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Josell Mary Engelee M.

Lim 2-BMT

Hormone Insulin

Source Pancreatic Islets(Beta-cells) Pancreas(alpha cells)

Glucagon

Stimulus for release high blood glucose concentrations low levels of glucose in the blood

Inhibitor

Effects

PTH

Parathyroid Gland

low blood Ca2+ levels

Calcitonin

Thyroid gland (parafollicular cells)

elevated Ca2+

Vitamin D

Skin, Liver and Kidneys

PTH and Prolactin

ADH/AVP

Posterior pituitary gland

low blood volume, low blood pressure, high osmotic pressure

GH-IH like hormones Increases glucose and amino acid intake high levels of Increases glucose in the breakdown of blood; Amylin and glycogen and GHIH release of glucose into the circulatory system calcitonin Increase rate of bone breakdown by osteoclast; increase in Vitamin D synthesis PTH Decrease rate of bone breakdown; prevents large increase in blood Ca2+ levels following a meal Serum phosphate maintain serum calcium concentrations by increasing absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestines and reabsorption of calcium and phosphate in the kidneys; mobilizes calcium from bone in response to parathyroid hormone activity Alcohol and caffeine Conserves water; constricts blood vessels

Oxytocin

Posterior pituitary gland

in the blood nipple stimulation, drug pitocin, and start of labor

After child birth

GH

Anterior pituitary gland

high levels of somatomedins (compounds stimulating tissue growth; released by liver)

inhibited by high levels of somatomedins

ACTH

Anterior pituitary gland

arrival of corticotropinreleasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus

somatostatin

Cortisol

Adrenal Cortex

ACTH

Insulin

Aldosterone

Adrenal Cortex

Adrenal Androgen

Adrenal Cortex

Deficiency of sodium, loss of blood or dehydration that lowers BP or elevated potassium levels Puberty: ACTH

Normalized Potassium Level

Melatonin

LH

Anterior pituitary gland

Stimulated by GnRH

GnRH antagonists GnRH analogues

Increases uterine contractions(if target tissue is the uterus) increases milk letdown for mammary glands Increases gene expression, breakdown of lipids and release of fatty acids form cells; increases blood glucose levels Increases secretion of glucocorticoid hormones like cortisol; increases skin pigmentation at high concentrations Increases fat and protein breakdown; increase glucose synthesis for amino acids; increases blood nutrient levels Increase rate of sodium transport into body; increase rate of K+ excretion; secondarily favor water retention Increase female sexual drive, growth of pubic and axillary hair Promotes ovulation and progesterone production in ovary; promotes

FSH

Anterior pituitary gland

gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH)

inhibin

Progesterone

Ovaries

pituitary tropin LH

none

Estrogen

Ovaries

FSH

Aromatase; Melatonin

Testosterone

Testis

Stimulated by LH

Melatonin

Prolactin

Anterior pituitary gland

TRH

estrogens and dopamine

TSH

Anterior pituitary

arrival of

arrival of

testosterone synthesis and support for sperm cell production in testis Promotes follicle maturation and estrogen secretion in ovary; promotes sperm cell production in tetsis Increased size of cells lining the uterus; Aids in uterine and mammary gland development; for secondary sexual characteristics and menstrual cycle Increased cell division in the lining of the uterus; Aids in uterine and mammary gland development; for secondary sexual characteristics and menstrual cycle Development of the reproductive structures and development of male secondary sex characteristics; Aids in sperm cell production initiates milk production following pregnancy Increases thyroid

gland

T3/T4

Thyroid Gland

thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus binding of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotropin) to transmembrane receptors at the cell surface.

somatostatin from the hypothalamus

hormone secretion

Decrease in TSH

increased basal metabolic rate; essential for protein synthesis, glucose catabolism, fat mobilization; promotes normal nervous system function, cardiac function; promotes muscular and skeletal development and function; promotes GI motility, F reproductive ability, hydration of skin

Thymosin

Thymus Gland

TSH

sex hormones

Erythropoietin

Kidneys

MSH

Anterior pituitary gland

Stimulated when oxygen becomes scarce like in stroke Pregnancy

Renin

Kidneys

Angiotensin ANP

Liver Heart

Decreased arterial blood pressure; Angiotensin Renin Atrial stretch, sympathetic

Promotes immune system development and function High levels of blood Signals production oxygen of RBC; powerful vasoconstrictor Dopamine Increases melanin production in melaocytes to make skin darker in color Melatonin/Inhibiting Regulates blood drug/ANP pressure and blood flow ACE inhibitor Maintains Blood Pressure Shortening of vessel Reduces BP; blood walls, volume, and

stimulation, raised sodium concentration Leptin Adipose tissue Increased appetite; increased number of adipocytes Egg fertilization

parasympathetic stimulation, lower sodium concentration Decreased number of adipocytes

blood Na concentration

Sensation of satiety (fullness)

HCG

Ovaries

Child delivery

Melatonin

Pineal Gland

Darkness

Light: gonadal/adrenal testosterone; gonadal estrogen Aspirin

prevents the deterioration of the corpus luteum at the end of the fourth week and enables pregnancy to continue beyond the end of the normal menstrual cycle Helps regulate seasonal reproductive cycles Induces labor; Inflammation, Pain mechanisms, blood clotting, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation

PG/LT

Seminal Vesicle

Pregnancy