Let’s get grammatical! (harharharhar)

There are 2 basic ways to use colons: - to introduce something - to show time, chapter, verse, or salutation

INTRODUCE Use a colon to introduce lists, especially after statements that use such words as these, namely, the following, or as follows
Friday’s test will cover these areas: the circulatory, the digestive, and the nervous system.

Use a colon to introduce a long or a formal quotation. A formal quotation is often preceded by such words as this, these, the following , or as follows
Mrs. Hope asked us to write an essay on the following African saying: “It is the rainy season that gives wealth.”

SEPERATE Use colons to separate/show
Hour and minute (9:30) Chapter and verse in a biblical reference (Genesis 7:20) After a salutation in business writing (Dear Mrs. Heishman:)

Use a colon to introduce material that illustrates, explains, or restates the preceding material
I often wish my parents had more than one child: they worry too much about me.

SEPARATE ITEMS IN A SERIES SEPARATE MAIN (IND) CLAUSES Use a semicolon to separate main Use a semicolon to separate items in a clauses that are not joined by a coma series when one or more already and a conjunction contain commas Before:Jimmie was a talented singer and
actor, and he was also a good football player. After: Jimmie was a talented singer and actor; he was also a good football player. Some of the powerful African kingdoms that flourished before the 16th century were Kush, which is near Sudan; Karanga, which is near Zimbabwe; and Songhai, which is near the Niger River.

Use a semicolon to separate main clauses that are joined by a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, nevertheless, moreover, furthermore, subsequently, for example, that is) Jimmie appeared in many plays and musicals; for example, he starred in Othello.

Use a semicolon to separate 2 main clauses joined by a conjunction when one or both of the clauses already contain several commas. The rule of Mansa Musa, the Moslem emperor of the African empire of Mali, is remembered for military success, trade expansion, and Muslim scholarship; but this period is most known as a golden age of peace.

Two excellent collections of Inuit art are found in Manitoba, one is housed in the Eskimo Museum in Churchill and the other can be seen at the Winnipeg Art Gallery. Mrs. Stebbins recently learned that Kalani has a beautiful bass voice, moreover he’s a great clog dancer. A large breeding ground for polar bears lies south of Hudson Bay near Churchill as a result Churchill is nicknamed Polar Bear Capitol of the World.

All right ….

Written by Henrik Ibsen (1828 – 1906), who is from Norway First writer to use modern language in his plays A Doll’s House created much controversy; many felt it was a vulgar depiction of women Most critics responded negatively to the play (and most of Isben’s work); it’s not till the early Modern period that he receives literary credit

A movement in literature that overlaps modernism; however, it begins first With the rise of the industrial revolution, society begins to see the stark reality of things, and a need to present things “as they are” rather than an ideal present creates realism

Realism is written in modern prose, in modern language (not in prose or verse) Depicts characters and situations as they are Address controversial issues Focus is more on internal conflict within a character Theater becomes a social commentary, not just a source of entertainment

Ibsen was revolutionary in the way he changed theater He was the first to use theater as a vehicle for social commentary He took unacceptable ideas and examined them using the theater He was the first to use ordinary people as characters

Ibsen creates plays that are plot heavy with idealized storylines and unhappy (but realistic) endings Created ‘psychological’ dramas w/internal conflict His plays are called “problem plays” (real-life issues) Ibsen wanted plays to become more of a moving picture, and less of a reading

Told stories of kings, queens, characters of noble situations The endings were also resolved, complete Elevated language written in prose or verse Focused more on classical themes, less on day to day problems Conflicts tended to be external, more man or man vs society

Tells stories of characters from all spectrums of society Reflect ordinary language and ordinary situations that do not have happy, clean endings Emphasis is on the current controversial issues that happen in everyday society Conflict was more internal (there all along in the character, but sparked by an external conflict)

A Doll’s House

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– Written in 1879 -–Caused extreme controversy, particularly among women – The most famous of Ibsen’s problem plays – Focuses on the role and status of women in the late 19th century