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ISSN 1392 0758 SOCIALINIAI MOKSLAI. 2011. Nr.

1 (71)

A Choir as a Learning Organization


Asta Tamusauskaite
Kaunas University of Technology Donelaicio 73, LT-44029 Kaunas, Lithuania
http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ss.71.1.381

Abstract
The article analyses a choir as a learning organization and reveals the advantage of a choir an art organization as a learning organization related to its capability to learn faster than other organizations. Learning of a choir as learning of an organization is analysed on three levels; peculiarities of a choir as a learning organization based on Senges (1990) model of learning organization are revealed; two models of conducting a choir as a learning organization are highlighted. Keywords: choir, learning organization, learning processes.

Introduction
Organization which aims to engage into efficient activity and accommodate to constantly changing conditions must accept one of the greatest challenges of the present to become a learning organization (Toma, 1999; Simonaitiene, 2003, 2007; Juceviciene, 2007). Such an organization has enabled permanent development of its employees on all three levels individual, group and the entire organization (Schuller, 1997; Walton, 1999; Juceviciene, 2007). However, first of all it is necessary to change the approach towards organization culture, organization requirements and prevailing understanding of organizational activity. The learning organization as a prerequisite for a knowledge organization has been analyzed by a number of researchers (Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell, 1991; Senge, 1990; Garven, 1993; Kline and Saunders, 1993; Juceviciene, 2007, 2009). In their discussions on the learning organization, researchers usually present it as a certain pattern or an ideal, which should be followed by the organizations aiming for efficient activity (Easterby-Smith and Araujo, 1999; Finger and Brand, 1999). The development of a learning organization according to Toma (1999) is related to creation of unique resources typical for a particular organization. The resources are not available in the market and, therefore, an organization generates them by itself. The above-mentioned authors agree that traditional work organizations find it difficult to achieve the state of a learning organization. Researchers also find it hard to investigate such organizations. One of the reasons for this is that the achievement of goals in these organizations is stretched in time and the activity does not always require innovation, thus overall

permanent learning is only declared rather than implemented from the point of view of an organization. However, from this point of view art organizations operate differently. A specific feature of an art organization is an exceptionally compact activity in terms of time (performance of some compositions takes only several minutes). During this short period of time researchers easily observe processes of organizational activity, leadership, etc. taking place, whereas in traditional work organizations activities are stretched in time and thus difficult to identify in real time which makes research more complicated and reduces the validity of results. However, researchers observe analogies between art and work organizations from various managerial aspects. Therefore, art organizations are often researched in order to observe regularities significant to work organization as well. Similarities between symphonic orchestras and future work organizations have been observed since 1980. Researchers periodically employ the analogy of the relationship between the conductor and the musician as an explanation of theoretical aspects of organization management and leadership (Bennis and Nanus, 1985; Druker, 1988; Traub, 1996). For this reason some orchestra conductors have even established consulting firms providing services for business organizations (Hunt, Stelluto and Hooijberg, 2004). Some music organizations arrange managerial seminars of group work and creativity for business leaders in their regions. However, there is a lack of research about musicians as creative workers, conductors as managers and professional orchestras as organizations. There is a great perspective in researching art organizations as learning organizations because these organizations possess another distinction every time the activity of an art organization should be more masterly from the standpoint of psychological impact on the spectators, particularly if it is repeated to the same spectator. According to Kline and Saunders (1993), the spectator will judge the performance of the play as equally good only if it is performed more masterly every time. Art organizations (drama theatres, orchestras, choirs) are presented by Barrett (1998), Megginson (2000), Ortenblad (2001), Beckwith (2003), Agiman (2004, 2009), Ceruti (2004), Hunt, Stelluto and Hooijberg (2004) as excellent examples of learning organizations. Learning processes constantly take place in these organization on individual, group and organizational levels (Juceviciene, Jucaite and Tamusauskaite, 2008; Tamusauskaite, 2010).

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The difference between art organizations and traditional work organizations is determined by the fact that an art organization aiming to perform a composition on the level of interpretation (which is the highest level of composition performance) must necessarily act as a learning organization. In such an organization the leader evokes coordination between the orchestra members by communicating and reacting to permanent change and also encourages manifestations of interpretations, generates new understanding and performance among the orchestra members by adding his own creative ideas and thus constantly aims for a new individual and collective understanding of performance. However, neither Agiman (2004, 2009) nor Ceruti (2004) present a solid theoretical background for an orchestra as a learning organization, but only limit themselves with highlighting of their own and other conductors practical experience. Furthermore, orchestras and choirs have been investigated as organizations only several times by researching them as learning organizations in order to enrich the field of knowledge management theory (Agiman, 2004; Juceviciene, Jucaite and Tamusauskaite, 2007, 2008; Tamusauskaite, 2010). Still, specific features of a choir as a learning organization remain hidden. Therefore, highlighting them would allow searching for links between art and work organizations activities. Presumably, this could be one more step in solving a complex process of work organizations becoming learning organizations. Thus, identification of peculiarities of a choir as a learning organization is a relevant research problem. The aim of the article is to highlight the peculiarities of a choir as a learning organization.

research results (Juceviciene, Jucaite and Tamusauskaite, 2008). This distinguishes a choir from other organizations which must do certain stages of development to achieve the state of learning organization according to Kline and Saunders (1993). To reveal the specific features of a choir as a learning organization according to the model of learning organization by Senge (1990), the specific features of a choir as a learning organization will be analysed in order to identify the learning processes in a choir as a learning organization. The article consists of six parts: the first part presents a choir as a learning organization where constant learning takes places on three levels (the choir, vocal groups and the choristers) according to Senge (1990). The second part analyses the choir activity according to personal mastery feature of Senges (1990) learning organization, whereas the third part reveals the mental models prevailing in a choir as a learning organization. The fourth part discusses the creation of a shared vision in a choir, the fifth part analyses teamwork as a daily phenomenon in a choir. Finally, the sixth part analyses the system thinking in the choir during the interpretation of a composition. 1. Choir as a learning organization: an overview. Senge (1990) defines learning organization as a place where people constantly develop their capability to achieve desired results, where mental models are developed and nurtured, where collective aspirations form freely and people continually learn from each other. Such an organization a choir has been revealed by theoretical and empirical research (Juceviciene, Jucaite and Tamusauskaite, 2007, 2008). The above-mentioned research proved what Agiman (2004) observed in the activity of an orchestra based on his practical experience as a conductor: not only an orchestra but also a choir operates as a learning organization while performing a music composition on the level of interpretation. Referring to a choir as a learning organization, it is necessary to take into consideration the learning society where learning takes place everywhere and always. Innovations constantly take place in the choir as well as in the orchestra not only in the process of learning a new composition but also in performing a composition which was already technically mastered, which means, during the interpretation of a composition not only under supervision of the conductor but also learning from each other and the experience of the choir as an organization. Juceviciene (2007) notes that systems approach characterizes the learning society as a society where learning takes place everywhere and always on three main levels (individual, group/organization/community and society) enabled by collective efforts where individuals develop themselves self-dependently in different forms permanently, especially in partnership networks. From this point of view the main value is continuous innovation in pursuance of human, organizational and societal sustained development based on permanent individual and collective knowledge production. Interaction in the choir as in a learning organization is shown in Figure 1.

Basic concepts
Choir as learning organization is studied on the basis of widely spread concepts of education and management sciences. In general, choir as learning organization is perceived as an organization where permanent learning process takes place: learning from one another on individual and collective levels (Polanyi, 1958; Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995). The research of learning on the individual level is based on the concept of lifelong learning (Longworth, 2000). The specific features of a choir as a learning organization are revealed by applying Senges (1990) model of learning organization which consists of five components. Four of them (personal mastery, mental models, creation of shared vision, team learning) are value oriented, the fifth and the most important one - systems thinking is the highest point of a learning organization, the peak of its development. The latter is achieved by implementing the above mentioned four dimensions in the activity of an organization. Senge (1990) identifies the features of the learning organization as the subjects and notes that, by following these in an organization, learning takes place everywhere and all the time (in all activities) as well as the members of an organization become the learners. The above-mentioned model of a learning organization by Senge (1990) was chosen because the state of a good choir is always a learning organization as shown by the

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CHOIR

VOCAL GROUPS

CHORISTERS

Conductor Figure 1. Interaction in the choir as a learning organization In order to highlight the peculiarities of a choir as a learning organization, Senges (1990) five learning organization features referred to as the disciplines will be taken as the basis. Members of an organization climb upstairs until they reach the highest level where learning becomes their personal demand, i.e. an individual cannot resist learning in action. 2. Personal mastery is a process, a commitment of a lifetime, but not an object/thing which can be obtained once and for all. People distinguished for personal mastery understand their own ignorance, incompetence and fields for further development (Simonaitiene, 2003). Personal mastery is understood as a possibility to achieve what we really want. Individuals are the greatest driving force thanks to which organizations learn whereas all other resources are just vehicles. Employees consistently aim for an established goal and learn from others. They are very important in an organization as well as development of their personalities. Firstly, employees have to find out what is really of importance to them, and, secondly, they should observe and evaluate present situation more clearly and more objectively. Senge (1990) associates personal mastery with certain human characteristics. These are a special sense of purpose, curiosity and dedication, ability to see the reality much more precisely, .i.e. ability to delve deep into the subject, links with life, other people and creative processes. All these characteristics are specific to the conductor and the choristers who strive for the end result of the choir the concert. Kanershtein (1972) notes that performance of the music composition in the concert is the result of the entire conductors preparatory work. The concert is the crowning of the work and a festival which is aimed for by the conductor and the choristers. During concerts, a choir gains experience, listens to different evaluations of its work. The more concerts a choir performs, the more visible its maturity becomes vocal technique, artistic sense, scenic culture and etc., emotional tone of the choristers is developed as well as artistic maturity (Dumbliauskaite, 2006). According to Geniusas (1973), the goal of a choir should be related not just to preparations for a concert or a performance but also to permanent rise to higher collective artistic level, development of creativity and the feeling of ensemble unity. Hence, the choirmasters aim is not just to prepare a choir for concerts but also permanently develop it in the artistic sense. Seeking for the end result, the conductor develops and enriches ones own talent which is inborn according to Toubman (1974), but which also requires constant supervision. According to the author, maestro Toskanini is a perfect example of the person aiming for personal mastery. He never ceased learning and analysing scores even those known to him for a long time and which he had conducted half a century ago. The experience of this conductor shows that conducting is a serious and exhausting work, work without end. A musician can never claim: today I have reached the top and I will always perform this piece precisely this way. Every time music requires a new approach towards oneself and new performance. Kanershtein (1972) claims that permanent work of a conductor is related to studies of music literature, it is very important for an artist to study culture permanently in the process of becoming a musical individuality, as well as to study philosophy, aesthetics, history and other art forms because it influences interpretation. Perception of the significance of choirmaster theory studies has influence on the process of rehearsing with choristers having different capabilities (Kerby, 1999). Therefore, the choirmasters professional training, where the analysis of music composition is one the most important issues, becomes significant for a successfully organized rehearsal (Macikenas, 1981). Apart from the analysis of the music composition, the conductor

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has to form the final version of the piece display (Dumbliauskaite, 2006) and set tasks for the rehearsal in order to fulfil music composition interpretation plan. Discussing the final performance of the music composition it is essential to speak about the following fields of study: self-discipline, preparation, self-confidence, professional knowledge and performance (Wordelman, 2009). Thus, in pursuance of personal mastery the choirmaster becomes an enduring learner who proceeds with learning during all the lifetime and considers learning a never-ending journey which provides self-realization and self-confidence. Such learners have developed a feeling of efficiency through their individual capability to learn acquired in past experiences and events in different situations and conditions, they are characterized by features such as initiative, resourcefulness, persistence and self-reliance (Derrick, 2003). The role of the conductor as an enduring learner reveals best in the process of preparation for the rehearsal, i.e. analysing the scores. Interestingly, being an enduring learner a choirmaster also enables choristers to become enduring learners who learn independently on individual, group and choir levels (Nolet, 2007). A special sense of purpose of the conductor is based on ones vision and goals, related to ones vocation, dedication to the purpose, not just a nice idea. For example, maestro Toskanini was only excited about the result (Toubman, 1974). If he felt happy about the course of the rehearsal, he could finish the rehearsal earlier than intended, but if not he could improve the unsuccessful moments for hours not paying attention to the regulation or expenses. Choristers aim for development and education in the choir not just for spending a good time playing the music (Dumbliauskaite, 2006). They are inspired by the conductors personality and their leaders qualities (Allmendinger and Hackman, 1990; Atik, 1994; Agiman, 2004, 2009; Shaw, 2004). Curiosity and dedication are related to the achievement of the aim of the conductor and the choristers through their constant desire to know what they do not know, in consequence to develop. The above mentioned qualities were especially valued by maestro Toskanini (Toubman, 1974). He was pleased when the bandsmen arrived to the rehearsals prepared the same as himself. Maestro always praised the bandsmen for their interest, otherwise he would burst of anger which was fair according to the bandsmen because it would allow to concentrate and fully dedicate themselves to the rehearsal; the ability to see the reality more precisely is related to the conductors ability to delve deep into the subject, i.e. into the rehearsed music composition or a performed composition emphasize Bezborodova (1990), Cesnakov (1952), Geniusas, (1973), Kanershtein (1972) and others. Links with life, other people and creative processes are related to decisions which can be influenced by an individual but not controlled by him alone, thus, it is perception that the process of achieving of the aim should be done together with other people. According to Kanershtein (1972), the main factor influencing creative work of the conductor is his relationship with his the band (the choir), his attitude towards musicians and singers. In

this aspect maestro Toskanini was very persistent, original and creative. Being an excellent psychologist, he knew how to jar the lazy orchestra. He would play the same beat time plenty of times and find some defects. It would last until the bandsmen abandon their laziness. As soon as maestro sensed that the bandsmen start playing with inspiration, he would calm down immediately and not stop the orchestra, sometimes he would limit himself to one performance of the whole music composition. Maestro would influence the bandsmen, visiting soloists and vocalists by using original epithets, remarks and directions. Ceruti (2004) presents Daniele Agimans idea that the conductor plays together with all the orchestra and the conductors stand is not the place which allows to observe everything from above and generalize all by distancing the conductor from the orchestra. The stand is the place of the relationship of the conductor with others. The conductor plays together with the others and the stand is like an instrument which activates other receptive registers, but it is not an ascent that allows seeing everything what others cannot. In this way the author emphasizes that the orchestra is more than a sum of parts, but also less than one. What becomes of an orchestra cannot be equated to separate parts of the orchestra. With reference to choristers, Sereika and Sumskis (1999) note that the choir must believe in the choirmaster, his sincerity, musicianship, artistic truth in revealing the meaning and beauty of the music composition. The instrument of the conductor is a large group of people which has its own will, different artistic and technical capabilities, different learning styles (Kerby, 1999), therefore, the conductors aim is to achieve maximum synchronization of performance and which is named the indicator of the orchestras artistic quality (Boerner, 2004). The coordination of performance cannot limit itself to technical aspects as a collective start and a collective end of performance. Boerner (2004), Williamon and Davidson (2002) note that the main achievement of the orchestra is coordination in the artistic sense. From the point of view of the same pronunciation active coordination is essential to get the choristers sing in unison not just technically but also emotionally. All this is achieved in a climate of collaboration which according to Boerner (2004) is felt in the orchestra due to high interdependence of the members of the orchestra with respect to achievement of the desired aim. 3. Mental models. Senge (1990) notes that certain activity models applied by employees predominate in an organization even though they are limited by these patterns. Mental models are models which control events in an organization. It is a capability of an employee to highlight his mental images and present them in the way others can get the gist of the idea. Senge (1990) presents two models: the first pattern is related to acceptance of a certain limits of growth of the development, the second model is related to the shifting burden. In the case of the first model all factors influencing limitations of development should be removed maintains Senge (1990). He urges to criticize less but look for a solution. According to (Coward, 2009) conductor ought to

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be genial in music and masterly in his eloquence, he should be dressed in a sophisticated manner and become a perfect example of manners. However, it cannot ensure his success as a conductor because he still needs other qualification characteristics. Firstly, it is self-confidence born out of a conductors mastery the conductor must be a leader. If he feels embarrassed and apologetic, if he feels unsure of himself when he makes a mistake, he should not conduct. A conductor who wants to surpass all the others has to be patient in two aspects. First of all, the conductor should tolerate the mistakes of the choristers during rehearsals and avoid showing his dissatisfaction as well as remember that only a few of the choristers are able to sing perfectly from the first rehearsal (the conductors ethic). The true result is the indication of mistakes in each rehearsal and presentation of the decrease of mistakes, the second meaning of patience which is far more important is the patience of waiting. It comes with time, however majority of conductors fail in this. Whatever they do, they should learn to wait. There is no bigger mistake in any field of art that to think that if we as artists are ready for a result, we will succeed. Art has its own price and waiting is a part of this price (Coward, 2009). Discussing the production of mental models in a choir and an orchestra the aspect of time management becomes very important because, according to Agiman (2009), any orchestra, even the most collaborating orchestra in the world, posses an exact timetable which cannot be changed. How the conductor deals with work time management is his private business. According to Agiman (2009) the first problem is taking full advantage of the rehearsal time. Secondly, it is necessary to understand that the time of re-creation of the music composition is continuous time thus not limited to work during rehearsals. Speaking of the choirmasters influence on the choristers Kerby (1999) notes that the choirmaster constantly models (simulates) and instructs the members by reminding them how to sing, think and act. Sereika and Sumskis (1999) note that a masterly conductor handles himself and the choir. He joins different characters of the choristers, creates the instrument of the choir which would reflect various emotions, vibrations of words and music, nuances of creative fantasy which reveal the idea, meaning and spirit of the composition. Agiman (2004) cites a masterly conductor Furtwangler let ladies not be insulted, but the orchestra like the woman is inseparable of the feeling of happiness and claims that it is true speaking of an orchestra or any other music band forgetting about femininity. Having completed his work with the orchestra after the concert, the author asks himself if we were happy and to what degree I implemented happiness with this band and whether this happiness was transferred to everyone and the band. Finding the mechanism of implementation of these issues is complicated, it is the topic of leadership. Agiman (2004) confirms this approach by presenting factors which condition the failure of coordination capability and leadership: confusion while participating in a common vision together; inability to take responsibility;

unconscious desire to be somebody; unconscious desire to become somebody else; too much haste, insufficient time for consideration; inability to step aside for others and work in collaboration; staying in power for too long; arrogance in respect of the employees; inflexibility of mind; prejudice which limit the freedom of decision-making; fanatic work avoiding rest and reflection; fear of success and responsibility; incapacity to coordinate ideas; confusion of thoughts. According to Lebrecht (2001), motivation in an orchestra is fostered via efforts of its members. The author presents three ways: first, the leader who is seen as attractive to the members inspires self-confidence and optimism, because the musicians identify him with high artistic competence; second, the conductor with transformative leadership style transfers his artistic concept as a vision. The relationship between the conductor and the musicians have impact on the orchestra performance, public image (Judy, 1996; Parasuraman and Nachman, 1987) and creativity of orchestra members. For example, while Leonard Bernstein was conducting the orchestra the performance was excellent and the level of satisfaction was high, whereas, when Zubin Mehta started conducting an overall dissatisfaction with the quality of the performances spread among the musicians, they blamed the rough leading style of Mehta (Parasuraman and Nachman, 1987). According to House and Shamir (1993), the vision can be defined as a perspective which is commonly desired. Compared to the aims, visions are characterized as additional emotional qualities which enhance inspiration of fellows. If a conductor acts as a pattern and his artistic nature is presented as a vision, musicians expect high artistic quality. Hereby, they are highly motivated to follow the conductors instructions. The third way is to stimulate motivation through the efforts of musicians related to the fact that a transformative conductor encourages intellectual development of the musicians. In the context of an orchestra, intellectual development can be linked to new interpretations of already performed music compositions. The freshness or originality of the conductors perception are very stimulating to the musicians mainly due to the fact that they oppose to the established canon of the familiar parts of the repertoire, as maintain Auvinen (2001) and Mehta (2003). Hunt, Stelluto and Hooijberg (2004) note that creative artists are often restless and rebellious. Taking into consideration their early education which forces them to strive for individuality, become impressive performers and distinguish themselves, it is not surprising that musicians are described as rebellious, very confident, and complex personalities. During the rehearsals the musicians who have grasped the interpretational ideas of the conductor tend to give negative reactions to inaccurate instructions, radical diversions or a confused leader what makes the quality of the results worsen. Musicians get annoyed if blamed for bad results. We can tell from our own

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experience that the majority of the largest orchestras refuse what they call standard reading, i.e. when the conductor succumbs to technique and his activity does not contain any inspiration. According to Atik (1994) and Faulkner (1973), it was proved that the conductors competence, confidence and charm influence attitudes of musicians and performance. Referring to dedication to the profession and organization, Hunt, Stelluto and Hooijberg (2004) maintain that there are sufficient facts proving a positive (direct) connection between attention and support from the side of the conductor and dedication of musicians. Megginson (2000) defines trust and collaboration as particularly significant characteristic of an orchestra as an organization. Coming back to behavior models, Senge (1990) assumes that behaviour models encouraging activity and changes should be applied in order to achieve a significant and long-term improvement. Factors limiting development should be identified and changed too. In pursuance of organizational wellbeing, people often force processes in order to achieve the desired improvement, however balanced processes should be taking place. In the choir the conductor is the initiator of these activities and changes, whose leadership was proved by Atik (1994), Agiman (2004) and Shaw (2004). Interpretation which influences the performance of the choristers and affects the audience with its suggestibility, according to Dumbliauskaite (2006), is possible only when the choirmaster takes into consideration spirituality. This is utterly important in children choirs because the children surrender to the conductors suggestion. Speaking of factors limiting the development, Geniusas (1973) notes that long speech of the conductor and parasitical movements of the conductor (which appear in a different rhythm than the movements of stick (in the choir fingers authors remark) which disorientate the musicians, impair the rhythm of the rehearsal and do damage to work efficiency. These movements appear when the stick moves simultaneously with the conductors head, hair, moving elbows or when the conductor squats. In such a case musicians feel uncomfortably, they play separately, without confidence, but cannot understand and explain the reasons of it because the conductors movements affect them directly outpacing the conscious. Therefore the author suggests to apply conducting gestures prudently without any parasitical appendages. In Dumbliauskaites (2006) opinion, choir repertoire should be manipulated resourcefully during the rehearsals. It is unnecessary (or even harmful) to drill one piece of music or a more complex element of technique during a single rehearsal. In this way a quiet composition will be ruined with respect to intonation and a fun easy composition become boring. Thus, according to the author, it is better to rehearse a smaller part but encompass a bigger number of compositions if it is not a dress rehearsal. There is a chance that the choir will get bored with neither the choirmaster nor the music. Therefore, every rehearsal has to be tactically and strategically planned. Routine as one of the factors limiting the development is also named by Kanershtein (1972) who relates it to the conductors ability to inspire the orchestra.

The author considers the conductors inspiration crucial during the concert because without inspiration the performance of the music composition becomes formal and unimpressive. Speaking about production of the second mental models related to the shifting burden, Senge (1990) notes that it often provides temporary benefit when the decision is made in haste right after manifestation of problem symptoms. Thus trying to solve the problem, i.e. not delving deeper into the problem and not paying attention to other aspects, it can only be enhanced. It is also connected to manifestation of the problem symptoms according to which corrective or preventive means are applied. In order to prevent from these processes an organization needs a shared vision which would allow problem symptoms to manifest and destructive decision-making would not function. In the choir the shifting burden manifests during the interpretation of the composition: the conductor is in the state of decision-making (self-determination), he constantly contemplates how much interpretation is allowed in the score according to the composers instructions, how the interpretation is enabled by the authors epoch, stylistics and genres etc. as well as to what extent it is possible to implement with the given choristers. To summarize the production of mental models in the choir, it is worth remembering Senge (1990) who claimed that mental models are not images which are related to an organization. They are images, prerequisites and stories which have influence on our world outlook. Appearance of mental models is influenced by several factors. These are inner images that we consider to be important, they affect what we notice in the first instance, besides they affect our limits of thinking about what we know, the sharing of perceptions is taking place. All this forms our behaviour that manifests in the activity. Images play a significant role in a conductors life as well as in every musicians/artists life. Inspiration comes through images. Kanershtein (1972) notes that inspiration cannot come all of a sudden if the performer did not delve deep into subtlety of the composition, did not get acquainted with it, if the composition did not become familiar. It is too late to look for new thoughts and feelings during the concert, all had to be discovered earlier during the rehearsal. 4. Shared vision. The basis of the shared vision are the personal visions of the organization members which occur due to personal mastery. Discussing the choir in this aspect, it is necessary to speak about two levels of the conductors vision and separately visions of the choristers: a) what should we be as a choir? (the level of the conductor) b) how should we perform this particular composition (the level of the choristers)? Senge (1990) presents several characteristics which show that the organizational vision is actually shared: People possess the same image of the vision and that reflects in their personal vision images. The responsibility in this process lies on the choirmaster and the conductor who forms shared meaning not just about the performance of the composition but the choir activity as well. With a shared vision people become committed to each other. The conductors ability to inspire the

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choristers and make them try hard not just for themselves but also their colleagues becomes crucial in this aspect (Dumbliauskaite, 2006). People are bonded with each other by a common desire as a very important matter. Dumbliauskaite (2006) emphasizes this bond and notes that these energetic links are difficult to outline but they are sensed and referred to as energetic fluids. People are worried about the implementation of their vision. Intimate relations that appear between the choristers and the conductor are unseen by a strange eye. Energetic field and spiritual climate formed by the conductor enables every chorister to strive and feel responsibility not just for himself but the entire choir (Dumbliauskaite, 2006). Attention and energy is focused on generative learning and creative capabilities are revealed. The choirmaster reveals the creative capabilities of the choristers during rehearsals. Prevailing peace, discipline and emotional tone of the choir helps in mastering even difficult compositions and episodes (Dumbliauskaite, 2006). With reference to creation of a shared vision, Senge (1990) notes organizations not have a common shared vision until visions are not created in the minds of individuals. In Geniusas (1973) opinion, every orchestra artist, every singer is a creative personality who has his/her own artistic world, taste, beliefs, and interpretation concepts. A conductor who is unwilling or unable to take advantage of the bands creative initiative and solely relies on tyrannical discipline will achieve very limited artistic results. His interpretation will always lack a deep ethic origin attainable only by close creative collaboration of the entire band. Choir work specifics requires the conductor to transfer his vision to the choir and aim for overlapping of his and the choristers visions. House and Shamir (1993) note that the vision can be defined as a perspective which is commonly desired. Only an attractive leader presents the vision and the meaning of the mission, inspires pride, confidence and encourages optimism (Den Hertog, Van Muijen and Koopman, 1997). Senge (1990) suggests moving from what we had been taught in our life to creation of a genuine personal vision by replying a question: what do I really want to create in my life? Thus, it is crucial for a person to find out what he really wants, because it forms a basis for defining of personal goals. Besides, it can encourage a person to foresee a further vision. Using his own personal mastery, a person should constantly rethink his personal vision in order to achieve what he actually desires. It is also importance that possession of a personal vision and ability to see the existing reality objectively generates creative tension which is the engine of human activity. Geniusas (1973) notes that the aim of rehearsals is not just getting ready for a concert or a performance but also development of the artistic level of the band, creative discipline and fellow-feeling. Therefore, the rehearsals of talented conductors is an interesting creative process equal to a good concert. Such rehearsals are often recorded and distinguish with hereditary pedagogic and artistic value.

Thus, personal vision of a choir conductor often transforms when the conductor is able to see the existing reality objectively. That evokes creative tension in a choir which is a feature of high artistic level choir as an organization. Creative tension in the choir cannot be identified with the absence of the conductors self-control because, as Kanershtein (1972) puts it, the performance as a sort of a creative activity is consciously controlled by the will of the performer, but the conductors self-control allows maximum display of thoughts, will, emotional activity and artistic imagination. According to Senge (1990), the main issue is to focus ones thinking on a desired vision, but not on what we should do in order to achieve it. What processes should take place in a learning organization in order to enable overlapping of personal visions and making them a collective organizational vision? According to the author, in an organization it can be achieved through depiction and visualization of visions during the rehearsals. This process has several stages: people visualize that the aim they desire has already been achieved and then look deeper and explain to themselves what they desire achieving this goal and what is the desired result. The human consciousness cannot make difference between priorities until inner goals are stated. The aim of the conductor is a persuasive concert. Because of reflection the conductor is able to reveal his genuine desires by distancing himself from his personal goals. He declines linear thinking, employs his intuition and rationalism which free his mind. Thus, he is able to find out what he needs to do in order to achieve the desired aim. According to Dumbliauskaite (2006), his aim is most often related to raising the artistic level of the choir. The common aim, which connects the conductor with the choristers in preparation for a good concert, has influence on creation of a shared vision of the choir as an organization. As well as partnership, absence of which makes the choir activity impossible, because without seeing the conductor or hearing other performers or singing of further located vocal groups music intonation, harmony, fellow-feeling, improvisation and interpretation become impossible (Cesnakov, 1952; Pollach, 1991). It has been observed that the image of the entire choir as a hologram, which is acceptable to all the choristers and easily noticed in amateur choirs where participation is voluntary, also has influence. What makes the choristers dedicate their leisure time to exhausting rehearsals? Most of the authors (Pollach, 1991; Atik, 1999; Dumbliauskaite, 2006) relate this fact to the personality of the conductor who influences creation of the shared vision, and is able to judge about the present state of the choir objectively, evaluate choir results and go on striving for the goals of the choir in achieving artistic choir levels. 5. Team learning means that development takes place in a team activity. Senge (1990) notes that team learning can take place not only by performing team tasks but the organization leaders themselves can get actively involved into work of a particular team. The author emphasizes that team activity should make a whole. Senge (1990) uses the notion of alignment. Alignment in a team means that energy of individuals should be in harmony with the efforts of the whole team

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members to work efficiently because otherwise individuals would only waste their energy in vain. Therefore, the author notes that the common aim, the shared vision and understanding how to supplement each others effort is particularly significant for team learning. Individuals do not sacrifice their personal visions for the common vision of the team and only broaden their personal vision. Alignment is a necessary condition for inspiration of the whole team prior to inspiring and enabling separate individuals in a team. The above-mentioned processes start with individuals, because it might cause misunderstandings in the team, thus alignment should appear first, i.e. the individuals have to be on the same level. Agiman (2004) claims that collaboration of the conductor and the group is always strained: it is difficult to handle the overall dynamics coming from inside. You could teach me something by revealing how you motivate, I only do this with the help of enthusiasm. Therefore, mutual understanding between every group, every singer, orchestra member, the conductor and team harmony is very important in this kind of work in order to achieve the best possible result of the composition. Team learning is a process which encompasses unification and development of team capabilities in pursuance of the desired aims. This can be illustrated by an Italian conductor Agimans (2004) recollection from a rehearsal: among the chosen pieces there was one that I was unable to understand: the first viol which was the most independent instrument of the group, told me in a provoking tone: Maestro, but this piece doesnt work. How should we play it? Then I added that I didnt have any answer and I wanted to look for a solution together. The sincere reply completely changed the atmosphere in the group and the concert was a success. This example proves that permanent collective learning from each other takes place in the orchestra. The same may be said about the choir where every chorister sings and listens not just to himself but also to the other choristers standing close and performing the same part as well as to the other voices and the observes the choirmaster as the main creator of the artistic view. As if a team aiming for a common goal a new interpretation of a music composition. The team is emphasized as an important unit of a learning organization. Therefore, every team member should be a learner who is engaged in learning everywhere and always. Team work always takes place in the choir because such music aspects as tune, intonation, harmony, fellow-feeling, expression, rhythm etc. are very important, as noted by Bezborodova (1990); and it only becomes a common result due to concentration, attention and individual efforts. However, the team in the choir (as well as in an orchestra) fragments into smaller groups, for example: in the choir soprano group, alto group, etc. and in an orchestra cello group, alto group etc. Providing rationale for the importance of team learning, Senge (1990) states that a shared vision and talent is too little to achieve success. The mentioned components are necessary but despite that permanent learning should take place among team members. Picture no. 1 shows that the conductor is related to the entire choir, vocal groups and separate choristers. The choristers learn

from the conductor, vocal groups and the choir as an organization. Vocal groups are related to the conductor, separate singers and the entire choir. The choir in turn influences learning of the conductor, vocal groups and separate members of the choir. Thus, learning in the choir takes place on all levels (Juceviciene, Jucaite and Tamusauskaite, 2008). Speaking about learning of the choir in a team, the intellectual potential of all the choristers, vocal groups, the choirmaster and the second conductor is evaluated because the attitude that two heads are better than one is observed. For example, maestro Toskanini would allow the other conductor to conduct the composition when he himself was unable to succeed (Toubman, 1974). According to Ceruti (2004), the conductor should play with the rest but not remain on the conductors stand and give instructions. Common effort of the choristers and energy in harmony with other choristers and vocal groups is also crucial in the choir because it affects harmony of the composition, fellow-feeling and synchronization. Each chorister or a vocal group is trying to hear the full accord (a consonance of several sounds positioned vertically), then the ear of each chorister or the ear of the vocal group prompts them the right position on the given accord (Cesnakov, 1952). Whereas, the conductor hears the entire choir, each vocal group and every separate chorister and tunes the performance of the choristers in the same choir. Dialogue in the choir is regarded as a possibility to share common visions, opinions on certain issues in the close environment one against one. Working with an orchestra, especially with a visiting conductor, the conductor often shares his vision of composition performance with the orchestra members in order to prove that his understanding about the piece is the right one among those presented by the visiting conductors (Agiman, 2009). Defensive routines, according to Senge (1990), mean that team work has to be a daily phenomenon which is widely used in an organization. However, to ensure it, team work results have to be highlighted as a proof that working in a team is efficient, i.e. employees become motivated to work in a team by seeing an actual benefit of it because such work allows to achieve better results and learn permanently. Work in a choir is a collective action (Dumbliauskaite, 2006). A good choir works as a team and the leader of the team the choirmaster inspires the choristers for efficient activity, i.e. a rehearsal or a concert. Then instead of saying my choir the saying our choir appears. Working in a choir as in a team it is important to restrain from hasty assumptions and conclusions about certain phenomena. It is necessary to learn permanently and analyse certain things in order to be able to evaluate them more objectively. The advantage of the team work is sharing of personal viewpoint. Agiman (2009) shares his experience: a great conductor understands from his own experience when he needs to go on with something and when to let it mature with time. The time of maturity is often the time when we dont work with a particular problem, it is only a settling down of the things that I have told them about our project which is actually a project given by me. While learning in action choristers consider each other as colleagues (Megginson, 2000). They not just

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respect each other but understand each other wish to be appreciated and respected. They are bonded by a close relationship and address each other informally. While presenting his research results on activity of orchestras, Megginson (2000) revealed how orchestra members understand their bond with the colleagues: the orchestra members think that a rehearsal is an assistance of one performer to another. And if we love Haydn, it makes us like each other. At the same time neither the conductor nor the choristers are afraid to display their helplessness on the outside which is linked to the limits of a certain competence. They are not afraid to admit I do not know how to play this part of the composition, I am not competent in this field, I lack knowledge on how to deal with this vocal obstacle etc. The above-mentioned phenomena are evaluated favourably and are considered as one more possibility for development. For example, Maestro Toskanini acknowledged that sometimes he did not know how to interpret a particular place of a composition (Toubman, 1974). However, he had a perfect source for learning intellectual potential of all orchestra members where all of them could practice. 6. Systems thinking. In Senges (1990) opinion, systems thinking manifests in an organization through understanding of employees who and what should do. It also deals with allocation of responsibility. According to Senge (1990), systems thinking is a frame for observing interconnections but not things in order to see the ways of change not momentary things. The author claims that different things are much more complex in the present world. He indicates two ways which people apply when thinking about the world that surrounds them. The first one is detailed complexity which makes the foundation for thinking about things in detail and dividing them into parts later connecting the parts back into the whole. The second one, which is applied more seldom, is dynamic complexity, when a person analyses interconnections which are joined into structures. In Cerutis opinion, there is no such general point of view which would allow to evaluate a system, because a system is always suppositional, it constantly

develops and evolves continuously regenerating the links between the parts. A system does not exist without permanent renewal of the connections. The abovementioned connections renew due to the choirmaster, choristers and the audience. They are felt while striving for harmony, adjustment, interpretation. According to Dumbliauskaite (2006), they are often unseen and called the fluids. Holistic thinking of the choir members has impact on that. In Kerbys (1999) opinion, the choir must think. The choir should have its own pattern of thinking. The choirmaster is responsible for the pattern of thinking. He is also responsible for the absence of destructive resistance which is linked to resistance of organization members against the operating system. Most often the factors of resistance are particular human qualities which become destructive evaluators that do not allow the person to see the system supported by everybody as an efficient organization, at the same time the person lacks systems thinking. Hence, the task of the choir is to join not just different voices, vocal and musical capabilities but also different characters and tempers (Cesnakov, 1952). However, the driving force of the choir as an organization is not just the choirmaster, but also the choristers who encourage the development of the choirmaster and the choir itself through interpretations of separate choristers (Juceviciene, Jucaite and Tamusauskaite, 2008). Choristers, vocal groups and the choirmaster understand and know how certain processes or actions in the choir should function and what is the general order. Everything is clear in a good choir the choirmaster arrives prepared to the rehearsal and having predicted the aim of the rehearsal as well as learning/teaching strategy. The abovementioned aspects are revealed by an innovation which takes place in the choir. Senge (1990) emphasizes it as the core of a learning organization. The innovation is based on gradually happening merger of new components. In authors opinion, all the components are important, therefore, in case one of the components ceases to operate the whole system stops functioning efficiently (Figure 2).

Personal Shared vision mastery

Systems thinking

Mental Team learning models

Figure 2. Five components of a learning organization (Senge, 1990)

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Performance of the music composition is a constant innovation which takes place under the influence of the choristers, the reactions of the conductor and continuous audition of the composition. Innovations and possibilities to their occurrence have been discussed by Juceviciene, Jucaite and Tamusauskaite (2007). Therefore, the possibility to see the same composition anew reveals the peculiarity of Senges (1990) systems thinking feature characteristic to the choir to see all possible interconnections of learning but not just a composition and possible interpretations or just the present performance of the composition. Thus, essential features of the choir as a learning organization according to Senges (1990) learning organization components are the following: pursuit of personal mastery, creation of mental models, creation of the shared vision, enabling of team learning and systems thinking. Factors influencing creation and enabling of the above-mentioned processes in the choir as a learning organization is a question requiring further research.

Conclusions
1. The analysis of the choir activity according to Senges (1990) learning organization model revealed that the choirs activity basically reflects on all the levels of the choir as an organization the choirmaster, vocal groups and the choristers. The main role of enabling learning processes, achievement and creation in a choir as a learning organization is assigned to the choirmaster. Pursuing his personal mastery the choirmaster acts as an enduring learner. The choirmaster enables the choristers to strive for personal mastery having his own clear and specific purpose, knowing the limits of his knowing, competence and the direction of development, maintaining artistic tension and aiming for synchronization in the choir as for the main artistic quality of the choir. Being enabled for the artistic mastery, the choristers become enduring learners same as the choirmaster. They take upon the purpose of learning and improving, outlining the limits of knowing, competence and directions of development as well as keeping permanent creative tension with the choristers and the conductor. Personal mastery as a learning process is one of the basic principles in a choir as a learning organization enabling the development of the choirmaster and the chorister and leading the organization to essential issues. 2. The choirmaster acts as a creator of mental models related to the limits of growth and the shifting burden in creating mental models in a choir as a learning organization. Whereas, the choristers become the participants of creation of mental models, they do not criticize each other but search for a technical solution of the problem, reflect on action, participate in actions/changes aiming for suggestive interpretation. 3. The choirmaster acts as a creator of a shared vision in a choir as a learning organization, he shares his understanding about the artistic concept of the compositions performance and pursues partnership. Sharing his understand of the artistic concept of the

compositions performance the choirmaster reveals the composers idea to the choristers as well as his understanding of the performance of the composition. In pursuance of partnership the choirmaster communicates with separate choristers, vocal groups and the entire choir. In this aspect the choristers act as the participants of creative process of the shared vision: they acquire understanding about the artistic concept of the compositions performance, obtain knowledge about the composers and the choirmasters ideas and form their personal understanding about the performance. Aiming for partnership the choristers communicate not only with the choirmaster but also other vocal groups and among each other. 4. Team learning in the choir as a learning organization is perceived as a process encompassing unification of the choristers and the choirmaster as well as the ability of all the members to develop desired results. In this aspect the choirmaster becomes the enabler of team learning who maintains defensive routine and aims for synchronization as for the development of harmony process. Maintaining defensive routine the choirmaster strives for teamwork as a daily phenomenon and acknowledges the results of teamwork. In pursuance of synchronization as for the development of harmony process the choirmaster aims for a uniform intonation, intensification of dynamics, coordination of the start and the end of the music composition, he also evaluates intellectual potential, efforts and energy of the choristers. Still, the choristers acting as persons enabled for team learning approve of the defensive routine and aim for synchronization as for the development of harmony process together with the choirmaster. Approving of the defensive routine the choristers perceive teamwork as a daily phenomenon and acknowledge the results of the teamwork. 5. Systems thinking reveals in the choir as a learning organization during the interpretation when innovation takes place every time while performing the composition which makes it sound differently each time. During interpretation the choirmaster as an enabler of systems thinking acts as a creator of integrated interpretation and an innovator of artistic image. The choristers as persons enabled for systems thinking act as participants of the integrated interpretation and creation of artistic image who partake in creation of innovative in the choir via continual different sound of the composition and through permanent different reaction of the audience. 6. Essential features of the choir as a learning organization according to Senges (1990) learning organization components are the following: pursuit of personal mastery, creation of mental models, creation of the shared vision, enabling of team learning and systems thinking.
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Social Sciences / Socialiniai mokslai. 2011. Nr. 1 (71)


A.Tamuauskait Choras besimokanti organizacija Santrauka Organizacija, norinti vykdyti efektyvi veikl bei prisitaikyti prie nuolat kintani salyg, turi priimti vien didiausi iandienos iki tapti besimokania organizacija (Toma, 1999; Simonaitien, 2003, 2007; Juceviien, 2007). Tokia organizacija yra galinusi darbuotoj nuolatin tobuljim visuose trijuose lygmenyse individ, j grupi ir visos organizacijos (Schuller, 1997; Walton, 1999; Juceviien, 2007). Siekiant tokios organizacijos kokybs, btina keisti poir organizacijos kultr, organizacinius reikalavimus bei vyraujant organizacins veiklos supratim. Besimokani organizacij kaip ini organizacijos slyg tyrinjo daugelis mokslinink (Pedler, Burgoyne ir Boydell, 1991; Senge, 1990; Garven, 1993; Kline, Saunders, 1993; Juceviien, 2007). Mokslininkai, kalbdami apie besimokani organizacij, daniausiai pateikia j kaip tam tikr organizacijos ablon, ideal, kuriuo efektyvios veiklos siekianios organizacijos turt sekti (Easterby-Smith, Araujo, 1999; Finder, Brand, 1999), o dirigento ir muzikanto santykius paprastai naudoja kaip verting analogij, aikindami vairius organizacij valdymo teorinius ir praktinius aspektus (Bennis ir Nanus, 1985; Druker, 1988; Traub, 1996). Anksiau minti autoriai sutaria, kad tradicinms darbo organizacijoms yra labai sunku siekti besimokanios organizacijos bvio. Mokslininkams taip pat yra nelengva j tyrinti. Viena i prieasi tiksl siekis iose organizacijose paprastai yra isitss laiko poiriu, o veikla ne visada reikalaujanti inovacijos, todl organizacijos aspektu visuotinis nuolatinis mokymasis veikiau yra deklaruojamas nei realizuojamas. Taiau ia prasme kitaip veikia meno organizacijos. Meno organizacijose, kuriose vyksta visuotinis nuolatinis mokymasis ir kuri veikla yra kompaktika bei inovatyvi, tyrintojai gali per trump laik nesunkiai pastebti jose vykstanius organizacins veiklos, lyderysts ir kt. procesus. Taiau trksta tyrim apie muzikantus kaip apie krybingus darbuotojus, apie dirigentus kaip vadovus ir apie profesionalius orkestrus kaip apie organizacijas. Be to, tik kelet kart buvo mginta tirti orkestrus ar chorus kaip besimokanias organizacijas (Agiman, 2004; Juceviien, Juait, Tamuauskait, 2007, 2008; Tamusauskaite, 2010). Taip pat vis dar lieka neatskleisti choro kaip besimokanios organizacijos ypatumai, kas galint iekoti io tipo ir darbo organizacij veiklos ssaj. Ypa perspektyvu tyrinti meno kolektyvus kaip besimokanias organizacijas, nes ie kolektyvai pasiymi dar vienu ypatumu: j veikla psichologins taigos irovams aspektu turi bti vis tobulesn, ypa jei yra kartojama tam paiam irovui. Anot Kline ir Saunders (1993), irovas, stebintis t pat spektakl, j priims kaip vienodai gerai atlikt tik tuo atveju, jei jis bus vaidinamas vis tobuliau. Meno organizacijas (teatrus, orkestrus, chorus), kaip puikius besimokanios organizacijos pavyzdius, pateikia Barrett (1998), Megginson (2000), rtenblad (2001), Beckwith (2003), Agiman (2004, 2009), Ceruti (2004), Hunt, Stelluto, Hooijberg (2004). Jose nuolat vyksta mokymosi procesai ne tik individualiame, grupiniame, bet ir visos organizacijos lygmenyje (Juceviien, Juait, Tamuauskait, 2008; Tamuauskait, 2010). Meno organizacij ir tradicini darbo organizacij skirtum slygoja tai, kad meno kolektyvas, nordamas krin atlikti interpretacijos lygmenyje (tai aukiausias krinio ipildymo lygmuo), neivengiamai turi veikti kaip besimokanti organizacija (Agiman, 2004, 2009; Ceruti, 2004). Tokioje organizacijoje vadovas, reaguodamas nuolatin kait, savo komunikacija adina orkestrant susiklausym, pagauna, taip pat ir skatina interpretacijos apraikas, generuoja orkestrant bendr nauj supratim ir atlikim, priddamas savo krybines idjas, ir taip nuolat siekia vis naujo individualaus ir kolektyvinio supratimo apie krinio atlikim. Deja, nei Agiman (2004, 2009), nei Ceruti (2004) nepateikia orkestro kaip besimokanios organizacijos pakankamo teorinio pagrindimo, o labiau apsiriboja savo ir kit dirigent praktins patirties irykinimu. Straipsnio tikslas atskleisti choro kaip besimokanios organizacijos ypatumus. Choras kaip besimokanti organizacija nagrinjama remiantis plaiai paplitusiomis edukologijos ir vadybos moksl koncepcijomis. Choras kaip besimokanti organizacija bendrja prasme yra suprantama kaip organizacija, kurioje nuolat vyksta mokymasis, vis pirma - vieniems i kit - individualiame ir kolektyviniame lygmenyse (Polanyi, 1958; Nonaka, Takeuchi, 1995). Choro kaip besimokanios organizacijos ypatumai atskleidiami taikant Senge (1990) besimokanios organizacijos model, kur sudaro penkios komponents. Keturios i j (asmeninis meistrikumas, mentaliniai modeliai, susiliejanios vizijos krimas, mokymasis komandoje) pasiymi vertybinmis orientacijomis, o penktoji - svarbiausioji sisteminis mstymas yra aukiausias besimokanios organizacijos takas, vystymosi virn. Jos siekiama realizuojant pirmsias keturias dimensijas organizacijos veikloje.

A. Tamusauskaite. A Choir as a Learning Organization


Ianalizavus choro veikl remiantis Senge (1990) besimokanios organizacijos modeliu, nustatyta, jog minta veikla i esms atsispindi visuose choro kaip organizacijos lygmenyse choro vadovo, bals grupi bei chorist. Pagrindinis mokymosi proces galinimo, siekimo bei krimo vaidmuo chore kaip besimokanioje organizacijoje tenka choro vadovui: 1. Siekdamas asmeninio meistrikumo, choro vadovas veikia kaip nuolatinis besimokantysis. Turdamas aik ir konkret tiksl, inodamas savo inojimo, mokjimo, kompetencijos ribas bei tobuljimo krypt(-is), palaikydamas krybin tamp bei siekdamas sinchronizacijos chore kaip pagrindins choro menins kokybs, choro vadovas galina choristus asmeninio meistrikumo siekimui. Choristai kaip galintieji asmeniniam meistrikumui taip pat kaip ir choro vadovas tampa nuolat besimokaniais. Jie prisiima tiksl mokytis bei tobulti, suino savo kompetencijos ribas bei tobuljimo krypt(-is) ir yra nuolatinje krybinje tampoje su kitais choristais ir dirigentu. Asmeninis meistrikumas kaip mokymosi procesas chore - besimokanioje organizacijoje yra vienas i esmini princip, galinantis ne tik tobulti choro vadov ir choristus, bet ir vedantis organizacij esminius dalykus. 2. Kuriant mentalinius modelius chore kaip besimokanioje organizacijoje choro vadovas veikia kaip mentalini modeli, susijusi su vystymosi ribotumu bei su kintania nata krjas. Tuo tarpu choristai iame mentalini modeli krimo procese tampa mint mentalini modeli krimo dalyviais, kurie nekritikuoja vienas kito, bet ieko techninio problemos sprendimo bdo, reflektuoja po veiklos, dalyvauja veiklose/pokyiuose, siekdami taigios interpretacijos. 3. Kuriant susiliejani vizij chore besimokanioje organizacijoje choro vadovas veikia kaip susiliejanios vizijos krjas, kuris dalijasi savo supratimu apie krinio atlikimo menin koncepcij bei siekia partnerysts. Dalindamasis savo supratimu apie krinio atlikimo menin koncepcij, choro vadovas atskleidia kompozitoriaus sumanym choristams ir savo supratim apie krinio atlikim; siekdamas partnerysts, choro vadovas komunikuoja su atskirais choristais, su bals grupmis ir visu choru. Choristai veikia kaip susiliejanios vizijos krimo dalyviai: gydami supratim apie krinio atlikimo menin koncepcij, choristai gyja ini apie kompozitoriaus bei choro vadovo sumanym ir taip formuoja savo asmenin supratim apie krinio atlikim. Siekdami partnerysts, choristai komunikuoja ne tik su choro vadovu, kitomis bals grupmis, bet ir tarpusavyje. 4. Mokymasis komandoje chore kaip besimokanioje organizacijoje suprantamas kaip procesas, apimantis chorist ir choro vadovo vienijimsi bei vis nari gebjim siekti norim rezultat. Choro vadovas tampa mokymosi komandoje galintoju, kuris palaiko stabili rutin ir siekia sinchronizacijos kaip darnos proceso vystymo. Palaikant stabili rutin choro vadovas siekia komandinio darbo kaip kasdieninio reikinio ir pripasta komandinio darbo rezultatus. Siekdamas sinchronizacijos kaip darnos proceso vystymo - choro vadovas siekia vienodos intonacijos, vienodos dinamikos intensyvinimo, koordinuoja krinio pradi ir pabaig, vertina vis chorist intelektualin potencial, pastangas bei energij. Tuo tarpu choristai, veikdami kaip galintieji mokymuisi komandoje, pritaria stabiliai rutinai ir kartu su choro vadovu siekia sinchronizacijos. Pritardami stabiliai rutinai, choristai komandin darb suvokia/priima kaip kasdien reikin bei pripasta komandinio darbo rezultatus. 5. Sisteminis mstymas chore kaip besimokanioje organizacijoje atsiskleidia interpretacijos metu, kai atliekant t pat krin nuolat vyksta inovacija ir krinys suskamba vis naujai. Choro vadovas kaip sisteminio mstymo galintojas interpretacijos metu veikia kaip integruotos interpretacijos krjas ir meninio vaizdo novatorius. Choristai kaip galintieji sisteminiam mstymui veikia kaip integruotos interpretacijos bei meninio vaizdo krimo dalyviai, dalyvaujantys inovacijos chore per nuolatin kitok krinio skambjim ir per nuolatin kitoki auditorijos reakcij krime. 6. Esminiai bruoai chore kaip besimokanioje organizacijoje, remiantis Senge (1990) besimokanios organizacijos komponentmis, yra ie: asmeninio meistrikumo siekimas, mentalini modeli krimas, susiliejanios vizijos krimas, mokymosi komandoje galinimas, sisteminio mstymo galinimas. Raktiniai odiai: choras, besimokanti organizacija, mokymosi procesai.

First received: January, 2011 Accepted for publication: February, 2011

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