedinjuxtaposition. Bayon(1992,revisedin2001) Thiscompositionforsoprano,baritone,SATBchorus,andorchestrais basedonEugenioMaradeHostosLaperegrinacindeBayon(ThePilgrimageof Bayon)anddescribesaspiritualjourneyinsearchofidentity.Thisworkwas originallywrittenduringthetimewhenPuertoRico,CubaandtheDominican RepublicwerestillcoloniesundertheSpanishcrown.Inthework,Bayon followsColumbusspathinreverse,searchingforaCaribbeanidentity.

71

Ibid, p.167

43

Duringadressrehearsal,SierratoldthemusiciansThewholepiecebeginswith aviolentintroductionandendswithanelegy[]BayonendsupinEurope, withnosolutiontohisquest.Heislookingforidentity,lookingforlove,looking foralltheidealisticthingsmanisalwayslookingfor.Itsasadending,because heisdisillusioned.72 AlthoughHostoswordscomefromadistantpast,theirmeaningstill resonatesverystrongly.Thesearchforidentityandplaceintheworldare relevantquestionstoSierraandmanyotherpeoplewholivefarawayfromtheir placesoforigin.73Sierrastates:


InmyoratorioBayon,Iwantedtoexplorethosequestions.Thepiece startswithlntroduccinandtheDescargathatportraytheagitatedspiritual questofBayon.Intermezzoisamusicalrepresentationoftheplayfuland innocentportrayalofMarin,thefemalecharacterwhointhenextmovement becomesanabstractbothofthebelovedandthehomeland.Tobringmyown personalcontextIintroduceinthismovement(Marin)musicevocative oftheDanza,thatquintessentialpianomusicofXIXcenturyPuertoRico. TheElega(Elegy)thatclosestheworkleavesonewithasenseofhope,but atthesametimesuggeststhatwearestillsearchingforanswerstoHostos questions.74

TheNewYorkpremiereperformanceofBayoanhadfavorablereviewsstating:
Mr.Sierrasscorewasvividallthewaythrough;heisfirstandforemost abrilliantandcolorfulorchestrator,amasterofawiderangeofadvancedtextures,but alsoanengagingmelodistandmanipulatororrhythms.75

LuxAeterna(1996) SierrasLuxAeternaissetforanunaccompaniedmixedchorus.Itsabstract

compositionalstylereflectsthemodernEuropeaninfluencesofhisearlystudies withLigeti.Someoftheseinfluencesarereflectedinhisuseofshortcanonic rhythmicpatterns,aswellasinitsharmoniclanguage(seefigure3.4).Lux


72 73

John Pareles, The New York Times, C-1, October 14, 1994. Roberto Sierra. Bayoan and Extasis de Santa Teresa, Bronx Arts Ensemble, Albany Records, Ibid, Sierra. Alex Ross,In Performance, Classical Music, New York Times (October 17, 1994).

CD cover.
74 75

44

AeternawascommissionedandpremieredbyTheMendelssohnClubof Philadelphiain1996.Inareviewfollowingaperformance,HeuwellTircuit stated:76


Sierras[]settingoftheLuxAeternashowedonlyhintsofthemasters [Ligeti]style.Sierradidemploysomeoftheclosecanonictechniques commontoearlyLigeti,butminushismicrotonalclustereffects.Theoverall, sungfromtherearchoirbalconyofthechurch,createdadeeplydevout effect,thesonoritiesroundingtheroomfreeofecho.Itwaslikeundated antiquechoralmusic,anextremelyeffectivepiecethatdeservesrepeating[]

Inanotherreview,byBenjaminFrandzelwrote:
HonoringLigetismanyyearsasateacher,theprogramfeaturedworksbytwoofhis studentswhobecamemajorcomposers.Inanhomagetothemaestro,PuertoRican composerRobertoSierracreatedhisownsettingofLuxAeterna,withmanyofhis teacherstechniques.SierraborrowsLigetistempoanduseofcanon,thoughinamore audibleapproachwithlessdensevocallines.Sierrasharmoniesareoftenbeautifuland hiscounterpoint,excellent;theSingerssoundedstrongandconfidentinthiswell preparedperformance[]77

76 Benjamin Frandzel, San Francisco Classical Voice, http://www.sfcv.org/arts_revs/volti_3_15_05.php 77 Benjamin Frandzel, San Francisco Classical Voice, http://www.sfcv.org/arts_revs/sfchambersingers_4_8_03.php (March31,2003).

45

Figure3.4.LuxAeterna.Canonicrhythmicpassages. ThecompositionalstyleofRobertoSierrasearlyworksreflectshisunique

creativeabilitytorecreatemusicalillustrationsofparticularplacesintime,as evidentinIdilio,CantosPopularesandGuakiaBaba.TheseworksrevealSierras abstractmusicalroots,alsoreflectedhisinstrumentalworks.Likewise,Sierra masterfullyinfusesCaribbeanfolkrhythmicandstylisticelementswithin modernmusicalidioms,asobservedintheoratorioLaPelegrinacindeBayoan. 46

CHAPTER4 ANALYTICALANNOTATIONSONSIERRASMISSALATINA Background TheNationalSymphonyOrchestrasassociationwithRobertoSierradates backtotheirfirstperformancesofSASIMA,conductedbyZdenekMacalin1990. SincethentheNationalSymphonyOrchestra(NSO)hascommissionedand performedseveralofSierrascompositionsduringMaestroLeonardSlatkins tenureasMusicDirector.ThemostrecentofthesecompositionswasFandangos,a brieforchestralworkintroducedbySlatkinandtheNSOin2001.In2003, MaestroSlatkinaskedSierratoconsiderwritingaworktocommemoratethe 75thseasonoftheNationalSymphonyOrchestraandthe40thanniversaryofthe ChoralArtsSocietyofWashington,whichalsocelebratestheeffective collaborationofthesetwoorganizationsoverthedecades.Mr.Sierraembraced thisopportunitytowritehismostambitiousworktodate,afullconcertlength settingoftheRomanCatholicmasslastingseventyoneminutesawork describedasoneofSierrasmostwellroundedmasterpieces.78

SierrasstatedpurposeregardinghisMissaLatina(ProPax)isthatitwasa

pleaforpeace.Iwasmotivatedtousetheresourcesavailabletodayforevoking peace,mercy,andforgiveness,commentedSierrainapreconcertinterview.79 RobertoSierrasworkfollowsagreattraditionofmasssettingsdatingbackto GuillaumedeMachautsMissaNotreDame,knownastheoldestknownunified polyphonicsettingofthemass.Sierraspersonalconceptofthemassoriginated fromhisearlychurchmemories:


Myconceptofthemasscamefrommyownexperiencegrowingup asaCatholicinaparticulartimeandplace.Istillrecallvividlyhearing

78 79

Robert Aubry Davis, Pre-concert Lecture with Roberto Sierra (January 31, 2006). John Chester, Pre-concert interview with Roberto Sierra, Library of Congress (February 2,

2006).

47

theMassinLatininmyowntowninPuertoRicowhenIwasachild. Fromthebeginningtherewasformeastrongimpression,whichonly deepenedthroughtheyears.:asenseofmysterycombinedwithboth powerandcompassionintheritualinvolvingthisdeadlanguage,and hearingtheGregorianchantsintonedbythepriest.80

Thecomposerssubtitle,ProPax,identifiestheworkasamassforpeace,

or,asSierrastates,apleaforpeace.Thisideadatesbacktothemasssettingsof previous18thand19thcenturycomposerssuchasHaydnsMassinTimeofWar andBeethovensMissaSolemnis.AtapreconcertlectureofferedattheLibraryof CongressonFebruary2nd2006,Sierrastated:


[]Idontrememberlivinginaperiodwheretherewasnotawar goingonthatdidnotaffectpeopleIknew.Writingamassiswonderful, buthowdoyouwritesomething[mass]withouta[higher]purpose Onehastodeclarethatsortofaspirationforpeace.Ialsochosetextfrom theProperofthemass[intersections]andsetitforspecificreasons, forpeaceortogivethanks[]Iwantedinalimitedandhumbleway toaskforPax.Ithinkweshouldbeaimingatthat.81

ThecomposersoriginalintentionwastosettheOrdinaryoftheMass

[Kyrie,Gloria,Credo,Sanctus,AgnusDei],buthisintrinsicdesireforadeeper meaningleadhimtopreparehisownEnglishtranslations.Inaddition,Sierra becameinspiredtosearchforsuggestedchantpassagesintheLiberusalis.82 SierrasetthesepassagesasintersessionprayersintheIntroitus,Offertory,andat theconcludingsectionoftheAgnusDei. Themassissetforsopranoandbaritonesoloist,chorus,andlargemodern

orchestrawithapercussionsectionthatincludesinstrumentsthatarenot unusualtoday,butaremoregenerallyassociatedwithCaribbeanfolkand popularmusic.OnhischoiceofinstrumentationSierraadds,Theorchestration

80 81

Ibid, Chester. Ibid, Chester 82 The liber usualis contains chants of biblical passages.

48

reflectsmyinterestrelatingtobyethnicbackgroundmergedintothefabricofmy music.83 Thecomposerstitlechoice,MissaLatina,hasdualmeaning.Itreferstothe

traditionalLatintextandtheLatinocharacter.Sierrastates,Itisinfusedwith theCaribbeangesturesthatalludetomypersonalbackground,myownHispanic heritage,whichcolorsomuchofmymusic.84Thesegesturesareparticularly evidentintheLaudamusteoftheGloriaandthePlenisuntcaelioftheSanctus. PriortotheMassanticipatedpremiere,JohnChesterinterviewedthefounder andmusicaldirectoroftheChoralArtsSocietyofWashington,NormanScribner, abouthisconceptionsregardingSierrasmass:


Themembersofthechorusarecrazyforthiswork.Itissoengaging[]It isthekindofmusicthatyoucannotbepartwayto,ifyouareinit,youare inituptoyouneck,itgrabsyourbody.Inalovelydance,itpullsyouright along[]Latinrhythmisaninfectiousgenreanditisrefreshingtohearitin theworksofagreatclassicalmasterlikeRobertoSierra.85

PremierandReception ThepremiereofMissaLatinatookplaceonFebruary24,2006attheJohn

F.KennedyCenterforthePerformingArts,Washington,D.C.LeonardSlatkin ledtheChoralArtsSocietyofWashingtons170voicechorusandtheNational SymphonyOrchestrainastunningperformancethatendedwithaspontaneous andenthusiasticstandingovationfromtheaudience.Themassreceivedcritical acclaimbyT.L.PonickfromtheWashingtonPost,whowrote:


[...]themostsignificantsymphonicpremiereintheDistrictsincethe lateBenjaminBrittensstunningWarRequiemwasfirstperformed inthestillunfinishedWashingtonNationalCathedralinthelate1960s [...]Mr.Sierrasnewworkis,quitesimply,shockinglybrilliant[...]Despite theHispanicexpectationsevokedbytheworkstitle,Mr.SierrasMass

Davis,PreconcertlectureofferedattheLibraryofCongress. Rivera,Personalinterviewwiththecomposer.(February1,2006). 85Chester,PreconcertradiointerviewwithNormanScribner,LibraryofCongress (February2,2006).http://www.vivalavoce.com/?nid=42&sid=299293


83 84

49

oftenreliesonclassicalEuropeanmusicaltradition.ThismakeshisLatino eruptionsallthemoreunexpectedandirresistiblenomoresothaninthis delightfulSanctus.InthissectionsBenedictus,Mr.Sierraalsoconvincingly breaksthepostmodernisttabooagainstmelody,givinghissopranothemost achinglybeautifulsolowehaveheardindecades.Chorus,orchestraand soloiststhentaketheAgnusDeitoanemotionallysatisfyingandredemptive conclusion.AhugebravotoMr.Sierraforhavingthecouragetoinvite audiencesbacktotheconcerthallbygiftingthemwithsomethingwonderful.86

Also,DanielGinsberg,areviewerfortheWashingtonPostwrote:
[MissaLatinais][...]filledwithsuchclassicLatinoelementsassalsalikerhythms,bright orchestralcolorsandevocativepercussion,MissaLatinaisanaturalnextstepforthe52 yearoldcomposer,whosaysheseeksheartfeltmusicwithadeepemotionalcontent. Inthisway,SierrarecallsearlierLatinAmericancomposerssuchasHectorVillaLobos andAlbertoGinastera,whofeaturedsoundsfromtheirrespectiveBrazilianand Argentinehomes.OsvaldoGolijovofArgentinaisperhapstheonlyothercomposer todaywhopossessesthesamecommandoftheLatinworldsuniqueidiom.87

TimPagefromtheWashingtonPostwrote:
[...]theMissaLatinaisremarkablyorganicinitsexpression:Ifitismusicthatsetsoutto belikedperhapsloveditisalsoaunifiedand,onesuspects,deeplyfeltutteranceof theheart.Itcertainlyreceivedajoyfulsendoff.Thechorussoundedbothtransparent andpowerful;sopranoHeidiGrantMurphysangherlong,limpidpartwithafreshand floridsweetness,whileNathanielWebsterbroughtdecorumandagilitytothepassages forbaritone.Slatkin,whocommissionedtheMissa,seemedtobehavingthetimeofhis life,workinghard,conductingwithaffection,withafullcommandofthescoresmany complicationsandthatsamesenseofrapt,delighteddiscoveryIrecallfromhisyears withtheSt.LouisSymphony.Judginganyworkontheevidenceofsuchabrief acquaintanceisalwaysrisky;still,itisprobablysafetosaythattheMissaLatinawill bringpleasuretoagreatmanylisteners.SamuelJohnsonusedtosaythatthefirstdutyof abookwastomakeuswanttoreaditthrough;similarly,Icantimagineanybodywho startslisteningtotheMissaLatinawantingtoturnitoffbeforeitisover.88

Scribneralsovoicedhisaccoladesduringalocalradiointerview:
Thisisaworkthathasgreatgrandeurandimmediatelyconnectswithitsaudience [Instantly],andyet,ithasthedepthwhichwillassureitslonglifefarbeyondouryears [...]IwouldliketopaytributetoRobertoandothercomposerswhohavejoinedhis

T.L.Ponick,HighRewardinMissaLatina,TheWashingtonPost(February4,2006). DanielGinsburg,ComposerRidesIslandsFolkCurrent,TheWashigntonPost(January 29,2006),N10). 88TimPage,TheJoyfulNoiseofMissaLatina,February3,2006,TheWashingtonPost,C4.


86 87

50

persuasionthatthebiggestchallengeofourtimeistoreconnectthecomposertoits audience[...]MissaLatinaeasilytakesitsplaceasoneofthemasterpiecesofourtime.89

LeonardSlatkinstated:

Whenwespeakofmusicinaninternationallanguage,nocomposerbetterexemplifies thatthanRoberto.Hismusicisawonderfulblendofsounds[]TheMissaLatinashows himattheheightofhiscompositionalpowers.Itusestraditionandcreativityina uniquemannerthatcanonlybedescribedasSierraesque.90 Followingthepremiere,composerRobertoSierra,accompaniedby

conductorLeonardSlatkin,choralconductor,NormanScribner,andsoloists, offeredapostconcertdiscussiontotheconcertattendees.Init,conductor LeonardSlatkinledaninformaldiscussionincludingtheirpersonalimpressions regardingthemass,aswellasperformancecommentary.Slatkinbegan, commentingthattheorchestradidnotsolelydoublethechoir,but,rather,hadits ownmusicalmaterial.Inaddition,baritonesoloistNathanielWebsterstated,I foundthevoiceleadingtobeclearandfriendlytomypassagesasentiment echoedbysopranoHeidiGrant.91 LeonardSlatkinconcludedthelecturebysolicitingtheaudiences comprisedofconcertviewers,performersandcriticspersonalimpressions regardingtheMass.Theresponsefromtheaudiencewasoverwhelmingly positiveincludingcommentssuchas:Iamamazedonhowthecomposer broughtthecontemporaryidiomofthisLatinmasstotodaysaudience,and

89

JohnChester,PreconcertinterviewwithRobertoSierra,LibraryofCongress(February

2,2006). http://www.subitomusic.com/thecomposer_news.htm. LeonardSlatkin,PostConcertDiscussion,KennedyCenterforthePerformingArts (February2,2006).


90 91

51

[]thismusictranscendstheLatinexpectationsandhasamoreuniversal appeal.92 StylisticConsiderations Thoughhehasnotentirelyrejectedtheastringentmodernistsound,Sierra

describeshismusicasheartfeltmusicwithadeepemotionalcontent.Sierra treadsamoremelodicterrainthanotherLatininspiredcomposersworking today,whichiswhatattractedNSOMusicDirectorLeonardSlatkintohiswork. Thecomposerutilizesavarietyofcompositionaltechniquesandstylesto expresshispersonalviewofthemasstext.Inaddition,eachmovementofthe masshasitsowndistinctflavor,orasthecomposerdescribes,adifferent tradition,yetisclearlyunifiedbyrhythmicandharmoniccoherentelements. Theopeningmovementofthemass(Introitus)employschantlikemelodies,open parallelharmonies,useofdifferentmodalitieswithhintsofnondiatonic harmonies,andsuperimposedtext,revealingSierrasabilitytosynthesizetheold andthenew. Thesecondmovement(Kyrie)displaysSierrascreativeuseoftexturesby playingwiththehomophonicversuspolyphonicsettingsofthetext.The composerusesthepleadingmomentsofthistexttoweavethesoloistslinesin andoutofthetexturewhilethechorussings,thuscreatingasenseofdialogue betweenthesoloistsandchoir.Thismovementalsointroducesharmonicshifts betweendiatonicandnondiatonicsonoritieswhichareprevalentthroughoutthe mass,asifsymbolizingourstruggleforpeace.Inaddition,Sierrausesthe Christemiddlesectionofthismovementtoformallyintroducesegmentsofthe

92

Ibid, Slatkin.

52

principalrhythmicmotive,which,accordingtothecomposer,cannotbelabel sincetheyareallderivedfromthesamemotherfigure.93 Thefourthmovement(Gloria)isamultisectionalsettingwhichutilizes alternativeharmonicvarietyalludingtodiatonic,modal,andseveralnon diatonicsonorities.Inaddition,theLaudamustesubsectionfeaturesthechoir andsoloistspraisingGodasSierrasetstheirwordstotherhythmsofsalsa music.Thissectionendswithainspiritedfugatopassagesupportedbythe orchestrassyncopatedLatinrhythms. YetitisinthecentralCredomovementinwhichthecomposerbelieves thathisviewofspiritualityandtoleranceandtheirroleincontributingtopeace emergemostclearly.AccordingtoScribner,Sierrahasverynewwaystotalk abouttheCredo,newwaystosetthetrialsandtribulationsofourtimesregarding organizedreligion.TheCredoisthesinglemovementthathadthemostunique andspecialimpactofallthemovementsofthismasterpiece.94Thiscentral movementsuseofvariationinsomecasesservesasstructuralunification.By bringingbacktheprimarymotivesafteracontrastingsection,Sierracreates structuralclarity.Also,Sierrasuseoftempovariation(slowfastslow)between subsectionsprovidestructuralclarityandbalanceinthistwentyminutelong movement. Inthefifthmovement(Offertorium),Sierraemploysamultistylistic approachtoillustratethemeaningtext.TheOffertoriumbeginswithadramatic orchestralpreludewhosetextureandintensitygraduallydissipateasitleadsinto theBaritonestranquilprayerofpeaceforJerusalem[humanity].Subsequently, thecomposerreversesthisapproachbyaddingtheSopranosoloistsandchoir. SierraalsoreintroducestheLatinrhythmicelementandconcludeswiththe
93 94

Sierra,PersonalInterviewwithcomposer(February1,2006). Slatkin,Postconcertdiscussion(February2,2006).

53

choirsrhythmicmotivesthatorganicallyintensifytowardstheirfinal acclamationonthewordAlleluia. Thesixthmovement,(Sanctus),employsasimilarmultistylisticapproach tothesettingofitstextasinthepreviousmovement.Thatis,themovement beginswithanenergeticsection,SanctusDominus,followedbyamoreflowing section,featuringdancelikeLatinrhythmsplenisuntcaeli.Thepenultimate sectionfeaturesonethemassmostbeautifulmelodiesfeaturingtheSoprano, Baritone,andchoir.Sierraunifiesthisshortmovementbyculminatingwitha modifiedreturnoftheBsection. Thelastsectionofthemass,AgnusDei,featurestheBaritone,Soprano,

andchorussingingoneofSierrasmostexquisiteandbreathtakingpassagesof hismass(Pacemdominus).Thispassagefeaturestheonlyacappellapassageof themass.ThisisfollowedthedancingmelodiesofthefinalAlleluiasection. AnalysisofMissaLatina SierrasstatedpurposeregardinghisMissaLatina(Propax)isapleafor

peace.Iwasmotivatedtousetheresourcesavailabletodayforevokingpeace, mercy,andforgiveness,95commentedSierrainapreconcertinterview.Initially, Sierrabegantosetjusttheordinaryofthemass,butsoonrealizedhisneedfora higherpurpose,forworldpeace.Asaresult,Sierraincludedseveraltext passagesfromtheproperofthemasshefoundintheLiberUsualis,makinghis workmoreofavotivemass.96 Thecomposerstitlechoice,MissaLatina,referstothetraditionalLatintext

andtheLatinocharacter.Sierrastates,ItisinfusedwiththeCaribbean

Chester,Preconcertinterview(February2,2006). Ibid,Chester,(2006). 96Ibid,Chester,(2006)


95 67

54

gesturesthatalludetomypersonalbackground,myownHispanicheritage, whichcolorsomuchofmymusic.97Thesegesturesareparticularlyevidentin theLaudamusteoftheGloriaandthePlenisuntcaelioftheSanctus. Introitus(ProPax) SierrasmassbeginswithanIntroitsubtitledPropax,intendedasaprayer forpeace.98TheIntroitisoneofthefivePropersoftheMass,originallysungby thescholatoaccompanytheentranceofclergytothealtaratthebeginningofthe Mass.99Thisfirstmovementissetforsopranosolo,SAchorus,andorchestrain binaryform(A,B,Coda)(seeTable4.1).ThetempoindicationismarkedComo unaplegaria(quarternote=56).Thesopranobeginsherplea,singinginmessadi vocethewordsDapacemDomine.Thisimportantmelodicmotifisutilized throughouttheentiremovement.ThismotifisbasedupontheDapacemdomine chant(seefigure4.2).Herprayerisaccompaniedbytheorchestrassustained parallelfourthandfifthharmoniesmovingbystepsinthelowerstringsagainst ornamentedsegmentsinthewoodwinds.

ThistextistraditionallysetforthetwentyeighthSundayafterPentecostinthe liturgicalyear(PostVaticanII)andbasedonSir.36:18,Ps.121accordingtotheLiberUsualis.Hee WonChung,AConductorsGuidetoRomanLiturgy(D.M.A.)(Diss,UniversityofWashington, 2004):237. 99RonJeffers,TranslationsandAnnotationsofChoralRepertoire.SacredLatinText.1. Corvallis,Oregon:Earthsongs(1988):46.


98

55

Figure.4.1.DapacemdomineoriginalchantinDPhrygian. TheharmonicpalateoftheIntroitusfluctuatesbetweenDAeolianandD Phrygianwithsubtlehintsofoctatonicsonorities.Thesopranosoloistsmelodic materialiscomposedofarchlikelyricallinesmovinginstepwisemotion. Occasionalskipsbythirdsandleapsarereservedforphraseextensionsor theintroductionofnewmaterial.Thesopranosoloistslineisfrequently ornamentedwithfloridpassagescontaininganunevennumberofsixteenthnote figurescontainingtriplets,quintupletsandseptuplets,whiletheorchestrasline containsasenseofmetricregularity.

Figure4.2.Introit.DapacemdomineinDPhrygian. 56

Bytheendofthethirdphrase(mm.1017),amoredefinedsenseof rhythmicmotionisclearlyestablished.Thefirstclimaticmomentofthismass occursonthelastphrase,etplebestuaeIsrael(thepeopleofIsraelasGods servants),atwhichpointthesopranossustainedGisheardovertheorchestras rapidlyascendingDPhrygianscalarpassageswhichcadenceforthefirsttime withamajorsonority(mm.3838).SectionAconcludeswithabriefrestatement oftheinitialmelodicmaterial,thistimeperformedbytheoboeandclarinetand spicedwithsubtleoctatonicflavorsaboveaDpedal,depictingascene reminiscentofancientJudaictimes(mm.4147).100 IntheBsectionoftheIntroitus,Sierrajuxtaposestheinitialphrasesofthe LaetatusSum101againsttheGloriaPatri,whichistraditionallyrecitedaftereach psalmintheDivineOfficesinceSt.BenedictsRuleof525.102Sierraseamlessly interweavesthesetwoinsteadofpresentingeachseparately.Thefemalevoices chanttheLeatatusSuminunison,whilethesopranosoloistsimultaneously carriesthetextoftheGloriaPatrioverthefemalevoices.Bothoftheselines mergeatthefinalAmensection,thusendingthemovementwithopenfourths inDPhrygian,asitoriginallystarted. ThroughouttheIntroitus,Sierrasexpressivesettingofthetextcontains someofthesamemelodiccharacteristicsassociatedwithchant.Regardingthe intervalsbetweenpitchesinchantmelodies,RichardHoppinstates:
Inalltypesofchant,melodicprogressionsareprimarilyconjunctthatismovingby stepupordownthenotesofthemode.Skipsofathirdineitherdirectionarethemost commonformofdisjunctmotion,andsomechantsconsistofnothingbutseconds,

Vincent Persichetti, TwentiethCenturyHarmony:creativeaspectsandpractice.NewYork, NY.W.W.Norton&company,Inc.(1961):3544. 101BasedonPs.121:1,V.7istraditionalusedasagradualinthemasssetting.Thefirst verseofLaetatussumisemployedonLaetateSunday(the4thSundayofLent)asapsalmverse fortheIntroit(LaetareJerusalem). 102Jeffers:4546.


100

57

thirds,andrepeatednotes.Throughouttherepertory,thepredominanceofstepwise motionwithoccasionalskipsofathirdproducesasmoothnessanduniformitythat greatlyincreasetheeffectivenessoflargermelodicintervals.103

Themelodicmaterialofthesopranosoloandunisonfemalevoicesexhibit characteristicssimilartothosedescribedbyHoppin(1978).Furthermore, Sierrasuseofmetricfreedomofthetextconformstothenaturalsyllabic inflection(agogicacent),resultinginaflowing,chantliketreatmentofthetext.

Figure4.3.Introitus.SuperimposedGloriapatriandLaetatussum texts ThelastfourteenmeasuresoftheIntroitusincludeacoda.Inthiscoda,Sierra providesunitybyreintroducing,withmodification,theopeningrhythmic motive,andsubtlyintroducestheprincipalrhythmiccellheardthroughoutthe

103

Hoppin,MedievalMusic,p.15

58

mass,knownasatresillo(mm.7790).Therhythmicbasisofthetresillostems fromtheadditiverhythmicconceptof3+3+2,countingthefastestmovingpulse (seefigure4.2).104Thetresilloisthecentralrhythmicfigureexploredthroughout theMissaLatina.Furthermore,thisadditiverhythmicpatternisthebasisofother folkandpopularCaribbeanmusic. Table4.1.Movement1(Introitus).FormalStructure

Movement1.Introitus Form Text Tempo TimeSignature Forces TonalArea Length A Dapacemdomine Comounaplegaria q=54 3/4 Sopsolo,Orch daeolean/phrygian 48mm B Leataussum Unpocomas q=56 3/4 Ssolo,SAChoir,Orch Dphrygian/octatonic 28mm Coda (Understated Introduction) Unpocomas q=56 3/4 Orch. gaeolean 14mm

Sierrachoosestointroducethetresilloinanunderstatedmannerby settingittoaslowtempo(quarternote=58),andassigningittothecontrabass lowregisterwithaccompanimentbypizzicatostringsintriplemeter.Sierra juxtaposesthisrhythmicmotiveagainstthefragmentedmelodyheardinthe upperstrings.Additionally,thecomposeralsoincludesotherrhythmicpatterns writtenforthemaracasandclavesinduplemeter(seefigure4.4.) SierraalsousestheCodatoprovidethismovementbalanceandstructure. ThemelodicmaterialheardintheCodaisderivedfromthesopranosopening motive,yettransposedtoGAeolean(seeFigure4.5).


Jos Manuel Lezcano, Afron-Cuban Rhythmic and Metric Elements in the Published Choral and Vocal Works of Alejandro Garca Cartula and Amadeo Roldn, Dissertation, Florida State University (1991): 49.
104

59

Figure4.4.IntroitusCoda.Introductionofthetresillorhythmicfigure. Kyrie Thesecondmovementofthemassissetforsoprano,baritonesoloists,and chorusinABAform(Figure4.6).Thetempomarkingindicatingcongran expression(quarternote=58)beginswithadescendingDoctatonicscale(D,Db,F, F#,G#,G,B,C),employingsharpminorsecondsdissonancesoneachstrong beatanddissolvingintoparallelfifths(F#sharpandC#sharp).Theopening twomeasuresoftheKyrie105,introducedbytheorchestrastriplefortedissonant chords,createanabruptdynamiccontrasttothepreviousmovement(seeFigure 4.5).Thefirstpartofthismovementconsistsofthreeintroductorychoral

Kyrie, the first part of the Ordinary of the Mass, is a part of the opening Entrance rite of the Roman Church and is sung immediately following the Introit.

105

60

statementsofKyrieeleison(Christ,havemercy)inf#minor,eachinterruptedby atwomeasureinstrumentalinterludeemployingoctatonicharmonies. Thisstoicandangularintroductorypassage(mm.114)isfollowedbya lyricalandrhythmicallydrivencallandresponsesectionbetweensoloistsand thechorusinF#naturalminorandmelodicminor(mm.1529).Inaddition,Sierra reintroducesthetresillofigurepreviouslyintroducedintheIntroituscoda.He alsosuperimposesseveralrhythmicfiguresincludingthequintillo,arhythmic figureplayedbytheguiro.106

Figure4.5.Kyrie.Introduction(Octatonic)

Giro is a percussion instrument which, along with the claves, cowbell, and maracas, is found in many Spanish speaking Caribbean cultures. Dale A. Olsen & Daniel E. Sheehy, The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music. New York, NY:Garland Publishing Inc. (2000):135.

106

61

TheBsectioncontrastsrhythmicallyandtexturallyfromtheAsection. Forthiscontrastingsection,Sierraassignsthefirsttwoadditivesegmentsofthe tresillotothebaritoneandsopranosoloparts,heardonthewordChriste (Christ,seeFigure),andassignsthequintillopatterntotheguiroandclarinet parts.Theserhythmicpatternsarethenjuxtaposedagainstthechoralparts, horns,andstringssustainedphrases,fluctuatingbetweendiatonicandoctatonic harmonies.Themiddlesectionalsointroducesthe3/2clavepattern(seefigure 4.6),culminatinginarhythmicacclamation.TheBsectionendswitha modulatingcadentialextensiondeliveredbythesoloistsandprecededbyafour measureinstrumentalinterlude.ThisinterludemodulateschromaticallytoDb major,ultimatelyreturningtoF#sharpharmonicminor.

Figure4.6.Kyrie.Introductionofthetresillomotive.

62

TheAsectionreturnswiththechoirsrestatementofthewordsKyrie eleison.Sierrausesasimilarrhythmicandtexturallayouttotheopeningsection (astepwiselinearapproachwhichcadencesintoopenfifthsbycontrarymotion). However,Sierrachangesthemelodicdirectionoftheinnervoicesandthe harmonicprogression.

Figure4.7.Christeeleison.Tresilloandquintillorhythmicmotives. ThelastsectionrecapitulatestheprimarymotivesoftheAsection, returninginitsoriginaltonalareainF#sharpharmonicminor.Oneofthemost noticeablemodificationsinthissectionistheinterexchangeofthemelodic materialbetweenthechoirandsoloists.ThelastchoralstatementsoftheKyrie endinthesamewaytheywereintroducedintheopeningstatementsofthis movement.Likewise,Sierraconcludeswiththeorchestrasascendingminor

63

secondsheardincontrarymotiontotheopeningdescendingscale,tonicizedby theuseofDpedal. Table4.2.Movement3(Kyrie).FormalStructure Movement2.Kyrie


Form Text Tempo Sub Sections Meter Forces Tonal Area Length A Kyrieeleison B Christeeleison Congranexpression(q=58) a 4/4 Choir F# har./minor Octatonic 14mm S,B,Choir F#har./ minor 25mm b c Transition a b Coda A Kyrieeleison

4/4 S,B&Choir FMajtoDbMaj

4/4 S,B,Choir Dd f#m (Bb/D) F7 14mm 12mm 6mm

26mm

Gloria GloriainexcelsisisthesecondpartoftheOrdinary.Thishymnofpraise

addressesitselftoeachPersonoftheHolyTrinity:GodtheFather,GodtheSon, andGodtheHolySpirit,andcontainsahymnusangelicus,acclamations, invocations,petitions,andadoxology.107Thisparticularsettingisdividedinto eightsections,inadditiontoabriefinstrumentalinterludetotaling612measures inlength.Theoverallformofthismovement(ABCDEFGA)isthrough composedfromatexturalperspective.However,alleightsectionsare harmonicalyrelated(seeTable4.3).

The Gloria is one of the psalmi idiotici, a psalm-like text composed by an individual rather than being taken from the Biblical Psalter. Jeffers, 2000: 46.

107

64

Gloriainexcelsis Sierrabeginsthishighlyrhythmicandfestivemovementwithatempo indicationof(dottedquarter=126)markedCongranallegria(withgreatjoy).Sierra adoptsthetresillosadditivepattern(3+3+2)asitsopeningtimesignature.This tresillopatterncanclearlybeseenintheorchestralwriting,aswellasthevocal writing.AonemeasureascendingCovertonescale108precedesthesopranos entranceonthewordGloria.Thispatternisfollowedbytheremainingvocal partsatpointsofimitationeverytwomeasures(mm113). Sierrafollowstheopeningsectionwithasupplicationforworldpeace(et interrapax).Thesectionbeginswithmalevoicesofthechorussinginginunison, followedbyabaritonesoloist.Thefemalevoicesofthechoruslaterenterin homophony,concludingonthewordpaxandfollowedbyafestive instrumentalinterludeinFmixolydian. Sierra repeats the opening text, and although the text is repeated, he only recapitulates the motive from measures 11 through 15, with slight modifications. Sierrachangestheaccompanyingrhythmicpatternintheorchestratoincludethe quintillo figure and concludes this section with a coda, which contains a three fold proclamation of the opening motive followed by another instrumental interludeinovertonesonorities.
The overtone scale, is a non-diatonic scale based on the eighth to fourteenth partials of the overtone series (C,D,E,F#,G,A,Bb,C). Elliott Antokoletz, Transformations of a Special non-diatonic mode in Twentieth-Century Music: Bartok, Stravinsky, and Scriabin, and Albrecht. Musical Analysis, 12/1, (March 1993): 25-45.
108

65

Table4.3.Movement3(Gloria).FormalStructure
Text Form Tempo Gloria A Con allegria (h.=126) Time Signature Forces 3+3+2 baritone, Choir C(OT), Oct, Fmix. F/B/F, (OT) 113mm Laudamus B Congusto Movement3.Gloria Gratias Domine QuiTolis Quoniam InGloria Deus tuSolus C D E F G Moderato (q=84) 3/4 soprano Women Baeolean to Dmaj7 Rapido (q.=116) 6/8 S,B, Chorus Expresivo (h=58) 4/4 3/4 Chorus Rapido (h.)=76 Cuttime S,B, Chorus Octatoni c 3+3+2 Chorus Gloria A

(q=120)
4/4 baritone, Chorus D Mixolydia n vI

Tonal Area

Length

45mm

44mm

S,B, Chorus,Or ch A,D D aeolean aeolean Cphy, Oct. Oct, FLydian Aminor Fmixo, Oct. 138mm 67mm

Dphry, Bbmaj, Oct, C(OT)

C(OT) to CMaj.

59mm

118mm

32mm

66

Figure4.8.Gloriainexcelsis.Tresillorhythmusedasthemeter. Laudamuste LaudamusterevealsSierrascreativeabilitytoinfuseLatinofolkand popularrhythmicelementswithecclesiastictext.Thishymnofpraiseissetin Chachachstyle109,mimickingapopularmusicalCubandanceformwithorigins rootedintheCubandanzn.110Sierrastempoindicationof(quarternote=120) markedCongusto(withflavor)adoptsasimilarformalstructure(ABA)tothat usedintheprevioussection.Theharmonicprogressionforthissectionisbased ona(iiV)progression111,allowingthemusictodevelopthroughthesequential layeringofmelodicandrhythmicelements.

109 80

A Cuban dance from Peter Manuel, Popular Musics of the Western World (1988): 31. Olsen & Sheehy, 135. Rebeca Mauleon, The Salsa Guide Book for Piano & Ensemble (1993):142.

111

67

ThebaritonesolobeginsthismovementwithathreemeasureincipitinF Lydian(mm.110113,seeFigure4.9.)TheAsectionstartswiththewomens entrance,singinginfourpartharmonytheopeningmotive(Laudamuste)inthe twomeasurerhythmicpatternperformedthroughoutthissection,inconjunction withsixadditionallayersplayedbytheorchestraasanostinato.Sierracontinues todevelopthemontuno112byaddingfirstthebaritonesolowithshort improvisatorylikesyncopatedmotives,resultingincrossrhythmicinteractions (mm.118).Thissectiondevelopsfurtherasthemalesectionofthechorussings thecontrabasspart(tumbao113)withtext.However,themotivicmaterialinthe nextsection,performedbythefemalevoicesandechoedbymalevoices,contains moresustainedlyricallines.Thesewordsarelaterheardatpointsofimitation everytwobeats(mm.141146),endingwithathreefoldhomophonicacclamation bythechorus(glorificamuste,mm.147151).

Figure4.9.BaritonesincipidLaudamustesmontunosection.
112
113

Montuno- a repetitive harmonic progression featuring an instrumental of improvised passage. Tumbao- rhythm used in the Cuban son which anticipates the downbeat.

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Inthelasteightmeasures,insteadofutilizingtheinstrumentalinterlude tocontinuetheclimaticmomentumoftheLaudamuste,Sierracreatestheillusion offreezingtimebyhavingthetrumpetssustaintwopitches(df)forsixbeats. Heintermittentlyinterjectsacallfigure(usuallybyaminorormajorthird), followedbyagradualchangeindynamiclevelandtempo(seetable3).Sierra usesthiscompositionaldevicefrequentlythroughoutthemasstoindicatethe endofasectionorintroducenewharmonicmaterial.

Figure4.10.Gloria.Glorificamuste. Gratiasagimus Thenextsection,Gratiasagimus,featuresthesopranosolosingingina

verysimplestyle.Thisacclamationintriplemeterismarkedmoderatowitha tempoindication(quarternote=84).Inaddition,itstonalcenter(baeolean)

69

beginsontherelativeminoroftheprecedingmovement.However,Sierraseems toavoidtonicizingthemotivicmaterialwhichstartsonf#,thethirdofthescale degreeofthelasttonalarea(Dmajor)oftheLaudamuste,anddominantofthe newtonalarea(baeolean)mode.Thispracticeiscarriedoutthroughoutthis section,placingthesopranoontheseventhscaledegreeoftheDmajor,whilethe choirendsonthethirdandfifthscaledegreeofaDmaj7chord.Inadditionto thisambiguityofmodes,Sierraavoidssymmetricalphraselengths.The asymmetricalphrasestructureiscomprisedofthreesegments[(2+5+5)+(2+5+5)+ (3+5+3)]whichareinterconnectedbyinterweavinginstrumentalelisions.Sierra concludesthissectionwithacadentialextension.Asinthelastsection,thecall motiveisheardduringthelastthreemeasures. DomineDeus Usedasapetitioninthemass,DomineDeusismarkedrpidowithtempo indication(dottedquarternote=116)in6/8,andbeginswithasixmeasure instrumentalprelude.Thepreludeemploysastreamofcontinuouspulsating eighthnotes.Thistechniquesetsintomotionthishighlysyncopatedmovement filledwithcrosspassages.Itsformalstructureconsistsofsmall,definedsections internaryform(ABB1A1).Thefirstsectionstartswiththealtosandbasses singinginoctavethewordsDomineDeus(m.208),andlatertheyarejoinedby thesopranoandtenorsvoicesattheoctaveabove,singingasimilarmotivein imitation.Thissectionsoondevelopsintoarhythmicallydrivenpassage, alternatingbetweenthedupleandtriplemetricpulses. TheBsectionbeginswithsoftandsustainedfluidvocallines accompaniedbytheorchestrasundulatingeighthnotemotionwithnondiatonic sonorities.ItprovidesasubtlecontrastincharacterasitdescribestheFili unigente(OnlySonoftheFather,mm.252). 70

ThereturnoftheAsectionarriveswithaquicktransitionfromoctatonic sonoritiestodiatonictonalities(Dmaj)onDomineDeus,AgnusDei(mm.304). SierraalsocombinesthemusicalelementswhichcharacterizedtheAsection, includingrapidlypulsatingeighthnotesandrhythmicvocalsegmentsonDomine Deus.Hethenreplacestherhythmicvocalsegmentswithlyricalwritinginthe vocalparts.Furthermore,Sierrabuildsthemomentumtowardtheclimaticfinal chordbybuildingonasenseofexpansivenessinthechoralwriting,densityof orchestraltexture,andtheuseoffunctionalharmonyleadingtothefinalcadence onthewordsFiliusPatris(Sonofthefather,mm.322).Sierraalsosurprisesthe listenerbyplacinganAmajorchordagainstanAminorchordonthisclimatic chordacompositionaltrademarkalsofoundintheworksofScriabin.The remainingtwelvemeasuresfollowingthisclimaxgraduallychangedynamic, textureandtempo,transitioningtotheprayerfulQuitolismovement.Sierra achievesthistransitionbyreturningtothecallmotive(ca)playedbythebrass totonicize(Aminor). Quitolis Quitolisisacontrastingsectionwhichbeginswitharecurringrhythmic

drone(tresillofigure)carriedbythetimpaniandlowstringsandaccompanied withfreeornamentedpassagesbythefluteandoboetocreateamysticalmood. Itsslowtempoindication(quarternote=58),markedexpresivoincommonmeter, setsthemoodforthisreverentpetitionfortheremissionofsins.Beginningwith aduetinimitativestyleinaaeoleanmode,thebaritoneandsopranoaresoon joinedbythechorus,gentlyechoinginhomophony,Misererenobis. Throughoutthemovement,Sierrausespoeticimagerytoexpressthe pathosofthetext.Forinstance,themelodiccontourofwordssuchasquitolis andmiserenobisaregenerallywrittenindescendingmanner,depictingthe 71

sins,whilequisedesadexteramPatris,meaningyouwhoareseatedatthe righthandoftheFather,isheardinascendingmanner. SierrassensitivitytothechoralsingermakestheMissaLatinachallenging butaccessibletosingers.Inapreconcertinterview,NormanScribner commentedonSierraskeensenseofvoiceleading:Nomatterhowdifficultthe passage,he[Sierra]haspreparedavocallineeitherthroughavocalor instrumentalpassageleadingoranticipatingthepitchorjustdoublesthevoices atthespotneededthemost.Aclearexampleisfoundpriortothechoirs entranceonthewordsQuisedesadexteramPatris(mm.371,seefigure4.12),and thefollowingmensentrance(mm.374). Inthispassage,Sierrausesonlythreeinstrumentsinthemeasurepriorto thechoirsentrance(anticipatingtheirpitches,CandBb,seefigure4.12.)The trumpetandharpplaythesepitchesontheendofthesecondbeat,whichis

Figure.4.11.Gloria.DomineDeusfinalphrase.

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immediatelyfollowedbyaclarinettrillonthethirdbeat,isolatingthesetwo pitches.Likewise,Sierraemploysasimilarapproachafterthechoirsreleaseon thewordPatris.Inthiscase,theinstrumentalpassageprovidesthepitchseveral beatspriorwithatrill,thusfacilitatingthebassesandtenorsentranceonatri toneandmajorseventhbelow.

Figure.4.12.Gloria.QuisedesadeteramPatris. QuoniamtusolosSanctus QuoniamtusolosSanctusisthefinalsectionoftheGloriaandissetintriple

meterwithtempoindication(dottedhalfnote=76)andmarkedrpido.This organicsettingbeginswithaonemeasureintroduction,leadingtothetenors (piano)entranceonQuoniamtusolusSanctusandlaterechoedbythebasses, sopranosandaltosatpointsofimitation.ThisphrasebuildstoSanctusDominus, endinginhomophonywhiletheorchestrastripletfiguresreinforcetheillusion ofexpansion(mm.423).Sierracontinuestoexpandthisideainthesecondphrase asheemploysasimilarorganicapproachonthewordsQuoniantusolusaltisimus JesuChriste.Thenexttwentymeasuresfeatureashortinstrumentalinterlude 73

followedbythechoirstriplefortehomophonicacclamationofcumSantoSpirito ingloriadeiPatri,Amen. TheGloriaendswithauniquesettingofInGloriadeiPatriinfugato style,accompaniedbyLatinrhythmicpatterns.Again,Sierrascreativeabilityto infuseLatinflavorsintocontemporarymusicismasterfullydemonstratedas hetransformstherhythmictexturebyjuxtaposinglayersofrhythmicpatterns inherentinsonmontunostyle.Thesonmontunoisthetermusedtoidentifythe repeatedsyncopatedpianovamp.Itconsistsofatwomeasurepatterncontaining twostrongbeatsfollowedbysevenupbeats(seefigure4.12).Theroleofthe pianointhistypeofmusicismoreofarhythmicone,asitplaysrepeatedostianti (vamp)whileitalsoestablishestheharmonicfoundationofthemusic.114 Anotherinstrumentsharingasimilarroleisthedoublebass,usedinthis sectiontoreinforcethetresillopatternanditsharmonicprogression.Inaddition, Sierrausesseveralpercussiveinstrumentsincludingtheclaves,cencerro (cowbell),bongos,congas,xylophone,andmarimba,toaccentuateaspecific patternandstrengthentherhythmictexture(seefigure4.13).Themelodic materialsofthesubjectandcountersubjectarebuiltontwoaugmentedsixth chordsseparatedbyaminorthird.Coincidentally,eachsharethesameprime form[0268]andwhencombined,makeaperfectlysymmetricalscale(seefigure 4.13).

114

Maulen,The Salsa Guide Book for Piano & Ensemble (1993):118.

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Figure.4.13.Gloria.InGloriadeiPatris.Subject(primarymotive).Fugatosection. Sierrabuildsthefugalsectioninpyramidformation.115Thesubjectsfirst appearanceisintroducedbythebassesonpitchclass[7,1,3]beginningonaG pitch,whichislocatedatthemidpointofaC#(0,1)octatonicscale.Accordingto Persichetti116,thetritoneintervaldividestheoctatonicscaleintoequalsegments, makingitsrelationshipcomparabletothedominantfunction.Thefugalmotiveis lateransweredbythetenorsonetritoneapart,beginningonaC#withpitch class[1,9,7].Similarly,thealtoandsopranocounterpartsrepeatthispattern. Aftertheexposition,Sierrausesvariouscompositionaltechniquessuchas splittingthefugalsubjectbetweentwovoices(mm.485490,seefigure4.14), inversionsandtranspositions.Thesectionconcludeswithacrossrhythmic

Pyramid formation is a textural device that layers each voice, beginning with the basses and ending with sopranos. 116 Persichetti, 35.

115

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passageemployingsyncopatedrhythmicvariationsofthewordAmen (mm.501).

Figure.4.14.Gloria.Fugatosection.Subjectinvertedandtransposed. Abriefdevelopmentsectionbasedontheoriginalmotiveisdeveloped andsubjectedtovariouscountertechniques(mm.508519).Thecomposer transformsthepassagebyintroducingadifferentoctatonicscaleB(0,1)and changesitstexturebyassigningthemelodicmaterialtothesopranoandbaritone soloists.Inaddition,hereassignsthepianosmontunopatterntothemarimba andxylophoneparts,interchangeably. ThefugalmotivereturnsonCumSantoSpirituinverted,transposed,and rhythmicallymodifiedinthetenorpart,pitchclass{137},andansweredbythe sopranosatritoneapart(mm.519532,seefigure4.15).Meanwhile,thealtos reintroducetheprincipalmotivesanswer,andthebassesconcludewiththe principalfugalmotive.

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Thesecondpartofthisreturnfeaturesthesopranoandbaritonesoloists accompaniedbythechoirsamensegments.Sierrasetsthesesegments utilizingthealtos,tenorsandbassesinstrictimitationonAmenandrhythmic diminution.Thisjoyousmovementreturnstothematerialfoundintheopening sectionoftheentiremovement(GloriainexcelsisDeo)includingitsadditive (3+3+2)timesignaturewithCovertonesonorities.However,thechoirslastword (Gloria)culminatesonasustainedCmajorchord.

Figure.4.15.Gloria.ReturnoftheASection. Credo TheCredoisastatementoffaith,whichstandsasthecentralfigureofthe mass.Becauseofitsextendedtext,itisthelongestmovementofthemass,lasting twentyoneminutesinlength.Sierrassettingfeaturesasoprano,baritone Soloistsandchoruswithtempoindication(quarternote=69)andmarkedintenso. Thismovementbeginswiththesopranoandbaritonesoloistsquietandalmost 77

doubtfulstatementofthewordcredo.Sierrasetsthistextwithtwoquasi atonalcredomotiveswithpitchclass{6521},{4652}.Thesemotivesarelater heardinvertedandtransposedthroughthemovement(seeFigure4.17).Thisis thenechoedbysuspendedharmoniessungbythechorus.Thecomposer suggeststhatthesesuspendedharmoniesrepresentunresolveddoubt. Thismovementencapsulatesthecomposersownpersonalstatementof faith.Sierracomments,Credosareusuallyverycentralized.Onedifferenceis thatmyCredoismoreintrospectiveandofanintimatenaturebecauseitdeals withthepersonalbeliefeveryonehasanddoesntlimitustomembershipin [one]church.117ThefirstclimaticmomentoccursonthewordsPater Omnipotentem(mm.34).Thisfirstsectionendswithaseriesofhomophonic credostatements,eachbecomingshorter,strongerandfasterinanticipationof thebaritonesconfidentarrivalonanEmajorchord.(mm.50) ThroughouttheCredo,themusicdepictsseverallevelsofoppositional

forces.Forinstance,thepreviouspassagerepresentsSierrausesofnondiatonic passages(mm.135)followedbydiatonicharmonies(mm.3556)toportrayour humandesiretobelieveinagreaterpower.

117

Ginsberg, TheWashingtonPost.(January29,2006):N10.

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Figure.4.16.Credo.Credoprincipalmotives. InunumDominum Thenextsection,markedintenso,reintroducestheinunumDeummotive (mm.1215)onthewordsinunumDominum.Thismotiveistransposedand interchangedbetweenthemaleandfemalevoicesofthechorus.Theprevious credomotivereturnsexchangedandtransposedinboththesopranoand baritonesoloparts.Sierrathencreatesadensetextureviatheuseofa polyrhythmicpassagefilledwithsyncopatedvocalostinatopatterns accompaniedbyadenselayeringofdisplacedbeatsintheorchestra(mm.8285). Inthispassage,thethickrhythmicdensitycreatesacacophonyofsounds manipulatedbymetricallydisplacedrhythmiclayersuntilthesenseofmeteris obscured. 79

Figure4.17.Credo.InunumDominummotive. Thispassageisthenfollowedbyabriefanimandosection,withatempo marking(quarternote=152)intriplemeter(mm.94).Thesectionisdiatonicand basedonsonoritiesofaBb7chord.Thevoicesofthechorusenterinpyramid formationbutwithoutpointsofimitation.TheorchestrasimplyreinforcestheBb majorchordwithaDpedaltoreinforceitsrhythmicdrive.Thetexturechanges whenSierraaddsthesolovoicesandthefemalevoicesofthechorusinthirds (BbD)followedbythemalevoices,alsointhirds,resultingincrossrhythms. Withcontinuedrepetition,thetriadexpandstoincludethefullchord. DeumdeDeum TheDeumdeDeumsectionbeginsabruptly,withaforztando(Fo7)chord intheorchestraimmediatelyechoedbythechoirsustainingthetextDeum.The baritoneandsopranosoloalsojoin,singingthesamewords.Thissectionis followedbyanoctatonicpassagefeaturingthesoloistssingingDeumdedeo, lumendelumine(GodofGod,andLightofLight)whilethechorussoftly continuestosustainthesewords,supportingtheirmelodicmaterial.

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NextSierraprovidesabrieftransitioninanothersection,utilizingthe sametext.Thistime,however,Sierralayerseachvocalpartinpyramidformation enteringonemeasureapart.Thisformationplacesthebassesenteringon(Ab) followedbythetenorson(F)andimitatedbythealtosandsopranos, respectively.Themelodicmaterialinthisinitialpassagecontainsonlyfour pitcheswhichtogetherformaBb7chord(Bb,D,F,Ab),whiletheorchestras melodicandharmonicmaterialisfilledwithchromaticpassagesandnon harmonicpassingtones.Inaddition,Sierrasetsthetresillofigure,heardasa rhythmicostinatopatterninthevocalandpercussionparts.Themomentumof thissectiongraduallybuildsintoahighlysyncopatedpassage,employingthe sonoritiesofanalteredoctatonicscale(mm.139147).Thechoircontinuesto developthismotivethroughanotherimitativesection,thistimelayeredinan invertedpyramidformation(S,A,T,B).

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Table4.4.Movement4(Credo).Formalstructure

Credo
Text Credo in unum Deum Et In unum Dominum Deum de Deum Forces S,B, Chorus S, B, Chorus Chorus Tempo Intenso (q =69) Rapido (h=80) S,B, Chorus Baritone, Chorus Lento ( q =69) ( q =138) ( q =96) Orchestral Interlude Crucifixus Et Ascendit Orchestra, S, B, Chorus S, B, divisi Chorus Sop & Bass Duet Espresivo 4/4 3/4 Time Signature 4/4 4/4 4/4 (3+3+2) 3/4 Tonal Area Atonal/ Oct Diatonic/ Nondiatonic D Phrygian to Bb Oct Length 70mm 58mm 90mm

Et incarnates est Et homo factus est

43mm

21mm

(q=63)
Rapido ( q =132) Profunda Expression ( q =48) 4/4 4/4

Chromatic/ Atonal Nondiatonic Oct

54mm

41mm

Cujus regni non erit finis

12mm

Credo et in SprituSancto/ Esclesiam Et vitam enture seculi Amen (Final)

S, T, divisi Chorus S, B, Chorus S, B Duet

Menos ( q =62) Rapido ( q =132) Lento expressivo ( q =60)

4/4

Diatonic/ transitory G aeolean/ Bb/Oct. D major

44mm

4/4

51mm

4/4

15mm

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Etincarnatusest OneofthemostlyricalpassagesoftheCredoisSierrassettingofEt incarntusest,whichdepictstheincarnationoftheHolySpirit.Thispeaceful lullaby,setin3/4meter,featuresaduetbetweenthesopranoandbaritone soloistswhoarelaterjoinedbythechoirontheirlastphrase(mm.250).The passagebeginswiththebaritonesdescendinglineechoedbythesopranoin looseimitation.Throughoutthispassagetheirlyricalmelodiesbecome intermingledinacontinuousstreamofphrasessupportedbytheorchestras noninterruptedeighthnotepassagesflowingthroughthenoncadential material.AspreviouslyheardintheBenedictus,Sierraemploysnontraditional harmonicsequencescreatingasenseoftonalambiguitywhichfluctuates betweentheinitialtonalcenter(DPhrygian)anditsrelativetonalcenter(Bb Ionian),heardatthelastphrasewiththechoirsarrival.

Figure4.18.Credo.Etincarnatusest. SierrasuseofthemysticalsonoritiesinherentintheDPhrygianscale illustrateshowtheHolySpirit,representedbythebaritone,descendsuponthe VirginMary(soprano).Thetonallyundefinedpassages,whichavoid tonicization,representtheinexplicableaccountsofthisevent,stillconsideredone 83

ofthegreatestmiraclesintheChristiandoctrine.Thechoirshomophonic entranceindoublepianoonthelastphraseofthesection(mm.250)symbolizes theaffirmationofsuchamiracle,whileitsaccentuatedrecurring(F)pitcheson thedominantarefollowedbyabrieforchestralinterlude,suggestingthe continuationofthisstory. Crucifixus Thecrucifixion,consideredthecentralthemeoftheChristiandoctrine,is

theonlysectionwithintheCredowhichbeginswithabriefinstrumentalprelude. Sierracreatesrhythmicdensitybysuperimposingpolyrhythmicsubdivisionsof thebeat.Harmonically,thissectioncontainsatonal,extendedoctatonicsegments andchromaticpassages,depictingthefeelingofdistressassociatedwiththe crucifixionpassage.Strongsentimentisbestexpressedbythebaritonesthree foldentranceofthewordcrucifixus,whichbeginsfortissimoandgradually dissipatesasitdescends.Meanwhile,thesopranossoftentranceonthissame wordadoptstheopeningcredomotivelaterjoinedbythechoirsentranceona C#sharpminorchordoncrucifixus(mm.302). Sierraspicturesqueillustrationoftheresurrectionsceneoffersyetanother

lookathisexpressiveuseofwordpaintingtechniques.Oneexampleisobserved attheinitialsyllableofthewordresurrexit(resurrected).Themelodiccontourof thefirstresyllable(EFEDEF),whichusesascendingdescendingascending pattern,suggeststhedeathandresurrectionofChrist.Furthermore,the baritonesascendinglinewhichbeginsonalowcsharpthesamepitchhe employsintroducingthecrucifixionthemearrivesattheoctaveaboveonthe wordstertiadie,orthethirdday(mm.337),providesanotherillustrationofthe resurrection.Furthermore,Sierrabringsliteralmeaningtothewordtertiaby assigningaquarternotetoeachofthethreenaturallysubdividedsyllables. 84

Harmonically,healsotransformstheethosofthewordstertiadie,arrivingonthe theworddie(thirdday)attheAbmajorchordcoincidentally,achromaticthird awayfromthefirstpitchoftertia(Cnatural).

Figure.4.19.Credo.Etresurrexitpassagewordpainting. ThepreviousillustrationservesasapreambletoSierrasmusical

portrayaloftheascension,consideredtobeoneofthegreatestillustrationsof GodsDivinity.Theorchestraprovidesathreemeasureintroductionconsisting ofarapidlyascendingpassage,alsobeginningoncsharp(crucifixion)and leadingtothesopranosthreefoldascendingmelodicsegmentsontheword ascendit,eachstartingonthelastnoteofeachsegmentuntilreachingtheword caelum(heaven)onasustainedhigh(A).Thesopranossoaringvocallineis supportedbythechoirseightpartdivisientrancelayeredinpyramidformation. Thisclimaticpassageisaccompaniedbytheorchestrasexpansivelines,which collectivelybuildtowardcaelumonanFmajorchord(mm.345354).

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Figure.4.20.Credo.Etascenditincaelum. SierrassettingoftheCredocanbestbedescribedasamusicalportrayalof

mansinnerfaithstrugglesinthesearchofspiritualtruth.Thecomposer introducesthisancienttestamentoffaithwithsoftanduncertaincredo statements.Thesesoonbegintoevolveintoshortassertivepassages(mm.50), butarequicklydrawnbackintoquestion(mm.57)asareminderofduality. ThesoloistslaststatementsoftheCredomotivemarkthepivotalpointat whichthemusicbeginstoreflectatransformation(peaceful,expressive, diatonicleapsjoy)throughtheuseofharmoniesandhomophonicvocal phraseswhendescribingthetrinity(Father,Son,HolyGhostetinSpiritum 86

SanctoinAbmajor,mm.400).However,thispeacefulmomentisbriefly interruptedbythepassageoftheCredostating,Ibelieveinoneholycatholic andapostolicchurch. OneofthewaysinwhichSierradivertsfromthetraditionalsettingofthe CredoishisunprecedentedtreatmentofthepassageoftheCredostatingthebelief ofoneApostolicChurch,atwhichhechangesthetexturaldensityofthispassage bydividingthechoirandsoloistsintotenindependentlines.Healsodraws particularattentiontotheEnaturalenharmonicpitchheardaspartofa superimposedostinatopatternsetonebeatapart.Thisresultsinvertical hemeolaswitha3:2relationship(mm.416).ThechoirendsonaCmajorseventh chordaccompaniedbyaseriesoftransposedoctatonicsequencesintheorchestra andresultinginunresolvedharmonies(mm.421). AccordingtoSierra,theunusualtexturaldensityinthissectionrepresents differentchurchesandfaithssearchforsameGod.Hestates,WhentheCredo wasfirstintroducedintheChristianchurch,theCredoreflectedarealisticview oftheChristianrealitywhichatthetimewascorrect.Thatis,theCatholic, Apostolic,andRomanChurchwastheonlywaysforChristians.However,this doesrepresenttherealityofourtimes.Ourmodernsocietynowhasmany churchesandmanyfaiths.118

118

JohnChester,PreconcertinterviewwithRobertoSierra,(2006).

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Figure.4.21.CredoTexturalvariationtodepictmanychurchesandmanyfaiths. ThefinalsectionoftheCredoissetforchorusandsoloistswithatempo indicationof(quarternote=132)andmarkedrapidoinGaeolean.Afteratwo measureintroductioncontainingthequintilloandtresillorhythmicfigures,the choirentersonthewordsetvitamventurisaeculi,Amen(thelifeoftheworldto come,Amen).Themotivicmaterialcontainssyncopatedrhythmicpatterns, emphasizingthefirstandthirdbeatofeachmeasure,followedbyamore sustainedAmen.Thispassageislaterechoedbythesopranoandbaritone soloistsinimitation(mm.451)andlatercarriedbythechorus.Sierraexplores

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variousrhythmicandtexturalvariationswithinandbetweentheinstrumental andvocallines.Furthermore,healsotransformsthemotiveinanoctatonic passagesustainedbyaDpedalandcontinuingintothefinalAmensection.The Credofinallyendswithalyricalinstrumentalcadentialextensionwhich progressivelyandslowlydissipatesasitresolvestoDmajor.Sierraultimately transformsaworldthatevolvesfromdissonanceintoharmonytosymbolize doubtintoconviction. Offertorium TheOffertoriumfeaturesthebaritoneandsopranosoloists,chorus,and

orchestra.Theformalstructureisthoroughlycomposedanddividedintofour smallersections,includingafiftythreemeasureorchestralprelude.Thetext usedinthissettingisbasedonthreeseparatetextsfromtheProperofthemass includingLaetatusSum(Psalm121:67),LaudaJerusalem(Psalm147:12),and LaudateDominum,quiabenignisest(Psalm134:3,6). Sierraintroducesthismovementwithabrieforchestralpreludewith

tempoindication(quarternote=112)andmarkedagitatoin3/4meter.The orchestrasdramaticentranceduringthefirsteightmeasurescontainsrapidly ascendingchromaticsequencesaccentedbysharplypercussivedownbeats.This entryisfollowedbytheorchestrasdenselayersofangularmelodicpassages leadbythebrasswithmilitaristicprecision.Theharmonicfabricofthispassage centersontheaugmentedsonoritiesassociatedwiththepitchclass(DF#ABb). Thestringslaterechothebrasspassageandleadachromaticallydescending passagetransitioningintothenextsectionfeaturingthebaritonesolo.

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Figure4.22.Offertorium.Orchestraprelude. TheoffertoryprayerRogateJerusalem(OprayforthepeaceofJerusalem; theyshallprosperthatlovethee)isbasedonPsalms121:6andistraditionally usedonthefourthSundayofLent.Sierrasetsthisprayerprimarilyforbaritone soloandchorus.Thebaritoneschantlikemotivicmaterialconsistsofconjunct movementaswellasmellismaticpassagesofunevensixteenthnotes.Heutilizes wordpaintingoneveryoccurrenceofthewordabundancia,lengtheningits durationtodepictitsliteralmeaning. Figure4.22Offertorium.RogateJerusalem(Baritonesolo)

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Furthermore,SierrasmusicalsettingofthephraseLaudadeumtuum SionprovidesyetanothercolorfulillustrationoftheidealisticconceptofSion bysettingthispassageacappella.Itisuncomplicatedbydissonanceor functionalharmonyandcreatesanetherealeffectwiththesopranosascending vocallinesoaringuptoahighBb.

Figure.4.24.Offertorium.DepictionofSion. Forthethirdsection,Sierrareintroducesthechorusinarhythmicpassage

onthewordsLaudateDominum,quiabenignusest(PraiseyetheLordforHeis good).Harmonically,thissectionexhibitsthepatternofthestartingmodal(C Ionian)andfluctuatesbetweendiatonicandnondiatonicsonorities.Inaddition, thecomposerusesforthefirsttimetheclavepatterninitsentiretyasa rhythmicostinato(seeFigure4.24). 91

Figure4.25.Offertorium.Crossrhythms. ThefinalsectionoftheOffertoriumfeaturesthechorusinalivelyAlleluia

settingbasedonrhythmvariationsofthetresillofigure.Thechorusmotiveis firstheardinhomophonicstylefollowedbyshortcontrapuntalsegmentsof repeatedeighthnotepassages.Sierradevelopsthissectionbyexploiting syncopatedrhythmicvariationsofthewordAlleluiawhilemaintainingthe metricpulseofthetresillo.Theconcludingsectionendswiththechoirslayered entranceinpyramidformation(BTAS),graduallyintensifyingtowardsthe climaticdoubleforteending,andreturningtoitsstartingBbmajortonalarea.

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Table4.5.Movement5(Offertorium).Formalstructure.

Offertorium
Text Form Tempo Agitado (q=112) Time Signature Forces Tonal Area Length Sanctus TheSanctusisthefourthsectionoftheOrdinaryoftheMassandisthe ( q=63) 3/4 Full Orchestra Chromatic/ Oct 52mm Baritone, Choir Caolean/ Alt.Oct 40mm Baritone, Choir Oct 30mm 25mm Orchestra Prelude Rogate FiatPax Laudate Alleluia

Throughcomposed Intenso Subito ( q=96) ( q=88) 4/4 Choir Conbrio (h=84) Choir Bbmajor 64mm

shortestmovementofthiscomposition.Theformalstructureofthismovementis dividedintofoursmallersectionsin(ABCB)formandfeaturesthechorus, soprano,andbaritonesoloists.ThefirstpartoftheSanctussetin3/4meterwith tempoindication(quarternote=148)markedconenerga(withenergy).The orchestrabeginswithatwomeasureintroductionfollowedbythechoirs fortissimohomorhythmicstatementsofthewordsSanctus,Sanctus,Sanctusin Dbmajor.Sierrainterspersesmeasuresofirregular5/8meter,blurringthe naturalmetricpulsethroughsyncopationandbeatdisplacement,whichresults inhorizontalhemeolasandcrossrhythmicactivity.

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Figure4.26.Sanctus.Openingmeasures.Polyrhythmsandmixedmeters. Plenisuntcoeli ThePleniSuntCaelisectionissetincuttimewithtempoindication(half

note=66)markedCongraciaydulzura(withgraceandsweetness).Thissections rhythmicmotiveisbasedontheCubanson119andfeaturessopranoandbaritone soloistsaccompaniedbythechoir.Sierraagainbeginswithatwomeasure introductionfeaturingtwomainrhythmicfigures.Thefirstfigureisatwo measurearpeggiatedostinatopatterncommonlyknownasthepunteoand normallyfoundintheCubanson.Thepunteofunctionsasanostinatopattern carryingtheIIVVharmonicprogressioninherentinthisstyleofmusic.Itisfirst introducedbytheorchestrainthetwomeasuresthatprecedethevocalentryand continuesthroughoutthesection.


CubansonisamusicalstylethatoriginatedintheOrienteprovinceintheeasternpart ofCuba.Itcombinestheinfluenceoftwomusicalcultures,SpanishandAfrican,intoastyleof musicmanyrefertoasAfroCuban.Oneofthefoundationsofthismusicistherhythmknowas clave.SalsamusicoriginatedfromtheCubanson.
119

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Figure4.27.Sanctus.Plenisuntcaelimotive.Cubanson.IIVVprogression. Thesecondrhythmicmotiveisthetresillo.Aftertheinitialtwomeasures playedbytheorchestra,themelodyisintroducedbythesoloists,employingthe tresillopattern.ThechoirssyncopatedentranceonHosanna,Hosanna,inexcelsis issungasarefraintothefirstsixteenmeasures(mm.63).Itsrhythmisderived fromthemontunopattern,yetemploysadifferentharmonicprogression consistingofIIIVIV.Inaddition,thesoloistsrhythmicpulseaccentuatesthe strongbeats(halfnotes)whilethechoirseighthnotessegmentsaccentuatethe weakbeats(onbeatstwoandfour).

Forthereturnofthe(A)section,thechoirbeginsbyharmonizingthe melodyinhymnlikestyle(mm.69).Meanwhile,theorchestracarriesseveral crossrhythmicpatternsincludingshorteighthnotesegmentsinthewoodwinds, tresillointhestrings,avariationofthecinquillopatternintheguiro,and accompanimentbythehorns,piano,andharppartsreinforceitsduplepulse. Thispassagesoonacceleratesintoitsnewtempoindication(halfnote=80), includingthewomensvoicesonthesustainedHosannaspreviously performedbythesoloists,overthesyncopatedrefrainsungbythemeninfour 95

partharmony.AllvoicesjointogetherinhomophonytosingHosannain excelsis.Thissectionendswithabrieforchestralinterludecontainingoctatonic passagesleadingtothefinalcallmotive,heardasamajorthird(GB)andas thedominantofthenextsection(Benedictus).

Figure4.28.Sanctus.PleniSuntCaelimotive. Benedictus TheBenedictussectionfeaturesthesoprano,baritoneandchorusina lyricalsettingofthewordsBlessedishewhocomesinthenameoftheLord120 withtempoindication(quarternote=80)andmarkedconternuratranslatedas tenderlyintriplemeter.TheformalstructureoftheBenedictusissetinbinary form(AA),eachsectionendingwithabrieftransitionalsegmentontheword Hosanna.

120

Based on Psalm 117 [118]:26 and Matthew 21:9

96

Figure4.29.Sanctus.Benedictus.ChoirandSoloists Thefirstpartofthesectionfeaturesthesopranosoloistperformingoneof

themostmelodiouspassagesofthemass.Thestructureofthemelodicpassage beginswithsmallsegments,graduallylengtheningtowardsitscadentialpoints. Forinstance,thefirstthreemeasuresegment(mm.9699)isfollowedbylonger segmentsoffour,sixandeightmeasurephrases,eachbuildingitsharmonic tensionanddynamicleveluntilarrivingonthedominant(G).Thistexturaland dynamicexpansionisfurtherdevelopedwiththechoirssoftentranceand layeredinpyramidformationincludingthesoloistsonadominantpedal.This organicexpansioneruptsonthewordDomini,whichissustainedbythechoir ondominantseventhchordovertheorchestrasascendingoctatonicscale

97

passages.Aspreviouslyseenthroughoutthemass,Sierrabeginsemploying diatonicpassagesandgraduallyshiftstowardsnondiatonicsonorities. ThesecondsectionoftheBenedictusbeginswiththesopranoonthe

principalmotiveaccompaniedbythebaritoneatpointsofimitationwhilethe choirquietlyharmonizesthemelody(seeFigure4.29).Sierrausesasimilar approachfordevelopingthislastsection,alsoendingonnondiatonic harmonies.ThemovementendswiththereturnoftheBsectionofthis movement(Plenisuntcaelimotive),thistimecarriedbythechorusonthetext (Hosannainexcelsis).

Figure4.30.Sanctus.ReturnofprincipalmotiveHosannas. 98

Table4.6.Movement6(Sanctus).Formalstructure

Sanctus
Text Form Tempo Sanctus A Con alegria (q=148) Time Signature Forces TonalArea Length AgnusDei ThetextforfinalmovementoftheMissaLatinabeginswiththewords LambofGod,foundintheancientRomanandAmbrosianritesGloriain excelsis.121TheAgnusDeiissetforsopranoandbaritonesoloists,choir,andfull orchestrawithtempoindication(quarternote=60)in3/4meter.Inaddition,its formalstructureisin(AB)binaryform. Throughoutthismovement,thecomposerpaintsnumerousmusical illustrationstocreativelyexpressthemeaningofthetext.Forinstance,the baritonesfirststatementbeginswithachantlikemelody,ornamentedwith sixteenthnotepassagesandmovinginstepwisemotioninDphrygian.The melodicdirectionofhisphrasebeginsonanFpitchandgraduallyincreasesin 3/4,5/8 Chorus DbMaj 44mm Pleni B,B Congraciay dulura (h=66) Common time S,B, Chorus Cmaj 30mm Hosanna C (h=80) Common time Chorus Cmaj 19mm Benedictus D Conternura (q=80) 3/4 S,B, Chorus Cmaj 89mm Hosanna C Congraciay dulzura (h=66) 4/4 Chorus Cmaj 21mm

These words are also attributed to Johns words to Jesus: Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world (John 1:25-26, 29). Jeffers, 57.

121

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dynamiclevelasitascendstotheoctaveaboveonthewordsAgnus Dei,reachingtowardtheheavensashecallsuponontheLambofGod. Likewise,Sierrasetsthewordspeccatamundionthreechromatically descendingpitches(EbDC#),placestheseinthemaleslowregister,andends onalow(Apitch)tosymbolizethesinsoftheworld.Furthermore,heusesa rhythmiccompositionaldevicetoillustratechaos.Sierrasplitsthemalevoices intofourpartharmony,assignseachadifferentrhythmicpattern,andlayers eachpatternonebeatapart.Theresultofthiscanonicpolyrhythmicapplication andtherepetitionofthemelodicmotivehelptodepicttheearthspinningonits axis,constantlyrotatingmundi(seefigure4.30).Theremainderofthispassage graduallyintensifiesthroughthechoirshomophonicrepetitionsonMiserere (havemercy),nowheardatatriplefortedynamiclevelandinangularsonorities basedontheCsharp(0,1)octatonicscale.Thispassageillustratesadesperate pleaformercy.Thenexttwopassagesfeaturethesopranosoloandchoir,again, graduallyshiftingbetweenmodal,diatonicandoctatonicpassages.

100

Figure4.31.AgnusDei.Texturaldensityillustrationonpeccatamundi. SierrassettingoftheAgnusDeiincludesthetraditionaltextusedbymost

composersofmassesbutdiffersbyfinishingwithanadditionalphrase:Pace relinquovobis,pacemmeamdovobis122,DixtDominus,Alleluia(MypeaceIleave you,mypeaceIgiveyou,saiththeLord.Alleluia).Thistextcomesfromthe prayerofferedbythepriestimmediatelyaftertheAgnusDei.Thecomposer bringsparticularattentiontothisdistinctivetextbysettingitinacappellastyle. Sierrafeaturesthesopranosoloandchorusinoneofthemostbeautifuland intimatemomentsofhismass. ThesopranointroducesAgnusDeiwithfourrepetitionsoftheword

pacem.Eachoftheserepetitionsgraduallydescendsanddecrescendosbefore thechoirspianissimoarrival.Inthispassage,thechoirprovidestheharmonic basisforthesopranostranscendentalmelody.Theetherealeffortisprimarily


122

Based on the biblical passage found in John XIV, 27

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achievedthroughharmonicprogressionsmodulatedbycommontone.Sucha compositionaltechniqueallowsthemusictomodulatethroughawidearrayof harmonicsonoritieswithaminimalamountofmovementwithinthevocalparts. Ontheotherhand,thesopranoslyricalmelody,filledwithsoaringleapsand scalarpassages,isornamentedwithappoggiaturasandsuspensionsabovethe choirssustainedromanticharmonieswhicheventuallyendonanFmajorchord (see.Figure.4.31.)Thelastsixmeasuresofthissectionreintroducethecall motiveontheEbandCpitchesinaccelerando,thistimesettingthepitchesfor thechoirsupcomingentranceandannouncingthearrivaloftheMassfinal Alleluiasection.

Figure4.32.Agnusdei.Pacemrelinquovobis,acapellapassage. Alleluia ThisfestivesettingofthefinalAlleluiasectionisdesignedforsopranoand

baritonesoloists,choir,andorchestrawithtempoindication(quarternote=120) incuttime.Thebaritoneintroducesthesectionwithafourmeasureincipiton 102

thewordAlleluiaandsustainedonaCpitch,echoedbythechorusattriple fortedynamiclevel. AfterthechoirsinitialtwofoldstatementsofthewordAlleluia,based

onthetresillorhythmicpattern,choirmembersengageinacallandresponse interactionbetweenfemaleandmalevoicesoverlappingoneveryfourthbeat.In addition,thesopranoandbaritoneembellishthemusicwithsyncopatedand sustaineddiscantlikepassageswhich,whencombined,accentuatethetresillo anditsimpliedduplepulse.

Figure4.32.AgnusDei.Alleluiasection.Callandresponse. Finally,theharmonicprogressionusedinthismovementisbasedontheI

VVIdiatonicrelationship,andrecurseveryfourmeasures.Thisprogressionis initiallyheardinGmajor(mm.116132)andlaterintheFmajorandEbflat

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majortonalareasuntilittriumphantlyreachesitsconcludingpassagesinC major.

Table4.7.Movement7(AgnusDei).Formalstructure.

AgnusDei Text Form Tempo AgnusDei A Moderato (q=60) TimeSignature Forces TonalArea 3/4 S,B, Chorus DPhrygian/ Oct 55mm __ S,Chorus Acapella Diatonic/non functional/ Fmaj 48mm DonaNobis Pacem C __ Alleluia D Rapido (h=120) Commontime S,B, Chorus Cmaj

Length

117mm

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CHAPTER5 SUMMARYANDCONCLUSIONS ThechoralmusictraditioninPuertoRicoincorporatesawealthofsacred

andsecularmusic.Theoriginofthisrichtraditioncanbetracedbacktothe SpanishCapitularyActsof1600,whichmandatedtheinstallationofapermanent musicstaffintheSanJuanCathedral.Fromthatpoint,thechurchimported SpanishmusiciansupuntiltheappointmentofcomposerFelipeGutierrez Espinosa,whobecamethefirstnativeChapelMasterattheSanJuancathedralin thelate19thcentury.Themusicstylesoftheearlysacredmusiccomposers DomingoDelgado,FelipeGutierrezEspinosa,JuanMorelCampos,Braulio DuenoColnandJosIgnacioQuintnclearlyreflectsclassicalEuropean influencesintheirchoralworks. Theearlypartofthe20thcenturymarkstherebirthormoderneraof

PuertoRicochoralmusictradition.Thisrebirthcomesintoplaceviathree unrelatedyetsignificantcircumstancesthatcontributedtothedevelopmentof choralmusicoftheisland.Thefirstinvolvestheformationofevangelicalchoirs establishedbySisterHallieLemonandMs.AliceRyder,twoAmerican missionarieswhogatheredparishionerstoformevangelicalchoirsin1928.Their choirsperformancesatotherevangelicalchurchesaroundtheislandwerethe modelsforfuturechurchevangelicalchoirs. ThesecondofthesecircumstancesinvolvestheeffortsofDr.Bartolom BoveratthePolytechnicUniversityofPuertoRicoand,later,ofAugusto RodriguezattheUniversityofPuertoRicointhelate1930.Thesechoralmusic pioneersbeganandexpandedthechoralartforminhighereducationby establishingvariousuniversitychoirsacrosstheisland.Furthermore,they becamethefirstexponentsoffolkandpopularnativechoralmusiccomposedby 105

PuertoRicancomposers.Theirvisionandeffortsallowedthemtobecomethe firstambassadorsofchoralmusicthroughmanylocalandinternational performances. ThethirdcircumstanceattributedtotherebirthofchoralmusicinPuerto RicostemsfromthedevelopmentofchoralsettingsofPuertoRicanfolkand popularmusic.Bytheendofthe1930s,BoverandRodrguezhadestablisheda traditionofperformingfolkmusicincludingdanzas,villancicos,plenaand aguinaldoarrangementsatnationalandinternationalconcerts. AftertheUnitedStatesgrantedPuertoRicoCommonwealthstatusin 1952,governmentsponsoredinstitutionsandcommissionsledaneraofcultural renaissancewhichinvolvedthePuertoRicanInstituteofCulturein1955,the CasalsFestivalin1957,theconservatoryofPuertoRicoandthePuertoRico SymphonyOrchestrain1957,allofwhichwereimportantculturalcomplements toPuertoRicosindustrializationprogramledbyGovernorLuisMuozMarn. Theorganizationsservedasvitalvenuesforintroducinglargechoraland orchestralworksbygreatclassicalcomposersincludingthemusicofformer studentcomposerswhohavemadesignificantmusicalcontributionstothe classicalliterature. Sincethelate1950smanyotherculturalmusicalorganizations,along

withagrowingnumberofeducationalinstitutionsandindependent organizations,haveemergedandcontinuetosupportmusiceducationandits performancevenues.Severaleducationalinstitutionshaveattractedmanynative andnonnativemusiciansandeducatorswhosecollectiveeffortshave contributedtotheabilityofaspiringmusicianstofulfilltheirdreams. Oneofthemostprominentstudentsoftheeducationalinstitutions establishedintheislandduringthe1950sisPuertoRicancomposerRoberto Sierra.SierraisconsideredoneofLatinAmericasmostactivecomposers,andhis 106

musichasgainednationalandinternationalreputation.Formorethanadecade, Sierrasworkshavebeenpartoftherepertoireofmanyoftheleadingorchestras, ensemblesandfestivalsintheUSAandEurope. SierrawenttoEuropetofurtherhismusicalknowledgeattheRoyal CollegeofMusicandtheUniversityofLondon,theInstituteforSonologyin Utrecht,anddidadvancedworkincompositionattheHochschulefrMusikin HamburgundertherenownedGyrgyLigeti.AfterhisreturnformEurope, SierraservedinadministrativepositionsatbothofthePuertoRicaneducational institutionsfromwhichhereceivedhisformerdegrees. Sierraisaprolificcomposerandorchestratorwhosecompositionaloutput includesmorethanonehundredpublishedworks.Sierrasorchestral compositionsreceivednumerousawardsincludingthe2004KennethDavenport CompetitionforOrchestralWorksforhisSinfoniaNo.1andthe1983Budapest SpringFestivalfirstprizeforhisSalsaparavientos,andhisSuitewonfirstprizeat theAlienorHarpsichordCompetition.In1987,theAlmeidaFestivalinLondon devotedanentireconcerttohischamberworks,aneventrecordedand broadcastedbytheBBC.In2003SierrawasawardedtheprestigiousMusic AwardbytheAmericanAcademyofArtsandLetters.Theawardstates: RobertoSierrawritesbrilliantmusic,mixingfreshandpersonalmelodiclines withsparklingharmoniesandstrikingrhythms[...] AlthoughSierraisbestknownforhisorchestralworks,littleisknown abouthischoralcompositions.Forthisreason,theprimarypurposeofthisstudy wastoanalyzeanddescribeSierrasMissaLatina. SierrastitleMissaLatinareferstothetraditionalLatintextandthe Caribbeancharacterthatalludestohispersonalbackground.Thesubtitle,Pro Pax,identifiesthisworkasapleaforpeace.SierrapreparedhisownEnglish translationoftheLatintextandincorporatedselectedtextfromtheproperas 107

intercessionprayersintheIntroitus,Offertorium,andintheconcludingsectionof theAgnusDei.Sierrassettingofthismasscallsforsopranoandbaritonesoloists, choir,andalargemodernorchestraaugmentedwithvariousCaribbean percussiveinstruments(bongos,congasandCubantimbales). AmongthestylisticfeaturesthatcharacterizeSierrasmassarethe beautifulmelodiclinesfeaturingthesopranosoloandchorusintheintimate sectionsofthemass,includingbenedictus(Sanctus)andthegratiasagimustibi (Gloria),sections.Sierrademonstrateshisexceptionalabilitytotransformsomeof thesebeautifulmelodiesintoetherealpassages,whichScribnerdescribesas simplybreathtaking.123ThisisparticularlyevidentintheSion(Offertorium) andpacem(AgnusDei)sections.Sierraachievesthiseffectviahisinnerfoldingof nonfunctionalharmoniesbetweenthesopranosoloistandacappellachoir. ThroughoutthemassSierrafrequentlymakesuseofmodalanddiatonic harmonies,nondiatonicsonorities(octatonic)andatonalpassagestoexpressor depictaparticularmoodormeaningofthetext.Forexample,Sierrausesmodal (Aeolean/Phrygian)andopenharmonies(perfectfourthsandfifths)withchant likepassagesinthedapacemlaetatussum(Introitus),rogate(Offertorium),andthe openingmotiveintheAgnusDeisection.ThroughouttheMissaLatina,Sierra makesfrequentuseofharmonicshiftstorepresentconflictingideas.Someofthe ideasexploredinthismasspertaintohumaninnerstrugglesoffaithandour struggleforworldpeace.Sierrafirstexploredthisdualityinthesecond movement,Kyrie(octatonicdiatonic),yetitisinthecentralmovementofthe massinwhichSierraprovidesauniqueandunprecedentedsettingofthenicene creed(Credo).Inthismovement,theatonalpassagesrepresentfeelingsofdoubt

123

LeonardSlatkin,PostConcertDiscussion,KennedyCenterforthePerformingArts(February2, 2006).

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whiletheharmonicpullfromoctatonictodiatonicpassagessymbolizesour desiretobelieve,or,spiritualconviction. Sierrasunderstandingandmasteryofchoralandorchestraltexture allowshimtoexpressmusicalimagesofthewrittentext.Inaddition,itallows himtocreateaheartfeltmusicalillustrationofhispersonalandspiritual viewsofthisancienttext.Sierrascontinuousvarietyofcompositional techniquesusedtosetthetextcontainmonody,homophonyandcontrapuntal includingpolyphonic,fugatolikeandlayeredostinatopassages,providinga senseofbalancebetweenthesoloandchoralpartsanditsoverallstructure. RobertoSierrasuniqueabilitytoinfuseandmanipulateCaribbeanfolkand rhythmicelementsintomodernidiomshasbecomeoneofhismostimpressive compositionaltrademarks.ThroughouttheMissaLatina,Sierrausesvarious Latinrhythmscommontoacclamatoryorcelebratorypassages.Someofthe mostidentifiableLatinrhythmsalludedtointheMissaLatinaalsoserveasthe rhythmicbasisforpopulardanceformsincludingthemontunosectionofacha chach(laudamuste)andgajira(plenisuntcaeli),andCubansonamongothers. Coincidentally,thevariousrhythmicpatternsheardindifferentsections ofthemassderivedfromorcontainthemothercellortresillofigure(3+3+2). Therefore,Sierrainadvertentlyusesthetresilloasaunifyingrhythmicelement acrossalleightmovementsoftheMissaLatina.Furthermore,hesetsthetresillo figureinavarietyofways.Forexample,Sierraincludedarhythmsetinsubdued tempo(CodasectionoftheIntroitus)astheprincipalmelodicmaterial(Kyrie),a timesignatureandmeter(Gloria),subsidiarymaterialandasanaccompaniment (Credo)inchoralhomophonicstatementsofthelaudate(Offertorium),andasthe rhythmicbaseofamotive(SanctusandAgnusDei). Sierraschoralmusiccontinuestoevolvefromtheabstractbeginnings exhibitedinthecompositionalstyleofCantosPopularesandLuxAeterna,tothe 109

moreorganicstyleexemplifiedbyMissaLatina.Sierrawantedtocomposeawork thathecouldlistentowiththeearsofalistenerandsimultaneously,tocompose amasswithacertainsenseofgrandeurandtheabilitytochallengetheearand mind.Inaconversationregardingcontemporarymusic,Sierrastated:


AsIgetolder,theidealthatIhaveisthatIwanttogetclosertopureexpression[] thatIgetascloseaspossibletohumanexpressionas Ican.Itsahighgoal,butitisagoalthatIaspire[]Iwouldliketo beasclosetorawexpressionaspossiblebecauseIthinkthatsall thatremainsattheend.Idobelievethatclassicalmusic,likeanyworkofart,shouldjust talktoyou.Ithinkthatwe[composers]needtochallengeouraudience,butIdobelieve thatasIgrowolderIrealizethatweneedtohave[write]musicthatmustconnect, otherwise,itwilldie!

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APPENDIXA MISSALATINATRANSLATIONS ProPax LatinEnglishText(adaptedbyR.Sierra) INTROITUS Dapacem,Domine,sustinentibuste, Givepeace,OLord,tothemthatpatientlywaitforthee, utprophetaetuifidelesinveniantur: thatthyprophetsmaybefoundfaithful: Exaudiprecesservitui,etplebistuaeIsrael. HeartheprayerofthypeopleIsrael. Laetatussuminhis,quaedictasuntmihi: Irejoicedatthethingsthatweresaidtome: IndomumDominiibimus. WeshallgointothehouseoftheLord. GloriaPatri,etFilio,etSpirituiSancto. GlorytoFather,andtoSonand,andtoHolySpirit. Sicuteratinprincipio, Asitwasinthebeginning etnunc,etsemper, andnow,andalways, etinsaeculasaeculorum.Amen. andinagesofages.Amen KYRIE Kyrieeleison. Lord,havemercy. 111

Christeeleison. Christ,havemercy. Kyrieeleison. Lord,havemercy. GLORIA GloriainexceslisDeoetinterra GlorytoGodinthehighest, paxhominibusbonaevoluntatis. andpeacetohispeopleonearth. Laudamuste,benedicimuste, LordGod,heavenlyKing, adoramuste,glorificamuste, almightyGodandFather, gratiasagimustibi,proptermagnamgloriamtuam, weworshipyou,wegiveyouthanks,wepraiseyou DomineDeus,Rexcaelestis, foryourglory.LordJesusChrist, DeusPateronmipotens,DomineFiliunigenite, onlySonoftheFather, JesuChriste,DomineDeus,AgnusDei, LordGod,LambofGod, FiliusPatris;quitollispeccatamundi, youtakeawaythesinsoftheworld, miserenobis;quitollispeccatamundi, havemercyonus; 112

suscipedeprecationemnostrum;quisedesaddexteram youareseatedattherighthandofthe Patris,misererenobis,Quoniamtusolus Father,receiveourprayer.Foryoualone Sanctus,TusolusDominus,TusolusAltissimus, aretheHolyOne,youalonearetheLord,youalonearetheMostHigh, JesuChriste,cumSavtoSpirituinGloriaDeiPatris.Amen. JesusChrist,withtheHolySpirit,intheGloryofGodtheFather.Amen. CREDO CredoinunumDeum,Patremonmipotentem, IbelieveinoneGod,theFatherAlmightly,maker factoremcaelietterrae,visibiliumommniumet ofheavenandearth,andofallthingsvisibleand invisibilium.EtinunumDominumJesum invisible.IbelieveinoneLord,JesusChrist, Christum,FiliumDeiunigenitum,etexPatre theonlySonofGod,eternallybegotten natumanteomniasaecula.DeumdeDeo, oftheFatherGodfromGod, lumendelumine,DeumverumdeDeovero, LightfromLight,trueGodfromtrueGod. genitum,nonfactum,consubstantialemPatri:perquem begotten,notmade,ofonesubstancewiththeFather.Bywhom omniafactasunt.Quipropternoshominess,et allthingsweremade.Whoforusmenandforour 113

propternostrumsalutemdescenditdecaelis. salvationcamedownfromheaven: EtincarnatusestdeSpirituSanctoexMariaVirgine: andbecameincarnatebytheHolySpiritoftheVirginMary: ethomofactusest.Crucifixusetiampro andwasmademan.Hewasalsocrucifiedforus, nobissubPontioPilato;passusetsepultusest, sufferedunderPontiusPilate,andwasburied. etresurrexittertiadiesecundumScripturas, OnthethirddayheroseagainaccordingtotheScriptures; etascenditincaelum,sedetaddexteramPatris. heascendedintoheavenandsitsattherighthandoftheFather. Etiterumventurusestcumgloria,judicarevivosetmortuos, Hewillcomeagaininglorytojudgethelivingandthedead, cujusregninoneritfinis.EtinSpiritumSanctum, andhiskingdomwillhavenoend.IbelieveintheHolySpirit, Dominumetvivificantem:quiexPatre theLordandGiveroflife,whoproceedsfromtheFather Filioqueprocedit.QuicumPatreetFilio,simul andtheSon.WhotogetherwiththeFatherandtheSon adoraturetconglorificatur:quilocutusestper isadoredandglorified,andwhospokethroughthe prophetas.Etunam,sanctam,catholicamet prophets.Ibelieveinoneholycatholicandapostolic apostolicamEcclesiam.Confiteorunumbaptisma Church.Iconfessonebaptism 114

inremissionempeccatorum.Etexspecto fortheforgivenessofsins.andIawait resurrectionemmortuorum, theresurrectionofthedead, etvitamventurisaeculi.Amen. andthelifeoftheworldtocome.Amen. OFFERTORIUM RogatequaeadpacemsuntJerusalem: PrayyeforthethingsthatareforthepeaceofJerusalem: etabundantiadiligentibuste. andabundanceforthemthatlovethee. Fiatpaxinvirtutetua:etabundantiainturribustuis. Letpeacebeinthystrength:andabundanceinthytowers. Lauda,JerusalemDominum:laudaDeumtuum,Sion. PraisetheLord,OJerusalem:praisethyGod,OSion. LaudateDominum,quiabenignusest: PraiseyetheLord,forheisgood: psallitenominiejus,quoniamsuavisest: singyetohisname,forheissweet: omniaquaecumquevoluit,fecitincaeloetinterra.Alleluia. whatsoeverhepleasedhehasdoneinheavenandinearth.Alleluia. SANCTUS Sanctus,Sanctus,Sanctus, Holy,Holy,HolyLord, 115

DominusDeusSabaoth. Godofpowerandmight. Plenisuntcaelietterragloriatua. Heavenandeartharefullofyourglory. Hosannainexcelsis. Hosannainthehighest. BenedictusquivenitinnomineDomini. BlessedishewhocomesinthenameoftheLord. Hosannainexcelsis. Hosannainthehighest. AGNUSDEI AgnusDei,quitollispeccatamundi,misererenobis. LambofGod,youtakeawaythesinsoftheworld,havemercyonus. AgnusDei,quitollispeccatamundi,misererenobis. LambofGod,youtakeawaythesinsoftheworld,havemercyonus. AgnusDei,quitollispeccatamundi,donanobispacem. LambofGod,youtakeawaythesinsoftheworld,grantuspeace. Pacemrelinquovobis:pacemmeamdovobis, MypeaceIleaveyou:mypeaceIgiveyou, dicitDmoinus,Alleluia. saiththeLord.Alleluia.

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APPENDIXB ROBERTOSIERRASLISTOFWORKS ChamberOrchestra(includingpieceswithsoloists) CuentosforChamberOrchestra (ca.12) (ca.20) (ca.11)

DoceBagatelasforStringOrchestra

FantasaCorellianafortwoGuitarsandStringOrchestra ChamberOpera ElmensajerodeplatachamberOpera ChamberMusic Changosforfluteandharpsichord

(ca.70)

(ca.7) (ca.19) (ca.15) (ca.15) (ca.19) (ca.20) (ca.3) EditionsOrphe G.Schirmer

ConciertoEvocativoforSoloHornandStrings ConTresforClarinet,BassoonandPiano

ConciertoNocturnalforHarpsichord,Flute,Oboe,Clarinet,ViolinandCello CrnicasdeldescubrimientoforFluteandGuitar DoceBagatelasforstringquartet ErosforFluteandPiano

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EssaysforWindQuintet

(ca.10) (ca.7) (ca.17) (ca.14) (ca.17) (ca.5) (ca.6) (ca.13) (ca.10) (ca.10) (ca.16) (ca.8) (ca7) (ca.10) (ca.12) (ca.12) (ca.7) (ca.11)

Fanfarria,ariaymovimientoperpetuoforViolinandPiano FlowerPiecesforFluteandHarp Invocacionesforvoiceandpercussion

Kandinskyforviolin,viola,celloandpiano

Losdestellosdelaresonanciaforpercussion(cymbals)andpiano Manoamanofortwopercussionists MemoriasTropicalesforStringQuartet

Octetofor2Oboes,2Clarinets,2Bassoons,and2Horns

PequeoConciertoforGuitar,Flute,Oboe,Clarinet,ViolinandCello PiezasCaractersticasforBassClarinet,Trumpet,Piano,ViolinandCello

Prelude,HabaneraandPerpetualMotionforflute(orrecorder)andguitar Salsaparavientosforwindquintet SonataforCelloandPiano SonataforClarinetandPiano SonataforFluteandPiano

TemayvariacionesforClarinetandPiano TresfantasasforClarinet,CelloandPiano

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TresHomenajesHngarosfortwoGuitars

(ca.12) (ca.3) (ca.14) (ca.12) (ca.13) (ca.12) (ca8) (ca.12)

TresPensamientosforbassclarinetandpercussion TriotropicalforViolin,CelloandPiano TrioNo.2forViolin,CelloandPiano TrpticoforGuitarandStringQuartet

TurnerforFlute,Clarinet,Violin,CelloandPiano VestigiosRitualesfortwopianos 2X3fortwoPianos Choralworks BayoanforSoprano,Baritone,Chorus,andOrchestra CantosPopularesforSATBChoir GuakaBabaforSATBChorus

(ca.40) (ca.9) (ca.5) (ca.7) (ca.5) (ca.75) G.Schirmer

IdilioforSATBChoirandOrchestra LuxternaforSATBChorus

MissaLatinaforSoprano,Baritone,ChorusandOrchestra

119

OrchestralWorks(includingpieceswithsoloists) AJoyousOvertureforOrchestra AlegraforOrchestra BoriknforOrchestra (ca.5) (ca.6) (ca.12) (ca.28) (ca.22) (ca.10) (ca.20) (ca.20) (ca.20) (ca.25) (ca.10) (ca.22) (ca.12) (ca.15) (ca.15) (ca.23) (ca.8) G.Schirmer

Conmaderametalycueroforsolopercussionandorchestral ConcertoforSaxophonesandOrchestra

ConciertoBarrococoncertoforGuitarandOrchestra ConciertoCaribeconcertoforFluteandOrchestra Conciertoparaorquesta[ConcertoforOrchestra] CuatroversosconcertoforCelloandOrchestra

DobleConciertoconcertoforviolin,violaandOrchestra EljardndelasdeliciasforOrchestra

EvocacionesconcertoforViolinandOrchestra FandangosforOrchestra

FoliasconcertoforGuitarandOrchestra GlosasconcertoforPianoandOrchestra ImgenesforGuitar,ViolinandOrchestra JbiloforOrchestra

120

OfDiscoveriesconcertofortwoGuitarsandOrchestra PrembuloforOrchestra RitmoforOrchestra SaludoforOrchestra SASIMAforOrchestra SerenataforOrchestra

(ca.22) (ca.10) (ca.6) (ca.4) (ca.11) (ca15) (ca.17) (ca.15) (ca.23) (ca.23) G.Schirmer G.Schirmer G.Schirmer

Sinfonan.1forOrchestra Sinfonan.2forOrchestra

Sinfonan.3LaSalsaforOrchestra TropicaliaforOrchestra SoloWorks Bongo0forBongos

(ca.4) (ca.9) (ca.4) (ca.15) (ca.18)

CincoBocetosforClarinet ConSalsaforHarpsichord PiezasBrevesforGuitar

PiezasImaginariasforPiano

121

RitmorrotoforClarinet SuiteforHarpsichord

(ca.6) (ca.7) (ca.5)

Toccataylamentoforguitar WindEnsemble DiferenciasforWindEnsemble

(ca.10) (ca.12) (ca.3) (ca.11)

FandangosarrangedforWindEnsemble FanfarraforBrassEnsembleandPercussion RapsodiaforTrumpetandWindEnsemble VocalWorks

BeyondtheSilenceofSorrowsongcycleforSopranoandOrchorpiano

(ca.25)

CancioneroSefardforSoprano(orTenor),Flute,Clarinet,Violin,CelloandPiano (ca.16) ConjurosforSoprano(orTenor)andPiano (ca.12) (ca.12) (ca.6) (ca.15) (ca.9)

CincopoemasaztecasforSoprano(orTenor)andPiano DoaRositaforMezzoSopranoandWindQuintet

ElxtasisdeSantaTeresaforsopranoandChamberOrchestra RimasforSoprano(orTenor)andPiano

122

APPENDIXC SELECTEDDISCOGRAPHY OrchestralWorks RobertoSierra.BayoanandExtasisdeSantaTeresa,BronxArtsEnsemble,Albany Records,3792,1988. VoicesAmericanas,ComposersRecordingsInc.NewYork,CRICD773,1998. XakBjerken,HighRise,ComposersRecordingsInc.NewYork,CRICD855, 2001. 123

APPENDIXD COPYRIGHTPERMISSION

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125

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dePuertoRico,RioPiedras,PuertoRico:ProArteContemporneo,(1989): 56. Hoppin,RichardH.MedievalMusic.NewYork:NY:W.W.Norton&Company (1978):54. Jeffers,Ron.TranslationsandAnnotationsofChoralRepertoire.SacredLatin Text.1.Corvallis,Oregon:Earthsongs(1988):46. LaurieShulman,TheNewGrovesDictionaryofMusicandMusicians,2nd Edition,Ed.Standley,(2001)23:364365. Manuel,Peter.PopularMusicsoftheWesternWorld,NewYork,NY:Oxford UniversityPress.(1988):31 Mauleon,Rebeca.TheSalsaGuideBookforPiano&Ensemble.NewYork,NY: SherMusicCompany(1993):142. Olsen,DaleA.&Sheehy,DanielE.TheGarlandHandbookofLatinAmerican Music.NewYork,NY:GarlandPublishingInc.(2000):135. Thompson,Donald&Schwartz,Francis.ConcertLifeinPuertoRico,SanJuan, PuertoRico:UniversityofPuertoRico(1998). Thompson,Donald&Thompson,Annie.MusicinPuertoRico:AReaders Anthology,Lanham:ScarecrowPressInc.,(2002):54 Thompson,Donald&Thompson,Annie.MusicinPuertoRicofromtheAgeof ColumbustoModernTimes:AnAnnotativeBibliography,Metuchen,NJ: ScarecrowPress,(1991). Tiemstra,Suzanne.TheChoralMusicofLatinAmerica:AGuidetoComposition andResearch,NewYork:GreenwoodPress,1992 Toro,Cirilo.DiccionarioBiogrficodeCompositoresPuertorriqueos,Ponce, PuertoRico:EdicionesGuayacn,(2003):113. Persichetti,Vincent.TwentiethCenturyHarmony:creativeaspectsandpractice. NewYork,W.W.Norton&company,Inc.(1961). 127

RichardToop,GyorgyLigetti.London,England:PhaidonPressLimited: (1999):185. Strimple,Nick.ChoralMusicintheTwentiethCentury,PomptonPlains, NewJersey:AmadeusPress,LLC:(2002):207 Periodicals Antokoletz,Elliott.TransformationsofaSpecialnondiatonicmodein TwentiethCenturyMusic:Bartok,Stravinsky,Scriabin,andAlbrecht. MusicalAnalysis,12/1,(March1993):2545. Clark,WalterAaron.SocietyofAmericanMusic,16/1,(1998):110. DelaVega,Aurelio.LatinAmericancomposersintheUnitedStates,Latin AmericanMusicReview,1/2(1980):162175. Ginsburg,Daniel.ComposerRidesIslandsFolkCurrent,TheWashingtonPost (January29,2006):N10. GonzlezPadr,Pedro.AlaMemoriadeAugustoRodriguez,Coral11/2, (1999):89 Johnson,LawrenceB.DetroitNews.October18,(2003),Sec.D1. Mattos,Angel.SemblanzadeBartolomBover:iniciadordeunaera coral.Coral,1/1(1993):79. MendozadeArce,Daniel.DomingoDelgadoGomez(180556):PuertoRican MasterComposer,inLatinAmericanMusicReview,16/2(1995):16 MenedezMaysonet,Guillermo.Nuestroprimermaestrocoral:FelipeGutierrez yEspinosa,Choral,11/1,(1995):8 Olivieri,Luis.AShortHistoryofChoralMusicinPuertoRico.International ChoralBulletin(2000)20/2:24. Olivieri,Luis.BartolomBover:PionerodelaMsicaCoralUniversitariaen PuertoRico.Coral,11/1,(1995):3. 128

Luis Olivieri, Elegia de Reyes, Coral, 4/3 (1987):9. Olivieri,Luis.CantosPopulares:Obracoralpuertorriqueaestrenadaen Inglaterra.Coral,5/3(1989):3. Olivieri,Luis.NotassobreelTeDeumdeFelipeGutierrezEspinosa,Coral. 11/1,(1995):8 Olivieri,Luis.SeccindePartiturasCoral,4/2,(1981):4 Ortiz,William.APanoramicViewofPuertoRicanNewMusic.WorldNew MusicMagazine.6(September1996):12. Page,Tim.TheJoyfulNoiseofMissaLatina.TheWashingtonPost(February3, 2006):C14. Pareles,John.TheNewYorkTimes,C1,October14,1994. Ponick,T.L.HighRewardinMissaLatina,TheWashingtonPost(February4, 2006). RiveraBermudez,Ramon.BiografadeJosIgnacioQuintnBoletndela AcademiadeArtesyCienciasdePuertoRico,7/1,(1976):4759. Roberts, Evelyn. La danza Puertorriquea en la msica coral, Coral, 11/1, (1995):6. Ross,Alex.InPerformance,ClassicalMusic,NewYorkTimes,October17,1994. Thompson,Donald.JackDelano,TheNewGroveDictionaryofMusicand Musicians,Ed.S.Sadie&Tyrell.London:McMillian(2001) Thompson,Donald.LamsicacontemporneaenPuertoRico.RevistaMusical Chilena,38/162,(1984):110. Shulman,Laurie.TheNewGrovesDictionaryofMusicandMusicians,vol.23, (2001):364365 Veray,Amaury.PresentacindeJoseQuintn.Coral,4/1(1981):3. 129

InterviewsandLectures Chester,John.PreconcertinterviewwithRobertoSierra.LibraryofCongress (February2,2006). Davis,RobertAubry.PreconcertLecturewithRobertoSierra(January31,2006). Rivera,J.Personalinterviewwithcomposer.February1,2006. Washington,D.C. Rivera,J.Interviewwithcomposer.February2,2006.Washington,D.C. Slatkin,Leonard.Postconcertdiscussion.KennedyCenterforthePerforming Arts(February2,2006). Websites BenjaminFrandzel,SanFranciscoClassicalVoice http://www.sfcv.org/arts_revs/volti3_15_05.php BenjaminFrandzel,SanFranciscoClassicalVoice, http://www.sfcv.org/arts_revs/sfchambersingers_4_8_03.php(March3,2003). ChristopherMcIntyre http://www.subitomusic.com/st_sierra2.htm G.SchirmerInc.,AssociatedMusicPublishers,Inc. http://www.schirmer.com/composers/sierra/bio.html G.SchirmerInc.,AssociatedMusicPublishers,Inc., http://www.schirmer.com/default.aspx?TabId=2420&State_2874=2&WorkId_2874 =33176 PeterJacobi http://www.music.indiana.edu/publicity/press/ArticlesPreviews&Reviews/article s/200503/20050307HTJacobi2.shtml RobertoSierra http://www.robertosierra.com 130

SchoolofFineandPerformingArts,StateUniversityofNewYorkatPaltz http://www.newpaltz.edu/artsnews/release.cfm?id=262 SubitoMusic http:www//subitomusic.com/thecomposer_news.htm Scores RobertoSierra CantosPopulares 1983 NewJersey:SubitoMusic GuakiaBaba 1999 NewJersey:SubitoMusic LuxAeterna 1999 NewJersey:SubitoMusic MissaLatina 2005 NewJersey:SubitoMusic Recordings RobertoSierra.BayoanandExtasisdeSantaTeresa,BronxArtsEnsemble,Albany Records,3792,1988. 131

BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH JoseRiverareceivedhisBachelors(1991)andgraduatedegrees(1995 1997)inMusicEducationfromFloridaStateUniversitywherehecompleted choralstudieswithAndrThomas,JudyBowers,KevinFenton,andRodney Eichenberger.HetaughtstudentselementarymusicatBondElementary,and servedasDirectorofChoralActivitiesatRickardsHighSchoolandChilesHigh SchoolsinTallahassee,Florida. PriortothecompletionofthePh.D.inChoralConducting/Music EducationfromtheFloridaStateUniversity,hewasappointedasaVisiting AssistantProfessorattheUniversityofHoustoninTexas.

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