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Hansley A.

Juliano Department of Political Science Ateneo de Manila University

Originating from M.A. thesis defended last November 14, 2012, largely focused on Akbayan (data from Apr. 2011-Oct. 2012). Work in progress: currently being updated to include many other Philippine leftist movements in the current situation of alternative democratic participation.

The 2nd Aquino administration, once with potential for reform and development for a majority of Philippine society (success in some aspects), is challenged with delegitimation. Organizing a partys network of movements towards alliance with outside forms points to important insights on why and how a mainstream, governing leftist presence in the Philippines is a muddy reality.

Special consideration given from period of 2008 to late 2013. Emphasize the decisions, tensions and continuing contestations involved and surrounding their directions. Comparative qualitative analysis

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Largely directed towards a developmentalist framework. Most of these parties projects stands on platform of reform. Allied movements prioritize changing situations of social inequality. Difference produce tensions. Tensions on transition stems from varying political praxis Philippine parliamentary Left, like other SMs worldwide, face temptation of privileging national politics as sole terrain, diminishing capacity to truly critique and offer alternatives.

Akbayan, founded in 1998, was initially composed of 4 political blocs: Movement for Popular Democracy (MPD); Bukluran sa Ikauunlad ng Sosyalistang Isip at Gawa (BISIG); Pandayan para sa Sosyalistang Pilipinas (Pandayan); and Siglo ng Paglaya (Siglaya)/Padayon. Partido Manggagawa (PM) was established in 2001 after labor-sector members of SANLAKAS clamored for direct representation. Bayan Muna, while formally established as a party in 1999, was a de facto heir of the 1980s movement network Bagong Alyansang Makabayan (BAYAN).

Key sectors that were marked as active supporters by these parties include (but are not limited to):
Labor Rural Sector Urban Poor Government Employees Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) LGBT sector Education and Youth

All parties have served in Congress via the Party-List System:

Akbayan (1998-

Akbayan and Bayan Munas PL seats range from 2-3 seats, while PM was able to win usually 1 seat.

onwards) Partido Manggagawa (2001-2007) Bayan Muna (2001onwards)

Social movements, NGOs and POs share frameworks (largely developmental, focusing on social justice issues, slants to the left of the Philippine political spectrum) Legislative track record of these parties in Congress could be summarized in efforts to make government efficient and accountable to its constituencies. Expectations of these parties with regards to governments receptivity to reform differ, which likely explains their differentiated strategies.

Akbayan and Liberal Party (LP) partners on particular issues; alliance was framed along political strategy for 2010 and 2013 elections. Risa Hontiveros fielded as senatoriable for both election cycles, but lost (13th and 17th). Nonetheless, engagement is viewed as useful and successful by Akbayan leaders; it supposedly helps in their image (Interviews with Reps. Bello and Bag-ao, 2012).

Representative Walden Bello Kaka Bag-ao

Committee Membership Working Under Overseas Workers Affairs - Chairperson (Journal #12) N/A Ramon Durano VI (NPC) Economic Affairs - Member for the Majority (Journal #6) Food Security - Member for the Majority (Journal #12) Agapito Guanlao (BUTIL) Foreign Affairs - Member for the Majority (Journal #7) Al Francis Bichara (Nacionalista) Rodolfo Valencia (Liberal) Housing and Urban Development - Member for the Majority (Journal #8) Emil Ong (NUP-Liberal Coalition) Labor and Employment - Member for the Majority (Journal #7) Elpidio Barzaga, Jr. (NUP-Liberal Coalition) Suffrage and Electoral Reforms - Member for the Majority (Journal #7) Agrarian Reform - Vice Chairperson (Journal #4) Pryde Henry Teves (Lakas-Kampi-CMD) Appropriations - Member for the Majority (Journal #13) Joseph Emilio Abaya (Liberal) Loreto Leo Ocampos (Liberal) Constitutional Amendments - Member for the Majority (Journal #5) Human Rights - Member for the Majority (Journal #9) Rene Relampagos (Liberal) Justice - Member for the Majority (Journal #8) Niel Tupas, Jr. (Liberal) Land Use - Member for the Majority (Journal #15) Jeffrey Ferrer (NPC) Arnulfo Go (NUP-Liberal Coalition) Mindanao Affairs - Member for the Majority (Journal #11) Teodoro Baguilat, Jr. (Liberal) National Cultural Communities - Member for the Majority (Journal #16) Rogelio Espina (Liberal) Population And Family Relations - Member for the Majority (Journal #15) Women And Gender Equality - Member for the Majority Angelica Amante-Matba (Lakas-Kampi-CMD) (Journal #7)

Name Ronald Llamas

Former Position in Akbayan Party President

Current Government Post Presidential Adviser

Office Office of the Presidential Adviser on Political Affairs (PAPA) Commission on Human Rights (CHR) National AntiPoverty Commission (NAPC) Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) Social Security System (SSS) National Youth Commission (NYC)

Loretta Ann Rosales Joel Rocamora

Chair Emeritus Party President

Chairperson Secretary/Lead Convenor

Mario Aguja

2nd Party-List Representative National ViceChairperson National Chairperson

Member, Board of Trustees Member and Chairperson for Committee on OFWs Commissioner-at-Large

Daniel Edralin Percival Cendaa

Bayan Muna (Interview w/ Rep. Carlos Zarate, 2013):

Bayan Muna chose to split

constituencies per sector; reorganized as MAKABAYAN Coalition (Bayan Muna, Anakpawis, Gabriela, Kabataan, Courage, Migrante, ACT-Teachers, Katribu, Akap Bata, Piston, Kalikasan and Aking Bikolnon)

MAKABAYAN Coalition eventually chose to support Nacionalista Party coalition led by Sen. Manuel Villar in his 2010 presidential bid, with Satur Ocampo and Liza Masa as senatoriables, but lost (25th and 26th, respectively) Former Bayan Muna Rep. Teodoro Casio was fielded as independent senatoriable in 2013, but also lost (22nd)

Partido Manggagawa (PM) (c/o interview with former Rep. Rene Magtubo, 2013):
Unable to win seats via the PL

system since 2007; coupled with lack of resources, membership remains but mobility diminished. PM currently actively engages in community projects and building alliances amongst labour organizations nationwide Now one of the main pillars of natl. labour coalition NAGKAISA.

Cycle Votes 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 232,376 377,852 852,473 466,112

Akbayan % 2.54% 2.50% 6.70% 2.92% 3.50% 2.90% Seats 1 1 3 2 2 2

Bayan Muna Votes % Seats

Partido Manggagawa (PM) Votes % Seats Did not participate 3 3 3 2 2 216,823 448,072 119,054 140,257 3.32% 3.52% 0.75% 0.47% 1 1 0 0

Did not participate 1,708,253 1,203,305 979,039 746,019 946,308 11.30% 9.46% 6.14% 2.47% 3.34%

1,058,691 827,405

Did not participate

Parties capability to actually foster a notion of political agency and citizenship along professed ideas of being the democratic Left shows some incongruities with choices of political projects, with the sectors they supposedly represent beginning to express their own concerns for their movements.

Relationship with Labour (APL)

Alliance of Progressive Labor (APL)

formally organized November 1996 Serves as Akbayans key link to labor sectors and urban poor Interview with APL leaders (2012)
Institutional autonomy from Akbayan; Never supported Roxas, and is unlikely to support Pres. Aquino up to this day; Concerned with demobilization and bureaucratization creeping in the party

Relationship with Rural Sector

National Consultation of Aug. 1986 created PAKISAMA;

KATARUNGAN organized since 1990s. Both are Akbayans key link to rural sectors (farmers, fisherfolk and indigenous peoples) PAKISAMA left in 2009; KATARUNGAN still allied. Interview with Mr. Soc Banzuela (2012): Partnering with LP/Aquino was met with reservation, but stimulated optimism: issues with Akbayans affirmative action towards representation. Interview with Mr. Danilo Carranza (2013): Partnership with LP/Aquino disappointing due to continued failure of Agrarian Reform, but acknowledges limitations of Akbayan in actually affecting Aquino and LPs policies.

Interview with former Rep. Magtubo (2013):

Since 2007, PM is largely operating along mass-

movement lines, and has largely liaised with other parties in order to advance agendas and issues (establishing links with senatoriables and parties, lobbying in congressional committees). There is tacit agreement amongst PM leadership and membership that grassroots organizing is key, and advancing grassroots interests allows parties to direct voting behaviour. Example: PALEA, NAGKAISA organizing, truck and tricycle driver orgs lobbying city ordinances.

Interviews with MAKABAYAN reps:

Rep. Carlos Zarate, BM (2013): Memberships activities and issues (violations of agrarian reform, abolition of pork barrel, rights violations due to RP-US military exercises) have always been at the centre of advocacies, even if translation to legislation is rough. Rep. Terry Ridon, Kabataan (2013): Movements express which issues party representatives should take up, and should be determined democratically (Ex. Abolish Pork Barrel, Cybercrime Law).

Negative identification Conscious efforts to either transform or disassociate from the legacies of prior leftisms. Proximity to power may drive a party to rewrite their narratives and rhetoric. Developments on Party List System fetishizing marginal representation; project of establishing strong and mainstream parties becoming contradictory.

Contentious claim-making between leftist parties as to who is the genuine representative of the marginalized sectors of Philippine society resurrects questions on , the question of how Philippine leftist movements dealt with representative democracy. Victimization discourse and intransigent propaganda symptomatic of leftist impotence to communicative capitalism (Dean 2009)

Differentiation amongst leftists unappreciated by the general public, with the Oct. 2012 tussle between members of Akbayan and Anakbayan met with disapproval and confusion. APL, PM and PAKISAMA endorsed candidates with progressive agendas, even traditional politicians. Eruption of the multiple Pork Barrel scams in 2013 has inspired mixed responses from leftist groups:

Criticisms by leftist groups of the pork barrel system were

Disconnect with the public a long-standing issue.

deemed tepid or ironic. Akbayan, PM and MAKABAYAN were present in 8/26/13 Million People March: however, there is wider coverage of uncritical middle-class outrage.

Individual party-movement relationships can create different results even if dynamics are the same. If party leadership deviates from allied movements advocacies (based on agreements), demobilization WILL occur. Platforms alone do not win elections: strong local bailiwicks/constituencies do. Constituencies support parties that win something for them, not the other way around.