+
(
+
=
=
n
v y
n
u x
y x g v u
n
v u G
n
x
n
y
2
1 2
cos
2
1 2
cos ,
2
1
,
1
0
1
0
(1)
where
where,
( )
>
=
=
0 1
0
2
1
u
u
u
( )
>
=
=
0 1
0
2
1
v
v
v
IDCT is calculated using equation (2)
IDCT The inversis given as below.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
+
(
+
=
=
n
v y
n
u x
v u G v u
n
y x g
n
u
n
v
2
1 2
cos
2
1 2
cos ,
2
1
,
1
0
1
0
(2)
DCT gets its name from the fact that the basis matrix (
D
A ) is obtained as a function of cosines.
D
A of any order is
generated by using the equation (3).
( )
( )
( )
= =
+
= =
+
=
. 1 ,..., 1 , 0 , 1 ,..., 2 , 1
2
1 2
cos
2
1 ,..., 1 , 0 , 0
2
1 2
cos
1
,
n j n i
n
i j
n
n j i
n
i j
n
j i A
D
(3)
b. 2DDWT
In DWT[1,6,7], an image can be processed by passing it through an analysis filter bank followed by a decimation
operation [ ]. This analysis filter bank, which consists of a low pass and a high pass filter at each decomposition stage,
is commonly used in image compression. When a image passes through these filters, it is split into two bands. The low
pass filter, which corresponds to an averaging operation, extracts the coarse information of the image. The high pass
filter, which corresponds to a differencing operation, extracts the detail information of the image. The output of the
filtering operations is then decimated by two. The mother wavelet is defined as
( ) 
.

\

=
a
b x
a
x
b a
1
,
(4)
where, a is scale coefficient and b is shift coefficient. All other basis functions are variations of the mother wavelet.
In two dimension DWT, a two dimensional scaling function, ( ) y x, and three two dimensional wavelets,
( ) ( ), , , , y x y x
V H
and ( ) y x
D
, , are required. Each is the product of a one dimensional scaling function and
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corresponding wavelet . Excluding products that produce one dimensional results, like ( ) ( ) x x , the four
remaining products produce the separable scaling function
( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x = , (5)
and separable, directional sensitive wavelets
( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x
H
= , (6)
( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x
V
= , (7)
( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x
D
= , (8)
These wavelets measure functional variations, intensity or gray level variations for images, along different directions.
H
measures variations along columns (horizontal edges),
V
corresponds to variations along rows (vertical edges),
and
D
corresponds to variations along diagonals. Scaled and translated basis functions are as follows:
( ) ( ) m y m x y x
j j
j
m m j
= 2 , 2 2 ,
2
, ,
(9)
( ) { } D V H i m y m x
j j i
j
m m j
i
, , , 2 , 2 2
2
, , = = . (10)
where, index i identifies the directional wavelets. j is scaling function. DWT of image ( ) y x g , of size M X M
is then,
( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x g
MM
m m j
m m j
M
x
M
y
, ,
1
, ,
, .
1
0
1
0
0
0
=
= + (11)
( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x g
MM
m m j
i
m m j
M
x
M
y
i
, ,
1
, ,
, .
1
0
1
0
=
= + (12)
Inverse DWT is calculated using equations (11) and (12). Inverse DWT calculation is given in equation (13).
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) y x m m j
MM
y x m m j
MM
y x g
i
m m j
D V H i j j m m
i
m m j
m m
, , ,
1
, , ,
1
,
, ,
, ,
, , 0
0
0
=
+ +
+ =
(13)
The decomposition based on the scale is given in the Figure 1.
Figure 1 Decomposition in DWT domain
Low pass (L) filtered coefficients are stored on the left part of the matrix and high pass (H) filtered on the right.
Because of the decimation, the total size of the transformed image is same as the original image. The image is split into
four bands denoted by LL, HL, LH and HH after one level decomposition and as shown in Figure 2.
( ) m m j
H
, ,
+
( ) m m j
V
, ,
+
( ) m m j
D
, ,
+
( ) m m j , ,
+
( ) m m j , , 1 + +
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Figure 2 Pyramidal decomposition
In the second level, the LL band is further decomposed into four bands. The same procedure is continued for further
decomposition levels. This process of filtering the image is called pyramidal decomposition of image. DWT performs
multiresolution image analysis [2,3 ]. Wavelet decomposition at second level is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3 Pyramidal structure of wavelet decomposition
c. NSCT
The NSCT[10,11,12] is a shiftinvariant version of the CT. The CT[4,5,8,9] employs the LP for multiscale
decomposition, and the DFB for directional decomposition. To avoid aliasing of the CT the NSCT minimizes the down
sampling and the up sampling .It works using pyramids filter banks (NSPFBs) and the nonsubsampled directional filter
banks (NSDFBs). The NSPFB, employed by the NSCT, is a twochannel nonsubsampled filter bank (NFB). The filters
for next stage are obtained by upsampling the filters of the previous stage with the sampling matrix
L
2
2
L
H
2
2
L
2
H
2
H
Original
Image
LL
LH
HL
HH
Horizontal Vertical
LH2 HH2
HL2 LL2
HL1
LH1
HH1
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(
= =
2 0
0 2
2I D
This gives the multiscale property without the need of additional filter design. Illustrates the proposed NSPFB
decomposition with J=3 stages. The ideal frequency support of the lowpass filter at the jth stage is the region [( /2
j
),
( /2
j
)]
2
. Accordingly, the ideal support of the equivalent highpass filter is the complement of the lowpass, namely, the
region [( /2
j1
),( /2
j1
)]
2
\[( /2
j
), ( /2
j
)]
2
and the equivalent filters of a J level cascading NSPFB is given by
(14)
Where H
0
(z) and H
1
(z) denote the lowpass filter and the corresponding highpass filter at the first stage, respectively.
After Jlevel NSCT decomposition, one lowpass subband image and
=
J
j
l
j
1
2 (l
j
denotes the direction decomposition
level at the jth scale) bandpass directional subband images are obtained, all of which have the same size as the input
image.
3. PROPOSED FUSION ALGORITHMS
Block diagram for fusion process is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4 Fusion process
3.1 Fusion algorithm using 2DDCT and Mean
1. Decompose source images into sub blocks
2. Apply 2DDCT for each subblock using equation (1)
3. Compute mean for each subblock
4. Compare mean values of each image subblocks
5. Choose the subblock which has high value of mean
6. For all these subblocks compute 2DIDCT using equation (2) to get the fused image
3.2 Fusion algorithm using 2DDCT and Variance
1. Decompose source images into sub blocks
+ =
s s
=
[
[
1 , ) (
1 ), ( ) (
) (
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
1
1
j n z H
j n z H z H
z H
n
j
I
n
j
I I
eq
n
j
j n
Source Image 1
Source Image 2
Transform
Transform
Fusion decision
map
Inverse
Transform
Fused
Image
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2. Apply 2DDCT for each subblock using equation (1)
3. Compute variance for each subblock
4. Compare variance values of each image subblocks
5. Choose the subblock which has high value of variance
6. For all these subblocks compute 2DIDCT using equation (2) to get the fused image
3.3 Fusion algorithm using 2DDWT and Mean
1. Decompose source images into sub blocks
2. Apply 2DDWT for each subblock using equations (11) and (12)
3. Compute mean for each subblock
4. Compare mean values of each image subblocks
5. Choose the subblock which has high value of mean
6. For all these subblocks compute 2DIDWT using equation (13) to get the fused image
3.4 Fusion algorithm using 2DDWT and Variance
1. Decompose source images into sub blocks
2. Apply 2DDWT for each subblock using equations (11) and (12)
3. Compute variance for each subblock
4. Compare variance values of each image subblocks
5. Choose the subblock which has high value of variance
6. For all these subblocks compute 2DIDWT using equation (13) to get the fused image
3.5 Fusion algorithm using NSCT and mean
1. Decompose source images into sub blocks
2. Apply NSCT for each subblock using procedure explained in section 2.3
3. Compute mean for each subblock
4. Compare mean values of each image subblocks
5. Choose the subblock which has high value of mean
6. For all these subblocks compute INSCT to get the fused image
3.6 Fusion algorithm using NSCT and Variance
1. Decompose source images into sub blocks
2. Apply NSCT for each subblock explained in section 2.3
3. Compute variance for each subblock
4. Compare variance values of each image subblocks
5. Choose the subblock which has high value of variance
6. For all these subblocks compute INSCT to get the fused image
4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Experiments are performed on clock image. Here, two metrics are used to test the performance of the proposed
algorithms. One metric is Peak Signal to Noise Ratio(PSNR) and another metric is Feature Similarity (FSIM) [ 13]
index . An often used global objective quality measure is the mean square error (MSE) defined as
 
2
1
0
1
0
'
) , ( ) , (
*
1
=
=
=
n
x
m
y
y x g y x g
m n
MSE (15)
where, n and m is number of rows and columns in the image respectively. ) , ( y x g and
'
) , ( y x g are the pixel
values in the original and reconstructed image. The Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR in dB) [14] is calculated as
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MSE
PSNR
2
10
255
log 10 =
(16)
where, the usable gray level values range from 0 to 255. Feature Similarity (FSIM) index can be measured as
O e
O e
=
x
m
x
m L
x PC
x PC x S
FSIM
) ( .
) ( ). (
(17)
where means the whole image spatial domain,
m
PC means Phase congruent structure,
L
S is the similarity depends
upon the gradient measure. Fused images are shown in Figure 5. The haar wavelet decomposition is used in the 2D
DWTbased. In the NSCTbased decomposition two filters (directional filter and pyramidal filter) are used.
( (a a) ) ( (b b) ) ( (c c) )
Figure 5 The clock source images (size of 128128) and fusion results of different algorithms: (a) fused image using
2D DCT method (b) fused image using 2D DWT method (c) fused image using NSCT method
Experimental results are tabulated in Table 1. Results indicate that the DWT and NSCT are outperforming with
variance based fusion than other methods. However, DCT is giving better results with mean based fusion.
Table 1: Performance of proposed fusion algorithms
Method
FSIM for
Mean
FSIM for
Variance
PSNR for
Mean
PSNR for
Variance
2DDCT
0.9595
0.9662
30.8623
30.3379
2DDWT 0.9503 0.9703 30.5118 34.0510
NSCT 0.9405 0.9703 29.8426 34.0510
Experiments are also performed with medical images also. Results are shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6 (a) CT image (b) MRI image (c) fused image using NSCT method
5. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper mean and variance based fusion algorithms in DCT , DWT , and NSCT domains are proposed and
discussed. Variance+DWT and variance+NSCT stood better than other possibilities. Further, blocking artifacts are
eliminated in DWT and NSCT methods. Results are good with multi focus and medical images. These techniques will
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be useful for Doctors for easy diagnosis. The same techniques can be extended to all other transforms available in the
literature.
Acknowledgements
Authors would like to thank AICTE authorities for providing facilities to carry this work under Research Promotion
Scheme. Authors utilized the equipment and software purchased under RPS(Ref.No.:20/AICTE/RIFD/RPS(Policy
III)55/201213) .
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AUTHORS
G.Ramesh Babu received the B.Tech degree in Electronics and communication engineering from Prakasam
Engineering College in 2011. He joined M.Tech through Gate Score. Now, He is pursuing M.Tech in
Digital Electronics and Communication Systems in QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole.
K.Veera Swamy received his M.Tech and Ph.D from JNTU, Hyderabad. He has 16 years teaching
experience. He published 49 research papers in International, National journals and presented in reputed
conferences (International Journals12, National Journals01, International conferences21, National
Conferences15). One of the reviewers for the prestigious Journals IET Image Processing, UK and
International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, IACSIT. He executed MODROBS projects
worth Rs.14.5 Lakhs in the area of Antennas. Presently, he is executing Research Project worth Rs 12.5 Lakhs in the
area Development of medical image segmentation algorithms for easy diagnosis sponsored by AICTE.