You are on page 1of 256

University of Iowa

Iowa Research Online


Teses and Dissertations
2011
Stylistic development in the choral music of
Rebecca Clarke
Marin Ruth Tollefson Jacobson
University of Iowa
Copyright 2011 Marin Ruth Tollefson Jacobson
Tis dissertation is available at Iowa Research Online: htp://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/988
Follow this and additional works at: htp://ir.uiowa.edu/etd
Part of the Music Commons
Recommended Citation
Jacobson, Marin Ruth Tollefson. "Stylistic development in the choral music of Rebecca Clarke." doctoral PhD diss., University of Iowa,
2011.
htp://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/988.


1

STYLISTIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CHORAL MUSIC OF REBECCA CLARKE
by
Marin Ruth Tollefson Jacobson
An Abstract
Of a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the
Doctor of Musical Arts degree
in the Graduate College of
The University of Iowa
May 2011
Thesis Supervisor: Assistant Professor David Puderbaugh




1
1

ABSTRACT
Until the recent publication of twelve choral compositions, Rebecca Clarke
(1886-1979) was known solely as a professional violist and composer of chamber music
and art songs. Clarke composed choral music throughout her active period from 1906 to
1944. In 2004, the first study of Clarkes complete compositional output provided an
introduction to the choral music, but only covered selected works. The present study
traces the development of Clarkes compositional style through chronological analysis of
all twelve choral compositions and an incomplete fragment. Clarkes choral music
reveals the selection of high quality, expressive texts; exploration of the timbral, registral,
and textural potential of unaccompanied choral music; changes in the treatment of all
musical elements; the persistent application of new techniques; and the use of English
choral genres including the madrigal, glee, part song, carol, anthem, and motet.
Chapter one establishes Clarkes importance through a survey of publication,
criticism, and scholarship. The chapter also examines the society in which Clarke lived
and the issues women composers encountered. A biography then reveals that despite
obstacles, Clarke tenaciously pursued compositional study, eagerly acquired new
techniques, and expressed enthusiasm for each compositional project. Her skill was
confirmed by success in competitions and festivals. Throughout her active period, Clarke
supported herself as a professional violist who specialized in chamber music, and a busy
performing schedule limited her compositional work.
Chapter two documents Clarkes formative vocal- and chamber-music
experiences and suggests that her thorough knowledge of chamber music influenced her
approach to choral composition. The chapter continues with analysis of Clarkes first
seven choral works. The first three are well-crafted part songs that demonstrate Clarkes
assimilation of basic compositional techniques. The next four show the increasing


2
2

complexity of Clarkes style that culminates in her mature masterpiece, He That Dwelleth
in the Secret Place of the Most High.
Chapter three presents analysis of three choral arrangements, two works for
womens voices, and a choral fragment for mixed voices. The last five complete choral
compositions confirm elements of Clarkes mature style and demonstrate her interest in
exploring the new challenges of choral arranging and writing for womens voices. While
Clarkes choral arrangements of her own songs are idiomatic adaptations for
unaccompanied, mixed voices, the last three compositions display the diversity of styles
Clarke employed in her late works.
Chapter four summarizes changes in Clarkes choral style from 1906 to 1944,
examines reasons for her obscurity, and raises questions that merit further research. The
appendix which follows clarifies Clarkes intentions and illustrates common editorial
issues and solutions through comparison of choral manuscripts and published editions.

Abstract Approved: ____________________________________
Thesis Supervisor
____________________________________
Title and Department
____________________________________
Date


1

STYLISTIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CHORAL MUSIC OF REBECCA CLARKE
by
Marin Ruth Tollefson Jacobson
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the
Doctor of Musical Arts degree
in the Graduate College of
The University of Iowa
May 2011
Thesis Supervisor: Assistant Professor David Puderbaugh




Graduate College
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
_______________________
D.M.A. THESIS
_______________
This is to certify that the D.M.A. thesis of
Marin Ruth Tollefson Jacobson
has been approved by the Examining Committee
for the thesis requirement for the Doctor of Musical Arts
degree at the May 2011 graduation.
Thesis Committee: ___________________________________
David Puderbaugh, Thesis Supervisor
___________________________________
Nicole Biamonte
___________________________________
Florence Boos
___________________________________
Christine Getz
___________________________________
Timothy Stalter

ii
2

To my dear family, with gratitude for your support.

iii
3

Art has nothing to do with the sex of the artist. I would sooner be regarded as a sixteenth-
rate composer than be judged as if there were one kind of musical art for men and another
for women.

Rebecca Clarke, Christian Science Monitor

iv
4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to thank Becky Pogo Clarke, Peter Horton, Barbara Lister-Sink,
Amy McBeth, Ruthann McTyre, Susan Malecki, Chamisa Nash, Bridget Palmer, Patrick
Russill, Laura Seddon, Robert Sherman, and Vincent Novara for their research
assistance. Special thanks are also due to the staff of the Library of Congress and the
British Library. This thesis builds upon the scholarship of others. I would like to
recognize Stephen Banfield, Julia Bullard, Paula Gillett, Bryony Jones, Sophie Fuller,
Calum MacDonald, and Michael Ponder for their research and observations about
Rebecca Clarke and the period in which she lived. I would also like to express my
appreciation to my dissertation advisor, David Puderbaugh, for his editorial suggestions
and guidance, and to my committee members, Nicole Biamonte, Florence Boos, Christine
Getz, and Timothy Stalter, for sharing their valuable insights. I would like to
acknowledge Oxford University Press for granting permission to use musical excerpts
from Clarkes compositions in this dissertation. Finally, this document would not have
been possible without the generous help and support of Christopher Johnson who
graciously shared Clarkes musical manuscripts and writings with me, offered first-hand
information about Clarke, and patiently answered my many questions. Excerpts from
unpublished letters and writings of Rebecca Clarke and James Friskin, Copyright 2004,
Christopher Johnson. Used by permission.


v
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF EXAMPLES ....................................................................................................... vi
LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................x
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................ xi
CHAPTER
I. REBECCA CLARKE: IMPORTANCE, HISTORICAL CONTEXT,
AND BIOGRAPHY .........................................................................................1

Introduction .......................................................................................................1
Importance of Rebecca Clarke ..........................................................................4
Historical Context ...........................................................................................10
Biography .......................................................................................................19
II. EARLY CHORAL MUSIC AND THE EMERGENCE OF A
MATURE STYLE ..........................................................................................54

Formative Musical Experiences .....................................................................54
Manuscripts .....................................................................................................61
Early Choral Works: 1906-1909 .....................................................................63
Emergence of a Mature Style: Choral Works ~1910-1921 ............................84
III. MID-LATE CHORAL MUSIC: CHORAL ARRANGEMENTS AND
MUSIC FOR WOMENS VOICES .............................................................135

Choral Arrangements: 1924-1928 ................................................................135
Choral Works for Womens Voices: 1937-1944 ..........................................162
A Choral Fragment .......................................................................................186
IV. CONCLUSIONS ..........................................................................................190

Stylistic Changes in the Choral Music: 1906-1944 ......................................190
Reasons for Obscurity ...................................................................................192
Further Research ...........................................................................................202
APPENDIX 205
BIBLIOGRAPHY 230




vi
6

LIST OF EXAMPLES
Example
2.1. Now Fie on Love by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-6 ........................................................66
2.2. Now Fie on Love by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-11 ......................................................67
2.3. A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-2 ..........................................................70
2.4. A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 4-5. .........................................................71
2.5. A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 7-11 ........................................................72
2.6. A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 23-25 ......................................................73
2.7. A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-8, soprano and alto .............................74
2.8. A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 3-5/1, tenor and bass. .............................74
2.9. When Cats Run Home and Light is Come by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 10-18 ..............79
2.10. When Cats Run Home and Light is Come by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 18-22 ..............79
2.11. When Cats Run Home and Light is Come by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 9-10 ................81
2.12. When Cats Run Home and Light is Come by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 5/4-10 .............82
2.13. Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-3 .....................................85
2.14. Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 11-14 .................................86
2.15. Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 21-28 .................................87
2.16. Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 27-34 .................................88
2.17. Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 36-41 .................................89
2.18. My Spirit Like A Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-4 ..............95
2.19. My Spirit Like A Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 10-14 ..........95
2.20. My Spirit Like A Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 19-24 ..........96
2.21. My Spirit Like A Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 29-35 ..........97
2.22. My Spirit Like A Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 9 .................98
2.23. My Spirit Like A Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 24-28 ........100


vii
7

2.24. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-7 .................................................................106
2.25. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 26-31 .............................................................106
2.26. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 44-47 .............................................................107
2.27. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-11 ...............................................................108
2.28. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 16-17 .............................................................109
2.29. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 40-43 .............................................................110
2.30. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 17/4-19 ..........................................................111
2.31. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 12-16 .............................................................112
2.32. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 31-33 .............................................................113
2.33. Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, MS, mm. 101-103 .................................................114
2.34. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 1-8 ...................................................................................................................119
2.35. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 8/4-16 ..............................................................................................................121
2.36. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 18/4-20 ............................................................................................................123
2.37. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 1-8, tenor solo .................................................................................................124
2.38. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 24-28, solos: alto 1, alto 2, and bass ...............................................................124
2.39. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 36-38, bass ......................................................................................................125
2.40. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 55/4-57, alto 1 .................................................................................................125
2.41. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 8-12, soprano melodic contour .......................................................................125
2.42. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 12-16, soprano melodic contour .....................................................................126
2.43. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca Clarke,
mm. 55/4-62 ............................................................................................................130
3.1. Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-7 .........................140
3.2. Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-6 .........................140

viii
8

3.3. Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-9 .........................141
3.4. Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 7-9 .........................141
3.5. Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 51-54 .....................143
3.6. Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 46-48 .....................143
3.7. Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 7-13 .......................145
3.8. Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 11-13 .....................147
3.9. Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-4 .........................148
3.10. Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 12/3-24 ..................149
3.11. Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-9 .........................151
3.12. There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 32-35, bass .........................................155
3.13. There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-15 ....................................................156
3.14. There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 17-24 ..................................................156
3.15. There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 35-40 ..................................................157
3.16. There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 61-65 ..................................................158
3.17. There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 69-71 ..................................................159
3.18. There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 48-57 ..................................................160
3.19. Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 27-35 .............................................................163
3.20. Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 16-19 .............................................................164
3.21. Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-7 .................................................................165
3.22. Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 36-42 .............................................................166
3.23. Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 7-8 .................................................................167
3.24. Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 11-17 .............................................................168
3.25. Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-2 .................................................................169
3.26. Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, original MS, mm. 36-39 .......................................173
3.27. Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, revised MS, mm. 36-39 ........................................173
3.28. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-8 ..............................177
3.29. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 89-93 ..........................178

ix
9

3.30. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 68/4-76 .......................179
3.31. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 17-25 ..........................181
3.32. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-2, soprano 1 ............182
3.33. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 92-96 ..........................183
3.34. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 50-55 ..........................183
3.35. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 37-39 ..........................184
3.36. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 113-121 ......................185
3.37. A choral fragment by Rebecca Clarke, MS, mm. 1-4 .............................................187
3.38. A choral fragment by Rebecca Clarke, MS, mm. 5-10 ...........................................188


x
1
0

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
2.1. Now Fie on Love .......................................................................................................66
2.2. A Lovers Dirge ........................................................................................................70
2.3. When Cats Run Home and Light is Come Form ....................................................80
2.4. Music, When Soft Voices Die Phrase length and form ...........................................91
2.5. My Spirit Like A Charmed Bark Doth Float Harmonic and phrase structure......100
2.6. Philomela Metric changes in the refrain, mm. 32-50 ..........................................110
2.7. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High Form of A and A' .........127
2.8. That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High Textures.............................128
3.1. Come, O Come, My Lifes Delight Rhythm, mm. 1-8 .........................................150
3.2. Come, O Come, My Lifes Delight Cadences, mm. 1-24 .....................................152
3.3. Come, O Come, My Lifes Delight Cadences, mm. 26-50 ...................................152


xi
1
1

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviations
1. HC ........................................................................................................ Half Cadence
2. AC ............................................................................................... Authentic Cadence
3. PC ...................................................................................................... Plagal Cadence
4. DC ...............................................................................................Deceptive Cadence
5. m.1/4 ..................................................................................... measure one, beat four
6. S .............................................................................................................. Suspension
7. R .............................................................................................................. Retardation
8. C
4
................................................................................................................ Middle C



1
1

CHAPTER I
REBECCA CLARKE: IMPORTANCE, HISTORICAL CONTEXT, AND
BIOGRAPHY
Introduction
In 1998, Oxford University Press published an Ave Maria from the 1930s by a
relatively obscure composer who had died nearly twenty years earlier. The following
year, a second choral work entitled Chorus from Shelleys Hellas (1943-44) was
published for the first time. Then, when Gonville and Caius College initiated a recording
of the composers complete choral music, Oxford University Press prepared the
remaining ten choral works for a coordinated release in 2003.
1
The composer was
Rebecca Clarke (1886-1979), who worked as a violist and composer from 1906 to 1944.
Prior to their publication, few scholars had seen Clarkes choral manuscripts and
knowledge of them was limited to titles and dates provided in works lists.
2
Scholars
began to show interest in Clarkes music during the 1970s, but most studied Clarkes
instrumental works and were unaware that she had composed choral music. Further
scholarship has advanced knowledge of Clarkes life and work, but there has not been a
thorough study of her choral compositions. The present document will address this
deficiency through chronological analysis of Clarkes complete choral output, which
includes twelve unaccompanied compositions and a choral fragment.

1
Rebecca Clarke: The Complete Choral Music, Gonville and Caius College Choir
Cambridge conducted by Geoffrey Webber, ASV 1136, compact disc; Christopher Johnson,
interview by the author, September 16, 2009, recording.
2
Stephen Banfield, Clarke [Friskin], Rebecca (Thacher), in The Norton/Grove
Dictionary of Women Composers, ed. Julie Anne Sadie and Rhian Samuel (New York: W. W.
Norton and Company, 1995), 120. Banfields works list includes 7 early partsongs, 1906-11
and Philomela, Psalm 91, Ave Maria, and Chorus (Shelley: Hellas) are listed by title; Liane
Curtis, Clarke [Friskin], Rebecca (Thacher) [Helferich], in The New Grove Dictionary of Music
and Musicians, 2nd ed., ed. Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 2001), 5:920-21. All twelve
choral compositions are included in a works list; Michael Ponder, Rebecca Clarke, British
Music Society Journal 5 (1983): 84. Ponder included ten choral compositions in a list of works.


2
2

I will argue that analysis of Clarkes complete choral output reveals reliance on
the primary English choral styles; the selection of high quality, expressive texts; the
exploration of the timbral, registral, and textural potential of unaccompanied choral
music; changes in the treatment of musical elements;
3
and the persistent application of
new techniques. I will also discuss possible performances based on diary entries, London
Oratory materials, and choral manuscripts. Additionally, I will present information about
Clarkes compositional process based on direct examination of the manuscripts. In
several cases, the choral manuscripts demonstrate significant revision of text underlay,
and where multiple manuscripts exist, substantial musical changes can also be observed.
In order to facilitate a better understanding of Clarkes response to the bias she
encountered as a woman composer, chapter one examines late nineteenth- and early
twentieth-century beliefs about womens capabilities, educational and professional
opportunities for women, the relationship between social class and musical work, and
attitudes toward women composers. Since contemporary society and significant life
events shaped Clarkes compositional identity and affected the nature and scope of her
work, an accurate biography provides the backdrop against which to understand her
compositional style, development, and output. Additionally, most biographical
information is available in articles and dissertations that focus on analysis of Clarkes
music and the brief biographies provide context. Furthermore, most biographies rely
upon secondary sources, many of which contain inaccuracies. This study will present a
more complete and accurate biography based on primary sources with an emphasis upon
Clarkes discovery of her passion for composition and her response to the challenges she
faced as a professional woman composer and performer. In addition, quotations from
primary sources enable the reader to experience Clarkes enthusiastic response to

3
The musical elements are melody, harmony, rhythm, form, texture, timbre, and
dynamics.


3
3

compositional work. The biography also demonstrates that Clarke was repeatedly
recognized for the quality of her compositions, and the affirmation she received
energized her for further compositional work.
Chapter two introduces Clarkes first seven choral compositions, which reveal the
growing complexity of her style. Three early choral works display her first attempts to
acquire and apply basic compositional skills, and analysis of her next four choral
compositions reveals experimentation with and synthesis of Romantic, Impressionist, and
post-tonal techniques as well as the increasingly sophisticated treatment of all musical
elements. Clarkes synthesis of styles is evident in her 1921 anthem for mixed choir, He
That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High. Chapter two also identifies a number
of Clarkes formative choral- and chamber-music experiences, and suggests that her
intimate knowledge of chamber music shaped her approach to choral music.
In chapter three, analysis of Clarkes remaining five choral compositions and an
incomplete fragment establish her interest in creating choral arrangements and music for
womens voices. The final choral work for five-part womens voices, Chorus from
Shelleys Hellas, demonstrates Clarkes most thorough application of post-tonal
techniques in the choral music, while her Ave Maria for three-part treble voices includes
allusions to Renaissance style and shows her trademark sensitivity to the expressive
potential of the text. An incomplete choral fragment bears many similarities to the 1921
Psalm setting, He That Dwelleth, and all of the works discussed in chapter three display
Clarkes curiosity and her synthesis of diverse techniques.
Chapter four provides a summary of the stylistic changes in Clarkes choral music
from 1906, when she composed her first work, to 1944, after which she composed little.
The chapter examines reasons for her obscurity and raises questions that require further
research. An appendix follows in which differences among manuscripts and published
editions are noted. The appendix is intended to assist conductors by identifying


4
4

differences among scores, clarifying Clarkes intentions, pointing out common editorial
issues and solutions, and correcting the occasional error.
Importance of Rebecca Clarke
Rebecca Clarkes importance has been established through performance reviews,
publication of compositions, and scholarship. She has been called the most distinguished
British woman composer of the generation between the late Victorians (Smyth, Lehmann,
White) and the new independents (Maconchy, Lutyens) as well as a pre-eminent
violist.
4
Her reputation rests primarily on her performance and compositional career from
1906 to 1944. Clarke is remembered as one of the first six women to be admitted to a
professional London orchestra and has been called Englands leading woman viola
player.
5
In 1919, Clarkes Viola Sonata tied for first place with Ernest Blochs Viola
Suite in the Berkshire Chamber Music Festival competition, and in 1924, Edwin Evans
interviewed Clarke for an article in the Grove Dictionary.
6
Violist Michael Ponder stated
that the many people who remember her speak of her with an endearment that is saved
only for a person with the rarest of qualities, for indeed, up to her death she retained that
sharpness of mind, that caustic wit, that captivating energy and that real spark of
personality: all the qualities, in fact, to be found in her music.
7
The esteem with which
contemporaries viewed her is reflected in the affirmation of first-rate colleagues with
whom she played, including Jelly dAranyi, Adila Fachiri, Harold Bauer, Pablo Casals,

4
Banfield, Clarke [Friskin], Rebecca (Thacher), 119. Banfield refered to Ethel Smyth
(1858-1944), Liza Lehmann (1862-1918), Maude Valrie White (1855-1937), Elizabeth
Maconchy (1907-1994), and Elisabeth Lutyens (1906-1983).
5
Michael Ponder, Rebecca Clarke, in An Anthology of British Viola Players, comp.
and ed. John White (Lancashire: Comus Edition, 1997), 53.
6
Ibid., 56; Rebecca Clarke, Diary, November 13, 1924, private collection.
7
Ponder, British Music Society Journal 5:84.


5
5

Myra Hess, Paul Kochanski, Pierre Monteux, May Mukle, Arthur Rubinstein,
Guilhermina Suggia, and Jacques Thibaud.
8
The London Morning Post praised Clarke as
a violist of decided attainment, and The Times observed that we have seldom heard a
more beautiful tone and phrasing from a viola player.
9

In addition, publication and performance of Clarkes music elicited critical
comment. For instance, following a concert of Clarkes works at Wigmore Hall in
London, The Times called Clarke A Versatile Composer whose music varies between
flashes of originality and skilful [sic] handling of derived ideas.
10
More recently,
musicologist Ellen Lerner described the instrumental compositions as rhapsodic with
idiomatic string writing while Christopher Johnson noted Clarkes rich harmonic
palette, her lively and sophisticated rhythmic sense, her ability to build long
extraordinarily powerful phrases from the smallest melodic fragments, and her exquisite
care for instrumental color.
11
Michael Ponder also observed that Clarkes music is
always sharply focused and does not bear the English tendency of the period for thickness
of sound.
12
Clarkes style, as Julia Bullard noted, is founded on the Brahmsian tradition
she learned from her composition professor, Charles Stanford, and French Impressionist
influences are evident in her use of modality, chromaticism, and harmonic planing.
13
As

8
Rebecca Clarke, Fiddling with the Stars (unpublished typescript), 5-8, photocopy,
private collection.
9
New Viola Music. The Morning Post (London), June 1, 1920, 8; Miss Rebecca
Clarkes Concert, The Times (London), October 22, 1925, 10.
10
Miss Rebecca Clarkes Concert, The Times, October 22, 1925, 10.
11
Ellen Lerner, Clarke [Friskin], Rebecca (Thacher), in The New Grove Dictionary of
American Music, ed. H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie (New York: Groves Dictionaries of
Music, 1986), 1:452; Christopher Johnson, Remembering the Glorious Rebecca Clarke,
American Women Composers News 3 (1981): 6.
12
Ponder, British Music Society Journal 5:84.
13
Julia Bullard, The Viola and Piano Music of Rebecca Clarke (DMA diss.,
University of Georgia, 2000), 15-16, ProQuest (AAT 9986910).


6
6

Michael Ponder observed, Clarkes compositions from the early 1920s display the
influence of Ernest Bloch.
14

From the mid-1940s until the late 1970s, Clarke composed only a few more works
and did not publish any new compositions. Because her reputation was no longer fueled
by publication, review, and performance of new works, and since the compositions
published between 1920 and 1944 gradually went out of print, her music received
diminishing attention. However, several events in the late 1970s spurred renewed interest
in Rebecca Clarke and her music. Scholars researching women composers began to
contact Clarke, and in a 1976 interview about Myra Hess, Robert Sherman discovered
that Clarke was not only a violist and friend of Hess, but also a composer. Sherman
subsequently interviewed Clarke about her musical career, and in celebration of her
ninetieth birthday, WQXR radio broadcast performances of several compositions and
portions of the prerecorded interview.
15
Then, in the spring of 1977, Toby Appel drew
attention to Clarkes Viola Sonata when he performed it in recital at Alice Tully Hall.
16

Over the next several years, violist Nancy Uscher and musicologist Ellen Lerner
interviewed Clarke about her career,
17
and in 1981 and 1983 respectively, Christopher
Johnson and Michael Ponder contributed brief biographical articles that included works
lists, thus revealing the breadth of Clarkes compositional output.
18
Then in 1987, Calum

14
Ponder, British Music Society Journal 5:83-84.
15 Johnson, interview; Rebecca Clarke, interview by Robert Sherman, The Listening
Room, WQXR radio, New York, August 30, 1976, recording.
16
Rebecca Clarke, Notes on the Program: Viola Sonata, Stagebill, Lincoln Center for
the Performing Arts 4, no. 8 (1977): 27 and 29.
17
Ellen Lerner, A Modern European Quintet: c. 1900-c. 1960, (unpublished
manuscript, 1985), 20; Dr. Nancy Uscher Book Material Authored, accessed February 19,
2011, http://nancyuscher.com/index_files/Pages 611.htm.
18
Johnson, Glorious Rebecca Clarke, 3-6; Ponder, British Music Society Journal 5:82-
88.


7
7

MacDonald provided an introduction to the chamber works that were known at the time,
observing significant characteristics of each composition.
19
During the 1990s, Daniela
Kohnen studied Clarkes life and published Rebecca Clarke: Komponistin und
Bratschistin: Biographie.
20
Musicologist Liane Curtis wrote several articles about Clarke
during the 1990s and in 2001 contributed an article for the second edition of The New
Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians that included a brief biography, discussion of
works, and a works list.
21
In 2004, Indiana University Press issued A Rebecca Clarke
Reader edited by Curtis and containing essays, Clarkes published writings, and
interview transcripts; due to copyright issues, the volume was subsequently recalled.
22

The publication of Clarkes Song Album (1995) and two of her choral works, Ave
Maria (1998) and Chorus from Shelleys Hellas (1999), foreshadowed the explosion of
interest in Clarkes music that occupied the first decade of the new millennium.
23
Since
2000, Oxford University Press has published the remaining ten choral compositions,
Songs with Violin, Songs with Piano, and eight chamber music publications, and in 2002,

19
Calum MacDonald, Rebecca Clarkes Chamber Music (I), Tempo 160 (1987): 15-
26.
20
Daniela Kohnen, Rebecca Clarke, Komponistin und Bratschistin: Biographie
(Egelsbach: Markus Haensel-Hohenhausen, 1999); Eva Rieger, Rebecca Clarke: Komponistin
und BratschistinBiographie (review) Die Musikforschung 53, no. 2 (2000): 218. Eva Rieger
reviewed Kohnens biography citing inaccuracies, an awkward writing style, and an incomplete
biography; Karin Pendle, Women in Music: A Research and Information Guide (New York:
Routledge, 2005), 435. Karin Pendle criticized Kohnens biography for dedicating only seven
pages to discussion of Clarkes music.
21
Liane Curtis. "Clarke, Rebecca." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/44728
(accessed July 9, 2009).
22
Richard Byrne, Silent Treatment, The Chronicle of Higher Education 50, no. 45
(2004), A14, http://chronicle.com/article/Silent-Treatment/36247/.
23
Rebecca Clarke, Song Album (New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1995); Rebecca
Clarke, Ave Maria (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); Rebecca Clarke, Chorus from
Shelleys Hellas (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).


8
8

Masters Music released a scholarly edition of Clarkes Viola Sonata edited by
Christopher Johnson. Recording projects demonstrate the same trend. During the 1990s
nearly a dozen discs featured Clarkes songs and chamber music, and since 2000 twenty
recordings have been released. Clarkes music has also been the subject of six
dissertations since 2000.
24
Related studies such as Sophie Fullers 1998 dissertation
Women Composers during the British Musical Renaissance, 1880-1918 and Paula
Gilletts Musical Women in England, 1870-1914 have contributed to a better
understanding of the historical context and musical activities of women during this
period.
25
Clarke was a founding member of the Society of Women Musicians, an
organization that Donna Parsons discussed in her 2001 dissertation, Their Voices Sing
True and Clear: British Women Musicians and Their Literary Counterparts 1860-
1920.
26
In the 2011 dissertation, The Instrumental Chamber Music of British Women
Composers in the Early Twentieth Century, Laura Seddon focused on the activities of
the Society of Women Musicians during its first decade.
27


24
Bullard, Viola and Piano Music; Daphne Gerling, Connecting Histories: Identity
and Exoticism in Ernest Bloch, Rebecca Clarke, and Paul Hindemiths Viola Works of 1919
(DMA diss., Rice University, 2007), ProQuest (AAT 3257332); Bryony Jones, The Music of
Rebecca Clarke (1886-1979) (PhD diss., University of Liverpool, 2004), EThOS
(uk.bl.ethos.406829); Ai-Ree Loh, Unifying Devices in Selected Large-Scale Piano Repertoire
Since Beethoven: A Performance Dissertation (DMA diss., University of Maryland, College
Park, 2003), ProQuest (AAT 3095980); Julianto Pranata, New Transcriptions for Viola: Works
by J.S. Bach, Frank Bridge, Clara Schumann, and Rebecca Clarke (DMA diss., The University
of Memphis, 2004), ProQuest (AAT 3127347); John Rutland, Violin and Voice as Partners in
Three Early Twentieth-Century English Works for Voice and Violin (DMA diss., University of
North Texas, 2005), ProQuest (AAT 3206103).
25
Sophie Fuller, Women Composers during the British Musical Renaissance, 1880-
1918 (PhD diss., Kings College, University of London, 1998), EThOS (uk.bl.ethos.263601);
Paula Gillett, Musical Women in England, 1870-1914 (New York: St. Martins Press, 2000).
26
Donna Parsons, Their Voices Sing True and Clear: British Women Musicians and
Their Literary Counterparts 1860-1920 (PhD diss., The University of Iowa, 2001), 22, ProQuest
(AAT 3018606).
27
Laura Seddon, The Instrumental Chamber Music of British Women Composers in
the Early Twentieth Century (PhD diss., City University, London, 2011).


9
9

Four of the Clarke dissertations written since 2000 are studies of the viola music
while a fifth dissertation examines Clarkes Three Old English Songs for voice and
violin, and the sixthThe Music of Rebecca Clarke (1886-1979)provides analysis
of all genres. Among these dissertations, The Viola and Piano Music of Rebecca
Clarke by Julia Bullard traced the development of Clarkes style and observed that her
music displays many of the compositional trends of the early twentieth century including
developing variation, cyclic structures, and the expansion of harmony through increased
chromaticism and diminished seventh chords.
28
Bullard also noted that Clarke
increasingly used semitone voice leading to create modulations between distantly-related
keys, replaced tonal harmonic progression with linear considerations, and employed
planing and whole-tone scales associated with Impressionism, all of which are also
characteristic of Clarkes mature choral works.
29

In her 2004 dissertation, The Music of Rebecca Clarke (1886-1979), Bryony
Jones provided the first comprehensive survey of Clarkes compositions and the only
study of her choral music.
30
Jones provided musical analysis of Clarkes complete
output, studied the development of her mature style, examined stylistic influences, and
identified characteristics of her unique compositional voice.
31
Within the choral chapter,
Jones discussed the early choral works as a group and offered insights into Clarkes
mature style through examples from Philomela, He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of
the Most High,

There is No Rose, My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float, and

28
Bullard, Viola and Piano Music, 9-15.
29
Ibid., 14-15.
30
Jones, Music of Rebecca Clarke, 207-27.
31
Ibid., x. Jones stated that she did not have access to Clarkes manuscripts and used
Liane Curtiss copies; Jones did not discuss Clarkes early songs because she did not have access
to copies of all of them.


10
1
0

Chorus from Shelleys Hellas, thus establishing a foundation for further examination of
the choral music.
While Jones provided an overview of Clarkes early choral works and observed
important aspects of five compositions, the present study will trace the development of
Clarkes compositional style through analysis of all twelve choral compositions and a
choral fragment which span the period 1906-1944. Chronological analysis of Clarkes
complete choral output reveals use of the primary English choral styles associated with
unaccompanied singing, sensitive settings of quality texts, increasing reliance on complex
melodies, harmonies, rhythms, and forms, and the ongoing integration of new techniques.
To enable an understanding of the forces that shaped Clarkes compositional identity and
style, the discussion begins with an examination of the society in which Clarke lived.
Historical Context
Rebecca Clarke came of age during a period in which womens capabilities and
appropriate spheres of activity were fiercely debated, and her musical achievements are
informed by this context.
32
Non-musical considerations such as the appropriateness of
public performance for women, the social class of musical performers, and whether
marriage and career were compatible frequently dominated editorials, public forums, and
private discussions. The Victorian legacy that idolized morally pure and physically
attractive women fueled concerns that specific instruments would detract from female
beauty and that too much expressiveness in public performance would violate the
demure, restrained behavior expected from women.
33
Paula Gillett noted that those who
sought to maintain restrictive norms cited sources such as Charles Darwins The Descent
of Man (1871), which claimed that the evolutionary process had determined that men

32
Gillett, Musical Women in England, 3.
33
Ibid.


11
1
1

would be strong, courageous providers while women would be beautiful and
ornamental.
34
Many people had also been shaped by Immanuel Kants beliefs that deep
meditation, long-sustained reflection, and laborious learning were unnatural for
women, as well as George Romaness widely-read article, Mental Differences Between
Men and Women, which asserted womens intellectual, emotional, and creative
inferiority.
35
Romaness view was based in part on the fact that the average female brain
weighed five ounces less than the average male brain; however, The British Medical
Journal challenged Romaness assumptions that larger brain size was a sign of
intellectual superiority.
36
Within the musical profession, the famous pianist and
conductor Hans von Blow wrote that we may allow that the fair sex possess
reproductive genius, just as we unconditionally deny that they possess productive genius.
The rare exceptions in French and English literature, Georges Sand and Elliot [sic],
cannot constitute a precedent in music.There will never be a compositoress, there can
be only, at most, a copyist spoilt.
37
Even as late as 1903, Otto Weininger asserted that
woman is soulless and has neither self nor individuality, neither personality nor
freedom, neither character nor will.
38


34
Ibid., 18; Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex Part
Two (London: William Pickering, 1989), 621.
35
Gillett, Musical Women in England, 18 and 20; Immanuel Kant, Observations on the
Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, trans. John Goldthwait (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1960), 78; George Romanes, Mental Differences Between Men and Women, in The
Education Papers: Womens Quest for Equality in Britain, 1850-1912, ed. Dale Spender (New
York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987), 11-13.
36 Gillett, Musical Women in England, 18; Romanes, Mental Differences, 11; The
Mental Differences Between Men and Women, The British Medical Journal 2, no. 1390 (1887):
416.
37
Gillett, Musical Women in England, 22.
38
Fuller, British Musical Renaissance, 30; Otto Weininger, Sex and Character: an
Investigation of Fundamental Principles (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005),
http://proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/login?url=http:// site.ebrary.com/lib/uiowa/Doc?id=10124799/
(accessed January 26, 2010), 180.


12
1
2

However, the intellectual arguments of Mary Wollstonecrafts A Vindication of
the Rights of Woman (1792) and John Stuart Mills The Subjection of Women (1869)
challenged ideas that stifled womens development. Wollstonecraft advocated the
integrated public education of boys and girls as beneficial to society, and Mill went
further by asserting the need for perfect equality between the sexes.
39
Mill wrote that
the principle which regulates the existing social relations between the two sexesthe
legal subordination of one sex to the otheris wrong in itself, and now one of the chief
hindrances to human improvement.
40
Mill therefore argued that women should be
granted parental and property rights, the right to vote, and the ability to choose an
occupation.
41
In relation to the field of music, the composer and critic Stephen S.
Stratton defended womens compositional abilities and challenged stereotypical ideas
about femininity and the types of work that were appropriate for women.
42
Stratton
stated that while there had not yet been a great woman composer and comparatively few
women had received a professional musical education, he expected that with improved
educational opportunities, women composers would attain greater heights.
43
While
contemporaries advocated that women aspire to express the feminine in music, Stratton
advocated an objective view of art that transcended gender: The objective then, rather

39
Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, ed. Deidre Shauna Lynch
(New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2009), 182; John Stuart Mill, On Liberty and The
Subjection of Women, ed. Alan Ryan (London: Penguin, 2006), 133.
40
Mill, Subjection of Women, 133.
41
Ibid., 167, 189, 186.
42
Stephen Stratton, Woman in Relation to Musical Art, Proceedings of the Musical
Association, 9th Sess., Royal Musical Association (1882-1883): 115-39.
43
Ibid., 130.


13
1
3

than the feminine, should be the goal for women and men alike, and sex in art a thing no
longer to be conceived.
44

In the midst of the ongoing debate about womens capabilities, advocates for
change worked to gain women legal rights, better educational access, and employment in
exclusively male professions. In 1882, after more than three decades of advocacy,
married women gained property rights and four years later, parental rights.
45
The
Education Act of 1870 had established a new standard in public education by requiring
music education for all children.
46
Numerous public and private music schools opened
during the last decades of the nineteenth century and most admitted women. Among
these, the most important was the Royal College of Music, founded in 1883, with Sir
Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (1848-1918) as professor of Composition and Music
History and Sir Charles Stanford (1852-1924) as professor of Composition and Orchestra.
Parry and Stanford shaped the future of English music by training several generations of
composers, and under their leadership the RCM became Londons most respected school
of music.
47

Musical education was viewed as a worthwhile pursuit that gave women
something to do prior to marriage and enabled women who remained single to support
themselves. Throughout the nineteenth century, the ability to play the piano was
considered a female accomplishment that made genteel young women more desirable
wives, but during the 1880s and 90s the violin emerged as an alternative.
48
On January

44
Ibid., 131.
45
Fuller, British Musical Renaissance, 32. The Married Womens Property Act (1882)
and the Guardianship of Infants Act (1886) gave women property and parental rights respectively.
46
Robert Stradling and Meirion Hughes, The English Musical Renaissance 1860-1940:
Construction and Deconstruction (New York: Routledge, 1993), 17.
47
Stradling and Hughes, English Musical Renaissance, 25-26.
48
Gillett, Musical Women in England, 4.


14
1
4

18, 1872, the Royal Academy of Music admitted its first female violin student; from its
founding in 1822, the school had been a coeducational institution, but women were
originally allowed to study only voice, piano, and harp.
49
As the instrument associated
with home use, the piano seemed ideal because a woman was able to maintain a dignified
posture while playing.
50
On the other hand, it was initially considered vulgar for a
woman to play the violin, and analogies between the shape of the violin and the female
body had to be eradicated in order to make it a respectable option.
51
After 1880, the
violin was increasingly viewed as an acceptable instrument for women to play, and
female violin students flooded educational institutions. A third instrument, the harp, had
long been considered appropriate for women musicians.
52

After earning their education, women faced limited professional opportunities.
While a small minority of women achieved professional and financial success as soloists,
most women who sought orchestral positions found opportunities to play only in amateur
or all-women orchestras; others performed chamber music in homes, and many women
became music teachers.
53
A few women also found faculty positions, but were allowed
to teach only female students.
54
With the exception of a few female harpists, Londons
orchestras excluded women until Sir Henry Wood, director of the Queens Hall
Orchestra, made the highly controversial decision in 1913 to hire six women string

49 Nicholas Temperley, et al. "London (i)." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music
Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music
/16904pg8 (accessed December 11, 2009); Gillett, Musical Women in England, 79-80.
50
Gillett, Musical Women in England, 4.
51
Ibid., 82, 87, 117-18.
52
Fuller, British Musical Renaissance, 43; Gillett, Musical Women in England, 9 and
78.
53
Gillet, Musical Women in England, 9.
54
Fuller, British Musical Renaissance, 75.


15
1
5

players, among whom was Clarke.
55
Despite the criticism of other orchestral conductors,
Wood consistently defended his decision to hire women.
56

Societys view of the relationship between social class and amateur-versus-
professional status profoundly affected women. Adam Smiths An Inquiry into the Nature
and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) shaped nineteenth-century ideas about the
social status of musicians. Smith wrote, There are some very agreeable and beautiful
talents of which the possession commands a certain sort of admiration, but of which the
exercise for the sake of gain is considered, whether from reason or prejudice, as a sort of
public prostitution.
57
Smiths attitude represented the upper-class English viewpoint
regarding musical work until the 1890s, when public performance finally began to be
acceptable for upper-class young women.
58
While men and women alike were affected
by the historically low view of working musicians, women faced an additional obstacle in
that some parents opposed public performance for their daughters because it subjected

55
Gillet, Musical Women in England, 9; Arthur Jacobs, Henry J. Wood: Maker of the
Proms (London: Methuen, 1994), 142.
56
Jacobs, Henry J. Wood, 142. Sir Thomas Beecham (1879-1961) and Sir Landon
Ronald (1873-1938) openly criticized Woods decision to hire women string players. During the
early twentieth century, Sir Thomas Beecham conducted several London orchestras including the
New Symphony Orchestra and the Beecham Symphony Orchestra. He also conducted at Covent
Garden, His Majestys Theatre, and Drury Lane and arranged for the London premieres of
Diaghilevs ballets. Ronald Crichton and John Lucas, "Beecham, Sir Thomas." In Grove Music
Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu
/subscriber/article/grove/music/02507 (accessed December 14, 2009); Sir Landon Ronald
conducted the New Symphony Orchestra (1909-14), the Scottish Symphony Orchestra (1916-
1920), the Saturday concerts of the Birmingham Symphony Orchestra (1907-18) and was a guest
conductor for Britains premier orchestras. Michael Kennedy, "Ronald, Sir Landon." In Grove
Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu
/subscriber/article/grove/music/23776 (accessed December 14, 2009).
57
Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, vol. 1,
ed. Edwin Cannan (New York: The Modern Library, 1937), 1:107.
58
Gillett, Musical Women in England, 6.


16
1
6

them to the lustful gaze of men.
59
However, the Pall Mall Gazette reported in 1884 that
the number of women working as professional musicians nearly equaled the number of
men.
60

Another obstacle to full recognition of professional musical work was the
assumption that upper-class women musicians were amateurs rather than professionals.
61

Musical skill was considered an attractive accomplishment for upper-class women, who
did not have to work as lower-class women did, but were free to become skilled amateur
musicians. Except in rare cases where the husband or parents were supportive, upper-
class women were not allowed to engage in professional musical work because it implied
that the husband or father was not able to adequately provide for the family.
62

Women performers were also generally assumed to be less competent than men
and were often paid less. By 1910, when Clarke began her professional career, some
progress had been made, and in the case of the Queens Hall Orchestra, women were paid
the same amount as men in order to allay the mens fears that the admission of women
would undercut their wages.
63

During this period the terms masculine and feminine were often associated with
specific musical attributes. Bold, aggressive gestures characterized masculine music
while feminine music was described as gentle and lyrical. Composition itself was
regarded by many as a male activity, and the persistent repetition of the belief that
women were incapable of creative activity probably discouraged all but the most

59
Ibid., 7.
60
Ibid., 11.
61
Fuller, British Musical Renaissance, 44.
62
Ibid., 50.
63
Jacobs, Henry J. Wood, 142.


17
1
7

determined women. As performance and publication reviews attest, womens
compositions were often dismissed as insignificant when they embodied typically
feminine attributes, but if women composed bold music with stereotypically masculine
characteristics, the compositions were criticized for their lack of femininity or their
misguided attempt to sound masculine. However, 1920s reviews of Clarkes Viola Sonata
and Trio demonstrate that while gender was still mentioned, some reviewers tried to
analyze the music objectively. As the reviewer of the Viola Sonata wrote, This is easily
the best work we have had from a woman composer for a long timethough music has
no genders and such a consideration is really irrelevant to its quality.
64
Similarly, the
review of the 1922 London premiere of Clarkes Trio provides a critique that is focused
on musical analysis:
Miss Rebecca Clarkes Pianoforte Trio, played for the first time in
England at the Wigmore Hall last night, displays a far more
marked leaning towards the latter-day extremities of clashing
tonalities and angularity of thematic outline than any other music
of hers we have heard. The change may or may not be for the
better; at any rate, in this trio there is not enough consistency of
style to make one feel that she is doing as yet much more than
experimenting. All the same, there is a direct vigour and boldness
in the music, which is interesting, though not exactly charming.
The writing for the three instruments does not show enough
variety. Miss Clarkes technique being still rather limited in this
respect.
65

Although the critic did not provide a wholly positive review of the Trio on stylistic
grounds, it is questionable whether he would have noted the Trios vigour and boldness
and lack of charm if the work had been composed by a man.
Those who subscribed to masculine and feminine categories of music believed
that certain genres associated with home music-makingsongs, piano music, and
chamber musicwere appropriate for women composers, while large-scale chamber

64
P. H., Contingencies, Sackbut 1, no. 3 (1920): 109.
65
A New Trio, The Times (London), November 4, 1922: 5.


18
1
8

works and orchestral compositions were reserved for male composers. However, Sophie
Fullers research demonstrates that women at this time were writing large amounts of
music in every conceivable genre, which was being published, performed and discussed
throughout the country, and none of the published studies of the period accurately detail
their work.
66
Curiously, studies of English song have failed to acknowledge the
significant contributions of women composers during the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries, despite the importance of their compositions.
67
Furthermore, Paula Gillett
observed that women who composed in genres seen as more complex and demanding,
implicitly challenged ideas of male intellectual superiority and female incapacity that
prevailed both within and outside the world of music.
68
Women who sought publication
of large-scale works confronted not only the usual challenges common to men and
women composers, but also the assumption that large-scale works by women composers
would be inferior to those of their male contemporaries.
69
Even when works were
published and received multiple performances, women did not sustain lasting
reputations.
70

During the late nineteenth century, womens capabilities and roles were debated,
but despite strong opposition, women gained legal rights and greater educational access.

66
Fuller, British Musical Renaissance, 21.
67
Ibid., 19. Fuller stated that in Byrd to Britten: A Survey of English Song (1966),
Sydney Northcote discussed only four women composers while Stephen Banfield made passing
references to several women composers but provided no detailed coverage in Sensibility and
English Song (1985).
68
Gillett, Musical Women in England, 18.
69
Ibid., 29. Dora Brights Fantasia in G minor for piano and orchestra was the first work
by a woman composer to be performed by the Philharmonic Society; she composed many
orchestral works but none of them were published.
70
Ibid., 30-31. Gillett stated that Ethel Smyths music succumbed to the pattern that
characterized the reception of music by other women composers: recognition during her lifetime
followed by a reputation that quickly faded with the nonperformance of her work.


19
1
9

Women who sought a musical education were no longer limited to studying the piano or
harp, but also began studying other instruments and composition. Following collegiate
education, however, many women had limited professional opportunities and upper-class
women were often assumed to be amateurs. Women musicians were also considered to be
less competent than their male contemporaries, and composers who ventured beyond
genres associated with the home met resistance. Likewise, the belief that certain musical
gestures were masculine and others feminine discouraged women from personal,
authentic composition. The following biography will explore Clarkes response to the
obstacles and opportunities she encountered within a rapidly changing society.
Biography
Rebecca Clarkes biography reveals her passion for music, her unwavering desire
to study composition, and her tenacious pursuit of a musical career despite challenges to
success as a professional musician. While biographical information is available in several
articles, reference works, and dissertations, few rely on primary sources and many repeat
errors presented in other secondary literature. Among recent scholars, Julia Bullard and
Liane Curtis have worked with primary sources and Bryony Jones used Curtiss copies.
However, the biographical section of Bullards dissertation is quite brief and not entirely
accurate, several of Curtiss articles contain inaccurate information and impose a
psychological interpretation of Clarkes actions, and while Jones corrected several
inaccuracies, the biographical section remains brief. This biography seeks to provide
more detailed and accurate information from primary sources, including diaries, a
memoir, articles, lectures, reviews, personal notes, musical manuscripts, and school
records with an emphasis on the development of Clarkes compositional identity and her
response to the gender bias she encountered.


20
2
0

Childhood
Rebecca Clarke was born in Harrow, England on August 27, 1886 to Agnes
Helferich Clarke (1861-1935) and Joseph Clarke (1856-1920). Her mother was the
daughter of a professor at the University of Munich and the great-niece of the German
historian Leopold von Ranke, and her father was a Bostonian architect who worked as a
patent expert for the Eastman Kodak Company.
71
Joseph and Agnes shared a love for
music and spent many evenings during their courtship and early marriage singing duets
together while Agnes accompanied on the piano. Clarke described her mother as quite a
serviceable pianist with excellent sight-reading skills (10).
The Clarke family grew to include four children: Rebecca (b. 1886), Hans (b.
1887), Eric (b. 1890) and Dora (b. 1895).
72
Unfortunately, their childhood was marked
by verbal and physical abuse. Until the age of twelve, Clarkes father whipped her with
an architects rule or a piece of linoleum as punishment for biting her nails and
misbehaving (26). Clarkes brothers were also whipped, and she wrote that each of them
was profoundly affected in character by these episodes in our lives. They were not a
kind that could easily be forgotten (28). Joseph also showed his cruelty by using his
children for target practice. He had purchased a powerful air gun and enjoyed shooting at
animals from an upper story window of the family house. When animals were not in
sight, and since moving targets were more challenging, he fired at the children while they
played in the yard, leaving their legs bruised (33). Joseph Clarke was also verbally
abusive. Clarke wrote, Anything was better than being summoned to the library for a
scolding. How well I remember the pattern of the long Persian rug that I paced back and

71
Johnson, Glorious Rebecca Clarke, 6; Rebecca Clarke, I Had a Father, Too; or,
The Mustard Spoon (unpublished manuscript, 2008), 12, photocopy, private collection.
Hereafter in chapter one, citations from Clarkes memoir, are indicated by a parenthetical number
in the text.
72
Johnson, Glorious Rebecca Clarke, 6.


21
2
1

forth on while Papa sat at his desk telling me by the half hour and in vivid detail about all
the bad things I had done not only on that day but back and back and way back into the
past (111). In contrast, she described her mother Agnes as the unchanging core of our
lives who was always ready to be gay and see the funny side of things (65-66). Agnes
had decided early in her marriage to never openly disagree with her husband; one
unfortunate consequence was that the children had no advocate in the face of their
fathers abuse (16). Clarke wrote that as young children, she and her siblings assumed
that their family was normal, but as they grew older, they realized it was not (28).
Joseph Clarke was also an ardent atheist who made clear that his children were
not to be influenced by Christian teachings in the various schools they attended. As a
result, the Clarke children were viewed with suspicion by teachers and classmates alike.
Clarke briefly attended several schools and in between schools, her mother taught her at
home. Agnes Clarke surrounded her children with stimulating literary and artistic
experiences. She took the children to London to explore museums and historical sites and
read classic literature to them (36). As a result, Clarke developed a deep love for
literature. One of Clarkes favorite playthings was a bag of fabric scraps of various colors
and textures leftover from a quilt (37). Her early fascination with the tactile and visual
aspects of color and texture seems to foreshadow her later exploration of the musical
qualities of color and texture.
Clarke was also exposed to music from an early age. She described her father as
an ardent amateur cellist ardent but somewhat less than mediocre (39). Clarke
recalled her father playing quartets with a group of amateurs, but his real desire was to be
able to play quartets within the family, so when Hans began violin lessons at age seven,
Rebecca was allowed to go along to see what she could learn. After Hans and Rebecca
had developed sufficient skills on the violin, the family began playing quartets with
Joseph as cellist and Agnes as violist (70). Clarkes passionate response to music
surfaced when, while playing a trio with her parents, she was moved to tears and unable


22
2
2

to continue (68). Eventually a music room was added to the house and the family began
to accumulate a library of chamber music (69). Home music-making, however, was not
limited to chamber music. Clarke recalled pleasant evenings with her mother smiling and
playing the piano while she and her siblings gathered round to sing, and occasionally
their father joined them as well (74).
Clarkes early musical experiences also included attending concerts and the Paris
Exhibition. As a girl, she heard the Belgian violinist Eugne Ysae at Queens Hall and
was captivated by his playing. His incomparable tonesurely there has never been
another to equal itmelted my bones with rapture and I thought his appearance god-
like (84). In 1900, the thirteen-year-old Clarke attended the Paris Exhibition with her
father. She was dazzled by the experience and wrote, Never in my life had I imagined
anything to compare to the fantastic buildings, the colours, the indirect lighting at night,
and above all the playing of a Javanese gamelong [sic] orchestra (97).
Clarke eventually attended South Hampstead High School where she struggled
socially, but her passion for music steadily grew during this time: I was veering more
and more towards music, in fact was fast becoming emotionally drenched in it. For weeks
I carried around in my pocket a homemade copy of a certain Trio from the Minuetto of a
Haydn quartet with which I had fallen in love, so that I could take it out every now and
then and worship it in secret (105). Clarkes unpleasant high school experience ended
abruptly when her father withdrew her from the school following a disagreement with the
headmistress; she was fifteen and her mother again accepted responsibility for her
education (106). Rebeccas violin practice then became more rigorous with the goal of
auditioning for the Royal Academy of Music (107).


23
2
3

Formal Musical Education
At age sixteen, Clarke auditioned for the Royal Academy of Music and began
studies during the Lenten term of 1903.
73
Several sources erroneously state that Clarke
began studying at the Royal Academy in 1902 and others fail to distinguish between
Clarkes studies at the Royal Academy of Music and the Royal College of Music, but
accurate information may be obtained from the Royal Academy of Music.
At the Royal Academy, Clarke studied violin with Hans Wessely and harmony
with Percy Miles and played second violin in the orchestra under Sir Alexander
Mackenzie (115). Her music theory instruction followed the teachings of Stewart
Macpherson and Ebenezer Prout, and harmony was her favorite subject (116). Notably,
Macpherson and Prout objectively described musical processes, so although gendered
descriptions were common in musical discourse, Clarke was instructed to analyze using
musical terminology.
74

Clarke was thrilled by her experience at the Royal Academy and expressed her
admiration for several well-known students: Awestruck, I gazed at composition students
whose names were alrea[d]y known to me. There they were in person at the Fortnightly
concerts Benjamin Dale, York Bowen, and, grandest of all, Arnold Bax, resplendent
in a pale-greenish suit with a pink carnation in his buttonhole. Pig-tailed nonentity that I

73
Bridget Palmer, e-mail message to author, September 28, 2009. Bridget Palmer,
Assistant Librarian, Special Collections and Archives, Royal Academy of Music wrote that
student register F of the Royal Academy of Music shows that Rebecca Clarke attended the
Royal Academy of Music from Lent term 1903 through midsummer term 1905. Lent term began
January 12, 1903 and midsummer term in 1905 concluded July 22.
74
It is unclear which harmony texts Clarke used, but Macphersons Practical Harmony
and Prouts Harmony: Its Theory and Practice were in print during Clarkes years of formal
musical education. Stewart Macpherson, Practical Harmony, rev. ed. (London: Joseph Williams,
1907), 129-33. Cadences are discussed using musical terminology. Macphersons Practical
Harmony was first published in 1894; Ebenezer Prout, Harmony: Its Theory and Practice
(London: Augener, 1903), 44-45. Cadences are described using musical terms including full,
authentic, and plagal. Musical terminology is also found in the discussion of cadences on pp.
129-30. Harmony: Its Theory and Practice was first published in 1889.


24
2
4

was, it never crossed my mind that later on, in my professional life, I should become
acquainted with these gods (115-16). When Clarke was seventeen, her father abruptly
removed her from the Royal Academy after her harmony professor, Percy Miles,
proposed marriage. She had earned bronze and silver medals after successfully
completing the first and second years of study, but was not allowed to complete the third
year that would have lead to the Certificate of Merit (117).
After her withdrawal from the Royal Academy, Clarke demonstrated her
continued commitment to music by practicing the violin, playing chamber music with her
family, and composing songs with German texts (124). Despite the absence of external
encouragement, Clarkes engagement with music continued to grow; she wrote that
composing became for me a refuge, an outlet, and finally a passion. A number of songs
now fortunately lost resulted, mostly with German words, and all sentimental and
amateurish. Dreams of becoming a professional musician began to invade me, and with
that object I kept up my violin practice.
75
Undeterred by her fathers disapproval of her
professional ambitions, she continued to pursue music, attending many concerts in
London where she heard the famous violinists Pablo de Sarasate, Jan Kubelk, and
Eugne Ysae as well as the Joachim Quartet (144). Clarke became increasingly drawn to
composition and eventually her father began to show interest in her work. Having met Sir
Charles Stanford, Joseph Clarke wrote to him asking for an appraisal of several of his
daughters compositions. Stanford replied that there seem to be a few traces of talent in
your daughter and suggested that she study composition with him at the Royal College
of Music (152).

75
Clarke, I Had a Father, Too, 144. Although Clarke apparently thought her first song
compositions were lost, a number of early songs with German text have since been found among
her manuscripts.


25
2
5

While several sources report other dates, Royal College records show that Clarke
began studies at the Royal College in January 1908 and continued through July 1910.
76

She studied counterpoint and fugue with Sir Frederick Bridge and enrolled in a general
music course taught by Sir Walter Parratt (153-54). Although Stanford had a reputation
for being gruff and highly critical of students work, Clarke got along with him very well.
At her first composition lesson, Stanford analyzed the songs her father had sent him,
identifying their faults. At one point he commented, But of course its difficult to make
out your very illegible writing. Following the advice of another student, Clarke stood
her ground and replied, I thought my writing was pretty clear Sir Charles looked at
her knowingly, and they became friends on the spot (153). Clarke described her
composition lessons as the highpoint of the week (158). One of her early assignments
was to compose several themes on which variations could be written; Stanford selected
one, and she began the hard work of writing the variations. At one point, she challenged
one of his suggestions saying, But it would be against my convictions. She recalled
his look of goodnatured derision and his statement what has a crather like you got to
do with convictions? in his most Irish brogue and with a mixture of sarcasm and
affection. She winced and they both burst out laughing (158). At the end of the term,
Clarkes variations won an Exhibition prize, a monetary award that covered half of the
years fees. Clarke wrote appreciatively about her experience at the Royal College in her
memoir:
I loved the Royal College, and made many more friends there than
I had at the Royal Academy. It was extremely stimulating to think
of the well known composers who had been there and passed
through Stanfords hands: Gustav Holst, Vaughan Williams, Frank
Bridge, George Butterworth and a host of others, all of whom I
ultimately came to know. That I was the only woman he had

76
Peter Horton, e-mail message to author, September 2, 2009. Peter Horton, Reference
Librarian at the Royal College of Music, London communicated that RCM records show Clarkes
enrollment at the RCM from January 1908 through July 1910.


26
2
6

accepted was a source of great pride to me, though I knew full well
that I never really deserved it (154).
While Clarke was Stanfords only female student between 1908 and 1910, she was
apparently unaware that two other women, Katherine Ramsay (1892-95) and Marion
Scott (1896-1904), had previously studied with him.
77
A number of sources identify
Clarke as Stanfords first female composition student, but Paul Rodmells biography of
Stanford reflects Royal College records and lists the dates of study for many of
Stanfords students.
78

Stanford not only shaped Clarkes musical development through composition
lessons, but also persuaded her to switch from violin to viola. He conducted the college
orchestra and during her first semester at the Royal College he advised:
You must come into the orchestraChange over to the viola
because then you are right in the middle of the sound, and can tell
how its all done. And from that moment the viola became my
instrument. I had felt an affinity for it ever since I was a child and
first heard the two Brahms songs with viola obbligato; so the
switch from violin felt very natural. I have always been glad I
made it (158-59).
While Clarke found her studies very stimulating, she was also energized by the
friendships she made with other students and felt she had finally found her niche (159).
Through instruction and performance opportunities, she rapidly developed new skills and
her confidence grew. As the following excerpt from Clarkes memoir demonstrates,
compositional work brought a deep sense of fulfillment:
It was a happy time, an ecstatic time. My work was improving,
slowly, but improving. Getting ideas down on paper was not
always easy, and often I had no ideas at all; but every now and
then, in the middle of struggling with some problem, everything
would fall into place with a suddenness almost like switching on
an electric light. It may sound pretentious (Am I again talking like

77
Paul Rodmell, Charles Villiers Stanford (London: Ashgate, 2002), 351. Katherine
Ramsays dates of study with Stanford were unclear; the years 1892-95 suggest study beginning
at age eighteen. Margaret Nosek also studied with Stanford beginning in 1916.
78
Ibid.


27
2
7

Papa?), but at those moments, though I had no illusions whatever
about the value of my work I was flooded with a wonderful
feeling of potential power a mirage that made anything seem
possible. Every composer, or writer, or painter too for that matter,
however obscure, is surely familiar with this sensation. It is a
glorious one. I know of almost nothing to equal it (144).
Clarke described her second year as even more rewarding than my first (170).
Stanford had asked her to compose a violin sonata and she was completely absorbed by
the project. When she brought the beginning of her slow movement to a composition
lesson, Stanford suddenly got up and left the room without a comment, taking her
composition with him. She was later told that when Stanford saw something in a
students work that interested him, he would suddenly disappear and go to show it to
another professor. He had taken Clarkes sonata to the violin teacher, Fernandez Arbos
(171). Clarke was encouraged by the fact that her composition had elicited this reaction
in her esteemed professor, and despite tensions at home that resulted from her fathers
erratic behavior, she continued to succeed in her compositional work (171). However, she
was not able to remain detached from her fathers dysfunction for long. At the end of the
term in December 1909, the college awarded her an Exhibition prize for her Danse
Bizarre for two violins (175). Only a few students received such an award and Clarke
expected her father would praise her accomplishment, but instead he twisted the situation
and asked why they hadnt given her an entire years tuition rather than enough for just
two semesters. Joseph Clarke wrote a letter stating his opinion and withdrawing her from
the school, but Sir Hubert Parry, principal of the college, told Clarke that the school
wanted her to continue and asked if she would allow him to pay the remaining portion of
her tuition. When she declined, he explained that there was a fund at the school for
situations like these, and she agreed to accept a scholarship from that source. Years later,
Cecil Forsyth, who had also been an RCM student, pointed out to her that Parry had
actually paid her tuition; it had never occurred to her that Parry had personally helped her
(175).


28
2
8

Unfortunately, Clarkes home environment became more unsettled during her
second year, and she found it impossible to focus on composition. She literally had no
ideas worth putting down and went to lesson after lesson with nothing at all. Stanford
did not question her, but gave her assignments like trying to write choral pieces
according to the strict rules of Palestrina or rescoring Mozart symphonies from the piano
arrangements and then comparing She also felt a responsibility to Parry because of
the scholarship, but anxiety increasingly blocked her ability to compose. She wrote, It
was a miserable, frustrating time (175).
While all of Clarkes siblings were still living at home in 1909, they had begun to
rebel in unique ways (170). During one of her fathers trips abroad, a pile of letters from
a mistress had accumulated on his desk. On the day he was to return, Clarke made a
tower out of ashtrays, paperweights, and vases, placing the packet of letters on the top to
show him that she knew about and condemned his affair. Upon finding the tower, Joseph
exploded and angrily told her, Leave this house and dont let me ever see you again
(178). She had only twelve pounds, no home, and no job (179). With the help of friends,
she found a place to live and got a job playing viola in the college orchestra (180). In a
single day, the course of Clarkes life radically changed; she was living in London and
preparing to support herself as a professional violist.
79
The unfortunate consequence was
that Clarke was unable to continue compositional studies a third year at the Royal
College. Clarke and her father were never reconciled and he died September 23, 1920.
80


79
Clarke, I Had a Father, Too, 181. Stephen Banfield wrote, But her father
disapproved of her professional ambitions and she was without support on leaving the RCM in
1910. Banfields statement implies that Josephs disapproval of her goals resulted in a lack of
financial support after 1910. While Joseph Clarke did at times show disapproval of his daughters
desire to become a professional musician, he evicted her from the family home and withdrew
financial support in response to her love-letter prank, not because of her professional aspirations.
Banfield, Clarke [Friskin], Rebecca (Thacher), 120.
80
Jones, Music of Rebecca Clarke, 241.


29
2
9

Professional Work
Clarke then began her professional musical career as a composer and violist and
her connections at the Royal College were instrumental in securing her first jobs. She was
invited to audition with the all-woman Norah Clench Quartet and heard only many years
later that Stanford had written to them on her behalf.
81
Clarke also worked as a free-
lance violist, and chamber music jobs frequently brought her to the homes of wealthy
music lovers including Walter Willson Cobbett. She recalled that musicians in those
days were still sometimes looked upon as members of the lower classes especially by the
servants themselves, the worst snobs of all. It was not yet fashionable for a well-brought-
up girl to earn money by taking up a profession or opening a hat shop.
82
Despite
negative attitudes towards professional musicians and employed upper-class women,
Clarke chose to use her professional skills to support herself. In addition to playing
chamber music for hire, she also enjoyed participating in the rich underground chamber-
music life of London musicians. Clarke recalled going to the famous parties hosted by
Paul and Muriel Draper during the years prior to World War I:
I used to go sometimes a couple of times a week to the Drapers.
And always there was wonderful music. As well as Casals and
Thibaud and Rubinstein, Harold Bauer and Myra Hess - both
beautiful CM players were often there; and Moiseiwitch and Paul
Kochanski and May Mukle, that fine cellist, and many other
marvelous people. And sometimes, when they wanted a sextet or
two-viola quintet, they would beckon to a rather short, very quiet
man with dark eyes and moustache, and ask him to get out his
viola. - - So, I can now boast that in the past I often played first
viola to the second viola of Pierre Monteux!
83


81
Clarke, I Had a Father Too, unnumbered.
82
Ibid., typescript from a handwritten page.
83
Clarke, Fiddling with the Stars, 6. Eugene Goossens recounted a similar event at
which he played a Brahms two-viola quintet with Thibaud, Kochanski, Clarke, and Casals.
Eugene Goossens, Overture and Beginners (London: Methuen, 1951), 98.


30
3
0

Clarkes diaries from 1919 to 1933 document a steady diet of rehearsals, performances,
and post-performance parties that usually included more chamber music, and while she
composed as time allowed, chamber music work was her primary source of income, and
thus her first priority.
Clarke was also involved in some of the activities of the Society of Women
Musicians (SWM) founded by Katharine Eggar, Gertrude Eaton, and Marion Scott in
1911. The SWM sought to improve womens musical opportunities by providing a place
for women to discuss music and employment issues, to facilitate the development of
supportive relationships between women composers and performers, and to enable
women composers to hear their works and receive criticism.
84
Clarke was present at the
inaugural meeting on July 15, 1911, but was not a member between 1912 and 1920;
however, her close friend and colleague, May Mukle, was a member during these years
and it is likely that Mukle informed Clarke about the societys activities.
85
Clarke did not
attend the weekly composer meetings led by Katherine Eggar. Laura Seddon, who
researched the SWM up to 1920, suggested that Clarke may have avoided the composer
meetings if her views conflicted with the outspoken Eggar or may not have needed the
type of support these gatherings provided.
86
Seddon also noted that while membership in
the SWM was open to both amateur and professional musicians, professionals like Clarke
may have been concerned that too much association with the society might inadvertently
suggest an amateur status.
87
Some women were also hesitant to become involved

84
Parsons, Their Voices Sing True, 193.
85
Laura Seddon, e-mail message to author, September 5, 2009. Seddons research of the
Society of Women Musicians archives, Royal College of Music, London, focused on the period
1911-1920. Further research is needed to establish Clarkes relationship to the SWM after 1920.
86
Ibid.
87
Ibid.


31
3
1

because critics suspected that the SWM would become another politically radical
organization like the National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies.
88
Given the close
network of professional colleagues Clarke developed at the RCM and continued to
expand through professional performance work, she may not have felt the need to remain
closely associated with the society, and probably preferred to establish a reputation in
arenas where both men and women participated. Primary sources, however, document
occasional involvement with the SWM over a period of eighteen years. For instance, she
and May Mukle played at an SWM concert on July 9, 1920, and in 1926, Clarke spoke at
the fourteenth annual Composers Conference sponsored by the SWM; her topic was
Some American Aspects of Music.
89
When the society celebrated its sixteenth
anniversary two years later, some of Clarkes compositions were performed.
90
Then in
1938, Clarkes Epilogue was performed at an SWM concert, and a critic wrote that
Epilogue for violoncello and piano by Rebecca Clarke has the poetic eloquence with
which she knows well how to invest her ideasin this case uttered by the cello in a
combination of the melodic and declamatory styles which is highly effective.
91

One of the most significant events of Clarkes early professional career occurred
in 1913 when conductor Sir Henry Wood hired six women string players. Woods bold
action made the Queens Hall Orchestra the first professional London orchestra to
employ women.
92
One-hundred thirty-seven women had applied, and on October 18,

88
Parsons, Their Voices Sing True, 192.
89
Clarke, Diary, July 9, 1920; Society of Women Musicians, Musical Times 67, no.
1002 (1926): 736.
90
Miscellaneous Society of Women Musicans, Musical Times 69, no. 1026 (1928):
751.
91
M. M. S., London Concerts Society of Women Musicians, Musical Times 80, no.
1151 (1939): 64.
92
Jacobs, Henry J. Wood, 142; Joness, Music of Rebecca Clarke, 239. Jacobs and
Jones state that women first performed with the Queens Hall Orchestra October 18, 1913.


32
3
2

1913, four female violinists and two female violists performed for the first time with the
orchestra; Clarke was among them.
93
Clarke played with the orchestra until the
beginning of World War I, and the female players were paid on the same scale as the
male players so as to avoid undercutting male wages.
94
Notably, Woods advocacy of
women musicians was not limited to the hiring of female players. In May 1926, Wood
wrote to Clarke and asked her to compose something for the Proms, but she declined
because she did not want to have to compose hurriedly.
95

Prior to World War I, Clarke had established a reputation as a chamber musician
and orchestral player in London, but chose to live in the United States during the war.
Since Clarkes memoir focuses on her formative years up to the beginning of her
professional career in 1910 and diaries prior to January 1918 are no longer extant, there is
no documentation that explains Clarkes decision to make the United States her home
during World War I. However, musical activities in England dwindled during the war,
and Clarke may have thought she would find greater opportunities in the United States
where she had established relationships with American family and friends during her
adolescent years.
96

Clarke worked as a chamber musician in the United States during World War I
and gave a recital on February 13, 1918 at olian Hall in New York City. She
programmed her Lullaby and Grotesque for viola and cello and was uncomfortable with

Several sources erroneously identify the year as 1912 including: Banfield, Clarke [Friskin],
Rebecca (Thacher), 119; Curtis, Clarke, Rebecca. Grove Music Online; Dibble. Clarke,
Rebecca.; Johnson, Glorious Rebecca Clarke, 4; Rebecca Clarke. Oxford Dictionary of
Music; Ponder, British Music Society Journal 5:84.
93
Jacobs, Henry J. Wood, 142.
94
Ibid.
95
Clarke, Diary, May 24, 1926.
96
Clarke, I Had a Father, Too, 128.


33
3
3

claiming credit for another piece on the program, so she invented Anthony Trent as the
composer of Morpheus.
97
Her use of a male pseudonym may reflect her discomfort with
self-promotion, a discomfort that stemmed from a determination to avoid the prideful
behavior her father exhibited. Throughout her memoir, Clarke discussed her fathers need
to win every argument and to represent himself as better than others. Clarkes statement,
It may sound pretentious (Am I again talking like Papa?), illustrates her hesitancy to
honestly communicate her feelings about successful composing experiences because of a
desire to avoid her fathers boastful tendencies (144). In addition, as a young composer
who was developing her reputation in America, she may have been eager to avert the
criticism that she had included too many of her own works on the program.
When Clarke spoke about the Anthony Trent episode in a 1976 interview with
Robert Sherman, she recalled that the piece by Mr. Trent, although not as good as her
other works on the program, received more critical attention.
98
Clarkes recollection,
however, is somewhat puzzling in light of the fact that the performance reviews, while
including some typical, gender-related comments, substantially focused on Clarkes
performance skills. For instance, music critic Herbert Peyser wrote, Miss Clarke, except
for a tendency to part from the pitch, also showed herself a finished artist. The viola is
not so monotonous when so played. As a composer the young woman likewise shone.
99

In addition, a New York Herald critic wrote in the February 14, 1918 issue that The viola
is a strong and sometimes balky medium of musical expression, and Miss Clarke dared
what few men and fewer women have attempted in using this instrument decidedly

97
Rebecca Clarke, interview by Robert Sherman, in An Historical Sampling of Women
Composers and their Music: Middle Ages to the Present, vol. 1, Leonarda Productions LPI 1,
1986, audiocassette.
98
Ibid.
99
H[erbert] F. P[eyser], Gifted Artists Join in Unique Recital, Musical America 27,
no. 17 (1918): 10.


34
3
4

masculine in its timbre. Her playing was excellent, displaying command of the instrument
and a vivid and sure technique. While it was true that most solo violists in 1918 were
men, the critic embraced the idea that the timbre of an instrument could be masculine or
feminine. The authors comments also demonstrate larger trends discussed in the
historical context section of this chapter; stereotypical attitudes regarding appropriate
instruments for women persisted, and music was frequently critiqued in feminine and
masculine terms. Reviews during Clarkes performing career reflect societal trends and
frequently include comments about the music, the quality of the performance, and
Clarkes gender.
While living in the United States during World War I, Clarke met the American
patron Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge and developed one of the most important musical
relationships of her life. Coolidge founded the Berkshire Chamber Music Festival at
South Mountain near Pittsfield, Massachusetts in 1918. Coolidge and Clarke probably
met through their mutual friend Gertrude Watson with whom Clarke and cellist May
Mukle toured to raise money for war relief.
100
Clarke was among the notable musicians
in attendance at the first Berkshire festival in September and entered her Sonata for Viola
and Piano in the festivals first competition the following year.
101
Clarke composed her
three largest worksSonata for Viola and Piano (1919), Trio (1921), and Rhapsody
(1923)for the Berkshire Chamber Music Festival. The positive reception and
encouragement she received in 1919 and 1921 fueled her creative energy and advanced
her career.
During the winter of 1919, Clarke and May Mukle performed together in Hawaii,
and Clarke gave viola and theory lessons and presented a series of lectures about chamber

100
Cyrilla Barr, Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge: American Patron of Music (New York:
Schirmer, 1998), 77.
101
Ibid., 136.


35
3
5

music. She began composing the Viola Sonata in Hawaii and completed it in July while
visiting her brother, Eric and his wife, Beryl, in Detroit.
102
Diary entries reveal her
positive feelings toward the project: Working awfully hard all morning at my sonata,
which Monkey [Eric] and Beryl are very thrilled about, and It is beginning to come out
extremely well.
103
In August, Clarke traveled to Pittsfield and recalled her excitement
when Coolidge and one of the judges, Hugo Kortschak, shared the results of the
competition. Clarke wrote that apparently the jury made a tie between two, and as Mrs.
Coolidge would not divide the prize she gave the casting-vote, which turned out to be for
Bloch. The other was mine, which was given special mention. Very excited indeed.
104

Elizabeth Coolidge then wrote to Clarke to reassure her that the decision had been made
professionally; Clarkes response demonstrates her gracious acceptance of the situation:
I was most deeply touched when I got your letter this morning, and cant tell you how
much I admire you for your absolute directness to me, and towards the whole of this
affair. I am also really overjoyed that you feel you reached your decision ultimately on
ethical and not personal lines.
105
During the month prior to the festival, Clarke received
congratulatory telegrams, was photographed for newspaper articles, and coached
rehearsals of her sonata, which was to be performed by pianist Harold Bauer and violist
Louis Bailly.
106
When the festival finally began, Clarke wrote, Very exciting day for
methe first day of the Festival, at which my sonata was played. Sat next to Mrs.
Coolidge, and felt very nervous indeed. Bailly did not play very well, but Bauer was

102
Clarke, Diary, April 3, 1919.
103
Ibid., April 21 and 22, 1919.
104
Ibid., August 24, 1919.
105
Rebecca Clarke to Elizabeth Coolidge, August 27, [1919], Coolidge Collection,
Library of Congress.
106
Clarke, Diary, August 25-September 24, 1919.


36
3
6

magnificent. Had a very warm reception, and had to bow from [the] platform.
Overwhelmed with congratulations.
107
On the third day of the festival following the
performance of Ernest Blochs Viola Suite, Clarke enjoyed celebrity status at a dinner
with Coolidge, Bloch, and the jury.
108
Clarke thoroughly enjoyed the attention and
wrote, I am still being tremendously complimented, and have met so many people I am
giddy.
109
A few days after the festival, Clarke wrote to Coolidge expressing how much
the festival had meant to her:
As far as my own place in the program goes, I would like to tell
you that last Thursday was the most wonderful day I have ever
had. I never can tell you what I felt and through your competition
this year you have given me the greatest impetus to further work
that anything possibly could.
And when on Saturday Mr. Goldmark told you of the gratitude of
the whole audience I felt that I had more cause than anyone to feel
it.
110

The Berkshire Chamber Music Festival was the stimulus for Clarkes composition
of the Viola Sonata, and since the identities of composers were unknown to the judges,
Clarkes composition received objective evaluation free from gender bias. Her tie for first
place with Ernest Bloch affirmed her compositional skill and gained the attention of
serious musicians. The judges affirmation and the positive reception of her Viola Sonata
raised Clarkes confidence and energized her for future compositional work.
Following the festival, Clarke remained in the United States until April
performing chamber music. As concert notices, reviews, and diary entries reveal, she
maintained a very busy chamber music schedule. She also composed, taught, arranged

107
Ibid, September 25, 1919.
108
Ibid., September 27, 1919.
109
Ibid.
110
Clarke to Coolidge, September 29, 1919, Coolidge Collection.


37
3
7

concert details, and worked to secure publication of her compositions. Two days after
returning to England in April 1920, Clarke met with Winthrop Rogers regarding the
publication of several songs, and within the week she was absorbed by a new
compositional project, a choral setting of Psalm 91.
111
She also presented a recital at
olian Hall in London at which her performance and compositional skills were affirmed.
After the recital she wrote, Felt frightfully nervous, but was immensely bucked by the
enthusiasm of the audience. Hall was packed, and practically every musician in London
there; Samuel and Elwes did my things beautifully and were so nice. I got lots of lovely
flowers and really had a heavenly time.
112
The next day the London Morning Post
reported:
Last night a recital was given at olian Hall by Miss Rebecca
Clarke, who modestly styled herself a viola-player. This she
undoubtedly is, and, moreover, one of decided attainment. She has
clearly given special attention to the study of the instrument, its
capabilities and limitations. Moreover, she has taken advantage of
her acquaintance to compose specially for it. Her efforts in this
direction comprise a Sonata with piano and some pieces for viola
and violoncello unaccompanied.
The Sonata is a remarkable work. Apart from the fact that it is
admirably suited to the viola, it is notable for the modernity of its
phraseology, the depth of its intellectual foundation, and the
expressiveness of its terms. Possibly nothing could be more
imaginative than the Vivace, certainly nothing more impressive
than the Adagio.
It is the most striking work of the day for the viola, and takes a
very high place amongst contemporary music.
113

The quality of Clarkes Viola Sonata was confirmed the following month when
Englands finest violist, Lionel Tertis, performed it.
114
During the summer of 1920,

111
Diary, April 14, 1920.
112
Ibid., May 31, 1920. Clarke referred to English pianist Harold Samuel (1879-1937)
and English tenor Gervase Elwes (1866-1921).
113
The Morning Post (London), June 1, 1920, 8.
114
This Weeks Music, The Times (London), June 28, 1920, 14.


38
3
8

Clarkes success was not limited to performances of the Viola Sonata; successful
negotiations with Winthrop Rogers resulted in the first publications of Clarkes
compositions, the songs Shy One and The Cloths of Heaven.
115

By August, Clarke had returned to Pittsfield.
116
She attended the Berkshire
festival in September, which seems to have inspired her to compose a Trio for the next
competition: Am quite thrilled over an idea I have had for the beginning of a Trioif
only I can carry it out.
117
Vocal music was also very much on her mind, and she
finished a solo setting of Psalm 63 by December 1920 and a choral setting of Psalm 91 by
the following March.
118

Multiple references to compositional work on the Trio reveal Clarkes
determination, hard work, and enjoyment of the project:
Getting on nicely with my Trio, which I work hard at every
morning unless I have to go to town. - April 12, 1921
Such a good mornings work at my Trio. Felt in high spirits. -
April 13, 1921
She entered her Trio in the 1919 Berkshire competition and when the winner was
announced on August 29, Clarke wrote, Kortschak rang up and told me that mine and
one other were given honorable mention, and asked my permission to have it announced,
so everything is much the same as two years ago.
119
While Clarkes Trio was not
performed at the 1921 festival, Coolidge initiated performances in New York and

115
Advertisement, Sackbut 1, no. 2 (1920): 89.
116
Clarke, Diary, August 27, 1920; Social Notes, New York Times, September 1,
1920, 13.
117
Clarke, Diary, October 5, 1920.
118
Ibid., December 29, 1920 and March 7, 1921.
119
Ibid., August 29, 1921.


39
3
9

Boston
120
and demonstrated her confidence in Clarkes skills by commissioning her to
write a cello work for the 1923 festival.
121
Clarke was the only woman to receive a
commission from Coolidge. Following the New York performance of the Trio, Clarke
wrote to Coolidge expressing her gratitude:
And now I want to thank you a thousand times for giving me this
wonderful opportunity, and the one in Boston, of having my Trio
performed. It has meant so much to me, as you can imagine, and I
felt very proud and happy last night.
I always realize that it is through you that both my trio and my
sonata were written, and now I am getting so interested and excited
over the first plans of my cello Rhapsody for 1923.
I think I am a very lucky person, and I thank you from the bottom
of my heart.
122

Coolidges encouragement and the successful performances of the Trio seem to
have inspired Clarke to begin new compositional projects. In the fall of 1921, Clarke
wrote a short composition for violin and piano entitled Chinese Puzzle, and began
working on a song she described as her favorite, The Seal Man.
123
Then in January
1922, the Viola SonataClarkes first multi-movement Coolidge workwas published.
Clarke was also occupied with arrangements for the English premiere of her Trio. On
November 3, 1922, May Mukle, Myra Hess, and Marjorie Hayward gave the London
premiere of the Trio at Wigmore Hall.
124
The Times reported that the Trio displays a far
more marked leaning towards the latter-day extremities of clashing tonalities and

120
Clarke, Diary, October 14, 1921.
121
Clarke to Coolidge, February 13, [1922], Coolidge Collection.
122
Ibid.
123
Ibid., November 3, 1921-January 4, 1922.
124
This Weeks Music, The Times (London), October 30, 1922, 10; This Weeks
Music, The Times, November 13, 1922, 10. Hess, Mukle and Hayward also performed the Trio
the following week for the Music Society.


40
4
0

angularity of thematic outline than any other music of hers we have heard.
125
The
Musical Times also observed that the Trio is much influenced by Debussy and Ravel,
yet bears the mark of a personal style in the making. The interest is kept alive throughout
by well-marked themes and strong workmanship. There is passionate feeling in every
section, and even had it been the work of a man, it would be called a virile effort.
126

Although the critics backhanded compliment of Clarkes virile effort belies gender
bias, the fact that the critic did not criticize Clarke personally and did not demean her
work as unfeminine shows that society was changing, albeit slowly.
Regardless, Clarke soon had an opportunity to publicly reject the idea of gendered
musical analysis. Following the London premiere of the Trio, the Christian Science
Monitor published a feature article about Clarke. Columnist W. H. Haddon Squire
asserted that since women composers were scarce, they deserved every
encouragement.
127
When asked about being described as a woman composer, Clarke
responded, Arthas nothing to do with the sex of the artist. I would sooner be regarded
as a sixteenth-rate composer than be judged as if there were one kind of musical art for
men and another for women.
128
Years later Clarke affirmed her gender-blind attitude:
Personally I dont think it matters two straws who writes the music as long as we get
it.
129
Clarkes egalitarian attitude toward gender was also evident in her behavior in
social settings; on one occasion, when she arrived at a post-concert party, she found all

125
A New Trio, The Times (London), November 4, 1922, 5.
126
A. K., Rebecca Clarkes Trio, Musical Times 63, no. 958 (1922): 874.
127
W. H. Haddon Squire, Rebecca Clarke Sees Rhythm as Next Field of
Development, Christian Science Monitor, December 12, 1922, 12.
128
Ibid.
129
Rebecca Clarke, The Woman ComposerThen and Now, facsimile of typescript
reproduced with Morpheus: For Viola and Piano by Rebecca Clarke, Appendix 2 (New York:
Oxford University Press, 2002).


41
4
1

the women in one room and all the men in another, as usual, but boldly walked in among
the men!
130
Similarly, in a performance situation, she insisted on not entering first
when she was the only female musician walking onto the stage.
131
While Clarke was
never a militant feminist, she consistently demonstrated an attitude of gender equality,
remained focused on making music, and was interested in promoting opportunities for
women musicians. As she considered plans for the performance of her cello Rhapsody at
the 1923 Berkshire festival, she wrote to Coolidge recommending that a female colleague
be invited to perform the work:
I have been wondering, if, when you said that you were undecided
about the cellist for the vcello recital next year, you had ever
thought of the possibility of having a woman! I cant help feeling,
and I believe you do too, that a great cause is served in putting the
work of woman executants on an equal footing with that of men,-
that is, only when it really is equal, I mean, of course.
This would be such a splendid opportunity, for the woman I am
thinking of is an exceptionally fine example, as everyone knows
she is one of the very finest artists on any instrument, quite
irrespective of sex.
Please do not think for a minute that May Mukle knows I am
writing this, I am doing it absolutely off my own bat, so that if you
do not like my having spoken of it, please be offended with me
only.
It is only my tremendous faith in the whole subject that gave me
courage to do such a hard thing as to write to you about it, and I do
believe that you will feel my sincerity enough not to mind my
having done so!
132

Coolidge accepted Clarkes suggestion and invited Mukle to perform the Rhapsody with
Myra Hess at the upcoming festival.

130
Clarke, Diary, December 13, 1921.
131
Ibid., December 21, 1919.
132
Clarke to Coolidge, September 28 [1922], Coolidge Collection.


42
4
2

Clarke began composing the Rhapsody in May 1922 and periodically wrote about
her progress: Composing with success all the morning. Im getting quite pleased with
the cello piece.
133
In December, Clarke and Mukle left England for a tour of Burma,
India, Singapore, Indonesia, China, and Japan, arriving in Hawaii by the summer of
1923.
134
Clarke found the quiet environment on the Hawaiian island of Molokai
conducive to composition, and she felt she had done some of her best work there.
135
In a
letter to Coolidge, she wrote, Personally I think that in many ways it is a better and
maturer work than my Trio...
136
She completed Rhapsody in August and it was
premiered at the Berkshire festival on September 29, 1923.
137

Clarke commented that the work was very well received, but not liked by many,
who thought it too long and gloomyHad long interesting talk with Bauer about my
work at lunch and again in the evening. Also with Bridge and Bliss. All very nice. Very
depressed all night.
138
Richard Aldrich wrote in the New York Times that Miss Clarke
has shown her unmistakable talent in other compositions heard at Pittsfield, and, as some
were fair to think, has shown it more unmistakably than in this Rhapsody. It is very
rhapsodical and very gloomy and undeniably long. Some of her sincerest admirers may
think that she is not following a promising path as indicated by this composition.
139
The
Musical Times echoed Aldrichs comments describing Rhapsody as hardly equal to

133
Clarke, Diary, May 11 and November 13, 1922.
134
Ibid., December 1922-August 1923.
135
Clarke to Coolidge, August 12, [1923], Coolidge Collection.
136
Ibid.
137
Clarke, Diary, August 29, 1923.
138
Ibid., September 29, 1923.
139
Richard Aldrich, New Music Heard as Festival Ends, New York Times, September
30, 1923, 5.


43
4
3

some of this composers best work.
140
Despite a negative reception, Coolidge listened
to the work a second time and reasserted her opinion that Rhapsody was Clarkes best
work.
141
Within the week, Clarke characteristically wrote to Coolidge to thank her for
sponsoring the festival:
The Festival was wonderful I dont think you have ever had
anything finer and I cant tell you how much I enjoyed it. It was
awfully sweet of you, too, to let my relations come, and they had
the time of their lives.
Each time I come to your Festival I realize more fully what a
splendid and lasting thing you are doing for music, and what a big
influence it is having and going to have, all over the world. You
must feel very happy to think of all you are doing. I never thanked
you properly for the thousand dollar check you gave me up on the
mountain the other day. It is thrilling for me to have it Ive never
had anything half so large before! but the chief thing I feel is
gratitude to you for your interest in me. It means very much indeed
to me, and I know you must feel, even if I cannot express it
fully.
142

Although Rhapsody did not receive the positive response Clarke desired, she had
developed a significant reputation based on success at previous Berkshire festivals, repeat
performances of her Sonata, Trio and several songs, publication of several works, and
frequent presence in print. Clarkes standing in British musical society is illustrated by a
Musical Times report about a performance at the Contemporary Music Centre in
cooperation with the British Music Society and the International Society for
Contemporary Music; Paul Hindemithwhose quartet had impressed the audiencewas
compared to Englands native violist/composers Rebecca Clarke, Frank Bridge and H.
Waldo Warner.
143


140
M. H. Flint, Musical Notes from Abroad: New York, Musical Times 64, no. 969
(1923): 801.
141
Clarke, Diary, October 1, 1923.
142
Clarke to Coolidge, October 7 [1923], Coolidge Collection.
143
E. E., London Concerts: Contemporary Music Centre, Musical Times 64, no. 962
(1923): 277.


44
4
4

While several of Clarkes works had been published by 1923, she was not
immune to the frustrations many composers experienced in seeking publication. In
January, Clarke met with publisher John Curwen regarding publication of her Trio, but
Curwen refused it.
144
Clarke visited another publisher in February, found the editors
oily, and wished that one need never have anything published at all!
145
However,
her successful negotiations with Calista Rogers resulted in the release of two new songs,
Down By the Salley Gardens and Infant Joy.
146
The rejection of the Trio and
acceptance of her two songs illustrates a market-driven reality composers faced:
publishers were more likely to print compositions that would be profitable, and songs
sold well, whereas chamber works had a smaller potential market.
147
In addition,
publishers were more likely to print chamber works that were simpler and had popular
appeal, and Clarkes Trio did not meet these criteria. The publication of Clarkes
Midsummer Moon and Chinese Puzzle illustrate the ease with which shorter, more
accessible chamber works were published; following a concert featuring her
compositions in the fall of 1925, Clarke received a letter from Oxford University Press
expressing interest in her Midsummer Moon and Chinese Puzzle, and both works were in
print the following year.
148
Clarke also received some royalties from her publications
and a diary entry shows that she celebrated her success: Had rather fun in the afternoon
going with Dora to buy some pearls! I am adding a few to the middle of my necklace

144
Clarke, Diary, January 11, 23, and 25, 1924.
145
Ibid., February 4, 1924.
146
Ibid., April 7, 1924. Rogers refused the song Come, oh come.
147
Fuller, British Musical Renaissance, 91.
148
Clarke, Diary, November 10, 1925.


45
4
5

with the money I have just got as royalties from my songs. My pearls are to be all out of
my compositions!
149

Shortly after the 1923 festival, Clarke began arranging English folk songs for
voice with violin accompaniment. Her statement, Composing all the morning (more
folk-songs, the arranging of which simply fascinates one), displays her characteristic
curiosity and enthusiasm for new compositional projects.
150
Clarkes folk-song
arrangements align her with the folk-song movement led by Vaughan Williams who
believed that British music would be renewed through a rediscovery of authentic folk
tunes. Given the popularity of English folk songs, it is not surprising that Clarkes Three
Old English Songs was published in 1925, just a year after its completion.
151
During the
next two years, Clarke composed the folk-based Three Irish Country Songs (1926) for
voice and violin, All Through the Night (1926) for violinist Marjorie Hayward, and
Londonderry Air (1927) for cello and violin.
152
Clarkes interest in arranging pre-
composed melodies is also seen in her 1926 choral arrangements of her own songs, Weep
You No More, Sad Fountains and Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight.
During the 1920s, Clarkes love for composition and chamber music performance
found expression in several new opportunities. In March 1925, the BBC announced the
formation of a new quartet called the olian Players including Gordon Bryan (piano),
Constance Izard (violin), Rebecca Clarke (viola), and Joseph Slater (flute).
153
After this

149
Ibid., January 14, 1924.
150
Ibid., December 27, 1923.
151
Notes on New Music, Bookman 68, no. 405 (1925): 185.
152
Reference to All Through the Night in Clarke, Diary, March 7, 1926; reference to
Irish folk song arrangements in Clarke, Diary, April 7, 10, and 23, and May 15, 1926; reference
to publication of Three Irish Country Songs in T. A., New Music: Songs, Musical Times 70, no.
1031 (1929): 40.
153
K. A. Wright, Wireless News, School Music Review 33, no. 394 (1925): 325.


46
4
6

time, print sources frequently referred to Clarkes performing work with this
ensemble.
154
Clarkes name also continued to appear in connection with the publication
of new works and performances of her compositions. The critical acclaim she received
following a concert at Wigmore Hall, London on October 21, 1925 demonstrates her
continued success as a composer and performer.
155
The Times called Clarke A Versatile
Composer and stated that monotony is the common charge to bring against one-
composer programmes, but we did not find Miss Clarkes monotonous.
156

Clarkes Viola Sonata and Trio remained popular, and in the spring of 1926, the Viola
Sonata was performed alongside similar works by B. J. Dale and Arnold Bax at Grotrian
Hall in London, and the Trio was performed at the Contemporary Music Centre in
London, and in Paris.
157

In 1926, Clarke and May Mukle founded the English Ensemble, a professional
piano quartet. Joined by Marjorie Hayward, a violinist who had established herself as the
leader of several chamber ensembles, and Kathleen Long, a concert pianist with a fine
reputation, the ensemble became well regarded in England and on the continent. Clarke
continued to perform with the olian Players, but her name appeared more often in
connection with performances of the English Ensemble.

154
The olian Players performed in Chelmsford on June 16, 1925 and in London
October 1, 1925. K. A. Wright, Wireless News, School Music Review 34, no. 397 (1925): 27;
K. A. Wright, Wireless News, School Music Review 34, no. 400 (1925): 132; K. A. Wright,
Wireless News, School Music Review 34, no. 406 (1926): 347.
155
Miss Rebecca Clarkes Concert, The Times (London), October 22, 1925, 10. The
concert began with the Viola Sonata and concluded with the Trio; in between, baritone John Goss
sang The Seal Man, Infant Joy, and Shy One, and violinist Adila Fachiri joined him for a
performance of Three Old English Songs. Fachiri also performed Midsummer Moon and Chinese
Puzzle, and Clarke and Mukle performed two duets. English baritone John Goss (1894-1953) is
not to be confused with English composer and organist, Sir John Goss (1800-1880).
156
Ibid.
157
London Concerts, Musical Times 67, no. 998 (1926): 346; Clarke, Diary, February
2, 1926.


47
4
7

Clarke also gained recognition as the author of several articles about chamber
music. Her first article, The History of the Viola in Quartet Writing, was published in
the January 1923 issue of Music and Letters, and The Musical Times described the article
as of great interest to chamber musicians.
158
In 1927 her article, The Beethoven
Quartets as a Player Sees Them, appeared in an issue of Music and Letters dedicated to
Beethoven; of the thirty articles in the issue, The Musical Times singled out only Clarkes
as particularly fine.
159

While Clarkes diary entries during 1928 continue to be dominated by rehearsal,
concert, compositional, and social details, the November 28 entry illustrates the
distracting effect an affair with John Goss had on her compositional work: I wish I could
work. Cant settle down to it. Still feel very restless and depressed about John and cant
help feeling he feels the same. But what can we do.
160
During this period, Clarke
continued engagements with the olian Players and the English Ensemble as well as
free-lance work.
161
Clarkes diaries also document that she continued to compose, and
by March she had finished a new setting of Blakes Cradle Song.
162

Repeat performances of the Trio furthered its reputation and in 1928, it was
recommended for the September festival of the International Society of Contemporary

158
Musical Times 64, no. 960 (1923): 134.
159
Occasional Notes, Musical Times 68, no. 1011 (1927): 428.
160
Clarke, Diary, November 30, 1928. Multiple diary entries from July 12, 1927 to
November 16, 1933 document Clarkes relationship with baritone John Goss. Clarkes diary ends
in November 1933.
161
R. H., Harold Dahlquist, Musical Mirror 9 (1929): 168. Clarke played Bachs
Cantata, No. 56 at the recital of Harold Dahlquist; D. H., London Concerts: Mary Jarred,
Musical Times 70, no. 1037 (1929): 646. Clarke performed Brahmss two songs for voice and
viola with Mary Jarred at olian Hall on June 3.
162
Clarke, Diary, March 6, 1929.


48
4
8

Music in Siena, Italy, and was published by Winthrop Rogers.
163
A Musical Times
reviewer wrote that Clarkes Trio stands well above the average novelty and the
existence of a rich and vigorous imagination is undeniableOne cannot but pay tribute
to her boldness, her determination to do new things, her keen sense of colour.
164

Clarke composed only a few works during the 1930s, perhaps because she
dedicated most of her time to performance, and 1939 marked a turning point in Clarkes
life. In July, Clarke traveled to the United States to visit her brothers and their families.
She extended her stay in the United States because many of her performing engagements
in England had been cancelled after the United Kingdom declared war on Germany in
September.
165
She wrote to Coolidge, I hope to return to England, but of course it may
be better to stay here for a timethis is a terrible time for musicians in England
now.
166
Clarke remained in the United States, unable to get a return visa after combat
began. Within the year, she had a weekly radio program in New York City and began
doing free-lance work.
167
Her songs and instrumental compositions were periodically
performed, and she began several compositional projects including Daybreak (1940),
Dumka (1941), Lethe (1941), Passacaglia on an Old English Tune (1941), Prelude,
Allegro, and Pastorale (1941), and The Donkey (1942). Family tensions that developed
during Clarkes extended stays with her brothers families seem to have motivated her to

163
Purcells King Arthur Sung at Cambridge, New York Times, March 25, 1928,
126.
164
B. V., New Music: Chamber Music, Musical Times 69, no. 1022 (1928): 327.
165
Clarke to Coolidge, October 16, [1939], Coolidge Collection.
166
Ibid.
167
Ibid., October 17, 1940.


49
4
9

find a means of supporting herself, and in 1942, Clarke accepted a position as a nanny for
the Fahy family in Wilton, Connecticut.
168

For the first time in her life, Clarke was engaged in non-musical work. Her notes
from 1942 include observations of each member of the family and staff, as well as her
thoughts about current events. Clarke described the experience, like a bubble in my life
and wrote about trying to hold on to a recurring dream about playing music in
England.
169
She felt transported whenever she received letters from English friends and
wrote, Difficult to realize that the sun still shines in London as much as it ever
does.
170
Despite Clarkes homesickness and the frustrations of nanny work, the
challenges of 1942 broadened her life experience and elicited comments such as,
henceforth I shall never be rude to servants.
171

During this year dominated by non-musical concerns, Clarkes Prelude, Allegro,
and Pastorale for clarinet and viola was premiered at the festival of the International
Society for Contemporary Music in Berkeley, California. Marjory Fisher of the San
Francisco News reported on the event:
Yesterdays ISCM program brought South American and vocal
music for the first time during the current festival, and also
introduced the one work scheduled by a woman composer;
Rebecca Clarkes Prelude, Allegro and Pastorale for clarinet and
viola, a work which seemed to possess the greatest individuality of
any presented during the afternoon. It was excellently played by
Rudolph Schmitt and Walter Herbert, who cooperated in expert
fashion even to the point of turning pages for each other.
172


168
Johnson, interview.
169
Clarke, Observations, unnumbered and nos. 132 and 145, (unpublished
manuscript), photocopy, private collection.
170
Ibid., no. 102.
171
Ibid., no. 198.
172
Marjory Fisher, San Francisco News, August 7, 1942, 10.


50
5
0

The San Francisco Chronicles review was equally positive:
From the point of view of essential musical interest the most
important work of yesterdays program was probably the duo for
clarinet and viola by Rebecca Clarke, the only woman among the
33 composers on the festivals eight programs. The duo employs
much ingenuity and resource in developing intricate patterns from
two voices. It exploits the color of the two instruments in strikingly
effective ways, and the Pastorale with which it ends is a
singularly lovely example of the nostalgic English style. The
performance, by Rudolph Schmitt and Walter Herbert, was as
finely achieved as the score itself.
173

While Clarke enjoyed the positive reviews of Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale, she
was constrained by nanny work and unable to attend the ISCM conference. The positive
reception of Clarkes Viola Sonata and Trio inspired further compositional work, but
because Clarke did not attend the ISCM conference, she did not receive direct affirmation
for her Prelude, Allegro and Pastorale. Rather than being known as the springboard to
further compositional work, Prelude, Allegro, and Pastorale, is recognized as the last
work to receive critical acclaim during Clarkes active period. If Clarke had attended the
ISCM conference, perhaps the encouragement she received would have inspired her to
begin other compositional projects.
New Directions
Clarkes activities during 1943 are unclear, but by 1944 she had returned to New
York City and began seeing James Friskin socially. Clarke and Friskin had known each
other as students at the Royal College of Music and had seen each other periodically over
the years, but in May 1944, their relationship changed. In the first extant letter from their
courtship correspondence, James wrote, I like your Scotch tune very much, specially the
ending, which is beautiful. Cant you get Schirmer to print it?
174
A day later James

173
Alfred Frankenstein, San Francisco Chronicle, August 7, 1942, 19.
174
James Friskin to Rebecca Clarke, May 3-4, 1944, private collection.


51
5
1

wrote again about Clarkes Scottish arrangement of Ill Bid My Heart Be Still: After
looking again at the last twelve bars of your little viola piece, which I find very moving,
it seems to me that you ought to start off again on something larger Id be almost
willing to bet its there if youd only let it come out. What about another viola sonata?
Please try.
175
On September 23, 1944, the anniversary of her fathers death, Clarke
married James Friskin. Both were fifty-eight years old.
Friskin was a piano professor at the Julliard School and maintained an active
performance schedule. Despite Jamess encouragement, Clarke only occasionally
composed and performed and became interested in supporting his professional activities.
She arranged several earlier songs and composed her final work in 1954, the song God
Made a Tree. In later years, she taught and lectured about chamber music at
Chautauqua, where James also spent the summers, and traveled to England many times to
visit friends.
176
Elizabeth Coolidge and Clarke continued to correspond during the 1950s
and Coolidge once sent manuscripts of a quartet and an oboe sonata to James and
Rebecca. Clarke replied, We are both much impressed at your having written such a
work [the oboe sonata], and for myself I feel greatly encouraged, as it still gives me a few
years to plan turning out a major work!
177
While Clarke had not continued to compose
regularly, her comment to Coolidge suggests that she was still interested in compositional
work and might attempt a large project. Following the death of Ralph Vaughan Williams,
Clarke wrote a brief tribute in which she reminisced about seeing him in London during a
recent visit. On that occasion he had asked her:

175
Ibid., May 5, 1944.
176
Clarke to Coolidge, April 7, [1950], Coolidge Collection. In a letter to Coolidge,
Clarke stated that she and Friskin would return from England in July. Clarkes letters to Friskin
document trips she made to England in 1951, 1954, and 1957.
177
Ibid., December 29, [195?].


52
5
2

Rebecca, why arent you composing nowadays? Oh, I said, I
dont know; no ideas, I suppose. Oh, that doesnt matter! said
Uncle Rafe. It made me laugh. From him, of all people!
178

Despite the support of James and the continued interest of friends and colleagues like
Coolidge and Vaughan Williams, Clarke did not attempt further compositional projects.
During the last several decades of her life, Clarke received several honors. In
1963, she was made a Fellow of the Royal College of Music and a few years after her
husbands death in 1967, she began writing her memoir.
179
In 1976, Robert Sherman
interviewed Clarke about Myra Hess whom Clarke had known at the Royal Academy of
Music; during the interview, he discovered that Clarke had been a composer and arranged
a second interview that focused on her music. On August 30, 1976, New York Citys
WQXR radio broadcasted a ninetieth-birthday tribute including excerpts from a pre-
recorded interview and studio performances of Clarkes Viola Sonata, Trio, The Seal
Man, Shy One, and June Twilight.
180
Clarke enjoyed the renewed interest in her
music that followed the broadcast. She died in New York City on October 13, 1979.
During her formative years, Clarke discovered her passion for compositional
work. She eagerly embraced educational opportunities at the Royal Academy of Music
and the Royal College of Music and earned Stanford and Parrys respect and support.
While Clarke frequently encountered gendered reviews of her work, she maintained a
strong sense of self as composer, focused on composition and performance, and
supported the work of female colleagues. Throughout her professional life, Clarke
displayed enthusiasm for compositional work and eagerly attempted new projects. Since
she composed choral music throughout her active compositional years, chronological

178
Rebecca Clarke, R. V. W., manuscript for radio broadcast, October 24, 1958,
photocopy, private collection; Clarkes emphasis.
179
Bernard Shore, Obituary: Rebecca Clarke, R. C. M. Magazine (1980): 56-7. Clarke
wrote the memoir between 1969 and 1973.
180
Clarke and Sherman, interview, WQXR radio.


53
5
3

analysis of Clarkes choral works enables a study of the development of her
compositional style and her persistent exploration and synthesis of new techniques. It is
to that portion of her opus that this thesis now turns.


54
5
4

CHAPTER II
EARLY CHORAL MUSIC AND THE EMERGENCE OF
A MATURE STYLE
Formative Musical Experiences
Rebecca Clarke wrote choral music throughout her active compositional career
from 1906 to 1944, and the study of her choral works reveals her consistent synthesis of
new techniques and the emergence of an individual style. Analysis demonstrates her
selection of high quality, expressive texts and allusions to English choral genres
including the madrigal, glee, part song, carol, anthem, and motet. In chapter two, analysis
of Clarkes first seven choral compositions shows a shift from simple rhythms, diatonic
harmonies, abrupt textural changes, and repetitive motives and forms, to increasingly
complex rhythms, melodies, harmonies, forms, and textures. The stylistic development of
the 1910s reaches a highpoint in Clarkes mature Psalm setting, He That Dwelleth in the
Secret Place of the Most High (1921). Her remaining five choral compositions, discussed
in chapter three, combine aspects of her mature style in choral arrangements and two
wholly original compositions for womens voices. In order to facilitate a better
understanding of the development of Clarkes musical imagination and her compositional
approach to choral music, the present chapter will begin with a brief examination of
Clarkes formative vocal- and chamber-music experiences.
Most of the articles and dissertations that have been written about Rebecca Clarke
emphasize her work as a professional violist and composer of chamber music, but vocal
music also played an important role in Clarkes life, and well over half of her
compositions are for voice. Clarkes memoir and diaries document her engagement with
vocal music throughout her formative years and active professional career. As a child,


55
5
5

Clarke fondly remembered singing songs with her siblings while their mother played the
piano.
1
During Clarkes years at the Royal College, she became acquainted with some of
the leading contemporary choral composers, including Vaughan Williams and Holst.
Shortly after the death of Vaughan Williams, Clarke wrote a brief radio tribute in his
honor and described an occasion when she and other Royal College students formed a
choir to sing Palestrinas music and asked Vaughan Williams to conduct them. He
accepted their invitation, and the informal ensemble began weekly meetings that
continued for several years.
2
Clarke described the group as a motley crowd: pianists,
fiddlers, composers (you know what their voices are like!) Even a few singers! It must
have sounded pretty awful.
3
Notable musicians including George Butterworth, Gustav
Holst, and Steuart Wilson occasionally joined them. In addition to singing Palestrinas
music, the group periodically sang through works-in-progress that Vaughan Williams and
Holst had composed.
4

In her diaries, Clarke mentioned several other experiences singing choral music.
While spending the Christmas holiday with her siblings in Detroit, they sang part-songs
after dinner, and got so thrilled over PalestrinaI conductingthat Hans and Frieda
nearly lost their train back to Rochester.
5
While Clarke wrote in her memoir that she
was overly emotional about music as a child, her description of getting so thrilled over
Palestrina reveals that she continued to respond passionately to choral music as an adult.

1
Clarke, I Had a Father, Too, 74.
2
Clarke, R. V. W. Vaughan Williams wrote to one of the organizers, Beryl Reeves,
stating that he was not an expert in Palestrina, but that he would be happy to conduct the students.
The letter was postmarked May 12, 1910.
3
Ibid., Clarkes emphasis.
4
Ibid. The ensemble continued until World War I began.
5
Clarke, Diary, December 28, 1921.


56
5
6

Clarkes diaries also demonstrate that she heard a variety of choral music performed by
choirs of varying skill.
September 3, 1919 Wednesday. Played at the Wednesday
Morning Musical Club at 10:30, then went on to a lunch given for
us at the Country Club, then to the Parsons at Lenox to hear the
Hampton singers. Touching creatures, and sang beautifully
October 14, 1919 TuesdayIn the evening went to the first
rehearsal this season of the community Chorus, with its new
conductor, Mr. Tidmarsh.
March 16, 1920 TuesdayEvening went to Beethoven concert.
Franko conducted an orchestra and choir in a cantata on the death
of a hero.
March 23, 1920 TuesdayGrace Arnold came to dinner and we
went to the St. Cecilia Club, womans chorus concert at the
Waldorf.
March 24, 1920 WednesdayWent to the Schola Cantorum
concert. Fine modern Spanish program.
April 29, 1926 Thursday. In the evening went first to Queens
Hall to hear the Philharmonic Choir sing Vaughan Williams Mass,
a fine thing. Then on to a concert of Irelands compositions
6

Informal involvement with choral music is also documented in her diaries. The following
entries show Clarke helping a friend select music for a choral concert, arranging
Christmas carols for a ships choir during a return trip to England, and hearing a friend
play through a new choral work.
September 8, 1920 WednesdayAfter tea went through some
chorus things for Arriantjes [Gertrude Watson] chorus concert.
Found some jolly folk tunes arranged by Vaughan Williams
December 23, 1922 Saturday. Quite a busy day for on board
ship. Choir practice for Xmas carols, some of which I arranged
myself. Skittles tournamentbadly beaten! Several hours of violin
practicing. Another choir practice before dinner.

6
Clarke, Diary, September 3 and October 14, 1919; March 16, 23, and 24, 1920; and
April 29, 1926.


57
5
7

October 28, 1924 TuesdayWent with Dora to tea with Jane
Joseph who played us Holsts new choral Symphony from
manuscript
7

In addition to Holsts choral symphony, Clarke encountered several other works for choir
and orchestra. The following entries show that Clarke was enthralled by Bachs Mass in
B Minor and was impressed by Vaughan Williamss Wenlock Edge, Mass and Sancta
Civitas.
September 27, 1919 Saturday. A very interesting vocal and
chamber music program this morning, including Wenlock Edge.
November 11, 1924 TuesdayHad a rehearsal at Queens Hall
in the afternoon. The Euterpe band is going to accompany the
Philharmonic choir in the Bach B minor mass. Got very thrilled
over the singing. The mass is a heavenly thing.
November 13, 1924 ThursdayChoir concert in the evening.
Got so thrilled listening that I forgot to come in once. Ethel Smyth
was there and was introduced to me after.
October 10, 1925 SaturdayWent to the Symphony concert to
hear Vaughan Williams new thing for viola, orchestra and choirs.
Very fine. Tertis played
June 9, 1926 WednesdayEvening dined with Duncan Wilson
at the Pall Mall and went with him to hear Vaughan Williams
Sancta Civitas. Marvellous work.
8

The preceding diary entries document Clarkes engagement with choral music as a
singer, arranger, conductor, and listener. While it is difficult to definitively prove that one
work or composer has influenced another, Clarke commented in a 1922 interview that
everything we hear influences us in one way or another, and it is plausible to conclude
that her experience hearing the music of Bach, Beethoven, Vaughan Williams, Holst, and
modern Spanish composers fed her musical imagination and influenced her own choral
compositions.
9


7
Clarke, Diary, September 8, 1920; December 23, 1922; and October 28, 1924.
8
Clarke, Diary, September 27, 1919; November 11 and 13, 1924; October 10, 1925; and
June 9, 1926.
9
Squire, Rebecca Clarke, 12.


58
5
8

Unlike her chamber music and songs, none of Clarkes choral works were
published during her lifetime, and there is no documentation of formal performances.
However, manuscript evidence and diary entries confirm the informal performance of
several choral works, and papers discovered at the London Oratory suggest that Ave
Maria was probably performed there in the late 1930s.
10
Since there is no evidence that
Clarke composed choral works for specific choirs, she likely felt free to explore the
choral medium and write what interested her.
Clarkes love of literature and chamber music converge in her choral music. She
was exposed to English literature as a child and became an avid reader, and the texts she
set demonstrate appreciation for evocative and descriptive poetry by notable writers
including Shakespeare, Tennyson, and Shelley. Choral compositions are among Clarkes
earliest and latest works, and her creation of choral music over a period of thirty-seven
years demonstrates ongoing interest.
Discussion of Clarkes formative musical experiences would be incomplete
without consideration of the ways in which chamber music profoundly affected her
musical development, and in turn, her compositional output, which includes only
chamber music, songs, choral music, and piano music. Clarke began playing quartets as a
child and grew to appreciate and understand them more completely as she matured.
While in Hawaii during the winter of 1919, Clarke prepared seven lectures. She
specifically mentioned writing a lecture about Haydns String Quartet in D Minor, but it
is possible that her unpublished typescripts entitled Schubert and His Quartets and
Mozart and His Quartets may also have been written for this lecture series.
11
Clarkes

10
Rebecca Clarke, Ave Maria, manuscripts, parts, and related correspondence. MS Mus.
1694, British Library.
11
Clarke, Diary, January 8, 1919; Rebecca Clarke, Schubert and His Quartets,
typescript, photocopy, private collection; Rebecca Clarke, Mozart and His Quartets, typescript,
photocopy, private collection.


59
5
9

published articles, The History of the Viola in Quartet Writing and The Beethoven
Quartets as a Player Sees Them, further demonstrate her broad knowledge of string
quartets.
12
In addition, a typescript entitled What is There in this Chamber Music? By
One of the Players displays her love for chamber music, her encouragement of amateurs,
and a musical description of the role each instrument plays in a quartet.
13
Clarke wrote
that Chamber music is like a drawing by a great artist done with such economy of line
that the meaning of every touch can be seen with perfect clarity. And yet each time one
can find something new in it.
14
Economy of line, clarity of texture, and a richness that
does not disappoint on repeated hearings is also descriptive of Clarkes own
compositions, including her choral music.
The typescript Fiddling with the Stars demonstrates that Clarke not only
appreciated the clear lines and textures of chamber music, but also the opportunity for
personal musical expression. She wrote, Most musicians agree, I think, that of all forms
of music C[hamber] M[usic] is the most intimatethe most subtleand that it can give
the most lasting pleasure.
15
Clarke also expressed the need for a dynamic dialogue
among the players and wrote, I think one of the secrets of CM is unselfishness, really.
You have to be ready to sink your personality in the music; to be almost more aware of
what the others are doing than what he is doing himself. And yet each player is equally
important. Each half-leads, half-follows.
16
Perhaps in part because of her extensive

12
Rebecca Clarke, The History of the Viola in Quartet Writing, Music and Letters 4,
no. 1 (1923): 6-17; Rebecca Clarke, The Beethoven Quartets as a Player Sees Them, Music and
Letters 8, no. 2 (1927): 178-190.
13
Rebecca Clarke, What is There in this Chamber Music? By One of the Players,
typescript, photocopy, private collection.
14
Ibid.
15
Clarke, Fiddling with the Stars.
16
Ibid.


60
6
0

chamber music experience, Clarke came to value dynamic musical dialogue, a high
degree of subtlety in musical expression, and an unselfishness that is expressed in an
acute awareness of each part, priorities also evident in her compositions.
Clarkes shorthand notes for two lectures elucidate the connection between
chamber music and choral music. The first lecture, entitled What is There in this
Chamber Music, shares some content with the typescript of the same name; under the
heading String 4tet, Clarke wrote, like conversation, and No Boss! Democracy.
17

In the second lecture, String 4tets and their backgrounds, Clarke compared chamber
music to the four-part choral texturesoprano, contralto, tenor, bassidentifying the
greater inherent compass of instruments.
18
While Clarke is not the only one to observe
similarities between the roles of instruments in string quartets and the four primary choral
voices, her awareness of their similarities combined with a thorough knowledge of
quartets probably influenced her approach to choral composition.
In an era receptive to new compositions of large-scale choral-orchestral works as
well as cathedral music for choir and organ, it is noteworthy that all of Clarkes choral
music is for unaccompanied voices. A four-part texture is the basis for ten of Clarkes
choral works and the remaining two are for womens voices. However, Clarke freely
varied the basic four-part texture, experimenting with contrasting timbres, registers and
textures. For instance, among Clarkes first six choral works, five are for four-part mixed
voices, and her seventh work, He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High, is
scored for tenor soloist and four-part choir with divisi. Clarke then explored SATB
arrangements of her own songsWeep You No More, Sad Fountains and Come, Oh

17
Rebecca Clarke, What is There in This Chamber Music, lecture notes, private
collection.
18
Rebecca Clarke, String 4tets and Their Backgrounds, lecture notes, private
collection.


61
6
1

Come, My Lifes Delightfollowed by the 1928 carol arrangement There is No Rose for
ATTB male voices with baritone soloist. Her final complete choral works are the three-
part Ave Maria and the five-part Chorus from Shelleys Hellas for womens voices.
In addition to experimenting with the timbral, registral, and textural potential of
unaccompanied choral music, Clarke also emulated various choral styles including the
medieval carol, madrigal, glee, part song, anthem, and motet. She also consistently
selected high-quality, expressive texts from various eras and explored the choral medium
by creating arrangements of pre-existing tunes as well as wholly original compositions.
Throughout the choral works, assimilation of retrospective and modernist techniques
demonstrates Clarkes ability to allude to earlier forms within the context of a diverse and
modern compositional language. A chronological study of all twelve choral works reveals
Clarkes persistent application of new techniques. Manuscript study reveals Clarkes
compositional process and diary entries provide external documentation for several
pieces.
Manuscripts
The primary collection of autograph scores of Clarkes choral music is owned by
Christopher Johnson of Brooklyn, New York. When Clarkes estate was settled, her heirs
assigned copyright and ownership of Clarkes manuscripts to Johnson, a grand-nephew
by marriage. With the exception of Ave Maria, My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth
Float, and Chorus from Shelleys Hellas, a single autograph score exists for each of
the other choral compositions. Two autograph scores of Ave Maria, two autograph scores
of Chorus from Shelleys Hellas, and three manuscripts of My Spirit Like a Charmed
Bark Doth Float were in Clarkes possession at the time of her death. Two of the three
manuscripts of My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float are complete autograph
scores, and a third, incomplete manuscript is in another hand.


62
6
2

The second manuscript source is Becky Pogo Clarke of Billerica,
Massachusetts. She owns two autograph scores of Chorus from Shelleys Hellas for
four-part womens voices with divisi. She also owns an autograph score of My Spirit Like
a Charmed Bark Doth Float as well as a manuscript in Frieda Clarkes hand transposed
from the original E. Phrygian to D.
The third manuscript source is the British Library. The British Library received
two autograph manuscripts, choral parts, and correspondence that document plans for a
performance of Ave Maria at the London Oratory.
19
The British Library materials were
found among music director Henry Washingtons papers following his death. The two
autograph scores are nearly identical to the two versions of Ave Maria owned by
Johnson.
The following analysis and the appendix reflect my study of Johnsons autograph
scores and scanned images of the British Library and Pogo Clarke manuscripts. The
autograph scores in Johnsons collection are in good condition. The edges of some of the
autograph scores are ragged, showing the natural aging of the paper, but the music is
protected by large margins surrounding the staves. Clarkes autographs are in ink and
most contain revisions in pencil, many of which were added in 1976 when Clarke
reviewed her manuscripts while Johnson created a thematic catalog of her works. At this
time, Clarke also added approximate dates of composition in pencil to many of her
autograph scores.
20
Clarke revised her autograph scores by scratching out the original
pitches which, in most cases, can be faintly seen. Where multiple autograph scores exist,
the order in which the autograph scores were made can be deduced. The appendix
provides a comparative discussion of the manuscripts.

19
Rebecca Clarke, Ave Maria, British Library MS MUS 1694.
20
Johnson, interview.


63
6
3

Early Choral Works: 1906-1909
Clarkes first choral compositions are the products of a young composer who had
received two years of training at the Royal Academy of Music and was eager to apply
what she had learned. Her early choral music shows reliance on simple melodic and
rhythmic motives, repetitive forms, symmetrical phrases, madrigalian allusions, and tonal
harmonies. While harmonic progressions in the first and third works rely primarily on
tonic, subdominant, and dominant harmonies, the second work contains greater
dissonance and more varied harmonies. Already in her first choral compositions, Clarkes
discerning selection of quality texts and her sensitivity to the expressive possibilities of
specific words as well as the overall meaning of the text are evident. Her choice of texts
and compositional techniques reflect her interest in the Tudor revival, a movement in late
nineteenth- and early twentieth-century England characterized by renewed interest in
English Renaissance music.
Now Fie on Love
Rebecca Clarkes earliest choral composition is a setting of a humorous text by
Edward Phillips (1630-1696), a nephew of John Milton.
21
The poem, entitled Against
Love, first appeared in The Mysteries of Love and Eloquence (1658). The text presents a
humorous argument against amorous love. The two six-line stanzas contain the rhyme
scheme ababcc dedeff, and the number of syllables per line is indicated below.
Now fie on love it ill befits, 8
Or Man or Woman know it; 7
Love was not meant for people in their wits, 10
And they that fondly shew it 7

21
In 1976, while working with Christopher Johnson on a thematic catalog of her works,
Clarke added the date 1906 in pencil to her manuscript. Christopher Johnson, note to Now Fie
on Love, by Rebecca Clarke (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).


64
6
4

Betray their too much featherd brains, 8
And shall have Bedlam onely for their pains. 10

To Love is to distract my sleep, 8
And waking, to wear fetters; 7
To Love is but to go to School to weep: 10
Ile leave it for my betters: 7
If single love be such a curse, 8
To marrie is to make it ten times worse.
22
10
Clarkes single manuscript is untitled and the text is set accurately, but
capitalization and punctuation are not preserved. Clarke also modernized spelling and
changed the word order in the sixth line from Bedlam onely to only Bedlam. The
published edition does not follow capitalization or punctuation from either Clarkes
manuscript or Phillipss text.
23
Clarkes musical choices emphasize the poems message
that people in their right mind would not allow romantic love to grip them, and those who
succumb to loves powers suffer insomnia, feelings of entrapment, and bouts of weeping.
In the preface to Now Fie On Love, Christopher Johnson colorfully described this
piece as a rapid-fire glee.
24
The glee was the most popular type of British part song
from 1750 to 1830, and during the Victorian Era, the terms part song, madrigal, and glee
were often used interchangeably, and glee denoted anything other than a round or
catch.
25
According to Percy Young, the glee had no proscribed form and the texture

22
Edward Phillips, The Mysteries of Love & Eloquence (London: N. Brooks, 1658), 63-
64.
23
Rebecca Clarke, Now Fie on Love (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 3-6.
24
Ibid.
25
Ibid.


65
6
5

could be either homophonic or polyphonic.
26
Michael Hurd defined the glee as a
composition for three to five male voices to be sung by one singer per part.
27
Although
Clarke did not label the staves of Now Fie on Love, the use of two treble clefs and two
bass clefs suggest a TTBB voicing typical of glees.
28
In addition, Clarkes other four-part
choral manuscripts from this period use three treble clefs and one bass clef, and in one
case, the staves are labeled, soprano, alto, tenor, bass.
29

Unlike many of Clarkes more complex later choral works, this early setting is
quite accessible. The tonal harmonic vocabulary relies heavily on tonic, subdominant,
and dominant chords; in m. 7, however, harmonic interest increases through a shift to the
subdominant and a tonicization of IV follows.
The principle of repetition governs melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, and formal
elements. On a large scale, the two-stanza text is set using a modified strophic form, the
parallel double period. As figure 2.1 shows, the first period ends with a half cadence
while the second period concludes with an authentic cadence. With the exception of the
altered final cadence, the two periods are identical.
Repetition can also be observed in the construction of motives and phrases in
example 2.1. The primary motive, indicated by brackets, begins with an anacrucis B. and
incessant repetition of B. results from imitative entrances staggered one beat apart.

26
Percy Young, The Madrigal in the Romantic Era, Special issue, American Choral
Review 19, no. 4 (1977): 71-2.
27
Michael Hurd, Glees, Madrigals, and Partsongs, in Music in Britain: The Romantic
Age, 1800-1914, ed. Nicholas Temperley (London: Athlone Press, 1981), 243.
28
Rebecca Clarke, Now Fie on Love, manuscript, private collection.
29
Rebecca Clarke, A Lovers Dirge, manuscript, private collection; Rebecca Clarke,
When Cats Run Home and Light is Come, manuscript, private collection; Rebecca Clarke,
Music, When Soft Voices Die, manuscript, private collection. All three manuscripts use three
treble clefs and one bass clef. Staves are labeled, soprano, alto, tenor, bass, in When Cats Run
Home.


66
6
6

Repetition is also evident in m. 5 where the second phrase begins with a repetition of the
first.



Figure 2.1 Now Fie on Love
m. 1 5 12 16 24

HC HC HC AC
a a' a a''

Parallel Double Period



Example 2.1 Now Fie on Love by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-6



67
6
7

In addition to melodic repetition, the harmonic content of the head motive is also
significant. Example 2.1 shows that the harmonic progression in m. 1, IIVii
7
, is
repeated in m. 2. Since mm. 1 and 2 are repeated at the beginning of the second phrase,
and the second stanza is nearly identical to the first, the progression IIVii
7
is heard
eight times within only twenty-three bars. Harmonic repetition, however, is not limited to
the first motive. Example 2.2 shows that following a shift to the subdominant in m. 7, the
harmonic progression in m. 8 is exactly repeated in mm. 9 and 10 and finally gives way
in m. 11 at a half cadence in the home key.



Example 2.2 Now Fie on Love by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-11




Repetition pervades the rhythmic structure of the head motive as well. As
example 2.1 shows, in all voices but the second tenor, the initial rhythm is . .. followed
by a longer note with a descending skip between the second and third pitches. The
descent is particularly important because the movement to a lower pitch enables the
recurring B.
3
to remain the highest pitch through the first nine beats of the first and


68
6
8

second phrases of each stanza. Melodic, rhythmic, harmonic, and formal repetition
underscore the texts assertion that people who engage in romantic love are half-crazed,
and like the inescapable B., they cannot escape loves power.
A Lovers Dirge
Both Now Fie on Love and Clarkes second choral composition, A Lovers Dirge,
use repetitive forms. However, in A Lovers Dirge, sections are distinguished by
contrasting textures, and within the imitative A section, womens and mens voices are
paired. In addition, while IIVV progressions dominate Now Fie on Love, diminished
chords and chromaticism play a significant role in A Lovers Dirge.
A Lovers Dirge (1908) is for four-part mixed voices.
30
The text is a song from
act two, scene four of William Shakespeares Twelfth Night in which Feste, the clown
and jester of Countess Olivia, sings this song to Duke Orsino. The two eight-line stanzas
vary in length from three to nine syllables with the end-rhyme scheme ababcdcd and
efeghihi.
Come away, come away death, 7
And in sad cypress let me be laid. 9
Fie away, fie away breath, 7
I am slain by a fair cruel maid. 8
My shroud of white, stuck all with yew, 8
O prepare it. 4
My part of death no one so true 8
Did share it. 3


30
Clarke probably added the compositional date in pencil in 1976, when she was
working with Christopher Johnson, who created a thematic catalog of her works.


69
6
9

Not a flower, not a flower sweet 7
On my black coffin let there be strewn. 9
Not a friend, not a friend greet 7
My poor corpse, where my bones shall be thrown. 9
A thousand thousand sighs to save, 8
Lay me O where 4
Sad true lover never find my grave, 9
To weep there.
31
3
Roger Warren and Stanley Wells stated that Fie away in the third line of stanza
one was a common English saying during the Elizabethan Era that meant, Be off! They
asserted that the original text is preferable to the common revision, Fly away.
32

Clarkes setting, however, uses the text Fly away, as well as another common revision;
in the second line of stanza two, Clarke set strown in place of strewn which achieves
end rhyme with line four and creates an identical rhyme scheme in both stanzas. The
autograph source contains the title A Lovers Dirge, an apt indicator of the protagonists
perspective. It does not preserve capitalization or punctuation from Shakespeares text,
and the published Oxford edition of A Lovers Dirge follows neither Clarkes manuscript
nor the text as it appears in the Oxford Shakespeare edition edited by Warren and
Wells.
33
Like Clarkes first choral composition, the manuscript source for A Lovers
Dirge contains no dynamic, tempo, or articulatory markings.
As in the case of Now Fie on Love, Clarke set the two-stanza text of A Lovers
Dirge using a repetitive form; the modified strophic ABAB' form shown in figure 2.2 has

31
William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, or What You Will, ed. Roger Warren and Stanley
Wells (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 137.
32
Ibid.
33
Ibid.


70
7
0

imitative A sections and homophonic B sections. Repetition is also evident in the two
phrases of the A section that form a parallel period.
Instead of the simple repetition observed in Now Fie on Love, sequential
repetition between paired voices occurs in A Lovers Dirge. As example 2.3 shows,
imitation occurs between paired voices, and sequential repetition of the Come away
motive, .. ., is present within each pair. Sequence creates a musical parallel to the textual
repetition of Come away in m. 1 and Fly away in m. 5.



Figure 2.2 A Lovers Dirge
A Imitation B Homophony A Imitation B' Homophony
1 8 15 23 28
HC AC AC AC HC AC (AC) AC

parallel period contrasting period parallel period contrasting period




Example 2.3 A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-2






71
7
1

Melodic repetition is again apparent in the parallel second phrase shown in
example 2.4. The second phrase begins like the first with the exception that the tenor and
bass finish phrase one as the soprano and alto begin phrase two (m. 5/1); however, by the
fourth beat of the second phrase a shift toward the subdominant is underway.



Example 2.4 A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 4-5




Example 2.5 shows that the second phrase continues with a prolongation of a
secondary dominant F
7
chord that leads to the subdominant B. in mm. 9-10. When the
subdominant arrives in m. 9, it is heard first as a poignant minor ninth chord and
subsequently as a dominant seventh chord. The B. in the bass is revealed as a pedal point
that continues as the harmony shifts to a second-inversion E. minor chord, and in m. 11,
B. functions as the seventh in the cadential dominant seventh chord. Clarkes
prolongation of a secondary dominant F
7
chord followed by a pedal B. reveal a more
complex harmonic progression and more sophisticated harmonic planning than is found
in Now Fie On Love.
In contrast to the staggered entrances, paired voices, and lively rhythms of the A
section, the brief six-bar B section that begins in m. 9 is entirely homorhythmic. The


72
7
2

uniform rhythm and sudden change of texture at m. 9 draw the listeners attention to the
dramatic text, My shroud of white, stuck all with yew, O prepare it, in which the
protagonistwhose heart has been broken by a young womancalls for the death
shroud to be prepared for his burial.



Example 2.5 A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 7-11




73
7
3

The final B section, shown in example 2.6, begins with an altered rhythm. An
eighth rest on beat one in the soprano and tenor parts enables their entrances to provide
rhythmic energy on the second half of beat one. The phrase then continues as before until
m. 25 where, despite the sense that a breath would be appropriate following an imperfect
authentic cadence, the text requires the singers to continue without pause into the final
phrase. While the B and B' sections are very similar, the varied rhythm in m. 23 and the
avoidance of a cadential stop in m. 25 add an element of novelty, thus achieving the
compositional goals of preserving familiarity and creating contrast.



Example 2.6 A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 23-25




While both Now Fie on Love and A Lovers Dirge are in common meter and
contain rhythmic motives common to compositions, contrasting rhythms are
juxtaposed in more complex ways in the later work, thus suggesting growth in Clarkes
rhythmic inventiveness. In addition, the harmonic vocabulary of A Lovers Dirge is more
complex, and diminished, seventh, and ninth chords create a more varied harmonic
palette. Example 2.4 shows several diminished and seventh chords, offset rhythms in the
womens voices, and a modern application of retardations and suspensions. While a full


74
7
4

beat was required for each elementpreparation, dissonance, resolutionof a
Renaissance suspension or retardation, Clarke exercised modernist freedom and treated
the figure with rhythmic diminution. In the womens voices in m. 4, half-beat resolutions
simultaneously function as preparations for the next dissonances, and the dissonances
themselves are also only one-half beat long. The suspension gestures in the soprano and
alto feel rhythmically offset against the square rhythms of the lower voices, and the full
impact of the offset rhythms is felt when regular rhythms return in the soprano and alto
voices in m. 5.
A closer look at melodic motion and registral changes in the A section contribute
further insights to this analysis. As example 2.7 shows, the soprano and alto descend in
parallel thirds from tonic in m. 1 to dominant in m. 4. Solid note heads in example 2.7
show the primary descent.



Examples 2.7 A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-8, soprano and alto




Example 2.8 A Lovers Dirge by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 3-5/1, tenor and bass






75
7
5

In m. 5 soprano and alto return to their initial pitches and descend again through
the consequent phrase, finally coming to rest one octave lower than their starting pitches,
but with an altered A. The resolution of each phrase is delayed as parallel thirds circle
around E and G in mm. 3-4 and C and E. in mm. 7-8, while the tenors and basses
simultaneously have their own circling gestures. Solid pitches in example 2.8 show that
G and B. are centric pitches in the tenor/bass circling gesture while the other pitches
create motivic upper and lower neighbor tones. The descending thirds and circling
gestures rely on primarily stepwise melodic motion that incorporates the raised o and to
create parallel minor thirds in place of diatonic major thirds. The minor thirdswith the
suspensions, offset rhythms, and circling gesturesevoke a sense of pathos that reflects
the mood of the text. The octave descent in the womens voices of the A section also
aurally depicts the lowering of a casket into the ground at burial. The circling motion
observed in examples 2.7 and 2.8 is common in Clarkes compositions and is particularly
prominent in the melodic motives of her mature anthem, He That Dwelleth in the Secret
Place of the Most High. As compared to Now Fie on Love, A Lovers Dirge displays
more sophisticated melodic and harmonic planning and shows a clever musical response
to the image of lowering a casket.
A number of Clarkes early choral works, including A Lovers Dirge, are part
songs. Paul Spicer described part songs as the chamber music of the choral repertory.
34

While some definitions identify the part song as a broad category inclusive of glee and
madrigal, the part song developed a unique identity in the late nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries. During this period, the Tudor revival stimulated the composition of
madrigals, and the choral festival movement provided the impetus for the composition of

34
Paul Spicer, preface to English Pastoral Partsongs: Selected by Paul Spicer (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1994).


76
7
6

challenging part songs.
35
Parry, Stanford, and Elgar produced some of the finest
examples, and Vaughan Williams and Holst expanded the tradition by creating folk-song
arrangements.
36
In addition to its fundamental definition as an unaccompanied setting of
a secular text for two or more voices, late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British
part songs also display varied textures and sensitivity to text.
37
Strophic and through-
composed forms are common and a number of part songs use modal scales and
chromaticism.
38
While madrigals were written for solo voices, and part songs were to be
sung by choirs, A Lovers Dirge illustrates several ways in which the madrigal influenced
the part song.
39

The amorous text, vocal pairings, and contrasting imitative and homophonic
sections are typical of English madrigals and are frequently found in part songs like A
Lovers Dirge. Simple rhythms, such as .. . , are also characteristic of many English
madrigals and part songs. The . .. motive found in many English madrigals, is reversed to
.. . in A Lovers Dirge as a natural response to the implied rhythm of the text, Come
away.
40
While the amount of contrapuntal writing in the A section is somewhat unusual
in a part song, the A section is not thoroughly imitative and the piece does not contain

35
Judith Blezzard. "Partsong." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http://
www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/20988
(accessed January 12, 2010).
36
Ibid.
37
Ibid.
38
Stephen Banfield, Vocal Music, in Music in Britain: The Twentieth Century, ed.
Stephen Banfield (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995), 431-433.
39
Paul Hillier, Introduction to English Romantic Partsongs, ed. Paul Hillier (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1986).
40
The rhythm . .. is an important motive in several madrigals including: My Bonny Lass
She Smileth by Thomas Morley; Lady, When I Behold by John Wilbye; the Long live... refrain
of Hard By a Crystal Fountain by Thomas Morley; April is in My Mistress Face by Thomas
Morley; and Come Sable Night by John Ward.


77
7
7

metric changes or contrasting triple and duple sections typical of many madrigals. A
Lovers Dirge includes chromaticism and a harmonic vocabulary enriched by diminished,
seventh, and ninth chords that demonstrate Clarkes use of Romantic materials within
part songs. Clarkes next choral work, When Cats Run Home and Light is Come,
illustrates the simple harmonies, limited chromaticism, and varied textures that are
common to many part songs.
When Cats Run Home and Light is Come
Clarkes third choral composition is a setting of a pastoral poem by Alfred
Tennyson (1809-92) entitled Song.The Owl. that was first published in Poems,
Chiefly Lyrical in 1830.
41
Although this text does not date from the Renaissance era, its
lighthearted, pastoral imagery reflects a common type of Renaissance madrigal text. The
poem contains two stanzas of seven lines each with a concluding couplet.
When cats run home and light is come, 8
And dew is cold upon the ground, 8
And the far-off stream is dumb, 7
And the whirring sail goes round, 7
And the whirring sail goes round; 7
Alone and warming his five wits, 8
The white owl in the belfry sits. 8

When merry milkmaids click the latch, 8
And rarely smells the newmown hay, 8
And the cock hath sung beneath the thatch 9

41
Alfred Tennyson, Song.The Owl. Poems, Chiefly Lyrical (London: Effingham
Wilson, Royal Exchange, Cornhill, 1830), 46.


78
7
8

Twice or thrice his round-e-lay, 7
Twice or thrice his round-e-lay: 7
Alone and warming his five wits, 8
The white owl in the belfry sits.
42
8
Like A Lovers Dirge, When Cats Run Home is a part song that includes allusions
to madrigalian style. While sensitivity to the text is characteristic of both madrigals and
part songs, When Cats Run Home contains several madrigalisms. For instance, the second
word of each stanza, cats and merry, is set melismatically to depict cats running and
the exuberance of the merry milkmaids. Text-painting is also evident in the rising and
falling lines in the tenor and bass parts shown in example 2.9; here the text of the first
verse refers to a whirring sail going around while the second verse refers to a cock
repeatedly singing his roundelay, itself a circular dance.
When Cats Run Home displays imitative and homophonic textures. The a phrases
begin with madrigalian melismas and imitation, but in the b, c, and d phrases, the melody
remains in the soprano voice and the lower voices accompany, thus creating an animated
homophonic texture common to part songs. The straightforward rhythms and tonal
harmonies of When Cats Run Home are also common to madrigals and part songs, and
dissonances are limited to passing and neighbor tones. Clarkes third choral work also
includes chromaticism in an inner voice, which is characteristic of part songs.
Chromaticism is found in a single, transitional passage shown in example 2.10.
The chromatic passage that begins in m. 18 is best understood within the context
of the larger harmonic plan shown in figure 2.3. Following the first period that concludes
in m. 9 with an authentic cadence, the music shifts to the area of A minor and the third
phrase ends with an authentic cadence in A. The lowest voice then descends


42
Ibid.


79
7
9

Example 2.9 When Cats Run Home and Light is Come by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 10-18




Example 2.10 When Cats Run Home and Light is Come by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 18-22



80
8
0

chromatically from A to D, and the fourth phrase cadences on G majors dominant. The
final phrase begins in G major, and the piece ends with a slightly varied version of the
first phrase. As compared to Now Fie On Love, the cadence on 2 in m. 17 and the
chromatic return to the tonic key in mm. 18-21 reveal an advance in the complexity of
Clarkes harmonic planning, but the harmonic vocabulary and treatment of dissonance is
much simpler than in A Lovers Dirge.



Figure 2.3 When Cats Run Home and Light is Come Form

Phrase: a b c
Measure: 1 4 9 10 11 16-17
Key: G: I HC AC IIVii
a: I AC on A
Phrase: d a'
Measure: 18 22/3 22/427
Key: AA.GF:FE(no E.)D
7

(chromatic descent) HC in G AC in G



The melodic content of the phrases in When Cats Run Home can be described
using the letters abcda' and a larger ABA' form can also be observed based on key area
and function; phrases a and b form a period in G major, phrase c functions in A minor,
and d is a modulatory phrase that leads back to G major. The A sections contain the a and
b phrases that share nearly constant eighth-note motion, imitation, and the key of G,
while the B section is characterized by homophonic, nontonic phrases. Like the first two
choral compositions, a slightly varied setting of the second stanza creates a modified
strophic form, thus demonstrating consistent reliance on simple forms in the first three
choral works.
When Cats Run Home is tonal with regular half and authentic cadences, and the
altered F7 chord in m. 9 is unexpected. As example 2.11 illustrates, the upper three
voices move by semitone while the bass descends a whole step to a lowered . While a


81
8
1

lowered within a composition in the major mode normally suggests a modal allusion to
Mixolydian, in m. 9, semitone movement in the upper voices creates a linear neighboring
chord with several altered pitches. In later compositions, Clarke frequently altered , thus
avoiding the key-confirming motion from the leading tone to the tonic pitch.



Example 2.11 When Cats Run Home and Light is Come by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 9-10




Although Clarke adopted increasingly complex rhythms after 1910, simple
rhythmssuch as the cadential half notes shown in mm. 9-10are used effectively in
the first three choral works. In When Cats Run Home, . .. is heard in all voices, and every
phrase also begins with one or two anacrucis pitches, both of which generate forward
motion. In addition, each phrase contains quarter-note motion, and the first, second and
fifth phrases also include a significant amount of eighth-note activity. By employing
cadential half notes at the conclusion of phrases, Clarke suspended forward motion and
introduced rhythmic contrast.
While each phrase in Now Fie on Love begins with imitative entrances from
lowest to highest, and A Lovers Dirge begins with imitative entrances of paired voices


82
8
2

followed by a contrasting homophonic section, When Cats Run Home contains more
subtle textural changes. The first phrase begins with imitative entrances, but as example
2.12 shows, the texture of the second phrase may be described as animated homophony.



Example 2.12 When Cats Run Home and Light is Come by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 5/4-10




The eighth-note motion that pervades the first two phrases is absent in the third
phrase that begins in m. 11, where soprano/alto and tenor/bass pairs begin. Then, in the


83
8
3

fourth phrase, the soprano and alto continue with identical rhythms while the tenor alone
provides contrast; the bass enters two bars later, restoring the four-part texture again. The
fifth and final phrase, identical to the first, provides the final textural change as the
soprano again initiates a series of imitative entrances.
Although all three of the compositions discussed thus far are early, and none were
dated at the time of composition, the more fluid textural changes in When Cats Run Home
demonstrate a more sophisticated approach to texture and support the dates Clarke
assigned: Now Fie on Love (1906), A Lovers Dirge (1908), When Cats Run Home
(1909). The autograph score for When Cats Run Home includes an extra page on which
Clarke sketched the first seven measures of Mozarts Don Giovanni.
43
In her memoir,
Clarke recalled that during her second year, when she was distracted by increasing
tensions at home, Stanford gave her short assignments like trying to write choral pieces
according to the strict rules of Palestrina or rescoring Mozart symphonies from the piano
arrangements and then comparing.
44
Manuscript evidence and Clarkes memoir
corroborate her estimated date of composition, 1909.
The manuscripts of the first three choral compositions share several common
traits. There is a single autograph source for each, none contain tempo or dynamic
markings, and Clarkes handwriting is smaller and more legible than in later manuscripts.
While When Cats Run Home also contains no slurs or phrase markings, in Now Fie on
Love and A Lovers Dirge Clarke did mark cases in which two or three notes share a
single syllable. All three scores show several pitch changes and, in most cases, the
original pitches can still be faintly seen. Among these three compositions, Clarke
assigned a title only to A Lovers Dirge.

43
Rebecca Clarke, [When Cats Run Home and Light is Come], MS 1909?, private
collection.
44
Clarke, I Had a Father, Too, 176.


84
8
4

In conclusion, Clarkes first three choral works reflect the glee, madrigal, and part
song. Clarkes interest in Renaissance materials is evident in her choice of pastoral and
amorous texts and in allusions to madrigalian style. The use of four unaccompanied
voices; contrasting imitative and homophonic textures; simple, repetitive forms; and tonal
harmonies with limited chromaticism demonstrate Clarkes familiarity with the madrigal
and part song. Although Clarkes first three choral compositions show her capable use of
basic compositional skills, in the decade that followed, she rapidly synthesized new
techniques.
Emergence of a Mature Style: Choral Works ~ 1910-1921
The choral music of the next decade shows Clarkes continuous application of
new techniques. Already in Music, When Soft Voices Die, several formal and textural
innovations are evident. This is Clarkes first through-composed choral composition and
despite consistent line lengths of seven or eight syllables, musical phrases vary in length.
Texturally, open octaves occur for the first time in a choral work, and in imitative phrases
the pitch content and order of entrances is varied. Music, When Soft Voices Die is also the
first choral work to use silence dramatically; while rests mark phrase endings and
facilitate staggered entrances in the three earlier choral works, silence serves a dramatic
function in Music, When Soft Voices Die. Beginning with this composition, Clarkes
choral works contain detailed dynamic and tempo markings, thus enabling the performer
to better understand her expressive vision. An expanded harmonic vocabulary includes
deceptive and Phrygian cadences, movement between third-related chords, nondiatonic
chords, and semitone voice leading that facilitates progression between unrelated chords.
Music, When Soft Voices Die
Clarkes next two choral works are settings of poems by Percy Bysshe Shelley
(1792-1822). Shelleys 1821 poem entitled TO, is an evocative rhymed text.
Music, when soft voices die, 7


85
8
5

Vibrates in the memory; 7
Odours, when sweet violets sicken, 8
Live within the sense they quicken; 8

Rose-leaves, when the rose is dead, 7
Are heaped for the beloveds bed; 8
And so thy thoughts, when thou art gone, 8
Love itself shall slumber on.
45
7
The rich images in Shelleys poem seem to have inspired Clarke to compose a
highly expressive musical setting that is more subtle and complex than any of the three
earlier choral compositions. While Clarke continued to use imitative and homophonic
textures in her fourth choral work, textural changes occur not only between phrases but
also within phrases. For instance in example 2.13, all voices utter music
homophonically, and the phrase continues with imitative entrances in the order tenor,
alto, bass, soprano.



Example 2.13 Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-3


45
Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Wolstonecraft Shelley, and William Bell Scott. The
Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, vol. 3 (London: John Slark, 1881), 94.


86
8
6

The second phrase is entirely homophonic and phrases three and four follow the
same textures and rhythms as the first two phrases respectively, but with different
harmonies. As comparison of examples 2.13 and 2.14 shows, the order of imitative
entrances in the third phrasealto, soprano, tenor, bassis different than in the first
phrase, thus demonstrating Clarkes interest in preserving unity while creating variety.



Example 2.14 Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 11-14




Another new order of entrances ensues in m. 21 shown in example 2.15, as the alto and
tenor begin the imitative fifth phrase together followed by the soprano and bass in mm.
22 and 23 respectively. Rhythmically, this imitative phrase is essentially for three parts
since the alto and tenor function as a unit.
At m. 25, in an essentially two-part homophonic texture, the soprano, alto, and
tenor respond in rhythmic unison to the melodic bass voice. Following the imitation of
mm. 21-24 and the homophony of mm. 25-28, the texture changes again at m. 28/3 as the
bass drops out and the other voices continue with a series of F octaves; this is Clarkes


87
8
7

first use of a series of octaves in a choral work, a characteristic of her mature choral style
and evidence of a third texture, monophony.



Example 2.15 Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 21-28




Example 2.15 also illustrates that textural contrasts, registral expansion, and a
crescendo lead the phrase to its climax. The music begins with a major second in m. 21
and expands to over two octaves between outer voices by m. 27 with simultaneous


88
8
8

dynamic growth from piano to mezzo forte. As is typical in Music, When Soft Voices Die,
the phrase concludes with registral contraction and diminuendo. Textural, registral, and
dynamic contrasts continue in the next phrase shown in example 2.16.



Example 2.16 Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 27-34




Following an expansive, two-octave chord at m. 27/1, soft octaves sound. Then,
another textural contrast begins in m. 32 where loud, imitative entrances span three
octaves. The timbre created by the soft, mid-range Fs in mm. 28-32 is warmer and less
intense than that found in mm. 32-34/1 where voices sing higher in their range at a loud


89
8
9

dynamic level. The intense octaves in mm. 32-34 lead to a fortissimo climax in m. 37,
shown in example 2.17, after which the final phrase begins an octave lower. The drop of
one octave in the melodic soprano and tenor voices in m. 37 creates registral contrast
with the preceding climactic chord, and a sudden pianissimo heightens the dramatic
impact of the registral change.



Example 2.17 Music, When Soft Voices Die by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 36-41



90
9
0

While registration in the first three compositions seems limited to consideration of
appropriate vocal ranges, Music, When Soft Voices Die demonstrates intentional registral
changes, use of the full choral range, and registral expansion and contraction, all of which
serve expressive purposes.
Music, When Soft Voices Die also displays a more complex harmonic vocabulary
than the earlier choral compositions. In contrast to the predominantly diatonic
progressions of the first three works, Music, When Soft Voices Die relies on movement
between third-related chords, semitone voice leading, shifting tonal centers, a variety of
cadence types, and avoidance of the tonic. While each of the first three choral works
begins with a tonic chord, example 2.13 shows that the fourth choral work begins with a
N
6
in which two of the three pitches are nondiatonic pitches. The progression N
6
V
establishes the key as B Mixolydian, but no B. triad is heard in the first or second
phrase. The second phrase begins with the same harmonic progression as the first, N
6

V, and concludes with a deceptive cadence on G; smooth voice leading accommodates


the harmonic shift to the nondiatonic G major at the word, memory, which underscores
the living nature of the memory. A third-related shift to the first B. major chord of the
piece, and a registral shift of an octave mark the beginning of the third phrase. Example
2.14 illustrates that the third phrase begins with the same musical gesture as the first, but
instead of the N
6
V progression, semitone movement in the upper three voices over a
B. in the bass creates smooth voice leading between two third-related chords, and
illustrates the common-tone relationship between triads related by chromatic third.
In addition to creating smooth voice leading, semitone movement also serves a
melodic function. For instance, beginning in m. 38 of example 2.17, the alto part contains
several repetitions of the descending chromatic pitches FF.E.D, and the bass voice
simultaneously has several chromatic neighbor figures separated by major seconds. The
descending motion in the alto and bass voices seems to mirror the text by creating a
musical representation of sinking into sleep.


91
9
1

Increased chromaticism, delayed arrival of the tonic, third-related shifts, and
prominent use of the Neapolitan chord demonstrate Clarkes growing ability to integrate
more complex harmonic procedures. Like the textural, registral, timbral, melodic, and
harmonic elements of Music, When Soft Voices Die, the form is also more complex than
in the first three choral compositions.
The phrase length and content of Music, When Soft Voices Die is shown in figure
2.4. If the dating is correct, this is Clarkes first through-composed choral composition.
While phrases three and four are rhythmically and melodically similar to phrases one and
two, the harmonies are different, and the rest of the piece contains no repeated material.



Figure 2.4 Music, When Soft Voices Die Phrase length and form

m.1 7 11 17 21 32 38 42
6 4 6 4 11 6 5

a b a' b' c d e



As figure 2.4 shows, the phrases in Music, When Soft Voices Die vary in length,
and within a through-composed form, create a composition that is structurally less
predictable than the earlier ones with regular phrase lengths and repetitious forms. Like
the first three choral works, Shelleys TO is also a two-stanza text, and Clarke could
have chosen to use a repetitive form again, but she may have thought that a more flexible
form would best enable her to depict the shifting nuances of this reflective text.
The sensitivity with which Clarke approached this text as well as her growing
compositional palette are also reflected in the increased use of rests and detailed
dynamics. There are not only more rests in the fourth choral work than in the earlier
three, but they also serve a dramatic function, whereas in the first three works, rests are
used only to facilitate staggered entrances and to mark phrase endings. As example 2.13


92
9
2

shows, the first dramatic silence in Music, When Soft Voices Die follows the word
music; although only an eighth rest, the momentary silence is captivating and enables
the tenor to begin the following phrase segment on an offbeat, a less direct way of
continuing than an on-beat entrance. The next dramatic silence occurs at the end of the
first phrase after the word die, thus illustrating the finality of death through a complete
cessation of sound. The absence of sound may be understood as an extension of Clarkes
large dynamic palette that ranges from ppp to ff in this composition. Clarke also used
numerous crescendos and diminuendos to communicate gradual dynamic changes. For
instance, the first word, music, begins p and continues with a crescendo and
diminuendo, and a longer crescendo that leads from pp to mf can be observed in example
2.15. Clarke used silence and dynamics dramatically throughout the composition, and in
the penultimate measure shown in example 2.17, rests in the alto and bass parts seem to
slow the forward motion of the music while drawing attention to the soprano and tenor
octaves. The molto rit., descending lines, silences, and soft dynamics of m. 40 suggest the
image of a person nearly asleep who is able to utter only a few more words before falling
into a deep sleep.
Since one of the goals of this thesis is to demonstrate the development of Clarkes
choral compositional style through chronological analysis, it is important to consider
whether the date of composition is plausible. It is likely that Clarke added the date,
1907?, to her autograph score in 1976 while working on a cataloguing project with
Christopher Johnson, and it is possible that her memory of the order in which she
composed the choral works was not completely accurate. If the date 1907 is correct,
Clarke would have composed Music, When Soft Voices Die after attending the Royal
Academy of Music, but prior to studying with Charles Stanford at the Royal College of
Music. Given its stylistic complexity, it seems unlikely that Clarke could have composed
this piece prior to studying with Stanford and prior to the composition of the simpler
Lovers Dirge (1908) and When Cats Run Home (1909). Since simple forms, clearly


93
9
3

delineated textures, repetitive melodic motives, and allusions to madrigalian style
characterize Now Fie on Love, A Lovers Dirge, and When Cats Run Home, and the early
mature choral compositions are through-composed part songs with detailed dynamics,
chromaticism, more complex textures, and more expansive registers, it is more likely that
Clarke composed Music, When Soft Voices Die after When Cats Run Home. In addition,
Parry was principal at the Royal College while Clarke was a student there and it seems
likely that she would have composed the Parry-like climax found in mm. 32-37 during or
after her years at the Royal College where she heard Parrys music performed.
46
The first
four choral works were probably written within a period of about five years, and Clarkes
handwriting is similar among them.
Because there is no external documentation, it is impossible to verify the precise
date of composition, but since Clarke also set Shelleys My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark
Doth Float around 1911-12, it is possible that Clarke discovered both poems and
composed both settings around the same time. While Music, When Soft Voices Die and
My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float are both through-composed settings of
Shelley texts, My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark is unique in its use of canon, open fifths,
and the Phrygian mode.
My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float
My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float (1911-1912?) is an SATB setting of
Percy Bysshe Shelleys poem, A Fragment: To One Singing, that was first published in
Poetical Works (1839). The poem contains two stanzas of three lines each with end
rhyme ababab. The following text reflects Shelleys manuscript.

46
The climactic drive in mm. 32-37 is reminiscent of Parrys writing in the use of large
skips, rhythmic activity that creates forward motion (here persistent eighth notes), crescendo and
registral expansion as the soprano part ascends to a climactic pitch, and harmonies enriched by
secondary-dominant and augmented sixth chords.


94
9
4

My spirit like a charmed bark doth swim 10
Upon the liquid waves of thy sweet singing, 11
Far far away into the regions dim 10

Of raptureas a boat, with swift sails winging 11
Its way adown some many-winding river, 11
Speeds through dark forest oer the waters swinging.
47
11
Following her husbands death, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley dated the poem 1817 and
published it in Poetical Works; in this publication, line three read, Far away into and
the sixth line was omitted.
48
Clarke set Shelleys text as it was published in 1839, but
changed the last word of the first line to float.
My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float is a through-composed setting with
four phrases. As example 2.18 shows, the first phrase is built on a canon between paired
voicessoprano and alto followed by tenor and bassthat continues until m. 8 when
cadential preparation begins. The canonic procedure with its overlapping phrase
segments aptly conveys the image of the constantly flowing river and demonstrates
Clarkes characteristic sensitivity to the meaning and images of the text.
Comparison of examples 2.18 and 2.19 shows that the second phrase begins with
the same motivic material as the first, but while the tenor and bass echo the soprano and
alto in m. 12, the expectation of canon is not fulfilled when new material begins in m. 13.
The altered canonic treatment in phrase two may be understood as varied repetition of the
first phrase, and varied imitation is common to both Music, When Soft Voices Die and My


47
Percy Bysshe Shelley, A Fragment: To One Singing, in The Complete Poetical
Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, http://www.online-literature.com/shelley_percy/complete-works
-of-shelley/39/.

48
Ibid.


95
9
5

Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float. In the former, the order of imitative entrances
was changed while in the latter, imitative procedures include a strict canon (mm. 1-7), an
altered canon (mm. 10-14), and motivic imitation (mm. 29-35).



Example 2.18 My Spirit Like A Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-4




Example 2.19 My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 10-
14



96
9
6

The third phrase of My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark shows another canonic
treatment. As example 2.20 illustrates, after the alto and tenor begin the third phrase, the
soprano and bass echo the tenor and alto respectively for two measures before turning to
independent material.



Example 2.20 My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 19-
24




While the first three phrases begin with two voices and the other voices follow in
exact or approximate canon two bars later, the fourth phrase begins with three voices and


97
9
7

the soprano follows at the distance of one measure. Although a canonic procedure is not
present in the final phrase, imitative treatment of the circled motive in example 2.21
replaces the canonic procedure that governs the structure of the first three phrases, thus
illustrating that imitationranging from strict canon to motivic imitationis an
important structural device in My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float.



Example 2.21 My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 29-
35




98
9
8

The circled motive in example 2.21 is not only important in the final phrase but is
also significant in the first and third phrases; this important motive is circled in examples
2.18, 2.20, and 2.21. These examples also show that phrase segments in the first, third,
and fourth phrases consistently begin with an upbeat that is well-suited to the iambic
meter of the text.
Vocal pairings, discussed in relation to canon and phrase structure, also have
textural implications. With the exception of the fourth phrase, the texture consistently
changes from two voices at the beginning of each phrase to four voices two bars later. As
example 2.22 shows, the first phrase concludes with a subtle change of texture that
creates a fade-out effect.



Example 2.22 - My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, m. 9




Clarke indicated a slight bend in tempo through pochiss. rit. in m. 8 that
contributes to a calando effect as the voices release at different times in m. 9. The
staggered releases in m. 9 provide an effective close to the first phrase and set up the
open fifth that accompanies the mysterious text, Far away shown in example 2.19.


99
9
9

Clarke also thins the texture at the end of phrases three and four by having one voice
the bass in phrase three and soprano in phrase fourcomplete the phrase several beats
earlier than the other voices.
Open fifths sound not only at the end of the first phrase but also at the beginning
of the first and second phrases, on the downbeat of m. 20 in the third phrase, and as the
final chord of the composition. Since the open fifth does not convey a mode, Clarke
seems to have employed it to diminish a strong sense of tonality and to represent the
bewitched spirit that dreamily floats on the waves of the beloveds sweet singing. The
choice of E. Phrygian also suits the text with its lowered 2 and characteristically
inconclusive cadences. While there is no cadential stop at m. 3/3 shown in example 2.18,
the 2 to 1 motion in the soprano and progression from an F. major to an E.
o
chord suggest
a Phrygian cadence. The final cadence shown in example 2.21, however, places the 21
motion in the bass while the alto and tenor move by step to end on an open fifth.
Each of the first two phrases concludes on the dominant, but as example 2.19
shows, an A major chord sounds unexpectedly in mm. 13-14 and foreshadows the shift in
tonal center that occurs in the following phrase. The A major chord is significant as an
indicator of twentieth-century harmonic practice because of its relationship to the home
key; phrase two begins with E. as the key area, a tritone away from A. Melodic and
harmonic tritones assume new importance in twentieth-century music and in Clarkes
compositions because of their ability to weaken tonality, and the structural use of a
tritone relationship shows a sophisticated application of the concept. The tritone
progression from E. to A in mm. 13-14 illustrates the most distant relationship between
chords and it seems likely that Clarke used this progression to emphasize the phrase into
the regions dim. As figure 2.5 shows, the second phrase concludes with a half cadence
on B. and the third phrase continues in the dominant key area with the B. Lydian scale.
The non-diatonic A major chord that appeared in the second phrase also sounds
repeatedly throughout the third phrase. In fact, example 2.23 shows that the A major


100
1
0
0

chord sounds at the downbeat of m. 24, the point of greatest registral expansion in this
phrase; from this point, the music intensifies through chromatic motion to a climax at m.
27/1 after which the bass drops out and the other voices decrease in pitch, tempo, and
dynamic.



Figure 2.5 My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float Harmonic and phrase structure
Measure: 1 10 19 28 29 35

E. Phrygian: open 5th V i :IV V V VI open 5th
Chord: ( E.) (B.) (A) I in B. Lydian to E. Phry. ( E.)
Cadence: HC HC DC Phrygian



Example 2.23 My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 24-
28



101
1
0
1

If parallel harmony had continued following the second inversion E. and D. major
chords in m. 27, the phrase would have come to rest on a C. chord, but instead, an
altered G chord sounds. The movement from a D. major chord to a G major chord
demonstrates another use of a tritone relationship, and because these two chords are
unrelated and the second chord is from a sharp key, G sounds bright. As observed in
Music, When Soft Voices Die, Clarke occasionally used altered chords at the ends of
phrases in order to create an unexpected harmonic effect. While only the third phrase in
My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float concludes with a bright, major chord from a
sharp key, both phrases two and four in Music, When Soft Voices Die conclude with
major chords from sharp keys. The practice of occasionally concluding phrases with
nondiatonic major chords is another characteristic of Clarkes mature choral style.
While the melody is primarily in the soprano voice throughout My Spirit Like a
Charmed Bark Doth Float, canonic imitation also assigns melodic importance to other
voices. For instance, in example 2.18, the soprano carries the melody during the first two
measures, but melodic interest shifts briefly to the tenor from m. 2/3-3/1 after which the
soprano begins a new melodic idea. The soprano melody rises from B. in m. 1 to E. in m.
2 before falling an octave, thus creating a melodic arch shape that draws attention to the
important tonic and dominant pitches and also brings the soprano to the lower register
enabling the melodic tenor part to be more easily heard in m. 3. The ... motive, whose
neighbor motion seems to suggest a slight ripple in the water, plays a prominent role and
unifies the composition. Throughout the piece, all parts are melodically interesting, well
written, and challenging to sing. For instance, in the first phrase the alto voice begins on
the tonic pitch, rises a perfect fourth, falls to the dominant a perfect fourth below the
tonic, and returns to its starting point at the end of the first phrase segment. Semitone
motion that suggests a chromatic neighbor function, evident in the alto voice in example
2.19, is common in all voices throughout this composition. In addition, full chromatic
passages that depict the twists and turns of the river are found in the alto and tenor parts


102
1
0
2

of example 2.23. The bends of the river are also suggested by the lower three voices
through rising and falling lines and circular motion around centric pitches that
accompany multiple repetitions of the text: many winding river.
Several compositional techniques appear for the first time in a choral work in My
Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float. This is Clarkes only choral work that uses
canon and the first case in which a motive, ..., seems to represent a specific imagethe
many winding river. Overlapping phrases result from the canonic procedure and
staggered releases gradually thin the texture at phrase endings. Thoroughgoing reliance
on the Phrygian scale creates an aura unique among Clarkes choral works, and the
characteristically inconclusive cadences of the Phrygian mode coupled with frequent
open fifths aptly convey a sense of mystery: no one knows what the charmed bark will
encounter as it is swept around the next bend in the river. In addition, the juxtaposition of
E. and A chordsa tritone apartcreates harmonic tension and further contributes to a
feeling of uncertainty.
There are five extant manuscripts of My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float,
and, like Music, When Soft Voices Die, all contain detailed dynamics and tempo
markings. Three are autograph scores and two are manuscript copies. The most
significant difference among the five scores is in text underlay, and some changes in text
underlay result from changes of pitch and rhythm. It is clear that Clarke spent
considerable time experimenting with the placement of syllables in each part, thus
demonstrating that careful text setting was very important to her. A comparison of the
autograph scores, manuscripts, and published edition is found in the appendix.
Philomela
Like earlier choral works, Philomela contains madrigalisms, imitative and
homophonic textures, modal scales, and a harmonic vocabulary rich in seventh chords. In


103
1
0
3

addition, Impressionist harmonic planing appears for the first time in one of Clarkes
choral works, and metric changes are used to emphasize the verse-refrain form.
Clarkes Philomela is a setting of a two-stanza poem by Sir Philip Sidney (1554-
1586) that was first published in Certain Sonnets (1598). Both stanzas contain the same
number of syllables per line and the same end rhyme scheme. The Oxford edition of
Clarkes setting indicates that the text is altered, but only capitalization and punctuation
have been changed.
The nightingale, as soon as April bringeth 11 a
Unto her rested sense a perfect waking, 11 b
While late bare earth, proud of new clothing, springeth, 11 a
Sings out her woes, a thorn her song-book making, 11 b
And mournfully bewailing, 7 c
Her throat in tunes expresseth 7 d
What grief her breast oppresseth, 7 d
For Tereus force on her chaste will prevailing. 11 c
O Philomela fair, O take some gladness, 11 e
That here is juster cause of plaintful sadness: 11 e
Thine earth now springs, mine fadeth; 7 f
Thy thorn without, my thorn my heart invadeth. 11 f

Alas, she hath no other cause of anguish 11 g
But Tereus love, on her by strong hand wroken, 11 h
Wherein she suffering, all her spirits languish; 11 g
Full womanlike complains her will was broken. 11 h
But I, who daily craving, 7 i
Cannot have to content me, 7 j
Have more cause to lament me, 7 j


104
1
0
4

Since wanting is more woe than too much having. 11 i
O Philomela fair, O take some gladness, 11 e
That here is juster cause of plaintful sadness: 11 e
Thine earth now springs, mine fadeth; 7 f
Thy thorn without, my thorn my heart invadeth.
49
11 f
Sidneys poem refers to a Greek myth in which Tereus, the husband of Procne,
raped her sister, Philomela. Tereus then hid the pregnant Philomela, cut out her tongue in
order to prevent her from telling what had happened, and told his wife that her sister had
died. Philomela, however, wove the story into a tapestry that she sent to Procne; in anger,
Procne killed her son and served his flesh to Tereus. Tereus then sought revenge on both
sisters, but the gods intervened, changing all three into birds. Tereus became a hoopoe,
Procne became a nightingale who sings a mournful song, and Philomela was transformed
into a swallow whose singing is limited because she has no tongue.
50
While both Procne
and Philomela are referred to as the nightingale in literature, the mythologically-correct
nightingale is Procne.
Sir Philip Sidneys poem is written from Procnes perspective and each stanza
begins in the third person, but at the four-line refrain that concludes each stanza, Procne
addresses her sister, O Philomela, fair, O take some gladness. In the first stanza, Procne
states that the nightingales mournful song reflects Philomelas grief after having been
raped by Tereus. Procnes advice to Philomela is to recognize that it is better to be
pregnant than to mourn the death of a child, even though Procnes son perished by her
own hand. Procne compares their situations and claims that she has more cause to grieve

49
Sir Philip Sidney, [The Nightingale], in Poetry of the English Renaissance 1509-
1660, ed. J. William Hebel and Hoyt H. Hudson (New York: F. S. Crofts & Co., 1941), 119.
50
H[erbert] Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology: Including its Extension to Rome
(London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1958), 262-63.


105
1
0
5

because Philomelas pain is only physical and external while her own pain is
psychological and internal. Procne continues along similar lines in the second stanza and
concludes that wanting is more woe than too much having.
While five of Clarkes first six choral compositions are about love, this text is by
far the darkest. However, all six texts evoke an empathetic response in the listener and
are notable for the sheer beauty of their language. In addition, multiple layers of meaning
are particularly striking in the Shakespeare and Sidney texts. With the exception of A
Fragment: To One Singing that is a single stanza, the other texts studied thus far are all
two stanzas long. Sidneys text offered Clarke the new challenge of setting a longer,
narrative poem that is relatively unfamiliar. She created a modified strophic setting in
which each stanza uses verse-refrain form; phrases vary in length, the texture is primarily
homophonic with the melody in the soprano, and text is repeated only in the coda.
While Clarke created a musical setting that reflects the overall mood of the text,
she also used a variety of techniques to highlight specific words. As example 2.24 shows,
a triplet motive introduced by the soprano and alto in m. 1 represents the nightingales
song and moves among the voices creating an animated homophonic texture. In both
Philomela and My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float, Clarke created pervasive
motives that convey a central image, the nightingale and the winding river respectively.
In addition to the nightingale motive, Clarke emphasized the meaning of the text
through sudden changes of contour and dynamic. Stepwise melodic motion dominates the
composition and makes occasional skips quite arresting. For instance, example 2.25
displays the dramatic contrasts achieved through the sudden use of large ascending skips
and a forte dynamic. Measure 26 shows the pianissimo end of a phrase dominated by
stepwise motion; the soprano begins the next phrase with an ascending minor seventh at a
forte dynamic that suggests Tereuss forceful rape of Philomela. The bass and tenor
follow imitatively while the alto fills in the harmony. A mezzo piano dynamic and less
angular motion return in m. 30 to depict Philomelas chaste will.


106
1
0
6

Example 2.24 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-7




Example 2.25 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 26-31



107
1
0
7

The final phrase of the stanza demonstrates Clarkes use of tonic, agogic, and
metric accents to emphasize important words. In m. 44 of example 2.26 thorn receives
agogic accent and ascending skips in the upper three voices create tonic accent. Two
measures later, tonic, agogic and metric accent highlight thorn, and ascending skips in
the tenor and bass increase dynamic tension that builds toward the climax of the phrase.
When the soprano sings the climactic heart in m. 46, agogic, tonic, and metric accent
converge to powerfully communicate Procnes inner torment.



Example 2.26 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 44-47




Besides changes in contour and the use of tonic, agogic, and metric accents,
Clarke also used imitation to dramatize words and ideas, such as Tereuss force shown in
example 2.25. While imitative entrances reflect allusions to Renaissance models in
Clarkes early choral works, imitation is used sparingly in Philomela either for dramatic
emphasis or to create textural variety. In the first phrase, shown in example 2.24, the
soprano and alto begin in rhythmic unison over a static tenor pedal point, thus creating an


108
1
0
8

essentially two-part texture. The bass then enters two bars later, imitating the soprano,
and the tenor voice simultaneously becomes active.
Facile textural changes can also be observed through frequent shifts in vocal
groupings evident through shared rhythmic motives. For instance in m. 1, the soprano and
alto voices are paired, in m. 3 the lower three voices move with the same rhythm, and
from m. 4/2 through m. 6/1 the alto imitates the tenor motive. In m. 5, quarter notes in the
soprano and bass lines move in contrary motion exchanging pitches, and in m. 6 the
soprano repeats m. 5 sequentially while the bass sequence is modified to accommodate
the harmony. As m. 9 of example 2.27 illustrates, subtle changes in vocal groupings
continue in the second phrase as the alto and tenor move in parallel thirds for three beats
before the tenor and bass are briefly paired. The conclusion of phrase two also
demonstrates that, in some phrases, vocal pairings give way to homorhythmic passages.



Example 2.27 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-11






109
1
0
9

Another textural technique common to My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth
Float and Philomela can be observed in example 2.28; Clarke achieved textural variety
and decrescendo by allowing one voice to continue after the others have concluded.
Example 2.28 shows a diminuendo in the upper three voices followed by a release on
beat 4 and the continuation of the bass in m. 17. The diminuendo achieves optimal effect
through the removal of the upper three voices, a descending bass line, and diminuendo
and poco calando in m. 17. The same technique is evident in example 2.29 where
descending lines, poco calando, diminuendo, and the continuation of the tenor alone,
create a fadeout effect that parallels the word fadeth.



Example 2.28 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 16-17




In addition to varied textures and word-painting, Clarke also used metric contrast
to achieve her expressive goals. Most of the composition is in cut time and Clarke
occasionally added a measure, but the refrain includes three phrase segments in
meter. Figure 2.6 illustrates the frequent metric changes in the refrain. Since the verse


110
1
1
0

section is exclusively in duple meter and the refrain is characterized by metric change,
the metric consistency of the verse combined with the metric variety of the refrain
highlight the verse-refrain structure. Philomela is the first choral work in which Clarke
used metric changes to underscore the larger structure, another sign of her growing
maturity and a practice that may be observed in He That Dwelleth, Ave Maria, and
Chorus from Shelleys Hellas.



Example 2.29 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 40-43




Figure 2.6 Philomela Metric changes in the refrain, mm. 32-50
o o
m. 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50



Philomela also displays greater rhythmic complexity than the earlier choral
works. The juxtaposition of duple and triple eighth notes found in one phrase in My Spirit
Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float occurs ten times in the following measures of
Philomela: mm. 15 (63), mm. 29 (77), mm. 37 (85), m. 39, mm. 45 (93), and m. 100. In


111
1
1
1

addition, frequent alternation between the pervasive triplet nightingale motive and duple
rhythms, such as .. or .. . , creates the impression that the subdivision of the beat is
constantly changing.
In addition to textural, metric, and rhythmic changes, Clarke expressively
communicated the meaning of the text through a variety of harmonic tools. In mm. 18-19
of example 2.30, grief is portrayed through the chromatic planing of a series of second-
inversion triads, evidence of Clarkes application of an Impressionist technique. As the
text continues to express grief throughout the phrase from mm. 18 to 26, parallel second-
inversion triads continue their chromatic rise and fall. Harmonic planing is not limited to
a single phrase, but is also found in m. 3, mm. 32-33 and m. 39. Philomela is the first
choral work in which Clarke used planing, a technique also found in He That Dwelleth in
the Secret Place of the Most High, Weep You No More, Sad Fountains, and Ave Maria.



Example 2.30 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 17/4-19




Many of the harmonic characteristics observed in the previous two Shelley
settings are also evident in Philomela. All three compositions are modal, but unlike the


112
1
1
2

earlier two, harmonic planing undermines the sense of key in Philomela. Each stanza of
Philomela begins and ends in D Dorian, but the scale changes in m. 5, shown in example
2.24, and the first phrase concludes with a half cadence in the relative major. Measures 5
and 6 also show the significant use of seventh chords; five of eight chords are seventh
chords. Measure 3 displays the combination of planing and seventh chords, and example
2.27 reveals that over half of the chords in the second phrase are seventh chords. The
presence of many seventh chords obscures the sense of clear harmonic progression and
harmonic goal. Harmonically unstable second-inversion triads are also common,
particularly in planing passages such as mm. 18-26, part of which is shown in example
2.30, where the soprano uses the G minor scale while the lower three voices undermine
the sense of key and harmonic progression through chromatic planing.
While planing undermines tonality, functionally important pedal points
periodically assert a sense of key. There is a brief tonic pedal point in the tenor in m. 1,
and as example 2.31 shows, a five-bar dominant pedal point in the bassdecorated by
the nightingale motiveanchors the third phrase.



Example 2.31 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 12-16




113
1
1
3

As in the Shelley settings, there are third-related chords in Philomela, but they
play a comparatively minor role. Third-related motion is shown in example 2.32 from an
F major chord that concludes the verse section in m. 31 to the first refrain chord, a third-
inversion D
7
chord. Tritone root motion can also be observed in m. 33 between A and E.
seventh chords while the bass part simultaneously outlines a melodic tritone. The
harmonic tension between A and E. seems to underscore the irony of the phrase
Philomela fair, since Philomelas chaste beauty has been marred by rape. The harmonic
distance between A and E. may also suggest the relational distance Procne feels toward
her sister who is now carrying Tereuss child.



Example 2.32 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 31-33




In summary, Philomela demonstrates Clarkes expressive representation of the
text through the triplet nightingale motive, sudden changes of contour and dynamic, and
tonic, agogic, and metric accents. Imitation is used for dramatic effect and to create
textural variety, and shifting vocal groupings animate a primarily homophonic texture.
Metric changes underscore the verse-refrain structure, and duple and triple rhythms are


114
1
1
4

juxtaposed more frequently than in any previous choral work. While the key is D Dorian,
harmonic progression is undermined through the use of seventh chords, second-inversion
triads, and harmonic planing. Sensitivity to the meaning of the text and a sophisticated
treatment of texture, form, melody, and harmony identify Philomela as a twentieth-
century English part song of significant quality and complexity in the tradition of Parry,
Stanford, and Elgar.



Example 2.33 Philomela by Rebecca Clarke, MS, mm. 101-103

Excerpt mm. 101-103 from Rebecca Clarke, Philomela. Copyright 2004, Christopher Johnson. Used by permission.


115
1
1
5

The autograph score contains detailed dynamics and a number of changes of
pitch. Two passages are of particular interest. At the bottom of the sixth page, Clarke
pinned a new piece of staff paper over the bottom system because revisions had made the
original score difficult to read. The autograph also contains a pencil revision of mm. 101-
102 where Clarke revoiced the chords. Example 2.33 shows that Clarke moved the
original alto part to the bass, the bass to the tenor omitting an octave skip, and the tenor to
the alto omitting a descending skip. Christopher Johnson suggested that while most
pencil revisions in Clarkes manuscripts were added during the cataloguing process in the
late 1970s, Clarkes use of the old-fashioned double treble clef in the tenor part suggests
that the revision of mm. 101-102 may have been made much earlier.
51

Clarke composed her first six choral works over a period of about eight years, but
as far as is currently known, after completing Philomela around 1914, she did not
compose any choral music until 1920. During World War I, Clarke lived in the United
States where she performed chamber music and became involved with the Berkshire
Chamber Music Festival for which she composed the Viola Sonata in 1919 and the Trio
in 1921. Her next choral composition demonstrates that between 1914 and 1920, she
continued to synthesize Romantic and post-tonal harmonic practices, developed a more
sophisticated rhythmic vision, became adept at creating more complex and subtle forms
and textures, and replaced motivic repetition with motivic development.
He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High
The Psalm anthem He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High (1921)
is Clarkes first choral setting of a sacred text. The text portrays God as one who shelters,
protects, and rescues his followers from evil, and Clarkes setting dramatizes the conflict

51
Christopher Johnson, note to Philomela by Rebecca Clarke (New York: Oxford
University Press, 2003).


116
1
1
6

between good and evil. Clarke used the King James Version of Psalm 91, but changed
several words and phrases as well as spelling, capitalization, and punctuation. The words
and phrases that Clarke later changed are shown in italics.
1: He that dwelleth in the secret place of the most High shall abide under the
shadow of the Almighty.
2: I will say of the LORD, He is my refuge and my fortress: my God; in him will I
trust.
3: Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of the fowler, and from the noisome
pestilence.
4: He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under his wings shalt thou trust: his
truth shall be thy shield and buckler.
5: Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night; nor for the arrow that flieth by
day;
6: Nor for the pestilence that walketh in darkness; nor for the destruction that
wasteth at noonday.
7: A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand; but it shall
not come nigh thee.
8: Only with thine eyes shalt thou behold and see the reward of the wicked.
9: Because thou hast made the LORD, which is my refuge, even the most High,
thy habitation;
10: There shall no evil befall thee, neither shall any plague come nigh thy
dwelling.
11: For he shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways.
12: They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.
13: Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt
thou trample under feet.
14: Because he hath set his love upon me, therefore will I deliver him: I will set


117
1
1
7

him on high, because he hath known my name.
15: He shall call upon me, and I will answer him: I will be with him in trouble; I
will deliver him, and honour him.
16: With long life will I satisfy him, and shew him my salvation.
52

In v. 2, the change from in him will I trust to in whom I trust eliminates one
syllable, and in v. 3, Clarke also eliminated one syllable by replacing surely with for.
And, by changing thee to me, the first person perspective that began in v. 2 continues
through v. 3. In v. 4, perhaps Clarke replaced feathers with pinions because she
found the image of shelter under a wing more convincing or because she preferred the
sound of the consonants or vowels in pinions. Later in the phrase, however, Clarke
probably replaced trust with take refuge because she wanted to increase the number
of syllables, but the change from his truth shall be thy shield and buckler tohis truth is
a shield and a buckler seems motivated by a desire for more direct language. Clarke
made no changes to vv. 5 and 6, and only modernized the language in v. 7 changing
nigh to near. Verse 9, however, was significantly altered. Clarke replaced the
italicized words in v. 9 with the phrase, For thou, O Lord, art my refuge! Thou hast
made, that flows more smoothly than the original text and uses direct language.
Notably, none of Clarkes changes significantly alter the meaning of the poem, and at the
end of v. 4 and in v. 9, the revised text is more clear and direct. The single word change
in v. 13 from dragon to serpent may suggest that Clarke wanted to refer to the
serpent who tempted Adam and Eve in the Genesis 3 story that describes how evil
entered the world. Such a change seems appropriate for the purpose of emphasizing the
major theme of Psalm 91: Gods power over evil. On the other hand, Clarke may simply

52
Psalms Chapter 91, The Official King James Bible Online, http://kingjames
bibleonline.org/Psalms-Chapter-91/.



118
1
1
8

have preferred the sound of the vowels and consonants in serpent to those of dragon.
The final word change is a modernization from shew to show. In summary, some of
Clarkes text changes were motivated by the need for a different number of syllables, and
in a few cases, changes may show a preference for a particular vowel or consonant sound
or for first person or present tense.
In contrast to the rhymed, poetic texts of Clarkes first six choral works, He That
Dwelleth offers an unrhymed, prose text with varying numbers of syllables from one line
to the next. Clarkes setting is responsive to speech rhythms, and content-laden words are
emphasized through metric placement, duration, pitch, and articulation; although
sensitivity to natural speech rhythms is increasingly evident in the preceding choral
works, the relationship between text and rhythm is more complex in He That Dwelleth.
The tenor solo at the beginning of He That Dwelleth demonstrates the tonic,
agogic, and metric accent of important words or syllables. For instance, in the first
measure, the tenor solo contains four equal eighth notes but the change of pitch on
dwell- and its placement on a strong beat draw attention to this syllable within the
phrase, He that dwelleth.
Similarly, in m. 2 the accented syllable of secret carries the longest note value
and the highest pitch in the first three measures, and falls on the strong third beat, thus
creating tonic, agogic, and metric accent. Consistently in mm. 1-6, the most important
words and syllables in the solo line fall on beat three. Simultaneously, the choir sings the
tenor rhythm in augmentation, placing important words or accented syllables on beat one
of mm. 1-6. The placement of accented syllables on strong beats within the first period
and their emphasis through tonic and agogic accents illustrate Clarkes practice
throughout the composition and suggest that her rhythmic concept grew out of a keen
awareness of natural speech rhythms.





119
1
1
9

Example 2.34 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 1-8




In addition to accents, Clarke also accommodated natural speech rhythms and
created rhythmic interest by juxtaposing duple and triple rhythms. While duple rhythms
pervade the antecedent phrase, eighth- and quarter-note triplets in mm. 5 and 6 add


120
1
2
0

rhythmic complexity to the consequent phrase. Simultaneous duple and triple eighth
notes began appearing in My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float and were more
numerous in Philomela, and in He That Dwelleth, duple and triple rhythms are both more
frequent and more organic. For instance, in m. 6, a quarter-note triplet in the tenor solo
and an eighth-note triplet in the choral parts create a complex rhythm, and concurrent
duple and triple eighth notes are also found at m. 8/4, m. 10/1, and m. 10/2 within the
first two periods.
The second period demonstrates sensitivity to natural speech accents through the
use of rests and a variety of note values including eighth-note pairs, triplets, sixteenth
notes, and quarter notes. In m. 9 of example 2.35, an eighth-note triplet on beat one in the
upper voices allows the important word, Lord, to fall on beat two. Then, on beat three,
sixteenth notes accomplish the same thing, enabling the accented syllable of refuge to
sound on beat four, and in m. 10, the stressed syllable of fortress falls on beat two and
is preceded by an eighth-note triplet. The same gestures occur one beat later respectively
in the bass in mm. 9-10, thus creating constant motion that drives toward a climactic,
rhythmic unison at the downbeat of m. 11. Notably, the change from to at m. 10
facilitates the placement of the important words God and trust in the strongest metric
positions. Throughout the composition, metric changes accommodate text stress.
Rhythm and meter are not the only elements that increase dynamic tension from
m. 8/4 to m. 11/1. The circled pitches in example 2.35 show that each motivic fragment
in the antecedent phrase rises higher than the previous one, tracing an ascent from G to E
in the soprano and bass parts. Clarke also emphasized the climax at God through a
sudden textural change from octaves in the upper three voices to four-part harmony. The
detailed dynamics in mm. 9-11 also emphasize the rhetorical intensification of, He is my
refugeand my fortress that push ahead to my God in whom I trust. Similarly, the
circled pitches in the consequent phrase retrace the melodic ascent from G, but extend
beyond the previous climax to F in m. 14. The climactic pitch continues through m. 15 as


121
1
2
1

G and E. ornament F. As in the antecedent phrase, tonic, agogic, and metric accents
emphasize important syllables.



Example 2.35 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 8/4-16




Closer examination of the melodic contour and motives of the first two periods
reveals greater use of Impressionist and post-tonal materials and a more sophisticated
approach to melodic construction than is found in Clarkes previous choral works. As


122
1
2
2

example 2.34 shows, after circling around B. for three bars, the tenor solo begins in m. 4
on D
4
and ascends a major second to the non-diatonic E which foreshadows the
modulation to G Mixolydian that occurs in the consequent phrase and incidentally
suggests the Lydian mode. While He That Dwelleth begins in the Mixolydian mode,
several whole-tone and pentatonic pitch collectionscommonly used in Impressionist
and post-tonal musicare also evident. For instance, the solo melody in mm. 1-4
contains the WT
0
pitches ABCDE. Additionally, the solo in mm. 5-8 is pentatonic
and the octave descent from G
4
relies completely on movement by descending whole
steps separated by minor thirds. Whole-tone pitch collections are also important in the
choral voices; as example 2.35 illustrates, unison voices highlight an ascending whole-
tone scale that begins on G at m. 12/2.
Many melodic motives in He That Dwelleth are created through the application of
a post-tonal technique that can be observed in example 2.36, movement around a central
pitch. In the soprano parts in m. 19, D is the centric pitch while in the alto and second
tenor, G is the centric pitch. As the alto and tenor parts demonstrate, movement around a
centric pitch in He That Dwelleth often includes chromaticism and wedge expansion
using intervals of equal size. The soprano parts in m. 19, however, only approximate
wedge expansion with the ascending interval of a minor second and the descending
interval of a major second.
Wedge expansion around a centric pitch is also shown in example 2.37. B. is the
centric pitch that sounds nine times in the tenor solo in mm. 1-3 and is ornamented by
ascending and descending whole steps and an ascending major third. The initial
descending major second is related to the wedge expansion around B. that occurs in m. 3,
and the ascending major second in m. 4 may be seen as a transposition of the ascending
major second in m. 3.
Another important melodic motive that is defined by a descending semitone
followed by a descending minor third is heard in the first three solos of example 2.38.


123
1
2
3

Bryony Jones described this motive as Clarkes despair motive and identified its
presence in He That Dwelleth and in Clarkes chamber music and songs.
53




Example 2.36 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 18/4-20







53
Jones, Music of Rebecca Clarke, 217-18.


124
1
2
4

Example 2.37 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 1-8, tenor solo





Example 2.38 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 24-28, solos: alto 1, alto 2, and bass




The bass melody, shown in example 2.39, is also constructed using the despair motive in
both ascending and descending forms in mm. 36-37 and in transposition in m. 37. The
number of semitones in the despair motive, 1 or 3, are shown in the example. Finally, in
example 2.40, the despair motive is found in the alto voice. In each occurrence of the
despair motive, the text refers to evil.


125
1
2
5

Example 2.39 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 36-38, bass




Example 2.40 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 55/4-57, alto 1




Melodic motives in He That Dwelleth no longer rely on literal repetition, but are
constructed from varied repetition and development of the smallest motivic fragment, a
Brahmsian technique called developing variation; melodically, an interval could be
altered or inverted, and rhythmically, a motive could be slightly changed and additional
material could be added. Example 2.41 illustrates a melodic ascent that begins each time
on B and skips to successively higher pitches. Through the process of developing
variation, the major second in m. 9 seems to be stretched into a minor third and perfect
fourth upon repetition.



Example 2.41 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 8-12, soprano melodic contour



126
1
2
6

The consequent phrase of the second period follows, and another melodic ascent
built upon progressively larger, ascending skips begins on B with the same major second,
but continues with skips of a major third and diminished fifth, thus marking a whole-tone
ascent to F
5
and demonstrating another varied development of the major-second motive.



Example 2.42 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 12-16, soprano melodic contour




Similarly, example 2.37 displays developing variation within the tenor solo.
Measures 1, 2, and 4 begin with ; .., but the rhythms that complete each measure are
different. In addition, the melodic and rhythmic content of m. 5 is a varied repetition of
m. 4 in which an eighth-note triplet replaces a pair of eighth notes and an ascending
major second is stretched to a perfect fourth. The rhythm of m. 6 then seems to stretch the
eighth-note triplet of m. 5 into a quarter-note triplet while emphasizing the major second
again. The subtle changes of interval and rhythm observed in the first six bars of the tenor
solo exemplify developing variation. One result of developing variation is that while
motives are not literally repeated, the similarities among them create a sense of
familiarity that unifies a composition while simultaneously achieving contrast.
As example 2.34 shows, the descending major second in mm. 1 and 2 establishes
the key and mode of B. Mixolydian, and within the first phrase, several harmonic
techniques can be observed. While harmonic planing of second-inversion triads was
observed in Philomela, parallel root-position chords are found in the choral voices in
mm. 1-2. Then in m. 3, the third-related D major chord is heard in the soprano, tenor, and


127
1
2
7

bass while the tenor solo and alto parts contain a B. Mixolydian melody, creating
bitonality for three beats. A root-position, B. major chord sounds on the downbeat of m.
4, but two beats later, the tenor soloists E foreshadows the harmonic change that
follows in m. 5. The first phrase concludes on B. at m. 5/2, and the second phrase begins
on the following beat with the third-related G major triad. The consequent phrase
continues in G Mixolydian and concludes with an authentic cadence in m. 8. In He That
Dwelleth, third-related chords add harmonic interest within phrases (mm. 2/4-3/1) and
mark harmonic shifts between phrases (m. 5/2-3).
In addition to modality, parallel motion, octaves, bitonality, and third-related
chords, pedal points also play a significant role in He That Dwelleth and illustrate
Clarkes integration of several different harmonic techniques. Beginning in m. 16, an
insistent D pedal point anchors the harmony, and several pedal points define the tonal
centers of other phrases in the middle section of the piece: A pedal point (mm. 24- 29),
C: pedal point (mm. 39-47), F: pedal point (mm. 48-51), D: pedal point (mm. 52-55), C
pedal point (mm. 56-69). In fact, mm. 39-69 contain an unbroken series of four pedal
points that lead to the climax. Following the climax, the opening material returns and the
final section can be identified as A'. Figure 2.7 shows the phrase structure of A and A',
the sections with which the composition begins and ends. Comparison shows that the
phrases of Alabeled a, b, c, dare reordered in A' and phrase lengths are changed. In
A', the melody in both the tenor solo and the soprano part extend beyond the original
climactic pitches to A before descending to a conclusive, authentic cadence in G.



Figure 2.7 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High Form of A and A'
A A'
a b c d a' c'/d' b'
8 8 4 6 4




128
1
2
8

The form of He That Dwelleth can be described as ABA' with a lengthy B section
in which pedal points assert tonal areas. Pedal points play a larger role in He That
Dwelleth than in any other of Clarkes choral compositions and demonstrate a post-tonal
way of creating key centers. However, at the beginning of the B section, diminished,
augmented, seventh, and ninth chords sound above the pedal point and create lush
Romantic harmonies that contrast with the stark octaves with which the A section
concludes. In figure 2.8, phrases are indicated by bracketed groups of measures, which
are labeled with textural descriptions, and textural contrastsderived from shifting ideas
in the textdelineate the phrase structure.



Figure 2.8 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High Textures
A
m. 1-5/2 5/3-8/3 8/4-12/1 12/2-16/2
SATB divisi with SAT vs. B Octaves
tenor solo

B
m. 16/4-20/2 21-24 24-30 31-36/1 36-38/3 38/4-43 44-47 48-55/3 56-60 61-71
SAT harmony over SATB SAT B plus SAT harmony over ostinatos,
B pedal solos vs. B A pedal points; pedal point,
over motives from m. 16ff melody in top
octaves voice

A'
m. 72/3-76 76/3-82/3 82/4-86
SATB divisi with tenor solo





129
1
2
9

He That Dwelleth displays the greatest variety of textures among Clarkes choral
works. Within the A section three textural changes are evident, and octaves at the end of
A sound sparse in comparison to the B section that begins with full, six- to eight-part
chords. Octaves return in m. 24 as the quiet accompaniment for a series of angular solo
lines. Then in m. 31, the texture changes again as the upper three voices move as a unit in
octaves with aggressive rhythms and forte dynamics that mirror the militaristic theme of
A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand. Another textural
contrast follows in m. 36 as the bass continues alone with soft interjections from the alto,
and a dramatic textural change occurs in m. 38 with the return of the motives and rich
harmonies of m. 16. At m. 56 a new texture begins and vocal pairings, ostinati, and pedal
points combine to represent different aspects of the picturesque text. For instance, as
example 2.43 shows, in mm. 56-58 the second alto and second tenor seem to depict
tramping on the devil through accented quarter notes while accented dotted-quarter notes
create an ominous bell-like effect in the bass. At the same time, an angular melody
containing semitones and augmented seconds, reminiscent of the tenor solo in mm. 1-3, is
heard in the first alto part. The placement of the melody in the alto suggests that Clarke
deliberately chose the darker alto timbre to convey the text, Thou shalt tread upon the
lion and adder. The sopranos enter a few bars later singing Because he hath set his love
upon me with an ascending arpeggio that literally rises above the battle depicted by the
lower voices. The placement of the melody in the alto and then in the soprano, as shown
in example 2.43, illustrates that textural changes also have timbral and registral
implications.
Example 2.43 also shows Clarkes only use of ostinatos in a choral work.
Beginning in m. 61, an ostinato built around a centric pitch is heard in the first alto and
second tenor while a contrasting off-beat ostinato occurs in the second alto and first
tenor. Together, these two ostinatos create continuous eighth-note motion that seems to
propel this appassionato phrase. Simultaneously, a C pedal point continues in the bass


130
1
3
0




Example 2.43 He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High by Rebecca
Clarke, mm. 55/4-62



131
1
3
1





while the sopranos sing a passionate melody in unison. The combined effect of the pedal
point, ostinatos, and expressive melody is reminiscent of a Ravelian climactic drive.
Clarkes use of ostinatos may also reflect the influence of Ernest Blochs music.
Clarke was impressed by Blochs Viola Suite with which her Viola Sonata tied in the first
Berkshire Chamber Music Festival competition in 1919, and Michael Ponder observed
that Clarkes A Psalm of David and the 1921 Trio were influenced by Blochs
style.
54
Ostinatos, pedal points, modal scales, frequent metric changes, melodic
augmented seconds, and chant-like motives containing repeated pitches characterize

54
Ponder, British Music Society Journal 5:83.


132
1
3
2

Blochs style and are also found in He That Dwelleth.
55
In July 1920 while Clarke was
working on Psalm 91, she was also rehearsing Blochs String Quartet and heard Hebrew
chanting following dinner at a friends home.
56
It is likely that Clarkes experiences of
chant and Blochs music influenced the compositional materials and techniques she chose
for her setting of Psalm 91.
A single manuscript for He That Dwelleth is extant, and Clarke wrote March
1921 at the bottom of the final page and added the date 1920-1921 to the title page. She
wrote about her work on He That Dwelleth in several diary entries.
April 16, 1920 - Didnt do a blessed thing all day but sit and
compose. Suddenly quite thrilled over a setting for another Psalm
He that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High. Wrote like
mad all day, only interrupting by a short walk with Mama and
Dora
August 14, 1920 Worked hard on my Psalm all the morning,
with great success.
August 15, 1920 Spent the whole morning over my Psalm and
was amazed at how soon it was lunchtime
March 7, 1921 Worked all day at my He that dwelleth Psalm,
and finished it after tea. Celebrated the occasion by goingMama,
Dora and Ito the movies round the corner, where we sat tight
through a three-hour show!
57

Clarke clearly was excited to begin working out her idea for He That Dwelleth, felt
encouraged amidst the process, and was absorbed by her compositional work. Two other
entries may also refer to work on He That Dwelleth and demonstrate that her references
to compositional activity sometimes do not specify a particular composition.
March 3, 1921 - Did some composing in the evening.


55
David Z. Kushner. "Bloch, Ernest." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/03287
(accessed March 19, 2011).
56
Clarke, Diary, July 2, 1920.
57
Ibid., April 16, August 14, and August 15, 1920; March 7, 1921.


133
1
3
3

March 5, 1921 - Worked in the evening.
58

Clarke was also working on a setting of Psalm 63 for voice and piano during 1920 and
finished it December 29. As the following diary entries show, she arranged to have
Gustav Holst critique her Psalm settings, and spent March 23 preparing He That Dwelleth
for their meeting the next day.
March 23, 1921 Spent the entire dayall but a rehearsal for
which I went up to town in the afternoonmaking a fair copy of
my 91st Psalm to show Mr. Holst tomorrow. Finished it at 5
minutes to midnight. Over 7 hours copying in one day!
March 24, 1921 Went to St. Pauls Girls School at 3 o-c for an
interview with Gustav HolstShowed my two finished Psalms to
Mr. Holst. He was very nice, but criticized them very severely. I
felt awfully depressed for the rest of the day, but suppose it is good
for me. Spent the evening with May.
59

Clarkes diaries contain no further reference to either Psalm setting and there is no
indication that she showed them to a publisher. A Psalm of David (Psalm 63) was first
published in 2001, and He That Dwelleth followed in 2003.
In conclusion, Clarkes three part-song settings are characteristic of twentieth-
century British part song in their modality, chromaticism, sensitivity to text, harmonic
vocabulary, and varied textures. Clarkes more refined musical vision and richer
expressive imagination are evident in the specific application of dynamic, tempo, and
articulatory markings and in manuscript revisions. From Music, When Soft Voices Die to
He That Dwelleth, the treatment of every musical element becomes increasingly
sophisticated. Clarke explored through-composed forms and assymetrical phrases, more
varied rhythms and duple/triple contrasts, more organic and diverse textures, and an
increasing variety of harmonic materials. He That Dwelleth shows the expansion of
textural, timbral, and registral possibilities through solos, divisi, and varied vocal

58
Ibid., March 3 and 5, 1921.
59
Ibid., March 23 and 24, 1921.


134
1
3
4

groupings. Its melodies rely on centric pitches, whole-tone pitch collections, the despair
motive, and developing variation. The harmonic vocabulary is equally complex and
incorporates Romantic sonorities, parallel octaves, third-related chords, modality,
bitonality, pedal points, and tonal progressions and cadences. He That Dwelleth shows
sensitivity to the natural rhythms of the text through agogic, tonic, and metric accents,
and all musical materials vividly depict the meaning of the text. This complex and
highly-expressive Psalm setting is unique among Clarkes complete choral works and
exemplifies her mature compositional style. The choral works that will be discussed in
chapter three display the various ways in which Clarke applied her mature style to choral
arrangements and settings for womens voices.


135
1
3
5

CHAPTER III
MID-LATE CHORAL MUSIC:
CHORAL ARRANGEMENTS AND MUSIC
FOR WOMENS VOICES
Choral Arrangements: 1924-1928
Clarkes final choral compositions include three arrangements, two settings for
womens voices, and an incomplete fragment. While it may appear that Clarke did not
compose any choral music between the completion of He That Dwelleth in 1921 and
Weep You No More, Sad Fountains in 1926, the following discussion documents her
work on several unfinished choral compositions as well as the informal performance of
her first two choral arrangements. The chapter then continues with analysis of Clarkes
first choral arrangement, Weep You No More, Sad Fountains.
Following the completion of He That Dwelleth in March 1921, Clarke focused on
composing the Trio for the Berkshire Festival competition later that year. During the next
two years, promotion of the Trio and composition of Rhapsody for the 1923 Berkshire
Festival absorbed much of her compositional energy, but she also composed Chinese
Puzzle and several songs including Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight and her
favorite, The Seal Man. By December 1923, Clarke was fascinated by arranging folk
songs for violin and voice, and freedom from deadlines or the requirements of a
commission enabled her to explore the unique challenges of arranging preexisting
melodies.
1
However, Clarke did not limit herself to arranging folk songs during this
period, and several choral experiences in the fall of 1924 seem to have inspired her to
begin a new choral composition.

1
Clarke, Diary, December 27, 1923.


136
1
3
6

On October 28, she heard Jane Joseph, a member of the Society of Women
Musicians, play through Holsts new choral symphony from manuscript, and in
November Clarke played for a performance of Bachs Mass in B Minor.
2
While playing
the Bach, she got so thrilled listening that she forgot to come in once.
3
Although
there is no earlier entry that documents Clarkes work on a choral composition, on
November 24 she wrote, Ive thought of an entirely new beginning for the choral thing I
am doing, and though it was half finished I have discarded it to do the new one, which
should be much better but is very hard to work out, and on January 1 she commented,
havent finished the choral thing yet, but shall!
4
Her enthusiasm for choral composition
continued and in February she wrote that she had started a choral thing in the new
Tagore words; have dropped the others for the present. Rather thrilled over this new
one.
5
Clarke then appears to have taken a break from her choral projects until
September 1926 when she wrote, Taking awful trouble over continuing my choral thing
on Keats Sleep, which I never finished. Im making troublesome alterations which I
may end by not using at all!!...
6
Sleep ultimately became a duet with piano
accompaniment, but no manuscripts for the other choral works Clarke mentioned have
been found. A few weeks later Clarke wrote, Ive finished a little part-song Weep you
no more, adapted from an old song of mine and its turned out quite nice.
7
Her
successful arrangement of Weep You No More seems to have motivated her to try another

2
Ibid., October 28, November 11 and 13, 1924.
3
Ibid., November 13, 1924.
4
Ibid., November 24, 1924 and January 1, 1925.
5
Ibid., February 17, 1925.
6
Ibid., September 15, 1926.
7
Ibid., September 29, 1926.


137
1
3
7

similar project, and a week later she wrote that she had made another part-song out of
Come, oh come, my lifes delight, just for practice. Jane Joseph is going to let me hear
them from a small chorus.
8
On October 22, Clarke wrote about this event: Had dinner
at Jane Josephs and she put a little choir together to let me hear my part-songs which I
thought were disappointing.
9
Despite Clarkes disappointment, the informal reading of
her part songs demonstrates the need for composers to hear their works performed by the
forces for which they are written, and although Clarke did not describe why her part
songs failed to meet her expectations, her observations may have benefitted later
compositions. Josephs dinner party also establishes Clarkes relationship with Joseph,
who was an active member of the Society of Women Musicians and was dedicated to
promoting the musical work of female colleagues. While Josephs dinner was not an
official gathering of the SWM, her willingness to sponsor this event in her home reveals
the depth of her commitment to women composers.
Weep You No More, Sad Fountains
Clarke composed a song setting of Weep You No More, Sad Fountains in 1912
and a choral arrangement fourteen years later. While the choral setting does not display
experimentation with new compositional techniques, it does confirm characteristics of
her mature style including parallel chords, octaves, pedal points, melodic neighbor-tone
figures, frequent and fluid metric changes, and chromaticism.
The amorous text is from John Dowlands Third and Last Booke of Songs or Aires
(1603) and contains two stanzas of eight lines each.
Weepe you no more sad fountaines, a 7
What need you flow so fast, b 6

8
Ibid., October 5, 1926.
9
Ibid., October 22, 1926.


138
1
3
8

Looke how the snowie mountains, a 7
Heavns sunne doth gently waste. c 6
But my sunnes heavnly eyes d 6
View not your weeping. e 5
That now lies sleeping e 5
Softly, softly, now softly lies sleeping. e 10

Sleepe is a reconciling, f 7
A rest that peace begets: g 6
Doth not the sunne rise smiling, f 7
When faire at evn he sets, g 6
Rest you, then rest sad eyes, d 6
Melt not in weeping, e 5
While she lies sleeping e 5
Softly, softly, now softly lies sleeping.
10
e 10
The song and choral settings each have one autograph source that includes
detailed dynamic and tempo markings. While the original choral manuscript was written
in strophic form with both verses of text under the same pitches, the second verse is
written out in the published Oxford edition. Both the song and choral publications
indicate that the text has been altered.
11
Most of the changes are matters of punctuation,
capitalization, and spelling, but the last line of each stanza omits Dowlands repetition of
the word softly.

10
John Dowland, The Third and Last Booke of Songs or Aires (New York: Performers
Facsimiles [1994]), 15.
11
Rebecca Clarke, Songs with Piano (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002);
Rebecca Clarke, Weep You No More, Sad Fountains (New York: Oxford University Press,
2003).


139
1
3
9

In both settings, frequent and fluid metric shifts between two- and three-beat
groupings enable important words or syllables to fall on strong beats. As examples 3.1
and 3.2 show, measures notated in o in the song setting are replaced with c in the choral
setting that uses only metric symbols with a quarter-note subdivision: , , and c.
Comparison of the first two phrases shows that the meter of mm. 4-5 in the song setting
is replaced by a single measure in c after which the measure numbers differ.
There are many similarities between the song and choral settings, and some of the
differences reveal that Clarke was attuned to the idiomatic characteristics of songs and
part songs. The songs melody is exactly preserved in the soprano part of the choral
setting, and much of the arrangement was created by revoicing piano chords, but
comparison of the first two phrases establishes both idiomatic differences and harmonic
changes. Measure one displays identical chords in both settings, and a progression from i
to VII between the first two chords is reminiscent of the beginning of He That Dwelleth
and demonstrates Clarkes continued use of parallel chords. In mm. 2-3 of example 3.1,
the piano drops out for two beats and the voice continues unaccompanied, and as
example 3.2 illustrates, Clarke maintained the single-pitch concept in the choral setting
by writing octaves between mens and womens voices, thereby maintaining textural and
harmonic contrast with surrounding chords.
Another change is evident in example 3.1 at m. 4/1 where a sustained chord in the
piano creates a bridge of sound between phrases one and two, while in the choral setting
a rest replaces the sustained chord, thus creating momentary silence between the
primarily homophonic first phrase and the staggered entrances that begin the second
phrase. Having observed Clarkes extensive use of imitative entrances particularly in
choral settings of Renaissance texts, the contrasting textures of Weep You No More, Sad
Fountains are not surprising. However, the lack of choral harmony in m. 4 eliminates the
progression N6Vi6 from the solo setting that includes a cross-relationship between B
and B.. In the song, the harmony continues in mm. 6-7 with iii6V/V, but in the choral


140
1
4
0

setting several chords were altered. Comparison of chords x and y demonstrates that the
B6 (ii6 ) and B major (V/V) chords are replaced by D minor (iv) and E major (V)
respectively. Also, while B major fills all of m. 7 in the song, a decorative ii7 at m. 6/2 in
the choral setting creates motion and harmonic interest. As comparison of the song and
part song demonstrates, the harmonic progression of the first period of the song is more
complex than that of the choral setting.



Example 3.1 Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-7




Example 3.2 - Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-6



141
1
4
1

The third phrase of the choral arrangement illustrates an idiomatic adaptation of
the original. Example 3.3 shows that m. 8 of the song contains cascading chords in the
right hand over an open fifth in the left hand, followed by a change of harmony and a
quasi-sequential repetition of the cascading chords in the next measure.



Example 3.3 Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-9




Example 3.4 - Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 7-9





142
1
4
2

In m. 7 of the part song shown in example 3.4, soprano and alto function as a pair,
taking on some of the pitches from the cascading right hand chords of the song, and in the
following measure the soprano continues with the solo melody and the alto follows in
parallel motion. Overlapping phrases also occur in m. 7 where the bass completes the
second phrase while the upper voices begin the third, and the pianos open-fifth drone is
replaced by a bass pedal point. Then in m. 9, tenor and bass voices are paired for an
ascending arpeggio that imitates the soprano/alto gesture in m. 8. While the dovetailed
phrases, paired voices, and imitative gestures of Weep You No More, Sad Fountains may
be observed in several of Clarkes choral works and particularly in settings of
Renaissance texts, octaves and pedal points are evidence of her mature style.
Simultaneous duple and triple rhythmsreminiscent of Philomela and He That
Dwellethcan be observed in both settings, but in the choral work, quarter-note triplets
are heard only in the soprano voice, while in the song setting they are heard in both the
voice and the piano. As a result, there are twice as many duple/triple contrasts in the song
setting.
Clarkes sensitivity to the idiomatic characteristics of songs and part songs is also
evident in registral contrasts and in the treatment of nonharmonic tones. The final four
measures of the song, shown in example 3.5, contain a vocal melody not unlike figures
seen in He That Dwelleth where upper and lower neighbor tones decorate a single pitch.
Simultaneously, the piano part rises above the voice and a two-and-one-half-octave
arpeggio in the penultimate measure creates a typically pianistic close to the piece.
Example 3.6 displays the same passage in the choral setting where soprano and
alto utter neighbor tones on alternate beats while singing sleeping, thereby creating a
rocking effect reminiscent of a lullaby. At the same time, the tenor and bass voices
contribute to the soporific effect through unique legato gestures. And, in contrast to the
expansive range of the piano in the final phrase, the choral voices remain within a single
octave until the final chord.


143
1
4
3

Example 3.5 Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 51-54





Example 3.6 Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 46-48




In addition to the musical techniques discovered through comparison of the song
and choral settings, several melodic and harmonic characteristics associated with
Clarkes mature style are noteworthy. Chromaticism is illustrated by the tenor and bass in


144
1
4
4

example 3.6, and the melodic outline of a diminished triad occurs in the tenor part in m. 8
of example 3.4. In keeping with Renaissance melodic style, leaps are often recovered by
stepwise motion in the opposite direction. The arpeggiated chords, shown in example 3.4,
are obvious exceptions, but the principle of balancing ascending and descending motion
remains.
Frequent altered chords and unexpected harmonic turns are additional signs of
Clarkes mature style. As example 3.7 shows, following a half cadence on E in m. 6, the
third phrase begins with a turn to the tonic major. However, the G minor chord in m. 8 is
not part of the major mode and its B. seems to suggest a Phrygian .2. The D major chord
of m. 9 functions as a subdominant chord in A major and an A major chord follows in m.
10. Then the progression F:BA suggests a dominant chain that should lead next to E,
A majors dominant, but V is replaced by .VI, a semitone higher than expected, and the
tonic provides harmonic closure in m. 13.
In this passage, altered chords provide unexpected timbral changes that highlight
specific words. For instance, the ascending G minor arpeggio in m. 8 creates a mysterious
mood that seems to suggest wonder or mystery in gazing at a snow-covered mountain.
Similarly, the nondiatonic sharps in the F: and B chords seem to musically depict the
brightness of the white snow when the sun begins to shine on the mountains. Then, the
unexpected F major chord creates a sense of harmonic release as C and F replace the C:
and F: of the previous three measures, thus emphasizing that the sun gently melts the
snow. The turn toward the tonic major in the third phrase reveals mode mixture, and the
coloristic use of triadic harmonies creates a powerful musical realization of the text.
Subtle tempo changes, such as the allargando in m. 12, also contribute to a highly
expressive representation of the text.
Although the choral setting of Weep You No More, Sad Fountains is rhythmically
and harmonically simpler than its model, the choral setting establishes Clarkes interest in
choral arranging and displays several idiomatic adaptations. Octaves replace


145
1
4
5

unaccompanied solo fragments; harmonies derived from the piano part join with the
melody to create vocal pairings; pianistic material that provides continuous motion
between phrases is replaced by phrase extensions or overlapping phrases; nonharmonic
tones, semitone motion, and brief chromatic passages lend interest to each part; and
imitation plays a larger role. Compared to the song, the choral setting displays fewer
simultaneous duple/triple rhythms, and several harmonic progressions have been
simplified.



Example 3.7 - Weep You No More, Sad Fountains by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 7-13



146
1
4
6

Weep You No More, Sad Fountains is stylistically significant because many of the
techniques found in He That Dwelleth are also present in this arrangement. Although
Weep You No More contains no divisi and is significantly shorter, both compositions
include parallel chords, octaves, pedal points, melodic neighbor-tone figures,
chromaticism, unexpected harmonic turns, duple/triple rhythms, and frequent metric
changes.
Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight
Clarke composed Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight within a week of Weep You
No More, Sad Fountains. In both arrangements the melody lies in the soprano, but Come,
Oh Come differs from its model in key, tempo, register, and texture. Furthermore, while
several harmonies in the song setting of Weep You No More were changed in its choral
setting, the harmonies in the song setting of Come, Oh Come are retained in its choral
version.
Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight is an SATB arrangement of a text by Thomas
Campion from his Third and Fourth Books of Ayres (?1617). Each of two stanzas
contains six lines of six to eight syllables with end rhyme ababcc, dedeff, and the Oxford
editions reflect changes in capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
Come, O come my lifes delight; 7
Let me not in languor, pine: 7
Love loves no delay: thy sight, 7
The more enjoyd, the more divine. 8
O come and take from mee 6
The paine of being deprivd of thee. 8
Thou all sweetnesse dost enclose, 7
Like a little world of blisse: 7
Beauty guards thy lookes, the Rose 7


147
1
4
7

In them pure and eternall is. 8
Come then and make thy flight 6
As swift to me as heavnly light.
12
8
When Clarke composed a song setting of this text in 1923, she wrote, Finished a
short song: Come, oh come, my lifes delight that I had started a day or two ago. Trying
to write absolutely simply for a bit of practice.
13
In comparison to Clarkes Seal Man
or Binnorie, her song setting of Campions text is undoubtedly simple, but the goal of
simplicity does not imply a lack of musical interest.
In both Weep You No More and Come, O Come the soprano carries the melody,
but tenor, alto, and bass voices also play a minor melodic role in Come, O Come by
singing arpeggiosoriginally in the piano partthat connect one phrase to the next.
Example 3.8 shows the tenor arpeggio that connects the second and third phrases.



Example 3.8 Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 11-13



12
Thomas Campion, The Third and Fourth Booke of Ayres: So as they may be expressed
by one Voyce, with a Violl, Lute, or Orpharion (New York: Performers Facsimiles, [1995]), 23.
13
Clarke, Diary, November 23, 1923.


148
1
4
8

Despite idiomatic differences, the part song retains the essential melodic gestures.
The most important melodic element is the appoggiatura motive which is shown in the
soprano, alto, and bass of example 3.9. As the bass appoggiatura sounds one measure
after the soprano, the ascent in both tenor and alto from m. 3/3 to 4/1 and a complete
appoggiatura in the alto emphasize the motivic importance of the ascending skip within
the appoggiatura gesture. The escape tone in the alto voice in m. 2 has the same contour
as the appoggiatura motive, but the step and skip are reversed, and the alto voice in m. 1
illustrates the chromatic motion occasionally found in the inner voices of Come, Oh
Come. In My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark and Philomela, a specific motive is associated
with the winding river and the nightingale respectively, and in He That Dwelleth, the
despair motive recurs to communicate the presence of evil. While the appoggiatura
motive of Come, Oh Come plays a prominent melodic role throughout the composition, it
does not seem to portray a singular image, but rather conveys a more general sense of
longing.



Example 3.9 Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-4




149
1
4
9

The last two phrases of Come, Oh Come display a series of ascending skips that
propel phrases to their climactic pitches, a technique also observed in He That Dwelleth.
Example 3.10 shows the soprano part in the third and fourth phrases; the first two skips
are a minor third and a perfect fourth. Then, the next ascent begins one whole step lower
and outlines an E. triad on the way to C, and the fourth and final phrase begins with yet a
larger ascending skip from F to D. As in the second period of He That Dwelleth (ex.
2.35), the melody in mm. 13-18 of Come, O Come exemplifies developing variation
through increasingly large ascending skips. However, as the melodic ascent continues in
the fourth phrase, a perfect fourth follows in m. 19 and is sequentially repeated in mm.
20-21 as the melody reaches its highest pitch. In each case, descending motion follows
the ascending skip. The fundamental motive in phrases three and four contains an
ascending skip followed by descending motion. The construction of melody in phrases
three and four can be understood as the application of developing variation to the basic
appoggiatura motive, which pervades the first phrase and is present throughout the piece.



Example 3.10 Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 12/3-24




While the choral setting preserves many aspects of the song, there are also several
significant differences. In the song, the rhapsodic piano part freely moves above the vocal
line creating a countermelody, but no such parallel is found in the choral arrangement,


150
1
5
0

and although the song exploits the full registral potential of the piano, the part song has a
narrower range in which the voices often function in close position. The timbre is also
strikingly different not only because of the difference in forces but also because the song
begins in A Mixolydian while the choral arrangement begins one half-step lower. The
choice of a flat key suggests that Clarke may have wanted to create a mellower mood for
the choral arrangement, but while the tempo of the song is marked In moderately slow
time, the choral work is surprisingly marked Allegro. In addition, the meter of the
original has been replaced by in the choral setting. The combination of meter and a
moderately slow tempo suggest a more expansive concept while the meter and Allegro
tempo imply a lilting quality with one pulse per measure. Furthermore, the narrower
range of the choral setting combined with the darker timbre of A. seems to create a sense
of hushed excitement and intimacy, while the large register, full piano chords, and bright
sharp key of the song give the impression of a lovers extroverted elation.
In contrast to the frequent metric changes and complex rhythms that characterize
the previous two choral compositions, Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight maintains
meter throughout and contains no simultaneous duple/triple rhythms. Instead, Come, Oh
Come contains rhythms common to compositions, and . occurs in at least one voice in
almost every measure. Rhythmic variety is introduced in the melody at the end of the
second line, where after six measures of ., the rhythm is reversed to . at the word
languor.



Figure 3.1 Come, O Come, My Lifes Delight Rhythm, mm. 1-8

Come, O come my lifes de-light; Let me not in lan-guor, pine:
. . . . . . . .





151
1
5
1

Ties also create metric and rhythmic variety by negating the downbeat and
emphasizing beats two or three, as the alto and tenor voices of example 3.11 illustrate.



Example 3.11 Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-9




Offset rhythms in the inner voices in mm. 8-9 interrupt the strong, single pulse per
measure, and with diminuendo and calando, help the phrase to die down. Throughout the
piece, subtle tempo changes ease the transitions between phrases and reveal Clarkes
expressive response to the text, suggesting a supple give-and-take in the tempo. Phrases
of varying lengths seem to convey the sense that there is adequate time to express all that
needs to be communicated in order to persuade the beloved.
Shifts in tonal center also seem to underscore the meaning of the text and reveal a
large-scale harmonic plan. Each stanza in this modified strophic form begins in A. and
concludes in B.. The A. key area is initially associated with the lovers invitation,
Come, oh come, my lifes delight, and implies longing and desire.






152
1
5
2

Figure 3.2 Come, O Come, My Lifes Delight Cadences, mm. 1-24
m. 1 4 11 17 18 24
A.: I HC HC B.: V/VVI PAC



A harmonic transition begins in m. 13 with the text Thy sight the more enjoyed
the more divine, as the dream of being with the beloved becomes more tangible and the
lover seems compelled to continue his quest. By m. 18, as the final phrase of the stanza
begins, B. is established as the new key area, and the harmonic journey to B. seems to
parallel a psychological journey from longing and a vision of contentment with the
beloved to the confident knowledge that all pain will cease when they are together.
The second stanza begins like the first in A., but after the first half cadence, the
harmony moves toward a tonicization of A as the text refers to the beloveds sweetness
that is like a world of bliss.



Figure 3.3 Come, O Come, My Lifes Delight Cadences, mm. 26-50
m. 26 29 33 34 - 37 38 - 43 44 50
A.: I HC A: AC tonic. of G fm: HC B.: I PAC



Then, to amplify the personification of beauty, the music continues with a tonicization of
G major. Smooth voice leading accommodates movement from G major to F minor, and
following a half cadence, B. returns for the final phrase.
The harmonic progression in the second stanza from A. to A and G seems to
parallel the protagonists inspired vision of the beloveds beauty as a world of perfection;
the music literally rises from a flat key to sharp keys. Then, the arrival in B. marks the
completion of the journey, and confirms that the beloveds presence will bring
contentment. Clarkes song Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight, composed eleven years


153
1
5
3

later than Weep You No More, Sad Fountains, contains a more complex harmonic plan
that is maintained in the choral arrangement.
In conclusion, although Come, Oh Come is rhythmically and metrically simpler
than He That Dwelleth and Weep You No More, a large-scale harmonic plan in which key
areas are associated with specific ideas demonstrates Clarkes ability to emphasize the
dramatic progression of the text. Clarkes application of developing variation to an
appoggiatura motive displays her ability to unify the composition through varied
repetition of a fundamental melodic gesture while chromaticism in the inner voices
creates dynamic tension that expresses longing. In addition, asymmetrical phrases within
a modified strophic form convey a sense of formal freedom, and detailed dynamic and
tempo markings communicate the subtleties of Clarkes expressive intent.
There is No Rose
While Weep You No More, Sad Fountains and Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight
display Clarkes continued interest in part song composition as well as her interest in
choral arranging, There is No Rose (1928) is unique among Clarkes choral output as the
only arrangement of a melody composed by someone else, the only setting of an English
carol, and the only composition specifically designated for male voices. In There is No
Rose, Clarke created metric variety and a continuous musical fabric through the use of
ties and overlapping phrases. She avoided too-frequent cadences implied by arch-shaped
phrases, and designed a large-scale dramatic plan that progresses from soft dynamics and
monophonic textures to loud dynamics and full five-part harmony.
There is No Rose is an arrangement of an anonymous fifteenth-century English
carol for ATBB male voices and baritone soloist. Clarkes autograph contains detailed
dynamics and articulations; additional dynamics and a revision of the final three
measures were added in pencil. While the original text contains five stanzas, Clarkes


154
1
5
4

setting includes only the first, second and fourth stanzas. A modernized version as it
appears in Clarkes manuscript is included here.
There is no rose of such virtue a
As is the rose that bore Jesu. b
Alleluia. c

For in this rose contained was d
Heaven and earth in little space. e
Resmiranda. f

The angels singen the shepherds to: g
Gloria in excelsis Deo. h
Gaudeamus!
14
i
In the Oxford Book of Carols, Ther is no rose of swych vertu begins with a
refrain that is a setting of the first two lines of English text, lines a and b.
15
Verse one
follows with a repetition of a and b, and concludes with the Latin, Alleluia. The refrain
would then be sung following each verse, creating the line scheme ababc, abdef, abghi...
Clarke, however, took the structure ababc and applied it to each stanza, thus creating the
line scheme ababc, dedef, ghghi. Musically, the setting is in modified strophic form with
three sections per stanza A (ab), B (ab), C (c). The melody remains the same throughout
the composition, but the treatment of the A and B sections varies significantly from

14
Rebecca Clarke, There is No Rose (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003);
Hugh Keyte and Andrew Parrott, eds., The New Oxford Book of Carols (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1992), 82-83. In The New Oxford Book of Carols Resmiranda is translated as a
wonderful thing, and Gaudeamus is translated as let us rejoice.
15
Keyte and Parrott, eds. New Oxford Book of Carols, 82-83.


155
1
5
5

stanza to stanza. In contrast, the C section, altered only in its final appearance, functions
as a musical refrain.
The arch-shaped phrases of the preexisting medieval melody emphasize 1 and 5,
and tonic or dominant harmony is frequently implied at cadences. In contrast to Clarkes
other mature choral compositions and in response to the simplicity of the source material,
there is very little chromaticism. The only chromatic passage is in the bass in mm. 32-35.



Example 3.12 There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 32-35, bass




There is No Rose is a study in varied textures and overlapping phrases. As
example 3.13 shows, after the soloist sings the first two phrases, alto, tenor, and baritone
voices enter pppp in unison, repeating the melody just sung by the soloist while the
soloist begins a repetition of the text with new melodic material. Solo and choral phrases
overlap, thus creating an ongoing musical fabric, and avoiding the tonic and dominant
harmonic stops that would otherwise occur if all voices concluded phrases together.
Contrasts between unison and harmony supply much of the textural interest in the
first stanza. A two-part texture exists between the soloist and unison choir from m. 10
until the end of the English text in m. 17 where each voice becomes independent in order
to facilitate an authentic cadence. As example 3.14 shows, the bass enters for the first
time in m. 19 creating four-part choral harmony for the Latin Alleluia. After several
measures of four-part harmony, however, a unison texture returns in m. 22 and the first
stanza concludes pianissimo.



156
1
5
6

Example 3.13 There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 8-15





Example 3.14 There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 17-24






157
1
5
7

In the second stanza, imitation governs the structure of the A and B sections and
each part displays the equality and independence typical of Renaissance polyphony. The
soloist begins the first point of imitation, and choral voices enter on subsequent
downbeats. As example 3.15 illustrates, after increasing to five voices, the texture
suddenly changes in m. 35 where the soloist begins a second point of imitation while two
voices extend the previous phrase. Then in mm. 38-40, baritone, second tenor, and first
tenor imitate the soloists melodic motive from m. 35, but assert leadership of this
imitative point by introducing new text. Comparison of the baritone, second tenor, and
first tenor in mm. 38-40 also shows that the imitation is slightly varied, and in m. 39 the
baritone soloist actually imitates the bass motive that begins at m. 38/3. Except for a
change of text and a louder dynamic, the C phrase that follows is an exact repetition of
the first C section. Thus, in the second stanza as in the first, repetition of the melody
maintains continuity with the previous stanza while a louder dynamic palette and
imitative treatment of the A and B sections creates variety.



Example 3.15 There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 35-40



158
1
5
8

Following the soft, unison close of the second stanza, the final stanza seems to
explode with a full, five-voice texture and f dynamic. Stanza three is the loudest stanza
and incorporates all of the textures observed in the other stanzas. While stanza one relies
upon contrasts between unison and harmony as well as the delayed bass entrance, and
stanza two is heavily imitative, stanza three incorporates all of these techniques. The
increasing amount of textural interest from stanza one to three parallels a large-scale
crescendo from pppp in stanza one to ff in stanza three. Although the first stanza begins
with a single unaccompanied voice and includes a dynamic range from pppp to mp, and
the second stanza moves between p and mf, the full texture of the third stanza remains
between f and ff until a final diminuendo to ppp. As example 3.16 displays, accents are
employed in the third stanza in mm. 61-63 to emphasize the imitative Gloria motive
that contrasts with the legato Gloria motive in the bass and solo lines. In the bass part
of m. 64, accents are used for a different reason, to emphasize the 51 motion that
anchors an authentic cadence at the conclusion of the B section.



Example 3.16 There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 61-65



159
1
5
9

Although section C is musically identical in stanzas one and two, in stanza three,
the soloist and bass participate. As example 3.17 shows, the unisons with which stanzas
one and two conclude are altered at the conclusion of the final stanza. Clarkes
manuscript shows that stanza three originally ended like the first two, but she later wrote
a harmonized ending that includes the only Neapolitan sixth chord of the composition,
thus creating an unexpected and harmonically interesting conclusion.



Example 3.17 There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 69-71




Harmonic interest is not limited to the final Gaudeamus of stanza three, but is
also evident in the more complex harmonies that parallel the louder dynamic and more
diverse textures found in the final stanza. As example 3.18 displays, the melody is sung
by the baritone soloist and bass section at the beginning of stanza three while the other


160
1
6
0

voices sing a harmonized version of the C-section rhythm .. . . . in the upper range. In
fact, the first tenor concludes the first phrase with a high C:.



Example 3.18 There is No Rose by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 48-57



161
1
6
1

The greater harmonic complexity of stanza three is perhaps best illustrated by the
tonicization of the dominant in the imitative Gloria that follows, the only tonicization
in the entire piece. In stanza three, the louder dynamic, thicker and more varied textures,
use of the upper range, and more complex harmonies coalesce to create the expressive
climax of the piece in response to the text, Gloria in excelsis Deo. Gaudeamus!
16

Among the three choral arrangements, There is No Rose is unique because it
shows Clarkes response to a melody she did not design, and within her complete choral
output, it is one of three sacred works, the only setting of an English carol, and the only
sacred work for mens voices. Throughout the composition, concern for both variety and
unity is evident. A modified strophic form ensures continuity among the stanzas while
harmonic, textural, and dynamic changes create variety and enable a dramatic setting of
the text.
As far as is currently known, Clarke did not compose choral music again until
1937 when she turned for the first time to music for womens voices. There is no external
documentation that explains why Clarke became interested in composing music for
womens voices in the late 1930s, but since she had already composed music for mens
and mixed voices, perhaps she wanted to explore the timbral and registral potential of
unaccompanied treble voices. Clarke dedicated much of her attention during the 1930s to
the English Ensemble, the all-woman piano quartet founded by Clarke and her friend,
May Mukle. As Clarke matured and continued to observe the challenges women
musicians faced, she may have wanted to contribute music that would expand the
repertoire of womens choirs, and thereby encourage womens musical activities.
Clarkes final two complete choral works, Ave Maria and Chorus from Shelleys
Hellas, are for womens voices.

16
Glory to God in the highest. Let us rejoice.


162
1
6
2

Choral Works for Womens Voices: 1937-1944
Ave Maria
Clarkes first composition for womens voices is Ave Maria (1937?), a three-part
setting of the Marian prayer from the Roman Rite. During the sixth century, the Ave
Maria included only the Annunciation text from Luke 1:28. A second part, containing
Elizabeths words to Mary from Luke 1:42, was added around the twelfth century, and a
third sectiona prayer petition to Marydates from the fifteenth century.
17
The
standard text as it appeared in the Roman Breviary (1568) is shown in the left column.
Clarke, however, set a somewhat unusual form of the Ave Maria in which the third
section contains some changes and additions shown in italics. Although the source of the
variant text shown in the right column is not identified in standard chant resources, the
Renaissance composers Josquin des Prez, Francisco Guerrero, and Toms Luis de
Victoria also set the extended version of the text.
Ave Maria, gratia plena:
Dominus tecum,
benedicta tu in mulieribus,
et benedictus fructus ventris tui, Jesus.
Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, Sancta Maria, Regina Coeli,
dulcis et pia, O Mater Dei.
ora pro nobis peccatoribus, ora pro nobis peccatoribus,
nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen. ut cum electis te videamus.
18


17
Ron Jeffers, Translations and Annotations of Choral Repertoire, Volume 1: Sacred
Latin Texts (Corvallis, OR: Earthsongs, 1988), 100.
18 Ibid. The text Clarke set is translated: Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with Thee.
Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Queen of
heaven, sweet and holy, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, so that with the saints we may see
thee.


163
1
6
3

Clarke also repeated several phrases of text. Ora pro nobis peccatoribus is heard
three times, with peccatoribus omitted on the third repetition, and te videamus is
repeated once. In both cases, repetition serves an expressive purpose. As example 3.19
shows, dynamic tension increases as the first statement of ora pro nobis peccatoribus is
repeated sequentially one half-step higher. Then, the final repetition begins not with the
empty octaves of the first two statements, but with staggered entrances and different
melodic material in each voice.



Example 3.19 Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 27-35




Dramatic intensification results not only from sequential repetition and textural
expansion, but also from dynamic changes. While a ppp dynamic is to be maintained


164
1
6
4

throughout the first statement of ora pro nobis peccatoribus, the second phrase begins
slightly louder and includes a crescendo and diminuendo. Then, espressivo and a
crescendo to f in m. 36 combined with a more expansive texture and varied melodic
material, make the third statement the most intense.
Clarke was not only sensitive to the expressive potential of repeated text, but also
to the traditional three-part division of the text. The division between parts one and two is
highlighted through a fermata on the final half note of m. 7, after which the second part
begins with a new tempo, poco pi animato. In contrast, the juncture between parts two
and three is marked by silence. Example 3.20 shows that part two concludes with
homophonic, pianissimo half notes and a bright, D major chord. Following two beats of
silence, notated as a single measure of , part three begins with a different dynamic,
register, texture, and tonality. The new texture at m. 18 is imitative, the first soprano
begins high in the range, and the dynamic for each entrance is mezzo forte. In addition,
the F Mixolydian scale with its E. and B. contrast harmonically with the preceding D
major chord.



Example 3.20 Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 16-19






165
1
6
5

The melodic motive observed in m. 18 in the first soprano first appears in m. 1
and is important throughout the composition. The General Instruction of the Roman
Missal states that during the Roman Catholic Mass, it is customary to bow the head in
reverence whenever the Blessed Virgin Mary is named,
19
and Clarke musically
embedded the gesture of reverence in the descending melodic structure of the primary
motive.
The primary motive, shown in m. 1 of example 3.21, consists of three descending
pitches with the rhythm .., and the exact and varied repetition of the primary motive in
the first period establishes its importance and prepares the listener to recognize its return
later in the composition. In mm. 3-4, nonharmonic tones and a different harmonic
progression create a modified version of the first two measures, while in mm. 3 and 5 the
motive is repeated without change in the highest voice.



Example 3.21 Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-7





19
James Patrick Moroney, General Instruction of the Roman Missal (Washington, D.C.:
United States Catholic Conference, Inc., 2003), under Some General Norms for All Forms of
Mass, http://www.nccbuscc.org/liturgy/current /GIRM.pdf.


166
1
6
6

Melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic variations of the .. motive demonstrate
developing variation, a technique also observed in He That Dwelleth and Come, Oh
Come. In the upper two voices, the descent in m. 1 is stepwise, and each part contains
either two major seconds or a major second followed by a minor second. The latter
combination is also found in the first soprano and alto in mm. 18 and 19 respectively (ex.
3.20), in m. 33 (ex. 3.19), and in the soprano voices in m. 36. As example 3.22 shows, m.
36 is both rhythmically and gesturally similar to m. 1, but the pitch content in the first
soprano and alto has been changed. The motive also appears rhythmically altered in m.
40, where the initial is replaced by ; ., but the pitches are identical to those in m. 1.



Example 3.22 Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 36-42




Variety is also achieved through the use of different pitch centers and scales. The
first period, shown in example 3.21, relies upon the A minor scale, and the second period
turns toward F Mixolydian. The final period, shown in example 3.22, begins with the F
Mixolydian scale, suggests F Lydian at m. 37/4, and returns to A minor for the final
phrase with a brief allusion to A Phrygian at m. 40/3. Examples 3.21 and 3.22
demonstrate Clarkes continued use of modal scales and shifts between related scales.


167
1
6
7

Although Clarke incorporated Romantic and post-tonal materials in her mature anthem,
He That Dwelleth, the arrangements of the 1920s and the Ave Maria of the 1930s show
that she had not abandoned modal materials.
In generating ideas for an Ave Maria, modal materials may have seemed
particularly appropriate to Clarke as she approached a traditional, sacred text with a long
history. By adopting modal scales, homophonic and imitative textures, and a version of
the text used by Renaissance composers, she continued a long tradition of church
composition. Similarly, stepwise motion, many small skips, and recovery of skips by step
in the opposite direction demonstrate Renaissance melodic style. Skips a perfect fourth or
larger appear primarily between phrases and in dramatic passages. For instance, example
3.23 shows the end of the first period and the beginning of the second period where
Clarkes modernist freedom is evident as all voices descend a major sixth to begin the
new phrase.



Example 3.23 Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 7-8




Repeated pitches, also common in Clarkes mature compositions, occur in m. 8
and several times throughout the piece, perhaps as an allusion to chant. As previously


168
1
6
8

discussed, repeated pitches are particularly prominent in mm. 27-32, shown in example
3.19. Notably, phrases that contain a series of repeated pitches are consistently marked
with soft dynamics, and the resulting lack of harmonic activity contributes to a sense of
reverent stillness.
Tranquility is also achieved partly through homophony, the dominant texture
throughout the composition. Two phrases, however, begin with a contrasting imitative
texture (mm. 11 and 18), while staggered, non-imitative entrances occur once (ex. 3.19,
m. 33). Example 3.24 exemplifies Clarkes textural procedure in Ave Maria where,
following imitative entrances, all voices continue with a homophonic texture.



Example 3.24 Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 11-17




A third way in which Clarke creates a tranquil mood is through similar motion.
As example 3.25 shows, all voices move in similar motion in m. 1 and planing occurs
between two chords on beats 3 and 4. Similar motion is interrupted only by a
suspension at m. 2/1, and the resolving G: completes the melodic motion from the .2:
typical of a harmonic progression involving the Neapolitan chord. Notably, the first two
measures include harmonic planing, repeated pitches, and an octave, all of which are
characteristic both of Ave Maria and of Clarkes mature compositional style.


169
1
6
9

Example 3.25 - Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-2




Ave Maria also displays many transitions between third-related chords, a
Romantic device and another sign of Clarkes mature style. Example 3.23 shows
movement from an A major chord to a C major chord, which includes a cross-
relationship. Similarly, example 3.24 shows another cross-relationship at the end of the
second period where a D major chord follows an F major chord, and smooth voice
leading creates a sense of cohesion between unrelated chords: one pitch moves by
semitone, another by two semitones, and the third maintains a common tone.
Third-related chords, similar motion, planing, and octaves augment a tonal
harmonic plan. On the large scale, Ave Maria ends as it began in the tonic key, and the
first and final phrases are nearly identical, but several internal phrases in F Mixolydian
illustrate Clarkes preference for the lowered . Altered chords are also found in mm. 7,
16, and 29 where phrases conclude with nondiatonic major chords from sharp keys. The
Neapolitan chord also lends aural interest to Ave Maria in mm. 1, 3, and 40. As example
3.21 shows, mm. 1-2 contain a nearly standard iN
6
Vi progression, but the Neapolitan
chord occurs in second inversion and a second-inversion i follows. The Neapolitan chord


170
1
7
0

occurs again in m. 3, but similar motion and chromatic voice leading lead to a secondary
Neapolitan chord that strengthens the tonicization of VII, a more sophisticated harmonic
progression. Beginning with Music, When Soft Voices Die and continuing in There is No
Rose and Ave Maria, Clarke expanded her harmonic palette by using the Neapolitan
chord.
The dramatic use of silence observed in Music, When Soft Voices Die is also
found in Ave Maria. In Music, When Soft Voices Die, a rest following the initial music
captures the listeners attention, and in Ave Maria, repeated pitches, open octaves, and
lengthy rests create reflective space. Since Ave Maria is a standard Roman Catholic text,
it is likely that Clarke envisioned performance in a reverberant cathedral where a
predominantly homophonic texture and an Andante tempo would promote harmonic
clarity and intelligible text. Lengthy rests provide time for the sound to decay, establish
dramatic contrasts between sound and silence, and clarify the phrase structure. Example
3.20 displays one of the most obvious insertions of silence where a single measure of
delineates the end of the second section and the beginning of the third. Alternatively,
Clarke used fermatas to create silence between phrases (ex. 3.19), thus setting apart the
three statements of ora pro nobis peccatoribus. The indefinite length of silence
indicated by fermatas complements Clarkes vision for a flexible tempo communicated
through markings such as poco pi animato, allargando, and ritardando.
Ave Maria is Clarkes only choral work for which external documentation
suggests a public performance. Manuscript materials were found in 1997 among the
papers of Henry Washington who began a thirty-six-year career as Director of Music at
the London Oratory in 1935.
20
In The London Oratory Centenary 1884-1984,

20
Henry Washington, The Oratory Musical Tradition, in The London Oratory
Centenary 1884-1984, ed. Michael Napier and Alistair Laing (London: Trefoil Books, 1984), 152
and 171.


171
1
7
1

Washingtons chapter, The Oratory Musical Tradition, establishes his acquaintance
with Kathleen Long whom he described as a distinguished pianist and renowned
interpreter of Mozart.
21
Long played with Clarke during the 1930s in the highly-
regarded piano quartet, the English Ensemble. In an undated letter to Washington, Long
asked him to consider performing Clarkes Ave Maria at the London Oratory.
22
The
following letter establishes Washingtons interest in Ave Maria as well as Clarkes
revisions and creation of parts. The parts and revised manuscript to which Clarke refers
were also found among Washingtons papers and are now part of the British Librarys
music collection.
July 29
th

Dear Mr. Washington
Here are the parts of my little Ave Maria6 first, 6 second
sopranos, and 4 altos, which I think is what you said you would
want. I also send a score, because I have made some very slight
changes just at the end, which will be different from the score that
I believe you have at present.
Im so delighted that you would like to do it, and Im longing
to hear your lovely choir in it.
Perhaps when you do you will let Kathleen Long know, as I
believe you see her sometimes and she will tell me.
I hope your party the other day was a great success!
Yours very sincerely,
Rebecca Clarke
P.S. If you find the key too low, you could get them to sing it
higher couldnt you?
23


21
Ibid., 152.
22
Kathleen Long to Henry Washington, British Library, MS MUS 1694.
23
Rebecca Clarke to Henry Washington, British Library, MS MUS 1694.


172
1
7
2

No other primary source information has been found documenting a performance;
however, it is likely that the Oratory choir performed Clarkes Ave Maria in the late
1930s. During this period, the London Oratory published music lists only during Lent,
and their records do not include a comprehensive list of works performed. Nonetheless,
Washingtons interest in performing Ave Maria is concrete affirmation of Clarkes
compositional achievement. When the Musical Director position at the Oratory was
vacated, several clergymen from the Oratory sought out Henry Washington because of
his expert knowledge of sixteenth-century polyphony and reformed chant.
24
His Oratory
choir of the 1930s was composed of boy sopranos and male altos, so Clarke
understandably crossed out the original, For 3-part Womens Voices, from the title
page and replaced it with for 2 sopranos and alto.
25

Example 3.26 shows the autograph score and example 3.27 shows the revised
autograph score to which Clarke referred in her letter to Washington. As comparison of
mm. 37-39 shows, in the revised score Clarke replaced a G major chord at m. 37/4 with a
D minor chord, simply exchanging beat-three pitches in the second soprano and alto. The
same voices exchange pitches on beat four of the following measure and continue in m.
39 with another voice exchange. While only one harmony is actually changed, the voice
exchanges create more activity in m. 39, suggesting that Clarke may have thought that
moving quarter notes better maintained the climactic impetus through the accented
syllable of videamus.
Two autograph scores were in Clarkes possession at the time of her death. The
Oxford edition follows the original and the second autograph includes the revision of
mm. 37-39. The date 1937 was added in pencil to the title page of the revised version,

24
Washington, Oratory Musical Tradition, 152.
25
Ibid., 153. Description of the choirs membership; Rebecca Clarke, Ave Maria,
British Library MS MUS 1694. The MS shows changes to the title page.


173
1
7
3

and at the bottom of the third and final page, Clarke added 1937?. It is likely that
Clarke added both dates in 1976 while cataloguing her works with Christopher Johnson.



Example 3.26 Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, original MS, mm. 36-39


Excerpt mm. 36-39 from Rebecca Clarke, Ave Maria. Copyright 2004, Christopher Johnson. Used by permission.



Example 3.27 Ave Maria by Rebecca Clarke, revised MS, mm. 36-39



Excerpt mm. 36-39 from Rebecca Clarke, Ave Maria. Copyright 2004, Christopher Johnson. Used by permission.


174
1
7
4

Chorus from Shelleys Hellas
While approximately six years separates the composition of Clarkes choral works
for womens voices, both compositions begin in A minor with a descending melody that
moves from E
5
to A
4
. However, Clarke composed Ave Maria in England before World
War II and Chorus from Shelleys Hellas (1943?) in the United States near the end of
the war. Her response to the war is reflected in her choice of Shelleys text that envisions
deliverance from tyrannical rule, and post-tonal techniques may have seemed the ideal
vehicle to communicate Shelleys revolutionary ideas.
Clarkes final complete choral work is a setting of an excerpt from Percy Bysshe
Shelleys lyrical drama, Hellas (1821). Clarke set a section of the text assigned to
semichorus two, which occurs near the end of the drama. The chorus begins with images
of daylight fading, night beginning, and the rise of the evening star, Hesperus. At line
eleven, the narrative voice changes when the chorus addresses Hesperus, Thou beacon
of love! thou lamp of the free! In the rest of the stanza, the chorus pleads with Hesperus
to lead them to a pure paradise sinless as Eden.
The young moon has fed
Her exhausted horn,
With the sunsets fire:
The weak day is dead,
But the night is not born;
And, like loveliness panting with wild desire
While it trembles with fear and delight,
Hesperus flies from awakening night,
And pants in its beauty and speed with light
Fast-flashing, soft, and bright.
Thou beacon of love! thou lamp of the free!
Guide us far, far away,


175
1
7
5

To climes where now veiled by the ardor of day
Thou art hidden
From waves on which weary Noon,
Faints in her summer swoon,
Between kingless continents sinless as Eden,
Around mountains and islands inviolably
Prankt by the sapphire sea.
26

Shelley tried to expose tyranny and shape popular thought and action through his
writings. He wrote Hellas in 1821 while in Pisa and was keenly aware of the tensions
between foreign powers who sought to control Italy and indigenous revolutionaries who
sought the unification and independence of Italy. He also sympathized with supporters of
the Greek Revolution because he revered Greece as the birthplace of modern
civilization.
27
Just as Shelley was sympathetic to the Greek cause and to all who fought
for liberty in the nineteenth century, Clarke supported the Allied forces in the twentieth
century and expressed pride in her German relatives who openly opposed Hitler.
28

Clarkes Observations, written while working as a nanny, also demonstrate her thoughts
and feelings about the war.
159. Weeding: I cant help thinking of Hitler and Jews. Makes me
want to pull out dahlias and give the weeds a chance.
200. Sometimes, I think, there will always be war, when I see the
children in the sand-pile. Thats mine! No it isnt! Well, it
used to be! But its mine now, Mummy give it to me. Well
then Ill break your castles.
29


26
Percy Bysshe Shelley, Hellas: A Lyrical Drama, http://www.onlineliterature.com
/shelley_percy/compete-works-of-shelley/16/.

27
Ibid.
28
Clarke, I Had a Father, Too, 65.
29
Clarke, Observations, nos. 159 and 200.


176
1
7
6

Clarkes personal struggle doing non-musical work for the first time in her life,
separation from dear friends and colleagues in England, and the combat deaths of former
RCM classmates may also have deepened her anger at the injustice and wastefulness of
war. Of the two autograph scores that were in Clarkes possession at the time of her
death, one was dated 1943? and the other 1944? While Clarke may have added these
dates in pencil in 1976, both dates confirm that she remembered composing Chorus
during World War II.
Given the circumstances surrounding the creation of the text and the music, it is
not surprising that Chorus from Shelleys Hellas displays greater reliance on post-tonal
materials than any of Clarkes previous choral works. While tonal harmony embraces a
hierarchy that assigns the greatest power to the tonic and dominant and defines
parameters for acceptable harmonic progressions, post-tonal music embraces greater
freedom. It is likely that Clarke used post-tonal techniques in order to create a musical
representation of the themes of liberation and freedom that underlie the text. For instance,
chords primarily result from linear movement rather than from a superimposed harmonic
progression, but as the first phrase illustrates, tonic and dominant pitches function as
harmonic pillars to delineate phrases despite nonfunctional harmonic movement within
phrases.
As example 3.28 shows, linear voice leading can be observed within the first four
measures where at least one common tone is preserved from one chord to the next, and
stepwise motion is prevalent. In addition, major, minor or diminished seventh chords
occur in most measures and create different harmonic colors that seem to suggest shifting
moods. Similarly, diminished and major chords like those in mm. 2/24/1 are frequently
juxtaposed, thus emphasizing the unique color of each. Seventh chords are not only
important for the harmonic colors they create, but also because the presence of many
unrelated seventh chords undermines a sense of tonal progression. Second-inversion
triads, also common in Chorus, further weaken functional harmonic progression.


177
1
7
7

Example 3.28 Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-8




In the soprano voices in mm. 5-6, planing occurs between root-position triads and
chords while the lowest voice moves in contrary motion. Although planing weakens tonal
progression, a N
6
and Ger.
+6
strengthen the cadential progression. Clarke used Neapolitan


178
1
7
8

and augmented sixth chords sparingly in her choral compositions, and Neapolitan chords
are found only in Music, When Soft Voices Die and in her last three choral works. It
seems likely that she used Neapolitan and augmented sixth chords in mm. 5-6 to create
harmonic color that would heighten the expressive impact of sunsets fire.
Octaves, common in Clarkes mature choral works, mark the beginning of the
second phrase in m. 8, but octaves play a less prominent role in Chorus than in many of
Clarkes choral works. Octaves occur only in mm. 8 and 92, and in both cases, the pitch
is A. In example 3.29, the tempo, dynamic, sostenuto instruction, and harmonies mimic
the beginning of the piece and demonstrate Clarkes vision for an understated return of
the initial material. The example also shows that the previous phrase concludes in m. 91
with a dominant, E major triad, and illustrates that A and E remain important harmonic
pillars throughout the composition.



Example 3.29 Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 89-93




179
1
7
9



Example 3.30 Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 68/4-76




Harmonic devices in Chorus include not only triadic post-tonality, octaves, and
planing, but also wedge expansion. In mm. 68, 70, and 75 of example 3.30, two voices
move in contrary motion in relation to a centric pitch. First, the two alto parts begin


180
1
8
0

wedge expansion relative to B., then the second and third soprano move away from D,
and finally the first and third soprano move in relation to C. In Clarkes early choral
works, paired voices move in parallel motion, but Chorus displays a more sophisticated
vision for the treatment of paired voices that now encompasses the contrary motion of
wedge expansion.
In Clarkes earlier choral works, subtle metric changes facilitate proper
accentuation of the text, but in Chorus distinct duple and triple sections depict shifting
ideas. Comparison of the first duple and triple sections reveals that the musical structure
and distinct characterizations of the text are expressed through contrasting motives,
tempos, dynamics, rhythms, and meters. As example 3.28 shows, the composition begins
in c, but is actually the dominant meter, and the two brief c sections are each
approximately seventeen bars long. The text of the first c section begins with a
description of dusk that is musically depicted through a slow tempo, pp dynamics, and
common meter. In contrast, the first section shown in example 3.31 begins mf at an
Allegro tempo, followed by a dramatic crescendo to f that communicates excitement as
the star begins to rise. Common meter returns at m. 51 where the text changes from third
to second person as the singers utter an impassioned plea for deliverance. Then, in m. 69,
triple meter and the rhythms .. . . and . create a rocking motion often associated with
waves as the singers present the text, from the waves on which weary noon faints. The
subtle rocking motion of the music continues until the end of the composition, and like
the undulating action of waves, seems to carry the listener to the utopian realm described
in the text.
Example 3.31 also shows that the melody in the first soprano begins with a minor
third that is stretched to larger intervals through the process of developing variation, and
the meaning of the text is emphasized as the important syllables love-, pant-, and
wild receive tonic, agogic, and metric accent. Clarke also created melody through


181
1
8
1

developing variation in He That Dwelleth and Come, Oh Come, and emphasized
important syllables through tonic, agogic, and metric accent.



Example 3.31 Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm.17-25



182
1
8
2

As example 3.32 shows, the melodic motive of the c sectionsin contrast to the
more varied material of the triple sectionscontains an ascent from 1 to 5 followed by
the outline of a diminished triad, .531. This primary motive recurs in the second
phrase, again in the second c section at m. 51, and with an altered rhythm in mm. 92-95,
thus adding structure to this work through the recurrence of familiar material.



Example 3.32 Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 1-2, soprano 1




Several textures familiar to Clarkes choral works can be observed in Chorus. The
first phrase is homophonic (ex. 3.28), the third phrase begins with staggered entrances
(ex. 3.31), and the second section contains paired, imitative entrances (ex. 3.30). The
paired entrances of example 3.30 are unique among Clarkes choral compositions
because of the application of wedge expansion. Example 3.33 illustrates imitation within
a phrase; the phrase begins with A octaves and then expands to four-part harmony in m.
93. Imitation begins with the third soprano and the rocking .. . . motive is passed to the
first alto, and then to the second alto in mm. 94-95 respectively. The lower neighbor-tone
that characterizes this motive is replaced in m. 94 by a repeated pitch, perhaps to avoid
the simultaneous sounding of the pitches A, B, and C.
Example 3.33 also displays bracketed duple quarter notes. Although Clarke could
have notated the rhythm as .. .. or . . ._., bracketed quarter notes emphasize the division
of the measure into two equal pulses. Visually, two duple quarter notes contrast with
common rhythms such as . ; ., or ., which occur simultaneously in other voices, thus


183
1
8
3

demonstrating Clarkes continued interest in juxtaposing concurrent duple and triple
rhythms.



Example 3.33 Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 92-96




Example 3.34 Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 50-55



184
1
8
4

Chorus also reveals exploration of the registral and timbral possibilities of five-
part womens voices. As example 3.34 displays, Clarke used the lowest possible pitches
in the alto parts of the second c section where the primary motive is sung in the dominant
key. Similarly, the first soprano explores the limits of the upper range with an ascent to a
high B. in m. 58. By using the full range for womens voices, a variety of vocal timbres
result.
Clarke also expanded timbral and registral options through different vocal
groupings and fluid textural changes. As example 3.35 illustrates, subtle timbral contrasts
result from voice crossings; in m. 38 the first soprano part descends below the second
soprano part. The third soprano functions as a mezzo-soprano part with a slightly lower
range than soprano one and two, and functions alternately in trio with the soprano and
alto voices throughout the composition. Although Clarke did not indicate the division of
parts, but simply labeled the composition, for female voices (five-part), the editors
SSSAA description is useful in assigning voices appropriately.



Example 3.35 Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, mm. 37-39



185
1
8
5

Two autograph sources that contain few differences were in Clarkes possession
at the time of her death and two earlier autograph scores are owned by Becky Pogo
Clarke. In the autograph score dated 1944?, five names were written in pencil in the
margin of the first page adjacent to the staves. The names from the top to bottom staff
appear to be: Clarke, Cambella, Greene, S. Moore and Margaret, suggesting that Clarke
and several friends sang through the composition.
30
As example 3.36 shows, Clarke
added downward stems, indicating that half of the second altos would sing sapphire sea
a second time during the final six bars. The final fourteen measures create an extended
pianissimo conclusion in which very little motion occurs between chords. Since the
additional second alto syllables fall on downbeats where all of the other voices sustain a
syllable, it seems likely that upon hearing the composition sung, Clarke added the second
alto divisi in pencil to create more activity.



Example 3.36 Chorus from Shelleys Hellas by Rebecca Clarke, MS, mm. 113-121

Excerpt mm. 113-121 from Rebecca Clarke, Chorus from Shelleys Hellas. Copyright 2004, Christopher Johnson. Used by permission.


30
Rebecca Clarke, Chorus from Shelleys Hellas, 1944?, manuscript, private
collection.


186
1
8
6

Among Clarkes choral works, Chorus from Shelleys Hellas demonstrates
greater reliance on post-tonal materials than any other composition. All musical materials
combine to create a musical representation of Shelleys ethereal text. Changes in meter,
rhythmic and melodic motives, harmonic techniques, tempo, and dynamics communicate
the various moods of the text. The prevalence of nonfunctional seventh chords as well as
the juxtaposition of contrasting chord types contribute to the impression that chords exist
in order to express thoughts and emotions through contrasting harmonic colors. The
primary motive adds harmonic and melodic structure to this through-composed
composition through repetition in either the tonic or dominant key. By combining post-
tonal techniques such as triadic post-tonality and wedge expansion with Impressionist
planing and a large-scale harmonic plan based on tonic and dominant pillars, Clarke
embraced a modern musical language that rejected the strict formal and harmonic
confines of common practice harmony; as a result, the music embodies the freedom that
Shelleys text envisions.
Clarkes final two choral compositions display her exploration of the registral and
timbral possibilities of womens voices. Ave Maria incorporates modal scales as an
allusion to sacred Renaissance music, Chorus from Shelleys Hellas relies upon post-
tonal materials, and in both compositions, all musical means combine to powerfully
illuminate the text.
A Choral Fragment
In addition to the twelve complete choral compositions, an incomplete choral
sketch was also found among Clarkes papers. The sketch for four-part mixed voices is a
setting of Psalm 93, and the date 1940 was added in pencil, presumably in 1976.
31
This
fragment is important because numerous characteristics observed in He That Dwelleth,

31
Rebecca Clarke, choral fragment, 1940, autograph, private collection.


187
1
8
7

and in the other mature choral works that followed, are also present here. The eighteen-
bar fragment begins with a stepwise melodic ascent from G to C:, and a C: major chord
sounds on beat one of the first complete measure. As example 3.37 shows, the melody of
the first motive outlines a whole-tone tetrachord, but the pitch content of the C: major
chord does not reflect the C: whole-tone scale (WT
1
). For listeners accustomed to hearing
major scales, the stepwise ascent in m. 1, GAB, creates the expectation that C will
follow, but since the melody stretches higher than the diatonic C, the bright C: chord is
unexpected and seems to depict Jehovahs startlingly brilliant holiness.



Example 3.37 A choral fragment by Rebecca Clarke, MS, mm. 1-4

Excerpt mm. 1-4 from Rebecca Clarke, [Jehovah Reigneth] a choral fragment. Copyright 2004, Christopher Johnson. Used by permission.



The second phrase segment begins again with a stepwise ascent from G, but rises
to a higher pitch, D, which may be understood as a resolution of the C: in m. 2. The
second segment is also texturally expansive as compared to the first, and in m. 4 divided
parts create a full, seven-part chord. The melodic rise to a higher pitch in the second
phrase segment is also reminiscent of mm. 9-13 of He That Dwelleth where the melody
begins at the same pitch and rises by increasingly large intervals to a climactic pitch.
As example 3.38 shows, the bass voice in m. 5 moves in contrary motion against
planing chords in the upper voices, similar to m. 5 of Chorus from Shelleys Hellas.
Then, Jehovahs strength is emphasized in the following measure through an altered


188
1
8
8

chord, octaves, and an open fifth. Open fifths continue in a chant-like manner with
changing meters and flexible rhythmseighth-note triplets, duple eighth notes, four
sixteenth notes, and quarter-note tripletsthat accommodate varying numbers of
syllables per line. A harmonized chant results from the planing of open fifths (mm. 6-7)
and four-part triads (mm. 8-9). Planing, altered chords, and octaves that contrast with
harmonized chords, continue through the rest of the first section. An imitative B section
begins in m. 16, but Clarke sketched only the first three entrances and mm. 18-20 are
incomplete. A postscript clarifies her intentions: Of course all this is only [a] sketch. I
havent really worked out the parts yet, but I intend to have a good deal of octaves
between sop. and bass, or sop. and tenor.
32
Formally, the fragment displays a tendency
toward assymetrical phrases that result from the syllabic and subsequent rhythmic and
metric needs of individual phrases. The tempo is marked Vigoroso and dynamic
markings display a full expressive range.



Example 3.38 A choral fragment by Rebecca Clarke, MS, mm. 5-10


Excerpt mm. 5-10 from Rebecca Clarke, [Jehovah Reigneth] a choral fragment. Copyright 2004, Christopher Johnson. Used by permission.


32
Ibid.


189
1
8
9

This choral fragment demonstrates that Clarke was interested in composing
another Psalm setting with flexible phrase structures, homophonic and imitative textures,
a chant-like sensitivity to natural speech accents, varied rhythms that enable the fluid
utterance of text, metric changes that accommodate different numbers of syllables per
line, a developmental motivic method, and harmonic contrasts that are achieved through
octaves, harmonized chords, and planing. Although the fragment does not contain
evidence of further innovation, it confirms several aspects of Clarkes mature choral
compositional style.


190
1
9
0

CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSIONS
Stylistic Changes in the Choral Music: 1906-1944
Choral works span Clarkes entire compositional career and analysis of all twelve
pieces reveals her persistent curiosity, the acquisition of new techniques, and the
development of her mature style. Varied voicingsTTBB, ATBB with baritone solo,
SATB, SSAATTBB with tenor solo, SSA, and SSSAAdemonstrate Clarkes
exploration of the timbral and registral potential of choral music. Emulation of the
medieval carol, madrigal, glee, part song, anthem, and motet, display her familiarity with
English choral styles. In addition, Clarkes choral arrangements establish her knowledge
of the idiomatic characteristics of songs and choral music. From Now Fie on Love to
Chorus from Shelleys Hellas, sensitivity to evocative words and the broader meaning
of the text inform every musical choice. Since Clarke did not compose any choral works
on commission, with deadlines, oras far as is currently knownwith a specific choir in
mind, her choral music displays the unfettered exploration of unaccompanied choral
music.
Clarkes first three choral works display simple rhythms, diatonic harmonies,
strophic forms, and imitative and homophonic textures. While later choral compositions
show varied repetition of rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and formal elements, the first
three choral works rely on simple repetition. A Lovers Dirge, however, includes
diminished sonorities and chromaticism, which foreshadow the harmonic complexity of
later works.
The choral music of the 1910s shows a precipitous rise in the complexity of
Clarkes compositional style. More complicated harmonies are evident in modulations,
tonicizations, increased chromaticism, a greater variety of cadential types, movement
between third-related chords, many tritones and diminished chords, and nondiatonic


191
1
9
1

chords. Modal scales are common, and occasional augmented sixth chords and chord
extensions expand the harmonic palette. Some works include harmonic planing, which
undermines a sense of tonality, while other works use pedal points to assert tonal centers.
Large-scale harmonic planning moves beyond tonic and dominant key areas to include
third-related and tritone-related tonal centers. Melodies include semitone neighbor
motion, tritones, and linear chromaticism, and motives are not only literally repeated as in
the early works, but are also subjected to developing variation. Rhythms are also more
varied and complex. Simultaneous duple and triple rhythms, frequent metric changes, and
ostinatos contribute to a more diverse rhythmic vocabulary. Clarke also showed a
preference for asymmetrical phrases and through-composed forms, and contrasting
textures, dynamics, and tempos frequently underscore sectional divisions. While the
homophonic textures of the first three works are animated by imitation, facile changes
between monophonic, homophonic, and polyphonic textures emerge as a sign of Clarkes
mature style. Silence also extends the textural and dynamic palette and serves an
expressive purpose. Registral expansion and contraction complements dynamic changes
and creates contrasting timbres. The increasing sophistication of Clarkes compositional
style reaches a highpoint in the mature anthem, He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of
the Most High.
None of the last five choral compositions display the complexity of He That
Dwelleth, but Clarke selectively used aspects of her mature style in various combinations.
The choral arrangements of the 1920s include melodic semitones and tritones, octaves,
modal inflections, chromaticism, duple/triple rhythms, large-scale harmonic planning,
and textually-motivated tempo changes. In addition, textural, registral, and dynamic
changes frequently combine to dramatically portray the text. Clarkes settings for
womens voices illustrate the harmonic diversity of her late choral music. Ave Maria
shows the continued use of modal scales, planing, octaves, third-related chords, and
altered chords while Chorus from Shelleys Hellas relies upon parsimonious voice


192
1
9
2

leading, triadic post-tonality, wedge expansion, and the juxtaposition of major and
diminished sonorities. However, while Ave Maria is a modal work with Renaissance
allusions and Chorus from Shelleys Hellas uses post-tonal techniques, a variety of
textures associated with Clarkes mature style are evident, and both subtle and sudden
textural changes occur in response to the text. In addition, recurring motives unify each
through-composed composition and silence serves an expressive role. Finally, Clarkes
choral sketch of Psalm 93 displays many of the same techniques found in He That
Dwelleth, and confirms the synthesis of styles characteristic of Clarkes mature choral
music.
Reasons for Obscurity
Despite the fact that Clarke was a respected performer and composer whose Viola
Sonata, Trio, and several songs received multiple performances and publication, Clarke
and her music received diminishing attention from about 1945 to the 1970s. A number of
factors limited Clarkes fame both during and after her active period, 1906-1944.
Lack of education was one factor that limited many women composers during the
early twentieth century, and Clarkes experience included opportunities and obstacles.
While Clarke studied two years at the Royal Academy of Music and two more years at
the Royal College of Music, both institutions offered a three-year program, but her father
withdrew her from the Royal Academy after a professor proposed marriage, and
expulsion from the family home forced her to support herself after just two years at the
Royal College. Nonetheless, the awards she won at the Royal College demonstrate the
quality of her work, and Parrys decision to pay a portion of her tuition indicates his
confidence in her abilities. Clarke received a first-rate musical education and benefitted
from the achievements of the British Musical Renaissance, among which was the


193
1
9
3

establishment of the Royal College of Music in 1883.
1
Although Clarke studied two
rather than the usual three years, as Charles Stanfords composition student, she received
the same training as several generations of Englands leading composers, founded upon
the conservative Brahmsian tradition Stanford admired.
2

Although the number of women studying music increased after 1880, some
scholars suggest that gender bias stunted the growth of women composers and ultimately,
their reputation. In A Case of Identity, Liane Curtis asserted that Clarkes Victorian
upbringing and experiences of gender bias shaped her identity as a composer. Curtis
wrote that Clarke internalized the widely held views of the limitations of womens role
and capabilities, rather than battling against them.
3
If Curtis is correct, then Clarkes
compositional work may very well have been limited by the gender bias she encountered,
and a diminished reputation would have contributed to her obscurity. As established in
chapter one, women frequently heard messages that they were incapable of creative
activity, had less intellectual potential than men, and violated their femininity by
composing music that was masculine. Clarke recalled that Stanford was fond of quoting
Dr. Johnsons remark about the dog walking on its hind-legs: The thing, he said, that was
surprising was not that the dog did not do it well but that it did it at all. I was Stanfords
only woman pupil at the time, so it made quite an impression on me!
4
Clarke grasped
Stanfords implication that women composers were an oddity, and years later she
commented, When I was a student a female composer was about as much of a freak as
the bearded lady of the circus.
5


1
Stradling and Hughes, English Musical Renaissance , 25-26.
2
Ibid., 30.
3
Curtis, A Case of Identity, 16.
4
Clarke, The Woman Composer, Morpheus; Clarkes emphasis.
5
Ibid.


194
1
9
4

However, Robert Shermans 1976 interview provides further insight into Clarkes
response to the gender bias she encountered. Sherman asked, When you began your
composition studies did you have any feelings that it was an unusual thing for a woman
to be doing? Clarke responded, I dont think I thought about it very much, one way or
the other. I just wanted to do it.
6
Despite gender bias, Clarke found compositional
studies stimulating, and her determination to pursue composition never wavered. The
quality of her work was affirmed when she won the Royal College Exhibition awards for
her compositions, and she thoroughly enjoyed her Royal College experience.
7
As a
working professional Clarke consistently displayed an attitude of gender equality,
promoted musical opportunities for female colleagues, and remained focused on making
music. She asserted her belief in the gender-free nature of music in her interview for the
Christian Science Monitor and in her speech, The Woman Composer Then and
Now.
8
Clarke also showed her independence and personal strength by refusing to walk
on stage first when she was the only woman performer and by associating with men in
segregated social situations.
9
Although Curtis stated that Clarke did not battle against the
gender bias she encountered, Clarkes statements and actions do not support that
conclusion. Other factors that may have contributed to her obscurity should be
considered.
Clarkes focus on smaller genreschamber music, songs, and choral music
probably limited her reputation, since none of her works were suitable for performance in

6
Clarke and Sherman, interview, WQXR radio.
7
Clarke, I Had a Father, Too, 158 and 175. Clarke was awarded Exhibition prizes for
her Theme and Variations in G in December 1908 and for her Danse Bizarre for two violins in
December 1909; Ibid., 154 and 159. Clarke described her positive experience at the Royal
College of Music.
8
Squire, Rebecca Clarke, 12; Clarke, The Woman Composer, Morpheus.
9
Clarke, Diary, December 21, 1919 and December 13, 1921.


195
1
9
5

venues where large numbers of people were in attendance. Liane Curtis suggested that
Clarke chose to compose in smaller genres and avoided orchestral composition because
genres associated with the home were socially acceptable for women composers.
10

However, given the confidence and assertiveness Clarke displayed in pursuing her
compositional goals and confronting gender bias, it seems unlikely that she restricted
herself to composing in certain genres because of her gender. Rather, Clarkes choice of
genres reflects the deep love she had for vocal and instrumental chamber music, a love
that was nurtured from an early age and continued throughout her lifetime.
Stephen Banfield suggested that Clarke and her contemporaries Eugene Goossens
and Frank Bridge may have been excluded from the British Renaissance on stylistic
grounds, because of their focus on chamber music, and because of the persistent attitude
that professional performers were on the level of lower-class servants.
11
An
understanding of the goals of the British Renaissance movement provides an explanation
for the exclusion of modernist and chamber music. Among the primary goals of the
Renaissance were the creation of a native, English music and the establishment of an
educational system that could produce a great English composer equal to Bach,
Beethoven, and Brahms.
12
Because of Germanys actions during the Franco-Prussian
War and World War I, the movement sought to rid English music of Germanic
influence.
13
Folk music that depicted tranquil, rural, English scenes provided a focal
point for English pride and fostered a nostalgic appreciation for the countrys natural
beauties and a simpler, peaceful past. Ralph Vaughan Williams, having observed the

10
Curtis, A Case of Identity, 17 and 19.
11
Banfield, Too Much of Albion? Mrs. Coolidge and Her British Connections,
American Music 4, no. 1 (1986): 85.
12
Stradling and Hughes, English Musical Renaissance, 16-17.
13
Ibid., 20-21, 68-69.


196
1
9
6

growing distance between the listening public and modernist composers, found in folk
songs a type of music that resonated with ordinary people.
14
In addition, Handels iconic
status in the nation compelled the movement to promote large choral-orchestral works
that would have broad public appeal.
15
In their modernist chamber music, Clarke,
Goossens and Bridge pursued compositional goals distinct from those of the British
Renaissance movement; chamber music was performed in more intimate settings than
oratorios, and modernist music did not appeal to the masses.
16
However, the folk-based
compositions of Clarke, Goossens and Bridge were well-received and easily published.
While their modernist works separated them from the conservative British Renaissance
movement, their compositional styles were not so radical as to gain the attention granted
to the most innovative contemporary composers like Igor Stravinsky. Although Clarke
adopted some modernist techniques, she never attempted serial composition, and
regarding modern compositions she wrote, Many of them I like very much; but I can
think of one or two whose still more advanced electronic or concrete things I [would]
just as soon not have to hear.
17

As Banfield asserted, another factor that limited the compositional careers of
Bridge, Clarke, and Goossens was the challenge of balancing two distinct and demanding
types of musical work: performance and composition.
18
Clarkes diaries and print
sources establish that she maintained a busy schedule of rehearsals and performances

14
Ibid., 60-61.
15
Ibid., 13 and 28.
16
Banfield, Too Much of Albion, 85. Clarke, Goossens, and Bridge did receive
support from the American patron Elizabeth Coolidge for the composition of modernist chamber
music. Coolidge did not patronize the British Renaissance advocates Vaughan Williams or Holst,
but rather supported composers who shared her love of chamber music.
17
Clarke, Fiddling with the Stars.
18
Banfield, Too Much of Albion, 85.


197
1
9
7

throughout her active performance period from 1910 to 1944. From the late 1920s until
1939, Clarke performed regularly with both the olian Players and the English
Ensemble, and appears to have had managerial responsibilities for the latter. Unlike
Frank Bridge, who was eventually able to focus solely on composition because of
Coolidges financial support,
19
Clarke worked until her marriage in 1944 and composed
as time allowed.
20
Her dual career played a significant role in limiting her compositional
activity. As she shared with Robert Sherman, distractions inhibited her ability to
concentrate and a single-minded focus was essential for compositional work:
Theres nothing in the world more thrilling [than composing], or
practically nothing. But you cant do it unlessat least I cant;
maybe thats where a womans differentI cant do it unless its
the first thing I think of every morning when I wake and the last
thing I think of every night before I go to sleep. And I have it on
my mind all the time. And if one allows too many other things to
take over, one is liable not to be able to do it. Thats been my
experience.
21

In addition to the practical challenge of finding time to compose while supporting
oneself as a professional performer, Banfield suggested that the compositional
reputations of Clarke, Bridge, and Goossens may have suffered from the persistent
attitude that performers were on the level of servants.
22
Clarke acknowledged that she
was sometimes treated like a servant when she performed chamber music in homes, and
her father had been reluctant to allow her to pursue performance because he wanted to
spare her the embarrassment of being treated like a member of the lower class.
23


19
Ibid., 69 and 72.
20
Jones, Music of Rebecca Clarke, 230. Jones also stated that Clarke lacked time to
compose because of her busy performance schedule.
21
Rebecca Clarke, complete interview by Robert Sherman, 1976, recording, Robert
Sherman Collection, Special Collections in Performing Arts, Michelle Smith Performing Arts
Library, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
22
Banfield, Too Much of Albion, 85.
23
Clarke, I Had a Father, Too, handwritten 13 and 14.


198
1
9
8

Although it is difficult to assess whether class prejudice hindered Clarkes compositional
career, it is noteworthy that Clarke personally experienced class bias in the course of her
work.
Clarke also performed chamber music in public recitals and concerts and her
compositions were included in a variety of programs. Public performances by Clarke and
other musicians served the important function of introducing the public and publishers to
her compositions, which led to reviews and sometimes publication. For instance,
following a concert featuring Clarkes works, Oxford University Press contacted her
expressing interest in publishing her Midsummer Moon and Chinese Puzzle.
24
Similarly,
her success with the Viola Sonata at the 1919 Berkshire Festival led to repeat
performances and publicity, and the work was published in 1921. However, Clarke was
not immune to the frustrations most composers experienced in trying to get their works
published. When Clarke sought publication of her 1921 Trio, she visited several
publishers without success, and the Trio was not published until 1928. While it is
impossible to discern the motives of the editors Clarke visited, compositional style and
the publishers assessment of the profitability of publication seem to be the primary
reasons for acceptance or rejection of Clarkes submissions. Fuller confirmed that most
male and female composers alike had difficulty getting songs and instrumental works
that were deemed unsuitable or unsaleable published.
25
As a modernist chamber work,
Clarkes Trio appealed to a limited market and publishers probably anticipated limited
sales. Clarke could have chosen to alter her compositional style in order to publish more
works, but did not do so. In the case of songs, it was well known that parlor songs

24
Miss Rebecca Clarkes Concert, The Times, 10. Clarke and several colleagues
performed a concert of Clarkes works at Wigmore Hall, October 21, 1925; Clarke, Diary,
November 10, 1925. Clarke wrote that she had received a letter from Oxford University Press.
25
Fuller, British Musical Renaissance, 91.


199
1
9
9

garnered significant profits for publishers and composers, but Clarke maintained her
artistic integrity and composed art songs.
26

A related factor was the size of Clarkes compositional output. While Clarke
performed several additional works that remained unpublishedLullaby (1913),
Morpheus, Epilogue, and Lullaby (1918)her reputation was based on the publication
and performance of approximately twenty works, and all but two were in print by 1930.
Because only one additional work was published after 1930 and published works began
to go out of print, her compositions received diminishing attention. Since Clarke recorded
her interactions with publishers in her diaries, the lack of reference to many works
suggests that she did not submit them for publication. The difficulty Clarke experienced
in trying to secure publication of the Trio and the negative reception of Rhapsody may
have caused her to submit only those compositions she thought were most likely to be
published.
While Clarkes reception was limited by a relatively small compositional output,
Banfield suggested that her reputation also suffered from a cosmopolitan lifestyle.
27

While Clarkes reputation as an English violist was stunted by her absence from England,
some of her finest compositions were written when she was away from performance
demands. For instance, while visiting her brother in Detroit, Clarke found the quiet she
needed to compose the Viola Sonata.
28
Similarly, she felt she had done some of her best
work on the cello Rhapsody while staying in Hawaii for several months following an
international tour in 1923.
29
In addition, World War I and World War II changed the

26
Ibid., 106.
27
Banfield, Too Much of Albion, 85.
28
Clarke, Diary, April 21-July 3, 1919.
29
Ibid., December 1922-August 1923. Clarke and Mukle toured Burma, India,
Singapore, Indonesia, China, and Japan, and arrived in Hawaii during the summer of 1923;
Clarke to Coolidge, August 12, [1923], Coolidge Collection.


200
2
0
0

course of Clarkes life and affected her compositional output. Prior to World War I,
Clarke had developed a fine reputation as a chamber musician and was playing in the
Queens Hall Orchestra, but when musical opportunities were suspended in response to
the war, Clarke traveled to the United States. She then met Elizabeth Coolidge and
became involved with the Berkshire Chamber Music Festival for which her three largest
works were written. Again in 1939, she was in the United States visiting her brothers and
was unable to get a return visa after war broke out. Away from her chamber-music work,
she enjoyed a productive period of composition. Then, after her marriage to James
Friskin in 1944, she composed only two more songs and arranged a few earlier
compositions. Despite Jamess encouragement, she did not attempt any large
compositional projects, but rather taught, lectured, and dedicated herself to supporting his
work.
30
Had Clarke continued to compose new works that were performed, published,
and reviewed, her reputation would probably have continued to grow. Clarkes music,
however, suffered what Paula Gillett described as a common trend in the reception of
music by women composers: recognition during her lifetime followed by a reputation
that quickly faded with the nonperformance of her work.
31

Clarkes diaries also confirm an affair with baritone John Goss beginning in 1927
and continuing past the last diary entry in 1933. Clarke wrote that she was unable to
compose because she felt very restless and depressed about John.
32
While at times the
affair seems to have distracted Clarke from composition, her busy performance schedule
also continued to be a limiting factor.
33
For instance, on April 30, 1929, Clarke wrote

30
Friskin to Clarke, May 5, 1944. During their courtship, James encouraged Rebecca to
try to compose a larger work such as another viola sonata.
31
Gillett, Musical Women in England, 31.
32
Clarke, Diary, November 30, 1928.
33
Ibid., November 30 and December 14, 1928, and March 6 and April 29, 1929.


201
2
0
1

Nothing but rehearsals nowadays, suggesting that the pace of activity with the
English Ensemble left little time for anything else.
34

Clarkes inclusion in the Grove Dictionary parallels the rise and fall of her
reputation. Edwin Evans interviewed Clarke in 1924 for inclusion in the Grove
Dictionary, and his article was retained for many years.
35
In 1980, however, a brief entry
in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians illustrates that Clarkes reputation
had declined: Clarke, Rebecca (b Harrow, 27 Aug 1886), English viola player and
composer, wife of JAMES FRISKIN.
36
However, Clarkes near omission did not go
unnoticed and in 1986, The New Grove Dictionary of American Music included an article
by Ellen Lerner who had interviewed Clarke during the late 1970s, and the 2001 edition
of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians included a substantial article by
Liane Curtis that reasserted Clarkes importance through a discussion of her life and
works and the inclusion of a works list and bibliography.
37

In conclusion, the most significant factors that contributed to Clarkes obscurity
include a modernist compositional style that did not embrace British Musical
Renaissance goals; focus on chamber music, songs, and choral music rather than larger
forms; a busy performing career that allowed limited time for composition; a reputation
based on the performance and publication of a small body of works; and the decision to
compose little after her marriage. After decades of neglect, many of Clarkes works,

34
Ibid., April 30, 1929.
35
Clarke, Diary, November 13, 1924; Edwin Evans, Clarke, Rebecca, in Groves
Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 3rd ed., ed. H.C. Colles (London: St. Martins Street, 1936),
1:659.
36
Clarke, Rebecca, in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley
Sadie (London: Macmillan, 1980), 4:448.
37
Lerner, Clarke, Rebecca, New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 1:452; Curtis,
Clarke, Rebecca, New Grove Dictionary, 5:920-21.


202
2
0
2

including all of the choral compositions, have recently been published and recorded.
Recent scholarship has also enabled a better understanding of Clarkes life and work, and
further research will continue to confirm the value of her contributions.
Further Research
Recent research has contributed to a more complete and accurate understanding of
womens musical activities during the British Musical Renaissance. Given a long history
of neglect, however, many questions remain, and ongoing research into the lives and
work of individual women composers will further clarify the historical record. In the case
of Rebecca Clarke, her chamber music was the first to receive scholarly attention, and
Bryony Jones provided an insightful overview of Clarkes complete output. The present
study of Clarkes choral music will further expand knowledge of Clarkes compositional
style, and may establish the need for a comprehensive study of Clarkes life and work.
One aspect of Clarke scholarship that deserves additional attention is her
relationship to the British Musical Renaissance. Liane Curtis was the first to address
Clarkes relationship to the Renaissance through comparison of songs by Ivor Gurney
and Clarke.
38
Comparative analysis of song and choral settings of the same texts may
suggest mutual influence among Vaughan Williams, Parry, Holst, Clarke, Granville
Bantock, Frank Bridge, Roger Quilter and others. While the best-known settings of
popular texts such as Weep You No More, Sad Fountains and Music, When Soft Voices
Die are by men, research into settings by women composers may yield new discoveries
and a more complete understanding of the development of the part song in early
twentieth-century Britain, a topic that has received little attention in recent years.

38
Liane Curtis, Rebecca Clarke and the British Musical Renaissance, Ivor Gurney
Society Journal 7 (Fall 2001): 53.


203
2
0
3

Numerous recordings of Clarkes chamber music have been issued and the first
recording of Clarkes complete choral works by the choir of Gonville and Caius College
provides a high standard of performance and reveals the value of Clarkes choral
music.
39
Additional recordings may demonstrate other interpretations of Clarkes
intriguing choral works, and may further inspire the imagination of choral conductors and
singers.
A more complete understanding of Clarkes career as a professional violist who
specialized in chamber music may be discovered through study of her collaboration with
contemporary chamber musicians including Adila Fachiri, Jelly dAranyi, Norah Clench,
Lucy Stone, Andr Mangeot, Lionel Tertis, members of the olian Players (Gordon
Bryan, Joseph Slater, Antonio Brosa and Constance Izard), and members of the English
Ensemble (Kathleen Long, Marjorie Hayward, and May Mukle). Clarkes relationships
with vocalists and other composers as well as instrumentalists may also be probed in part
by studying her involvement with the Society of Women Musicians. Sophie Fuller,
Donna Parsons, and the present study document Clarkes interaction with the SWM, but
the depth and nature of her relationship throughout the period 1911-1939 has not yet been
fully investigated.
40

As research and analysis of Clarkes compositions continues, an ongoing
reexamination of her stylistic development and mature style across all genres will
elucidate a deeper understanding of her music and her contribution to the musical culture
in which she lived. The present study has shown the development of Clarkes positive
self-concept as a composer and her success as a professional woman composer within a
society that challenged her choices. All of Clarkes choral music is well written and the

39
Rebecca Clarke: The Complete Choral Music, compact disc.
40
Fuller, British Musical Renaissance, 79-81; Parsons, Their Voices Sing True,
187-232.


204
2
0
4

quality of her work was affirmed by Charles Stanford, Hubert Parry, Ralph Vaughan
Williams, Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge, Henry Washington, and many other colleagues.
Clarkes choral works display an acute sensitivity to the expressive potential of the text, a
diversity of styles, and the synthesis of Renaissance, Romantic, Impressionist, and post-
tonal techniques. Knowledge of her choral works contributes to a deeper understanding
of early twentieth-century English choral music, and the music itself expands the
performance repertory of contemporary choirs. As Clarkes music gains wider circulation
and as further scholarship draws attention to her excellent writing and beautiful,
expressive compositions, Rebecca Clarke may be recognized as one of the finest English
composers of the early twentieth century.

205


2
0
5

APPENDIX
Examination of the choral manuscripts provides insight into Clarkes
compositional process and reveals the growing sophistication of her compositional
thought. For instance, the early choral autographs contain few slurs or phrase markings
and no tempo or dynamic markings, but later autograph scores contain detailed
articulations, dynamics, tempi, and phrase markings. In some cases, multiple changes in
the text underlay demonstrate the care with which Clarke assigned syllables, thus
showing how Clarke achieved the subtle yet powerful union of text and music that
characterizes her choral works. While most of the choral works have a single autograph
source, where multiple manuscripts exist, stages of revisions can be deduced.
Oxford University Press USA is the exclusive publisher of Rebecca Clarkes
choral music. Oxfords publications of Clarkes choral works provide fine performing
editions that include few editorial additions; where necessary, editorial changes clarify
Clarkes intentions. Since the Oxford publications were created with performance in
mind, editorial changes are usually not enclosed in square brackets. This appendix
enables the reader to observe editorial challenges and solutions in light of manuscript
content and points out the occasional error or omission.
While Clarkes autographs clearly display most elements, inconsistencies exist.
For instance, in a homophonic passage in which the same musical gesture occurs in all
voices simultaneously and a dynamic marking appears in three of four voices, the editor
has logically applied the dynamic to the fourth voice as well. However, Clarkes use of
graphic crescendos and diminuendos is often less clear and requires editorial discretion.
In some cases, a lack of uniformity among graphic dynamics appears intentional, while in
other cases varying lengths seem to have resulted from Clarkes fast work. Many of the
references below demonstrate measures in which editorial decisions were required.
Changes of little consequence include grouping of eighth notes, altered notation for a
206


2
0
6

rhythm pattern, and the addition or omission of courtesy accidentals; some of these cases
have been included for illustration.
Graphic diminuendos and crescendos are referred to below in plain text, but
where Clarke wrote dim. and cresc. in the autograph, the complete word or its
abbreviation (reflecting Clarkes choice) is shown in italics. As in the chapters of this
dissertation, m. 40/1 denotes measure forty, beat one, and in m. 39/2+, the plus sign
denotes the second half of the beat. This appendix assumes that the reader will reference
the published editions.
Now Fie on Love
Autograph Published edition
Clear manuscript Exact replication of pitch, rhythm, and
slurs
No dynamics or tempo markings No dynamic markings; initial editorial
tempo shown in square brackets
No title, designation of voice parts, or
identification of text source
Additions include a title, the phrase
For Unaccompanied Lower Voices
(TTBarB), and identification of the
texts source
Four vocal staves

Two treble clefs and two bass clefs
Four vocal staves; score reduction
added for rehearsal use
Octave 8 added to the treble clefs to
indicate that the top two staves are to
be sung by tenors
A Lovers Dirge
Autograph
Clear manuscript with score reduction




Published edition
Exact replication of pitch, rhythm, and
slurs with the exception of the
following courtesy accidentals: Tenor,
m. 1/4+, courtesy flat added to
highlight the unusual +2; B, m. 7/1,
courtesy natural added; T, m. 9/3,
courtesy flat added; B, m. 21/1,
courtesy natural added
Alto m. 5/4, E; E. shown in parallel
passage in stanza two at m. 19/4
Pitch correction: A, m. 5/4 changed to
E. to create agreement with the MS at
m. 19/4
Tenor, m. 23/2+, B.; comparison to m. T, m. 23/2+, C (error);
207


2
0
7

9/2+ confirms B. is correct
No dynamics or tempo markings No dynamic markings; initial editorial
tempo shown in square brackets
Title given and author identified, but
no designation of voice parts although
SATB voicing is implied by the clefs
and division of parts in the score
reduction; clef for tenor staff is a
simple treble clef
Source of text and For
Unaccompanied Mixed Chorus
(SATB) added; treble clef with octave
8 used for tenor part
Very little punctuation Punctuation added
When Cats Run Home and Light is Come
Autograph
Staves labeled soprano, alto, tenor,
bass; treble clef used for upper three
voices; unmarked score reduction
presumably for rehearsal only
Published edition
Staves labeled soprano, alto, tenor
bass; octave 8 added to tenor treble
clef; score reduction marked for
rehearsal only
No title; source of text not identified Title, For Unaccompanied Mixed
Chorus (SATB), and author added
No slurs Dotted and solid slurs added; dotted
slurs apply to one verse only, while
solid slurs apply to both verses
No dynamics or tempo markings No dynamic markings; initial editorial
tempo shown in square brackets
Rhythm and text setting unclear in
verse two B (m. 3/1-2),SA (mm. 13-
14), and all parts in mm. 9-10
Dotted slurs and cue-sized notes added
to clarify text setting and rhythm
Music, When Soft Voices Die
Autograph
Dynamics shown between soprano and
alto and tenor and bass staves
respectively in homophonic sections;
crescendo/diminuendo lengths are
frequently unclear
Published edition
Dynamics are shown above each staff
and crescendos and diminuendos have
been made uniform when the same
musical gesture occurs in all parts
simultaneously
SATB, m.1, crescendos between SA
and TB extend to about beat 3 and
diminuendos begin about m. 1/4+ and
continue through m. 2/1
SATB, m. 1, crescendos continue to
beat 4 and diminuendos begin at m.
1/4+ and continue through m. 2/1

A, m. 8/4+, no natural; the chord is a
B.
6
chord and is correct on the
Gonville and Caius recording
A, m. 8/4+, natural (an error)

Measure 9: SA dim. begins slightly
earlier than TB dim., but both suggest
dim. beginning about m. 9/4; the SA
Measure 9: uniform SATB dim.
beginning at m. 9/3 and continuing
208


2
0
8

dim. continues to m. 10/1 while the TB
dim. extends past the notated dotted
half note at m. 10/1
through m. 10/1

STB, m. 9 rhythm notated double-
dotted half note

STB, m. 9 rhythm notated as half note
tied to dotted quarter note
p appears only between T and B staves
at m. 11/1
p added to SAT at m. 11/1
Measure 11: SA cresc. from before
beat 1 to about bt. 3 or 3+; TB cresc.
from about 1+ to bt. 3; SA dim. from
m. 11/4+ through m. 12/1+; TB dim.
from m. 11/4+ to m. 12/1
Measure 11: the same musical gesture
in all voices; editorial decision
required to make crescendos and
diminuendos uniform length

A, m. 14/4+, no accidental A, m. 14/4+, courtesy natural added
TB, m. 15/3, a single cresc. appropriate
for tenor gesture, but not for the bass;
extends to m. 16/3
T, m. 15/3, cresc. through m. 16/2+; B,
m. 15/4, cresc. to m. 16/3+; editorial
choices
SA cresc. from m. 15/2 to m. 16/2 SA crescendos; S cresc. from m. 15/2
through m. 16/2; A cresc. from m.
15/2+ through m. 16/2
Performance practice issue: given _.
notation, should live release on the
eighth note or on the rest in m. 17?
Clarke does not normally follow the
English convention regarding tied
eighth notes.

SA and TB m. 19/3-4+, dim. SATB SATB dim. shown at m. 19/1-2 (error)
A, m. 21/1, p shown above staff AT, m. 21/1, p above each staff
S, m. 22/1, no dynamic S, m. 22/1, p added
B, m. 23/1, no dynamic

B, m. 23/1, p added to agree with SAT
entrances in mm. 21 and 22
AT, m. 23/2-3, rhythm notated .. .. . AT notational change, m. 23/2-3,
rhythm notated ..._..
No cresc. in B in mm. 25-26 B cresc. added m. 26/1+ through m.
27/1+ followed by mf at m. 27/2 and
dim. at m. 27/3 (all editorial)
Crescendos between SA and AT staves
from m. 25/3+ through m. 26 with mf
between SA staves at m. 27/1 followed
by dim. between SA and AT staves
from just before m. 27/3 through bt. 3
Individual SAT crescendos from m.
25/3+ through m. 26; mf in each part at
m. 27/1; SAT dim. from 2+ through 3+
A, m. 27/3+, natural sign Unnecessary natural in A at m. 27/3+
omitted
209


2
0
9

My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float
Of the five manuscripts, three were in Clarkes possession at the time of her death
and are now owned by Christopher Johnson; the remaining two are owned by another
relative, Becky Pogo Clarke, a granddaughter of Hans and Frieda Clarke. Two of the
three in Johnsons possession are complete autograph scores, and a third, incomplete
manuscript is in another hand. One of the manuscripts owned by Becky Pogo Clarke is
in the key of D Phrygian, and is in the hand of Frieda Planck Clarke.
1
Frieda, who was an
amateur violinist and pianist, may have preferred D to the original key because there
were fewer accidentals to read. Clarke added a dedication, For Fietzchen from Beccle,
(the family nicknames for Frieda and Rebecca respectively) at the top of the first page as
well as an instructional note on the second page stating that when sung by a chorus, the
notes in red are also to be sung. When 4 voices only, they are to be left out.
2
Clarkes
note reveals a flexible vision for performance, and confirms that this part song and others
like it may be performed by varying numbers of voices.
From manuscript study it is possible to deduce the order in which the five scores
were made. The manuscripts in Clarkes possession will be identified chronologically as
RC1, RC2, and RC3 while the manuscripts in Becky Pogo Clarkes possession will be
referred to as Pogo E. and Pogo D. As the details below demonstrate, RC1 is the earliest
autograph score and shows many revisions of rhythm and text underlay as well as some
pitch changes. RC1 is the autograph source Clarke offered to Christopher Johnson in the
late 1970s for use in cataloguing her works. RC2 is an incomplete manuscript in another
individuals hand, but like RC1, also shows significant pencil revisions in Clarkes hand,

1
Hans Clarke to Rebecca Clarke, Correspondence, September 28, 1944. Frieda added a
congratulatory note at the bottom of Hans letter to Rebecca. I have compared Frieda Plancks
handwriting from this letter with the handwriting in PCD, and it is undeniably clear that the
manuscript of My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float was made by Frieda.
2
Rebecca Clarke, My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float, MS, private collection.
210


2
1
0

which usually agree with RC1. The autograph RC3 incorporates some earlier revisions,
and additional changes in pencil are also evident. Pogo E. is the cleanest autograph
source and reflects the revisions of RC1, RC2, and RC3 and best represents Clarkes final
version. Pogo D is Frieda Clarkes transposition of RC1 and shows the original version of
My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float without any revisions.



2
1
1

Autograph RC1
- Rebecca Clarkes
handwriting
Manuscript RC2
- Not in Rebecca
Clarkes hand
Autograph RC3
- Rebecca Clarkes
handwriting
Autograph Pogo E.
- Rebecca Clarkes
handwriting
Manuscript Pogo D
- Frieda Planck
Clarkes handwriting
Published edition

- First page of score
includes title,
identification of
Shelley as author of
the text and Clarke as
composer; date
1911-1912? added
in pencil under the
title
- First page of score
includes title,
identification of
Shelley as author of
the text and Clarke as
composer;
incomplete score
(mm. 1-27)
- First page of score
includes title,
identification of
Shelley as author of
the text and Clarke as
composer; 1911-
1912? added after
final measure
- First page of score
includes title,
identification of
Shelley as author of
the text and Clarke as
composer
- First page of score
includes title,
identification of
Shelley as author of
the text and Clarke as
composer; Clarke
added the dedication
For Fietzchen from
Beccle in the upper
left corner of the first
page
- First page of score
includes title,
identification of
Shelley as author of
the text and Clarke as
composer; For
Unaccompanied
Mixed Chorus
(SATB) added
below title
- Four staves
identified as
Soprano, Alto,
Tenor, Bass, and
score reduction
labeled Piano for
rehearsal only
- Four staves
identified as
Soprano, Alto,
Tenor, Bass; no
score reduction
- Four staves
identified as
Soprano, Alto,
Tenor, Bass; no
score reduction
- Four staves
identified as
Soprano, Alto,
Tenor, Bass; no
score reduction
- Four staves
identified as
Soprano, Alto,
Tenor, Bass; no
score reduction
- Four staves
identified as
Soprano, Alto,
Tenor, Bass, and
score reduction
labeled for rehearsal
only
- Upbeat to m. 1,
molto legato above
S staff and score
reduction
- Upbeat to m. 1, no
molto legato
- Upbeat to m. 1, no
molto legato
- Upbeat to m. 1, no
molto legato
- Upbeat to m. 1, no
molto legato
- Upbeat to m. 1,
molto legato above
SA staves
- A, m. 2, charm-
continues to m. 3/1; -
ed at m. 3/1+;
bark at m. 3/2;
doth at m. 3/2+;
float at m. 3/3
- A, mm. 2-3, text
underlay is the same
as in MS1
- A, m. 2, charm-
m. 2/1 through 2/3;
-ed at m. 2/3+;
bark at m. 3/1;
doth at m. 3/2+;
float at m. 3/3
- A, m. 2, charm-
m. 2/1 through 2/3;
-ed at m. 2/3+;
bark at m. 3/1;
doth at m. 3/2+;
float at m. 3/3
- A, mm. 2-3, text
underlay is the same
as in MS1
- A, mm. 2-3, text
underlay is the same
as MS3 and Pogo E.
- T cresc. m. 3/1 - T cresc. m. 2/3 to - T cresc. m. 2/3 to - T cresc. m. 3/1 to - T cresc. m. 2/3 to - TB cresc. 2/3+



2
1
2

through 3/2+; B cresc.
from 3/1 through 3/3;
SA dim. m. 3/1 almost
to 3/3
3/1+; B cresc. m. 2/3
to 3/3+; S dim. 3/1to
2+; A dim. 3/1+ to
3/3
3/2; B cresc. m. 2/3
to 3/3+; SA dim. m.
3/1 to 3
2+; B cresc. m. 3/1
through 3; SA dim.
m. 3/1+ through 2+
3/1+; B cresc. m. 2/3
through 3/2+; S dim.
3/1+ into 3; A dim.
3/2 into 3
through 3/2+; SA
dim. 3/1 to 3
- S cresc. from m. 4/2
through 5/2+
- S cresc. from m. 4/2
to 5/1; second cresc.
from 5/1 through 2+
- S cresc. m. 4/2 to
5/1; second cresc.
from 5/1 into 5/3
- S cresc. m. 4/2 to
barline
- S cresc. m. 4/2 to
3+; cresc. 5/2 to 3+
- S cresc. 4/2+ to
5/2+
- S, m. 5/3 li-
through 2+; bt. 2
contains eighth note
A. and E.; -quid at
m. 6/2+; waves m.
6/3
- S, mm. 5-6
originally agreed
with RC1, but pencil
revision shows
published version
- S, mm. 5-6
scratched out
original; revisions
show published
version
- S, mm. 5-6, clean
revised version
reflected in published
edition; no signs of
rewriting or
scratching out
- S, mm. 5-6 shows
text underlay from
RC1
- S, mm. 5-6 shows
revised version
shown in RC2, RC3,
Pogo E.
- A, m. 5/3-6/2,
changes in text
underlay are shown in
published edition; m.
6/3 sing- sounds at
6/2 and continues
until -ing sounds at
7/1+; eighth note D. at
7/1; crossed out G. at
7/2 is replaced by ;
text for last three
eighth notes of m. 7 is
of thy of; m. 8/1
and 8/1+, two eighth
notes with thy
sweet; dotted quarter
low A. at 8/2 with
syllable sing; eighth
note E. at 8/3+ is tied
to first eighth of m. 9.
- A, m.5, last word
changed from the
to of; text revision
in m. 6 shown in
published edition; m.
7 rhythm and pitch as
shown in published
edition with one
syllable per note:
the li-quid waves
of; m. 8 revision
shows ties reflected
in the published
edition, but text
underlay is different;
8/1 thy; 8/1+
sweet until 8/3+
sing-; ing occurs
at 9/3+
- A, word at m. 5/3a
(last .) revised to
of; text setting in
m. 6 revised and
reflected in published
edition; m. 7 revision
of pitch, rhythm, and
text shown in pub.
edition; m. 8/1+
sweet (no syllable
on 8/1); next syllable
is sing at 8/3+; -
ing at 9/3+
- A, clean version
reflecting multiple
revisions observed in
RC MSS. The only
sign of a scratched
out revision is before
the final sixteenth
note of m. 5; the
published edition
agrees with this
version except at m.
8/1 and 1+. In this
MS, sweet that
begins at m. 7/3
continues through the
first eighth note of m.
8 and another
sweet begins at
8/1+. The revisions
in RC2 and RC3
agree.
- A, mm. 5-9, shows
a clean version of the
original RC1 MS
prior to any revisions
- Agrees with revised
version shown in
RC3 and Pogo E.
with the exception of
the placement of
sweet at m. 8/1
rather than m. 8/1+.



2
1
3

- T, m. 8, original
rhythm .. ._. . ; first
two pitches are the A.
.. and G. . shown in
the pub. ed.; bt. 3
revision shows . . and
a drop back to A.
followed by a skip up
to C
- T, m. 8, original
rhythm crossed out,
and pitch content
simplified, resulting
in the A. and G. . in
the published edition
- T, m. 8, original
pitch and rhythm of
RC1 was scratched
out and the final
version is present
- T, m. 8, final
revised version with
no signs of revisions
- T, m. 8, clean
version of the
original RC1 MS
- T, m. 8, revised
version follows RC2,
RC3, and Pogo E.
- T dim., m. 5/1+ to
3+; B, m. 5, no dim.
- T dim. m. 5/1 to 3;
B dim., m. 5/1
through 2+
- T dim. m. 5/1 to 3;
B dim., m. 5/1
through 2+
- A single dim.
between TB staves;
dim. m. 5/1 through
2+
- T dim., m. 5/2 to
3+; B dim., m. 5/1+
through 2+
- Uniform TB dim.
m. 5/1 to 3
- B, m. 7, no cresc. - B cresc., m. 7/1 into
3
- B cresc., m. 7/1 into
3
- B cresc., m. 7/1+
into 3
- B, m. 7, no cresc. - B cresc. m. 7/1-2+
- B, m. 14, one octave
lower than pub. ed.
- B, m. 14, lower
octave crossed out;
pitches written in
pencil one octave
higher; 14/3 A is tied
to 15/1 A, followed
by G and revisions
are reflected in the
pub. ed.
- B, m. 14, lower
octave pitches
scratched out and
upper octave pitches
written in pen; m. 15
bass pitches are the
same as in RC2
- B, m. 14, clean
copy of revised
version with no signs
of earlier version
- B, m. 14, lower
octave reflects RC1
MS
- B, m. 14, revised
upper octave used
- B, m. 16, an F a
perfect fifth above the
B. of the published
edition is shown in
red ink; S, m. 16, a B.
a perfect fifth below
the F of the pub.
version is shown in
red ink. A note at the
- A, m. 16, revision
includes changing a .
D to the B. of the
pub. ed., followed by
a . D tied into mm.
17 and 18; T, 16/1
crossed out original
B. and replaced by D
shown in the
- SATB, m. 16
includes crossed out
notes; the published
version reflects the
changes of RC3
including a change
not found in RC2. At
m. 16/1, T, a tie has
been added and
- SATB, m. 16 clean
version reflecting all
revisions
- A clean copy of
RC1 prior to any
revisions; m. 16
includes red notes in
S2 and B1 and the
explanatory note at
the bottom of the
page.
- Reflects RC3 and
Pogo E.



2
1
4

bottom of the page in
red ink states, The
notes in red ink are to
be sung in addition to
the black ones when
there is a chorus.
When only a quartet,
the black ones are to
be sung only.
published edition. dim has been
crossed out so that
regions is sustained
through m. 16/2.
- m. 17, B, an up stem
in red on the B. of the
pub. ed.; S, an F a
perfect fourth below
B. is shown in red ink
and is tied into m. 18
- m. 17, B, a red note
low B. has been
added; SAT pitches
and rhythms agree
with the pub. ed.
- m. 17, pitches and
rhythms reflected in
the published edition
- m. 17, pitches and
rhythms reflected in
the pub. edition
- m. 17, reflects RC1 - m. 17, reflects
revisions evident in
RC3 and Pogo E.
- mm. 16-17, no cresc.
or dim.
- m. 16, SATB cresc.
16/1 to barline;
poco marked at end
of cresc.; m. 17,
SATB dim. just after
bt. 1 through the
measure with the B
dim. extending into
m. 18
- m. 16, SA cresc.
16/1 to barline; TB
cresc. about 16/2 to
barline; poco
marked at end of
cresc. in all voices;
m. 17, SAB dim. just
after bt. 1 through the
measure with the
SAB dim. extending
into m. 18; T, m. 17
has a cresc. from just
after bt. 1 past the
end of staff system.
- m. 16, SATB cresc.
16/2 to barline; no
poco marking;
SATB dim. m. 17/2
into m. 18
- m. 16, SA cresc.
16/1 to barline; TB
cresc. about 16/2 to
barline; poco
marked at end of
cresc. in all voices;
m. 17, SB dim. just
after bt. 1 into m. 18;
dim. shown in A, m.
18; text inadvertently
omitted in TB in mm.
16-17.
- m. 16, SATB cresc.
16/1 to poco
marked at end of
cresc.; m. 17, SATB
dim. just after 17/1 to
18/1
- AT, m. 19, eighth-
note triplets marked
with brackets at 19/2
- A, m. 19, eighth-
note triplet bracket
remains; T, m .19,
eighth-note triplet
bracket crossed out in
- A, m .19, eighth-
note triplet bracket
remains; T, m. 19,
eighth-note triplet
bracket was
- A, m. 19/2, eighth-
note triplet; T, m.
19/2, two duple
eighth notes; no sign
of the original
- AT, m. 19, eighth-
note triplets marked
with brackets at 19/2;
follows RC1
- AT, m. 19, eighth-
note triplets marked
with brackets at 19/2;
follows RC1, not the
revised rhythm



2
1
5

T and rhythm
changed to two duple
eighth notes
scratched out and
rhythm was changed
to two duple eighth
notes
rhythm in this MS shown in RC2, RC3,
and Pogo E.
- m. 21/3, STB, triplet
brackets with . .
within the triplet in
ST; duple eighth notes
in A
- m. 21/3, S, a flag
added in pencil to
create . ., but triplet
bracket remains; A
. .; T . . and triplet
bracket crossed out;
B triplet remains but
bracket was not
marked
- m. 21/3, SAT . .;
triplet brackets have
been scratched out in
ST; B triplet remains
with triplet bracket
- m. 21/3, clean
version containing
changes shown in
RC2 and RC3; . . in
SAT and triplet in B.
- m. 21/3, triplet
rhythms in STB,
reflecting original
version of RC1
- m. 21/3, reflects
revisions contained
in RC2, RC3, and
Pogo E.
- m. 21, A, text
underlay: -ing of
winging sounds at
21/2+; alto sings As
a on bt. 4 with STB
- m. 21, A, text
underlay is the same
as RC1
- m. 21, A text
underlay changed; -
ing of winging
falls on bt. 3, creating
overlapping of
phrases; A, 21/3+ a
as in RC1 and RC2
- m. 21, A text
underlay reflects
RC3 revision
- m. 21, A text
underlay reflects
RC1
- m. 21, A text
underlay reflects
revision shown in
RC3 and Pogo E.
- B, m 26, no cresc. - B, m 26, no cresc. - B, m 26, no cresc. - B, m 26, no cresc. - B, m 26, no cresc. - B, m 26, editorial
cresc. added
- AT, mm. 25-27,
original text underlay
crossed out, some
rhythms changed; not
yet the final version
- AT text underlay
revision, mm. 25-27;
revised version is
reflected in pub. ed.
- AT, mm. 25-27; the
revised text underlay
shown in RC2 was
written here; T
rhythm change in m.
25; revisions are
reflected in pub. ed.
- AT, mm. 25-27,
clean revised version;
no signs of changes
in the score
- AT, mm. 25-27
reflects the unedited
original in RC1
- AT, mm. 25-27,
revised version
shown in RC2, RC3,
and Pogo E.
- B, m. 30, rhythm is:
. . . with cresc. from
bt. 1 to 3
- The final measure
of this incomplete
MS is m. 27.
- B, m. 30, rhythm is:
. .. . with cresc. from
30/1+ to 3+
- B, m. 30, rhythm is:
. . . without cresc.
- B, m. 30, rhythm is:
. .. . with cresc. from
30/2 through 3+
- B, m. 30, rhythm is:
. ._. . with cresc.
from 30/1+ to 3+



2
1
6

- A, m. 30/3+, -ny
falls on last . ; m.
31/1, . . with ma-ny
and melismatic
wind- from m. 31/2
through 32/2; -ing
at 32/2+; wind-
from 32/3 to 33/2;
-ing at 33/2+
- A, m. 31/1+, -ny
delayed to second .
of m. 31; text
underlay mm. 30-35
reflected in published
edition
- A, m. 30/3+, -ny
falls on last . ; m.
31/1, . . with ma-
ny; clean version of
revised text underlay
from RC1; settled
text underlay; no
revisions have been
added to this score
- A, m. 30/3+, -ny
falls on last . ; m.
31/1, . . with ma-
ny; same as RC1
- A, m. 31/1+, -ny
delayed to second .
of m. 31; A text
underlay follows
RC3 mm. 30-33/2+;
all MSS agree from
m. 33/3 to the end
- TB, mm. 30-33/2+,
many differences as
compared to pub. ed.
- TB, mm. 30-33/2+,
text underlay is
reflected in pub. ed.
- TB, mm. 30-33/2+,
many differences as
compared to pub. ed.;
pitch and rhythm
nearly identical to
RC1; some variance
in placement of
cresc. and dim. as
compared to RC1
- TB, mm. 30-33/2+
is similar to RC1
with the following
exceptions: B, mm.
30-31, text underlay
is the same as RC3
shown in the pub.
ed.; B, mm. 32-33,
wind- continues
from 32/1 through
33/1 and -ing falls
on a . at 33/1+
- TB, mm. 30-33/2+
follows RC3
- S., mm. 32-33, text
underlay includes
ma-ny wind-ing
- S, mm. 32-33 text
underlay includes
only wind- at 32/1
and -ing at 33/2
- S, mm. 32-33, text
underlay is the same
as RC3
- S, mm. 32-33 text
underlay is the same
as RC1
- S, mm. 32-33, text
underlay follows
RC3
- B dim., m. 34/2
through 3+
- B dim., m. 34/1 to 3 - B, m. 34, dim.
34/2+-3+
- B dim., m. 34/1+
through 2+
- B dim., m. 34/1
through 3+; follows
RC3
- ATB, m. 35/2, last
note value is . with a
fermata
- ATB, m. 35/2, last
note value is . with a
fermata
- ATB, m. 35/2 last
note value is a with
a fermata
- ATB, m. 35/2, last
note value is . with a
fermata
- ATB, m. 35/2, last
note value is . with a
fermata
217


2
1
7

Philomela
Autograph
Clear manuscript with cover page
including Philomela for 4-part Mixed
Voices S.A.T.B. by Rebecca Clarke
with Sir Philip Sidney identified as
author of the text on the first page of
the score; each staff is labeled Sop.,
Alto, Tenor, Bass and a score
reduction is labeled For practice only
Published edition
All retained
ATB at m. 20/2+ cresc. through
measure
ATB cresc. begins on beat 2 of m. 20

SATB dim. begins at m. 21/2 SATB dim. begins at m. 21/2+
T, m. 36/1, no accent T, m. 36/1, accent added to agree with
SAB (editorial correction of Clarkes
inadvertent omission)
B, m. 38/4 and SAT, m. 39/1: mf

B, m. 38/4, and SAT at m. 39/1: mf is
not shown; the last dynamic marking
was mf at m. 34/2 and the dynamic has
not changed
SATB dim. begins at m. 39/2 (in o) SAT dim. begins at m. 39/2+ (in o) and
B dim. begins at m. 39/1+
T, m. 41/1, no f; dim. at m. 41/3 T, m. 41/1, f added to agree with other
parts; dim. begins at m. 41/2
A, m. 41/3+ - 42/3, no dim.; a revised
version was pinned on top of the
previous writing. The original has dim.
from m. 41/3+ to m. 42/2 and molto
dim. marked after m. 41/2 in all parts;
p marked at m. 42/3 in SA
A, m. 41/3+ - m. 42/3, dim. added; A
dim. made uniform with S
S, m. 41/2+ through m. 41/3+ and m.
42/1 to m. 42/3, diminuendos
S, m. 41/3+ to m. 42/3, dim.
T, m. 42.2+, dim. begins T, m. 42.2, dim. begins
T, m. 43/1, pp T, m. 43/2, pp
A, m. 56/2+, cresc. to m. 57/2; no T
cresc. in mm. 56 or 57; S cresc. m.
57/before bt. 1 to bt. 2; bass cresc. m.
57/before bt. 1 to bt. 3
SATB uniform cresc., m. 57/1-2
SAT m. 57/3+-4, dim.; B dim. not
shown until m. 58/1
uniform dim. m. 57/3-4
SAT dim., m. 58/2+ to m. 59/1 SA dim., m. 58/2+ to barline; tenor
dim. m. 58/3 to barline
B, m. 58, no dim. m. 58/3 to barline, B dim. added
218


2
1
8

SATB, m. 59/4 and 60/1, p marked (m.
60 begins a new page)
SATB, m. 60/1, unnecessary p omitted

TB, m. 67, no cresc/dim. TB, m. 67, cresc./dim. added to agree
with alto; same gesture in ATB
A dim., m. 73/1+ to bt. 4; tenor dim.
m. 73/3-4; bass dim. from last triplet
eighth note at m. 73/2a through bt. 4
ATB dim., m. 73/1+ through m. 73/4+
m. 83/3 and m. 84/1 mf marked both
places due to page turn
Redundant mf omitted in m. 84
B, m. 86/3, mf B, m. 86/4, mf omitted
SAT, m. 87/1, mf SAT, m. 87/1, mf shown in ( )
Calando marked above each part: SB,
m. 89/1; A, m. 89/2; T m. 89/3
(staggered starting points for calando
contributes to the die-down effect)
Calando marked above S and score
reduction at m. 88/3

Molto dim. in SB at m. 89/3, and AT
just after m. 89/2
Molto dim. in SATB just after m. 89/2
B, m. 90 no dim.

B, dim. from m. 89 continues to m.
90/2 where p is marked
SA, m. 94/2, mf; no mf in TB SATB, m. 94/1, mf
f in ST at m. 94/2+ and AB at m. 94/3 SATB f at m. 94/3
B, m. 94/1-2, cresc. B, m. 94/1, no cresc.
B, m. 95, no dim. B, m. 95/1-4, dim. added
SAT, m. 95 dim.: S, bts 1-3; A bts 1+-
4; T, bt. 2-3+
SATB, m. 95, uniform dim.
A, m. 98/1, pp (pp is marked in m. 96) A, m. 98/1, no pp (pp is marked in m.
96)
TB dim., m. 100/just before bt. 2 to bt.
3; SA dim. m. 100/1 to 3
SAT, m. 100/1 to 3, uniform cresc.; B
cresc. m. 100/2 to 3
Rit. at m. 101/1+ in SATB and
reduction
Rit. above each part at m. 101/1
T, m. 102/1 molto rit. + dim.;
graphic dim. in SAB, bt. 1-barline
Molto rit. shown above S and score
reduction at m. 102/1; graphic dim. in
SATB

He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High
Autograph Published edition
Title page detail: Psalm No. 91
Unaccompanied Chorus + Tenor Solo
Rebecca Clarke
Retained

219


2
1
9

Page 1 staves identified from top to
bottom as Solo Tenor, Sopranos,
Altos, Tenors, Basses, Piano score
and Clarke indicated that the soloists
were to stand with the choir, not
separately; MS includes solo pitches in
score reduction
Piano score is replaced by for
rehearsal only and the reduction does
not include solo pitches
Measures 1-3, phrase markings in solo
and choir
Phrase markings in mm. 1-3 omitted
S2, 3/1, courtesy S2, 3/1, no courtesy
S, m. 8/4, no mp S, m. 8/4, mp added to agree with ATB
SAT, m. 23, diminuendos of varying
lengths beginning at bt. 2 or 3 and
continuing to/through the final eighth
note
SAT, m. 23/3+, uniform dim.; bass,
dim. added m. 23/3+
A, m. 2/4, two eighth note Ds (D
above middle C)
A, m. 2/4, two eighth note Fs
(incorrect pitches)
Measure 6, pochiss. cresc. begins
just after bt. 1 (between TB staves) and
just before bt. 2 (between SA staves)
SATB, m. 6/1, pochiss. cresc.
A1, m. 18/1, no . before B
(unintentional omission confirmed by
piano score)
A1, m. 18/1, B.
T2, m. 23: half note A (second space),
eighth rest, quarter note B (third line),
eighth note B
T2, m. 23, erroneously doubles T1;
dim. as shown
S, m. 24/1, sfp; ATB fp SATB, m. 24/1, sfp
SATB, 25/2, pp SATB, 25/2, pp sempre
SATB, 26/2, pp sempre(after page
turn)
SATB, 26/2, no dynamic markings
T, m. 30, graphic cresc. from m. 29/3
to m. 30/1 followed by cresc. on beat
2
T, poco and graphic cresc. from m.
29/3 to m. 30/3; cresc. omitted
A, m. 29/3, poco cresc. A, m. 29/3 poco and graphic
crescendo to m. 30/3
SA accents m. 33/1 and 1+; no accents
in TB; 2
nd
, 3
rd
, and 4
th
bass pitches in
m. 33 are accented in the piano score
T accents added to agree with SA in m.
33; B accents added to agree with
piano score
T, m. 38/4, cresc. T, m. 38/4, MS cresc. replaced by
graphic crescendo
Espr. in S1, A1, A2, T1, m. 40/1 Espr. shown in all parts, m. 40/1;
given the pedal point in the bass, the
addition of espr. to the bass part may
be questioned
220


2
2
0

T2B, m. 44/1-2, no cresc. T2B, m. 44/1-2, graphic cresc. added;
given the bass pedal point in m. 44, the
addition of a cresc. may be questioned
B, m. 46/3+, p; p shown in all parts
except T1 just before bt. 4
B, m. 46/4, p (change is logical)
B, m. 47, no molto cresc. B, m. 47, molto cresc. added at 3+; f
also added at m. 48/1
T2, m. 50/3-4, quarter-note triplet
bracket
T2, m. 50/3-4, bracket missing
(omission)
AAT2, m. 51/1-2, two duple eighth-
note pairs each with a slur suggesting
that all should be sung beginning on
bt. 1 and thy beginning on bt. 2;
however, thy is vaguely placed but is
closer to the fourth eighth note; in
addition, thy is clearly placed under
the fourth eighth note in the same
figure at m. 50/3-4 in the soprano parts
S at m. 50/3-4 and AAT2 at m. 51/1-2,
slurs changed to group first three
eighth notes and thy clearly aligned
with fourth eighth note
T1, m. 65/1+, no p; molto espr.
shown at m. 65/3 in S1 and T1; in A2
and piano score, molto espr. at m.
65/1
T1, m. 65/1+, p and molto espr.;
molto espr. also shown at bt. 1 in S1
and A2
T1, m. 66/1, B pitch; m. 66 begins a
new page; given a B. in S2 at m. 66/1
and the sequential repetition of the T1
motive in m. 67 with a single pitch,
Clarke probably intended the first pitch
of m. 66 to be a B.
T1, m. 66/1, B pitch; m. 66 begins a
new page
B, m. 68, no f or graphic cresc.; molto
cresc. marked in m. 67
B, m. 68, f and graphic crescendo
added to agree with other parts
ff, m. 68/4, S2AAT1 and m. 69/1, S1 ff, m. 69/1, SSAATTB
No B dim., m. 82/2-3 B dim. added m. 82/2-3

Weep You No More, Sad Fountains
Autograph Published edition
Title page includes identification of
John Dowland as author of the text;
four staves identified as soprano, alto,
tenor, bass; source of text not
identified; no score reduction; both
stanzas of text written under staves
Score reduction added for rehearsal
only, stanza two written out
B cresc., m. 9/2-4 and T cresc., m. 9/1
to 4 (parallel passage, m. 33)
TB cresc. m. 9/1 to 3; uniformity
appropriate given shared gesture;
cresc. should extend to bt. 4
221


2
2
1

TB, m. 10/2+ and m. 34/2+ , dim. TB, m. 10/3 and m. 34/3, dim.
Molto dim e allarg. written above
each staff, m. 12/1
allarg. written above soprano staff
and score reduction at m. 12/1; molto
dim. written above each staff
S, m. 13/1-3, dim.; A, m. 12/4-13/2
dim.; T, m. 13/1+-2 dim.
SA dim. m.12/4-13/3; T dim. m. 13/1-
3; SA share a common musical gesture
A tempo written above SAB staves at
m. 13/4; a of a tempo is aligned
with bt. 4 while in SA, a comes after
bt. 4
A tempo above S staff and score
reduction at m. 14/1 and m. 38/1

B, m. 14/1 and m. 26/1, mp B, m. 13/4 and m. 25/4, mp placed one
beat earlier to agree with mp in SA
where SAB share a common rhythm
S, m. 15/1-2, a slur between the first
two quarter notes of the quarter-note
triplet may suggest that heavenly
should be sung as a two-syllable word;
ATB, m. 15/1-2, heavenly must be
sung as a two-syllable word. However,
stanzas one and two are written under a
single set of pitches and the second
verse text at m. 15/1-2 is rest sad.
Perhaps the S slur at m. 15/1-2 refers
only to stanza two; if so, then Clarke
intended heavenly to be sung as a
three-syllable word.
S, m. 15/1-2, the MS slur between the
first two quarter notes of the quarter-
note triplet is retained, but hea-ven-
ly is set as a three-syllable word. As
expected, the S slur is retained in m. 39
and rest sad follows the MS.
SAT cresc. m. 16/1-2+ and m. 40/1-2+;
no B cresc.
SATB cresc. m.16/1-2+ and m. 40/1-
2+; B cresc. added
B, m. 19/2-m. 20/1, and m. 43/2-m.
44/1, dim.
B, m. 19/2-20/1, and m. 43/2-m. 44/1,
dim. missing (error)
Poco rit. 23/2, written above ATB
staves
Poco rit. 23/2+ and m. 47/2+ written
above S staff and score reduction
S, m. 24/2, fermata; fermata over
barline at the end of the measure
(repeat sign)
S fermata omitted at m. 24/2; fermata
over barline between mm. 24 and 25
retained; in the parallel passage at the
conclusion of stanza two, a fermata
was added to the last note in ATB and
the fermata over the repeat sign/final
barline is omitted.
Second verse not written out ATB, m. 30, should have the same
cresc. and dim. as in m. 6
T, m. 32/4, the T, m. 32/4, rise; change of word
causes tenor and bass to utter different
words on bt. 4, rather than sounding
the simultaneously

222


2
2
2

Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight
Autograph
calando above ATB staves
Published edition
calando above S and score reduction
ATB, m. 16, cresc. (throughout the
score, dynamics are often absent from
S)
Cresc. added to S, m. 16, to agree with
ATB (logical editorial extension of
dynamics to S throughout)
ATB, cresc. from m. 16/1 into m. 17/1 Cresc. added to S, mm. 16/1-17/1;
SATB cresc. stops at m. 17/1
S, m. 18/1, no f S, m. 18/1, f added
Poco meno mosso begins at m. 25/1 Poco meno mosso begins at m. 24/3,
at the beginning of a phrase
B, m. 37/3, no cresc.; cresc.
marked in SAT

B, m. 37/3, cresc. added
There is No Rose
Autograph
title: There is no rose of such virtue
Published edition
title: There is No Rose
Old English (?) Tune written above
top staff in pencil
source identified as Fifteenth-century
English Carol, Rebecca Clarke, arr.
staves identified from top to bottom as
Solo Baritone, Alto, Tenor, Baritone,
Bass; only Bass is written using a
bass clef; treble clef is used for all
other parts (with no octave 8)
staves identified as in MS; score
reduction added and marked for
rehearsal only; clefs revised: treble
clef with octave 8 used for alto and
tenor; bass clef for baritone and bass;
For Unaccompanied Lower Voices
(Solo Baritone, ATBarB Chorus)
added
Solo, m. 12/3, cresc. stops Solo, mm. 12-13, cresc. continues to
m. 13/1
Solo dim. from m. 13/2 to m. 14/2 Solo dim. from m. 13/1+ to m. 14/2
ATB1, m. 16 cresc. to bt. 3 ATB1, m. 16, cresc. stops at 2+
TB1, m. 20/1 cresc. to m. 21/2; A,
cresc. m. 20/2 to m. 21/1; B2 cresc. m.
20/3 to m. 21/2 or 3
m. 20/2, ATBB cresc. to bt. 2; cresc.
made uniform
ATBB, pp at m. 24/1 ATBB, pp before m. 24/1 to avoid
collision with fermata
Solo cresc. m. 26/1-3 Solo cresc. m. 26/1-2
Solo dim. m. 27/1+ through measure
A, m. 28/1, p
Solo dim. m. 27/1 to 3
A, m. 28/1, p omitted
B, mm. 29-30/1, dim. extends beyond
end of staff which is also the end of the
B, m. 29/3, dim. stops at bt. 3 although
there is no page turn here and the dim.
223


2
2
3

page; there is no continuation of the
dim. at the top of the next page
could have been continued into bt. 1 of
m. 30
Solo, mm. 29-30, heaven slur and
word extension show continuation of
heaven from m. 29/3 through m.
30/1 with vn naturally sounding with
and at m. 30/2; heaven is sung as a
monosyllabic word
Solo, m. 29/3 to 30/1, heaven is
divided into two syllables, with one
syllable per quarter note on bts. 3 and
1, and the slur and word extension are
omitted
B1, m. 30, no dynamic; the first three
entrances, soloTB2, are marked p
B1, m. 30/1, p added
B2, m. 30/3, heaven with a word
extension and a slur continues through
m. 32/2; there is no indication that
heaven should be set as two syllables
B2, m. 30/3, heaven divided placing
weak syllable -ven on strong beat 1
of m. 32
A, m. 31/2 dim. begins A, m. 31, dim. begins before bt. 2
Solo dim. m. 32/1+ through bt. 2 or 3 Solo dim. m. 32/1+ through m. 33/1
B2, dim. m. 32/3 to m. 34/3 to
complement a descending chromatic
line
B2, dim. from m. 32/3 to m. 33/3;
second dim. from m. 34/1 to m. 35/1
A, m. 34, no dim. A, m. 34 dim. in square brackets added
to agree with TB1 dim.
B1, m. 35/1, pp B1, m. 35/before 1 pp (due to lack of
space)
A, m. 40, no cresc., but cresc. in all
other parts at imitative entrances
A, m. 40/1, [cresc.] added
A, m. 44/1, cresc. begins A, m. 44/2, cresc. begins
ATBB dim., m. 46/3 to p at m. 47/3 or
m. 48/1; the length of the dim. and the
placement of p varies somewhat
among parts;
ATBB dim. and placement of p made
uniform; dim. m. 46/3 to m. 47/3 with
p just before barline between mm.
47/48; placement of fermata at m. 48/1
discourages placement of p at m. 48/1
due to lack of space
Solo cresc. beginning at m. 50/2 Solo cresc. beginning at m. 50/1
A, m. 51, no cresc. probably due to
lack of space on the page
A, m. 51, cresc. added
B2 cresc. m. 51/1 through m.52/3; Solo
cresc. m. 50/2 through m. 52; A, no
cresc. marked and no room in the score
for a cresc.; solo, alto and bass have a
. in m. 52 and solo and B have a cresc.
through the measure
B2 cresc. m. 51/1 to 52/3; Solo cresc.
m. 50/1 to m. 52/3; A cresc. added m.
51/1 to m. 52/3
B1, m. 52, cresc. to f at bt. 2 creating
agreement with accent on Glo-
B1, m. 52, cresc. extends to beat 3 and
f is placed on bt. 3
B1, m. 61, graphic cresc. B1, m. 61, cresc.
SoloAT, mm. 65/66 barline, ff before ff at the end of m. 65
224


2
2
4

barline; B1, m. 66/1+, ff; Clarkes
intention is to have the ff arrive at m.
66/1 but there isnt room in the score,
so ff is placed just before the downbeat
molto dim e rit. written above top
staff at m. 69/3
molto dim written above first pitch of
Gaudeamus in mm. 69 and 70; rit.
written above top staff and score
reduction at m. 70/1 (rit. could be
marked at m. 69/3)
TBB, m. 71, no ppp; ppp shown in solo
and alto

TBB, m. 71, ppp added
Ave Maria
Autographs 1 and 2 were in Clarkes possession at the time of her death. The published
edition is based on autograph 2. The British Library MSS were among Henry
Washingtons papers at the time of his death. According to Clarkes letter to Henry
Washington, British Library MS 1 was the first score she provided, and British Library
MS 2 contains the changes to which she referred.



2
2
5

Autograph 1
- Cover page: Ave
Maria for 3 Womens
Voices




Autograph 2
- Cover page: Ave
Maria For 3-part
womens voices by
Rebecca Clarke

British Library MS 1
- Cover page: Ave
Maria for womens
voices in 3 parts 2
sopranos + Alto; cover
page and first page of
score do not include
Clarkes name
British Library MS 2
- Cover page: Ave
Maria for 3-part
Womens Voices;
cover page and first page
of score do not include
Clarkes name
Published edition
- Cover page: Rebecca
Clarke Ave Maria For
Upper Voices (SSA),
Unaccompanied
- no score reduction - no score reduction - no score reduction - no score reduction - score reduction added
- m. 6, cresc.
S1, cresc. m. 6/1 to 3
S2, cresc. m. 6/2 to 4
A, cresc. m. 6/2 to 3+
- m. 6, cresc. SSA m. 6/2
to 4

- mm. 5-6, a single
cresc. in each part since
both measures are on the
same staff system; S1-
m.5/2 to 6/1; S2 - m.5/2
to 6/2; A m.5/3 to 6/3
- mm. 5-6, a single
cresc. in each part since
both measures are on the
same staff system; S1,
m. 5/1 through measure;
S2, m. 5/2 to m. 6/1; A,
m. 5/3 to m. 6/3
- m. 6, uniform cresc. m.
6/2 through 6/4

- cresc. m. 14/1 to 15/2
(S1), 15/1 (S2A)
- cresc. m. 14/1 through
15/1 (SS), to 15/2 (A)
- cresc. m. 14/1 to 15/2
(SS), nearly to 15/2 (A)
- cresc. m. 14/1 to 15/2
(S2A) and through 15/2
(S1)
- uniform cresc. from m.
14/1 into m. 15/2
- m. 21, S2A, .. . . . - m. 21, S2A, . . . . - m. 21, S2A, . . . . - m. 21, S2A, .. . . . - m. 21, S2A, . . . .
- m. 25, dim. begins
about bt. 2 (S2A) or 3
(S1); pmarked at
beginning of m. 26



- m. 25, dim. begins
about bt. 2 or 3 and
continues well into the
empty margin following
the measure, suggesting
that the dim. continues
into m. 26; pmarked at
beginning of m. 26
- cresc. from m. 24/1
into m. 25/1; S1 dim.
before m. 26/1 through
m. 26; S2 dim. from m.
26/1 through the end of
the measure; A dim.
through the measure;
mm. 25-26 occur within
a single system, unlike
manuscripts 1 and 2, and
- cresc. from m. 24/1
into m. 25 (S1A); cresc.
m. 24/1 to 4 (A); dim.
m. 25/3 into m. 26; dim.
leads to p
- m. 25 dim. bts. 1
through 4





2
2
6

there is no pmarked at
the beginning of m. 26
- m. 32, dim. begins at
m. 32/2+ (S1), m. 32/2
(S2A); pat m. 32/1

- m. 32, dim. begins at
m. 32/2+ (S1), before m.
32/2+ (S2), and about
32/1+ (A); pat m. 32/1
- m. 32, dim. begins at
about bt. 2 (SSA); pis
marked at the barline
preceding m. 32
- m. 32, dim. from m.
32/2+ into 32/3 (SS);
dim. from m. 32/1+ to
bt. 3 (A)
- m. 32, uniform dim.
begins immediately
following pon bt. 1
- m. 33, S2, espr. and
pbefore bt. 1
- m. 33, S2, espr. but
no dynamic before bt. 1
- m. 33, S2, pbefore bt.
1 and espr. about bt. 2
- m. 33/1, S2, p

- m. 33/1, S2, espr. but
no dynamic

- m. 34/1, A, p; S2 cresc.
from m. 33/4 to 34/4
- m. 34/1, A, no
dynamic; S2 cresc. m.
34/1 into 34/4
- m. 34, A, no dynamic;
S2, no cresc.
- m. 34, A, no dynamic;
S2 cresc. m. 34/1 to 4+
- m. 34, A, no dynamic;
S2 cresc. m. 34/1
through the measure
- m. 35/1, cresc. in SS;
graphic cresc. in A, m.
35/1 to 4

- m. 35/1, cresc. in SS;
graphic cresc. in A m.
35/1 to 4
- m. 35/1, cresc. in S1;
graphic cresc. in A, m.
35/1 to 4; graphic cresc.
in S2, m. 35/1 through 3
- m. 35, cresc. in SS;
graphic cresc. before 35/1
nearly to 4

- m. 35/1, cresc. in SS;
graphic cresc. in A, m.
35/1 through 4

- m. 36/3, allarg.
above S1 staff
- m. 36/3, allarg.
above SS staves;
allarg. at m. 36/2 in A
- m. 36/1, allarg.
above S1 staff
- m. 36/3, allarg. above
S1 staff

- m. 36/1, allargando
above S1 staff and score
reduction
- mm. 37, 38, and 39,
S2A voice exchanges

- mm. 37, 38, and 39,
S2A without voice
exchanges
- mm. 37, 38, 39, S2A
without voice exchanges
- mm. 37, 38, 39, S2A
voice exchanges

- mm. 37, 38, 39, S2A
without voice exchanges
- m. 40, rit. written
above each staff: bt.
1(S1), bt. 3 (S2), bt. 2
(A)
- m. 40, rit. written
above bt. 1(S1), bt. 3
(S2), bt. 3 (A)

- m. 40, rit. written
above S1 staff only at bt.
3

- m. 40/2, rit. written
above S1 staff

- m. 40, rit. written
above S1 at bt. 1 and
above score reduction

- m. 41/1, SSA dim.
begins on bt. 1; S1 dim.
to bt. 3; S2 dim. to bt. 3;
A dim. to barline
- m. 41/2, SSA dim.
begins on bt. 2 and
continues to bt. 4
- m. 41/1, SSA dim.
begins on bt. 1 and
continues to the barline
- m. 41/1, SSA dim.
begins on bt. 1; dim.
continues to barline in
S2 and into m. 42 in A
- m. 41/1, SSA dim.
begins at or just before
bt. 1 and continues
almost to the barline
227


2
2
7

Chorus from Shelleys Hellas
Two autograph scores of Chorus from Shelleys Hellas, owned by Becky Pogo
Clarke, display Clarkes early work and are for four voices with divisi. Two five-part
autograph scores were among Clarkes papers at the time of her death and contain many
harmonic changes as compared to the four-part autographs. Since the early four-part
settings are significantly different than the later five-part versions, the table below
compares only the five-part autograph scores and the published edition.
Autograph 1 (1943?)
Cover page: Chorus
from Shelleys
Hellas for Female
Voices (five-part) by
Rebecca Clarke
Autograph 2 (1944?)
Cover page: Chorus
from Shelleys
Hellas for Female
Voices (five-part) by
Rebecca Clarke
Published edition
Cover: Rebecca
Clarke Chorus from
Shelleys Hellas For
Five-part Womens
Chorus (SSSAA),
Unaccompanied
1943? written in
pencil at top of cover
page; 1943? also
written in pencil at
bottom of final page
1944? written in
pencil at the bottom of
the final page;
published edition is
based on 1943?,
manuscript 1
m. 8/4, S2A1, pp
m. 9/4, S1S3, pp
m. 8/4, S2A1, pp
m. 9/4, S1S3, pp
m. 8/4, S2A1, pp
missing; m. 9/4, S1S3,
pp missing
m. 14/1, A1 and m.
14/2, S2S3A2 - pp
m. 14/1, A1 and m.
14/2, S2S3A2 - pp
m. 14/1, A1 and m.
14/2, S2S3A2 - pp
missing
m. 14 dim. begins
about m. 14/2+ in
S1S2A1A2 and at m.
14/3 in S3 and
continues to 4 or 4+
dim. marked at or
before m. 14/2 in
S2S3AA; dim. m.
14/1, S1
dim. m. 14/2+ in S1
and S2S3AA m. 14/3;
dim. ends at 4+ in all
voices
m. 15 dim. varies
among voices; dim.
begins at m. 15/3, S1;
15/2 or 2+ S2S3AA;
dim. continues into m.
16 in all voices
m. 15 dim. SSSAA
begins approximately
halfway through the
measure; dim. in S1
stops at m. 15/16
barline; dim. continues
in lower four voices
into m. 16
m. 15 dim.
immediately follows
ppp and stops at m.
15/16 barline
m. 17, equivalency
written as . = but the
metric change is from
c to
m. 17, equivalency
written as . = but the
metric change is from
c to
m. 17, equivalency
written as . = but the
metric change is from
c to (the equivalency
228


2
2
8

= . seems more
likely)
m. 20/3 to 21/1, S1S2
dim.; m. 20/before 3
into m. 21/1, A1 dim.;
m. 21/1 to 2, A2 dim.
m. 20/3 to 21/1, S1A1
dim.; m. 21/1 to 3, S2
dim.; m. 20/3 to 21/2,
A2 dim.
uniform dim. m. 20/3
to 21/1; A2 dim.
should be longer
m. 22/3, S2 mp m. 22/3, S2 mp m. 22/3, S2 mp
omitted
m. 27, S1 - A; S2 - C m. 27, S1 - C; S2 - A m. 27, S1 - A; S2 - C
mm. 51-52 S1S3A2
entrances marked
sempre cresc.; S2
marked cresc.
mm. 51-52 SSSA2
sempre cresc.
m. 53, sempre cresc.
added to A1; A1 does
not have the melodic
motive just heard in
the other parts
m. 55/2-4, S2 cresc. m. 55/3-4, S2 cresc. m. 55, S2 cresc.
omitted
m. 57/4, A2 ff m. 57/4, A2 ff m. 57/4, A2 ff omitted
(perhaps considered
redundant)
m. 58/4, A2 ff m. 58/4, A2 ff m. 58/4, A2 (ff)
m. 65/2-66/1 dim., A1 m. 65/2-66/1 dim., A1 m. 65/3 to 4, dim., A1
m 73/before bt. 1, A1,
pp
m. 73/1, A1, pp m. 73/1, A1, pp
omitted
m. 76, S2A1, cresc.
76/1-2; dim. m. 76/2+-
3+
m. 76/1-2 cresc.
S2S3A1; m. 76/2+-3+
dim. S2S3A1
m. 76, A1, cresc./dim.
omitted (should be the
same as S2)
m. 96, AA, duple
quarter-note bracket
m. 96, AA, duple
quarter-note bracket
m. 96, AA, duple
quarter-note bracket
omitted
m. 101/1, S1, pp; A2,
pp
m. 101/1, S1S2A2, pp m. 101/1, S1S2A2, pp
omitted
m. 102/1, S3, pp m. 102/1, S3, pp m. 102/1, S3, pp
omitted
m. 103/1, A1, pp m. 103/1, A1, pp m. 103/1, A1, pp
omitted
m. 105, SSSAA,
sempre pp
m. 105, SSSAA,
sempre pp
m. 105, SSSAA,
sempre pp omitted
m. 108/1, S2S3AA, pp m. 108/1, S2S3AA, pp m. 108/1, S2S3AA,
(pp)
m. 113/1, S2S3A2, pp m. 113/1, S2S3AA, pp m. 113/1, pp omitted
m. 116/before 3, S3,
pp
m. 116/before 3, S3,
pp
m. 116, pp omitted
m. 118/1 to 120/1, S1
dim.
m. 117/1+? to 119/3,
S1 dim.
m. 118/1 to 120/1, S1
dim.
229


2
2
9

m. 118/2? to 120/1, S2
dim.
m. 118/1 to 120/1, S2
dim.
m. 118/1 to 120/1, S2
dim.
m. 118/3 to 120/2?, S3
dim.
m. 118/1 to 119/3+,
S3 dim.
m. 119/1 to 120/1, S3
dim.
m. 117/1 to 118/1+,
A1 dim.
m. 118/1 to 120/1, A1
dim.
m. 117/1 to 118/1, A1
dim.
m. 119/1, A1, ppp no A1 dynamic in m.
119
m. 119/1, A1, ppp
m. 121/1, S1S3, ppp m. 120/end of
measure, SSSAA, ppp
m. 121, SSS, ppp
mm. 113-121, A2,
sea sustained
m. 116, A2 divisi
added in pencil; A2b:
m. 116/1, sapph; m.
118/1 -ire; m. 120/1
sea; A2b does not
sing any new pitches,
but merely reiterates
the text; A2a sings
sustained sea from
m. 113 to the end
mm. 113-121, A2,
sea sustained

230


2
3
0

BIBLIOGRAPHY
A., T. New Music: Songs. Musical Times 70, no. 1031 (1929): 40.

Advertisement. Sackbut 1, no. 2 (1920): 89.

Banfield, Stephen. Clarke [Friskin], Rebecca (Thacher). In The Norton/Grove
Dictionary of Women Composers, edited by Julie Anne Sadie and Rhian Samuel,
119-120. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1995.

______. Too Much of Albion? Mrs. Coolidge and Her British Connections. American
Music 4, no. 1 (1986): 59-88.

______. Vocal Music. In Music in Britain: The Twentieth Century, edited by Stephen
Banfield, 402-500. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.

Barr, Cyrilla. Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge: American Patron of Music. New York:
Schirmer, 1998.

______. A Style of Her Own: The Patronage of Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge. In
Cultivating Music in America: Women Patrons and Activists Since 1860, edited
by Ralph P. Locke and Cyrilla Barr, 185-203. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1997.

Blezzard, Judith. "Partsong." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove
/music/20988 (accessed January 12, 2010).

Bullard, Julia. The Viola and Piano Music of Rebecca Clarke. DMA diss., University
of Georgia, 2000. ProQuest (AAT 9986910).

Byrne, Richard .Silent Treatment. The Chronicle of Higher Education 50, no. 45
(2004): A14. http://chronicle.com/article/Silent-Treatment/36247/.

Campion, Thomas. The Third and Fourth Booke of Ayres: So as they may be expressed
by one Voyce, with a Violl, Lute, or Orpharion. New York: Performers
Fascimiles, [1995].

Clarke, Rebecca. Ave Maria. Manuscripts, parts, and related correspondence. MS Mus.
1694, British Library.

______. Ave Maria. Manuscripts. Private collection.

______. Ave Maria. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

231


2
3
1

______. The Beethoven Quartets as a Player Sees Them. Music and Letters 8, no. 2
(1927): 178-190.

______. Choral fragment. 1940. Manuscript. Private collection.

______. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas. Manuscripts. Private collection.

______. Chorus from Shelleys Hellas. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

______. Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight. Manuscripts. Private collection.

______. Come, Oh Come, My Lifes Delight. New York: Oxford University Press,
2003.

______. Diaries. Private collection.

______. Fiddling with the Stars. Unpublished typescript. Private collection.

______. I Had a Father, Too; or The Mustard Spoon. Unpublished manuscript.
Private collection.

______. He That Dwelleth in the Secret Place of the Most High. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2003.

______. The History of the Viola in Quartet Writing. Music and Letters 4, no. 1
(1923): 6-17.

______. Interview by Robert Sherman. In An Historical Sampling of Women Composers
and their Music: Middle Ages to the Present. Vol. 1. Leonarda Productions LPl 1,
1986. Audiocassette.

______. Interview by Robert Sherman. The Listening Room. WQXR radio, New York,
August 30, 1976. Recording.

______. La Semaine Anglaise at the Paris Colonial Exhibition. The BMS Bulletin,
New Series 1 (1931): 7-11.

______. [A Lovers Dirge]. Manuscript. Private collection.

______. A Lovers Dirge. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

______. Mozart and His Quartets. Unpublished typescript. Private collection.

______. [Music, When Soft Voices Die]. Manuscript. Private collection.

______. Music, When Soft Voices Die. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
232


2
3
2


______. My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float. Manuscripts. Private collection.

______. My Spirit Like a Charmed Bark Doth Float. New York: Oxford University
Press, 2003.

______. Notes on the Program: Viola Sonata. Stagebill, Lincoln Center for the
Performing Arts 4, no. 8 (1977), 27 and 29.

______. [Now Fie on Love]. Manuscript. Private collection.

______. Now Fie on Love. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

______. Observations. Unpublished manuscript. Private collection.

______. Philomela. Manuscript. Private collection.

______. Philomela. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

______. Psalm 91. Manuscript. Private collection.

______. R. V. W. Manuscript for radio broadcast. October 24, 1958. Private collection.

______. Rebecca Clarke: The Complete Choral Music, Gonville and Caius College Choir
Cambridge conducted by Geoffrey Webber, ASV 1136, 2003, compact disc.

______. Schubert and His Quartets. Unpublished typescript. Private collection.

______. Song Album. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1995.

______. Songs with Piano. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

______. String 4tets and Their Backgrounds. Lecture notes. Private collection.

______. There is No Rose. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

______. There is No Rose of Such Virtue. Manuscript. Private collection.

______. Viola. In Cobbetts Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music, edited by W. W.
Cobbett, 536-38. London: Oxford University Press, 1929.

______. Weep You No More, Sad Fountains. Manuscripts. Private collection.

______. Weep You No More, Sad Fountains. New York: Oxford University Press,
2003.

233


2
3
3

______. What is There in This Chamber Music? Lecture notes. Private collection.

______. What is There in This Chamber Music? By One of the Players. Typescript.
Private collection.

______. [When Cats Run Home and Light is Come]. Manuscript. Private collection.

______. When Cats Run Home and Light is Come. New York: Oxford University
Press, 2003.

______. The Woman ComposerThen and Now. Facsimile of typescript reproduced
with Morpheus: For Viola and Piano by Rebecca Clarke. Appendix 2. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2002.

Clarke, Rebecca and Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge. Correspondence. Coolidge Foundation.
Rebecca Clarke Correspondence. Library of Congress.

Clarke, Rebecca and James Friskin. Correspondence. Private collection.

Clarke, Rebecca. In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by
Stanley Sadie, 4:448. London: Macmillan, 1980.

Crichton, Ronald and John Lucas. "Beecham, Sir Thomas." In Grove Music Online.
Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu
/subscriber/article/grove/music/02507 (accessed December 14, 2009).

Curtis, Liane. A Case of Identity. Musical Times 137, no. 1839 (1996): 15-21.

______. Clarke, Rebecca. In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove
/music/44728 (accessed July 9, 2009).

______. Clarke [Friskin], Rebecca (Thacher) [Helferich]. In The New Grove
Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., edited by Stanley Sadie, 5:920-21.
London: Macmillan, 2001.

______. Rebecca Clarke and the British Musical Renaissance. Ivor Gurney Society
Journal 7 (2001): 53-66.

______. Rebecca Clarke [Six Works]. Notes Quarterly Journal of the Music Library
Association 60, no. 1 (2003): 278-285.
Darwin, Charles. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex Part Two
London: William Pickering, 1989.
234


2
3
4

Dibble, Jeremy. "Clarke, Rebecca." In The Oxford Companion to Music, edited by Alison
Latham. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib
.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/opr/t114/e1439 (accessed July 10, 2009).
Dowland, John. The Third and Last Booke of Songs or Aires. New York: Performers
Facsimiles, [1994].

E., E. London Concerts: Contemporary Music Centre. Musical Times 64, no. 962
(1923): 277.

Evans, Edwin. Clarke, Rebecca. In Cobbetts Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music,
2nd ed., edited by W. W. Cobbett, 1:282-83. London: Oxford University Press,
1963. First published 1929.

Evans, Edwin. Clarke, Rebecca. In Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 3rd
ed., edited by H.C. Colles, 1:659. London: St. Martins Street, 1936.

Evans, Peter. Instrumental Music I. In Music in Britain: The Twentieth Century, edited
by Stephen Banfield, 179-277. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.

Flint, M. H. Musical Notes from Abroad: New York. Musical Times 64, no. 969
(1923): 800-803.

Follet, Robert. Clarke, Rebecca (1886-1979). In Women and Music in America Since
1900: An Encyclopedia, edited by Kristine H. Burns, 1:98-99. Westport,
Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Fuller, Sophie. The Pandora Guide to Women Composers: Britain and the United States
1629-Present. London: Pandora/Harper Collins, 1994.

______. "Society of Women Musicians." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove
/music/26084 (accessed February 15, 2009).

______. Women Composers during the British Musical Renaissance, 1880-1918. PhD
diss., Kings College, University of London, 1998. EThOS (uk.bl.ethos.263601).

Gerling, Daphne. Connecting histories: Identity and Exoticism in Ernest Bloch, Rebecca
Clarke, and Paul Hindemiths Viola Works of 1919. DMA diss., Rice
University, 2007. ProQuest (AAT 3257332).

Gillett, Paula. Musical Women in England, 1870-1914. New York: St. Martins Press,
2000.

Goossens, Eugene. Overture and Beginners. London: Methuen, [1951].

235


2
3
5

Greene, Harry. Stanford as I Knew Him. RCM Magazine 20 (1923-24): 77-86.

H., D. London Concerts: Mary Jarred. Musical Times 70, no. 1037 (1929): 643-46.

H., P. Contingencies. Sackbut 1, no. 3 (1920): 104-109.

H., R. Harold Dahlquist. Musical Mirror 9 (1929): 168.

Hillier, Paul. Introduction to English Romantic Partsongs. Edited by Paul Hillier. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1986.

Hurd, Michael. Glees, Madrigals, and Partsongs. In Music in Britain: The Romantic
Age, 1800-1914, edited by Nicholas Temperley. London: Athlone Press, 1981,
242-265.

Jacobs, Arthur. Henry J. Wood: Maker of the Proms. London: Methuen, 1994.

Jeffers, Ron, comp. Translations and Annotations of Choral Repertoire: Volume 1,
Sacred Latin Texts. Corvallis, OR: Earthsongs, 1988.

Johnson, Christopher. Note to Now Fie on Love by Rebecca Clarke. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2003.

______. Note to Philomela by Rebecca Clarke. New York: Oxford University Press,
2003.

______. Remembering the Glorious Rebecca Clarke. American Women Composers
News 3 (1981): 3-6.

Jones, Bryony. The Music of Rebecca Clarke (1886-1979). PhD diss., University of
Liverpool, 2004. EThOS (uk.bl.ethos.406829).

K., A. Rebecca Clarkes Trio. Musical Times 63, no. 958 (1922): 874.

Kant, Immanuel. Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. Translated by
John Goldthwait. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960.

Kennedy, Michael, ed. "Clarke, Rebecca ." In The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed.
rev. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa
.edu/subscriber/article/opr/t237/e2196 (accessed July 10, 2009).

Kennedy, Michael. "Ronald, Sir Landon." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove
/music/23776 (accessed December 14, 2009).

236


2
3
6

Keyte, Hugh and Andrew Parrott, eds. The New Oxford Book of Carols. London: Oxford
University Press, 1992.

Kohnen, Daniela. Rebecca Clarke, Komponistin und Bratschistin: Biographie.
Egelsbach: Markus Haensel-Hohenhausen, 1999.

Kushner, David Z. "Bloch, Ernest." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove
/music/03287 (accessed March 19, 2011).

Lerner, Ellen D. Clarke [Friskin], Rebecca (Thacher). In The New Grove Dictionary of
American Music, edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie, 1:452. New
York: Groves Dictionaries of Music, 1986.

Lerner, Ellen. A Modern European Quintet: c. 1900-c. 1960. Unpublished manuscript,
1985.

Locke, Ralph P. and Cyrilla Barr. Introduction: Music Patronage As a Female-Centered
Cultural Process. In Cultivating Music in America: Women Patrons and Activists
Since 1860, edited by Ralph P. Locke and Cyrilla Barr, 1-15. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1997.

Loh, Ai-Ree. Unifying Devices in Selected Large-Scale Piano Repertoire Since
Beethoven: A Performance Dissertation. DMA diss., University of Maryland,
College Park, 2003. ProQuest (AAT 3095980).

London Concerts. Musical Times 67, no. 998 (1926): 346.

M. M. S. London Concerts Society of Women Musicians. Musical Times 80, no.
1151 (1939): 64-65.
MacDonald, Calum. Rebecca Clarkes Chamber Music (I). Tempo 160 (1987): 15-26.

Macpherson, Stewart. Practical Harmony. Revised edition. London: Joseph Williams,
1907.

The Mental Differences Between Men and Women. The British Medical Journal 2, no.
1390 (1887): 415-16.

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty and The Subjection of Women. Edited by Alan Ryan.
London: Penguin, 2006.

Miscellaneous Society of Women Musicans. Musical Times 69, no. 1026 (1928):
751.

237


2
3
7

Moroney, James Patrick. General Instruction of the Roman Missal. Washington, D.C.:
United States Catholic Conference, Inc., 2003. http://www.nccbuscc.org
/liturgy/current/GIRM.pdf.

Musical Times 64, no. 960 (1923): 134.

Napier, Michael. Introduction. In The London Oratory Centenary 1884-1984, edited by
Michael Napier and Alistair Laing, 7-20. London: Trefoil Books, 1984.

Notes on New Music. Bookman 68, no. 405 (1925): 185.

Occasional Notes, Musical Times 68, no. 1011 (1927): 428-29.

Parsons, Donna. Their Voices Sing True and Clear: British Women Musicians and Their
Literary Counterparts 1860-1920. PhD diss., The University of Iowa, 2001.
ProQuest (AAT 3018606).

Pendle, Karin. Women and Music: A History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
1991.

______. Women in Music: A Research and Information Guide. New York: Routledge,
2005.

P[eyser], H[erbert] F. Gifted Artists Join in Unique Recital. Musical America 27, no.
17 (February 23, 1918): 10.

Phillips, Edward. The Mysteries of Love and Eloquence. London: N. Brooks, 1658.

Ponder, Michael. Double Talent. The Strad 97 (1986): 250-253.

______. Rebecca Clarke. British Music Society Journal 5 (1983): 82-88.

______. Rebecca Clarke. In An Anthology of British Viola Players, compiled and
edited by John White, 53-56. Heirs House Lane, Colne, Lancashire: Comus
Edition, 1997.

Pranata, Julianto. New Transcriptions for Viola: Works by J.S. Bach, Frank Bridge,
Clara Schumann, and Rebecca Clarke. DMA diss., The University of Memphis,
2004. ProQuest (AAT 3127347).

Prout, Ebenezer. Harmony: Its Theory and Practice. London: Augener, 1903.

Psalms Chapter 91. The Official King James Bible Online. http://kingjames
bibleonline.org/Psalms-Chapter-91/.

238


2
3
8

Rebecca Clarke. The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed. Edited by Michael Kennedy.
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/opr
/t237/e2196 (accessed July 10, 2009).

Reich, Nancy B. European Composers and Musicians, circa 1800-1890. In Women and
Music: A History, 2nd ed., edited by Karin Pendle, 147-174. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 2001.

Rieger, Eva. Rebecca Clarke: Komponistin und BratschistinBiographie (review) Die
Musikforschung 53, no. 2 (2000): 218.

Rodmell, Paul. Charles Villiers Stanford. London: Ashgate, 2002.

Roma, Catherine. Contemporary British Composers. In Women and Music: A History,
2nd ed., edited by Karin Pendle, 227-51. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
2001.

Romanes, George. Mental Differences Between Men and Women. In The Education
Papers: Womens Quest for Equality in Britain, 1850-1912, edited by Dale
Spender. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987.

Rose, Herbert J. A Handbook of Greek Mythology: Including its Extension to Rome.
London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1958.

Rutland, John. Violin and Voice as Partners in Three Early Twentieth-Century English
Works for Voice and Violin. DMA diss., University of North Texas, 2005.
ProQuest (AAT 3206103).

Seddon, Laura. The Instrumental Chamber Music of British Women Composers in the
Early Twentieth Century. PhD diss., City University, London, 2011.

Septembers Bulletin of Oxford Music. Musical Times 67, no. 1004 (1926): 946.

Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night, or What You Will. Edited by Roger Warren and
Stanley Wells. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

Shelley, Percy Bysshe. A Fragment: To One Singing. In The Complete Poetical Works
of Percy Bysshe Shelley, http://www.onlineliterature.com/shelley_percy/complete
-works-of-shelley/39/.

______. Hellas: A Lyrical Drama, http://www.onlineliterature.com/shelley_percy
/compete-works-of-shelley/16/.

______. The Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. London: Edward Moxon, 1839.

239


2
3
9

______, Mary Wolstonecraft Shelley, and William Bell Scott. The Poetical Works of
Percy Bysshe Shelley. Vol. 3. London: John Slark, 1881.

Shore, Bernard. Obituary: Rebecca Clarke. RCM Magazine (1980): 56-7.

Sidney, Sir Philip. [The Nightingale]. In Poetry of the English Renaissance 1509-1660,
edited by J. William Hebel and Hoyt H. Hudson, 119. New York: F. S. Crofts &
Co., 1941. Originally published in Certain Sonnets (London: [by Felix Kingston]
for Matthew Lownes, [1597?].

Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Vol 1.
Edited by Edwin Cannan. New York: The Modern Library, 1937.

Society of Women Musicians. Musical Times 67, no. 1002 (1926): 736-37.

Spicer, Paul. Preface to English Pastoral Partsongs: Selected by Paul Spicer, v-vii.
London: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Stradling, Robert and Meirion Hughes. The English Musical Renaissance 1860-1940:
Construction and Deconstruction. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Stratton, Stephen. Woman in Relation to Musical Art. Proceedings of the Musical
Association, 9th Sess., Royal Musical Association (1882-1883): 115-39.

Temperley, Nicholas et al. "London (i)." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/subscriber/article/grove
/music/16904pg8 (accessed December 11, 2009).

Tennyson, Alfred. Poems, Chiefly Lyrical. London: Effingham Wilson, Royal Exchange,
Cornhill, 1830.

Uscher, Nancy. Dr. Nancy Uscher Book Material Authored. Accessed February 19,
2011. http://nancyuscher.com/index_files/Pages 611.htm.

V., B. London Concerts. Musical Times 67, no. 998 (1926): 344-50.

______.New Music: Chamber Music. Musical Times 69, no. 1022 (1928): 323-31.
______. A Pianoforte and Viola Sonata. Musical Times 63, no. 950 (1922): 247-48.
Washington, Henry. The Oratory Musical Tradition. In The London Oratory Centenary
1884-1984, edited by Michael Napier and Alistair Laing, 152-171. London:
Trefoil Books, 1984.

Weininger, Otto. Sex and Character: an Investigation of Fundamental Principles.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005. http://proxy.lib.uiowa.edu/login
240


2
4
0

?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/uiowa/Doc?id=10124799/ (accessed January 26,
2010), 180.

Whittall, Arnold. British Music in the Modern World. In Music in Britain: The
Twentieth Century, edited by Stephen Banfield, 9-26. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.

Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Edited by Deidre Shauna
Lynch. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2009.

Wright, K. A. Wireless News. School Music Review 33, no. 394 (1925): 325-27.

______. Wireless News. School Music Review 34, no. 397 (1925): 26-27.

______. Wireless News. School Music Review 34, no. 400 (1925): 131-32.

______. Wireless News. School Music Review 34, no. 406 (1926): 346-47.
Young, Percy. The Madrigal in the Romantic Era. Special issue, American Choral
Review 19, no. 4 (1977): 7-72.