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Mathematics 314

568-314 Algebra (Objectives 1.1 & 1.2)

Prepared by the following teachers with funding from a PEOPT grant from the MEQ: Linda Carré, Richelieu Valley Regional High School Howard Pasoff, Centennial Regional High School Ursula Price, St. Johns High School Michael Supino, Chambly County High School Project Coordinator: Carolyn Gould Layout and Design: Heather Hopkins

**I. Interpreting Graphs Activity 1
**

The people below are waiting in line for a bus.

Agatha

Barbara

Katy

Clement

Hugh

Lise

Felix

Each person that you see is represented by a point on the graph below. Write the name of the person that each point represents.

Language of Functions and Graphs, Shell Centre for Mathematical Education / Joint Matriculation Board. University of Nothingham, 1986. p. 222

Interpreting Graphs Activity 1 continued 2. Caroline is getting ready to take a bath. The graph below shows what happens from the moment she turns on the taps to when the bathtub is empty.

Analyze the graph to see if you can explain what is going on. complete the table on the following page.

Then

Interpreting Graphs Activity 1 continued

Interpreting Graphs Activity 1 continued 3. A young child’s swimming pool has a cylindrical shape. A hose is left running into the pool at a constant rate. Which of the three graphs below best shows how the depth of the water in the wading pool changes with time?

Dept h

Dept h

Time

Time

Dept h

Time

4.

A water goblet has a shape like the one shown. It is placed under a tap with water running at a constant rate.

(a) (b)

Which of the three graphs best shows how the height of the water in the goblet changes with time? Compare this with your answer to the question above. Discuss what is different about the two situations.

Dept h

Dept h

Time

Time

Dept h

Time

5.

On a bleak day in December, John remarks that the number of hours of daylight is fewer today than on his birthday in July. The amount of daylight on a given day changes over the year. Draw a graph that shows the relationship between the number of hours of daylight and time of year. Your graph should go from January to December. The graph does not need to be precise.

Interpreting Graphs Activity 1 continued

**Exploration of Volume and Capacity
**

6. Using a hose with a constant flow, you fill the containers below with water. As the time (in seconds) goes by, examine the height of the water in the containers.

Which graph corresponds to each container?

**II. Dependent and Independent Variables Introduction: Activity 1
**

1.

Linda’s Diner

Hamburger.......................... $1.65 Hotdog................................. $0.89 French Fries........................ $1.29 Bacon & Tomato Sandwich...$2.29 Soft Drink............................ $1.09 Ice Cream............................ $0.99 All taxes included.

One lunch hour Nick decided to go to Linda’s Diner rather than eat in the school cafeteria. He ordered 2 hamburgers, French fries, ice cream and a soft drink. What is his total bill? ________________________________________________________________________ The total bill is dependent on the cost of each item ordered. What would happen to the total bill if the price for a hamburger was increased to $2.25? ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Nick’s teacher, Mr. Olivetti, rushes into the diner with only $5.00 left in his pocket. List some possible meals which Mr. Olivetti can purchase. Now his choices are dependent on the amount of money he has. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Dependent and Independent Variables Activity 1 continued 3. When you analyze different situations and you wish to represent them by using graphs, you must decide which is the independent variable (the condition which is being controlled in a systematic fashion by the person who is conducting the experiment) and which is the dependent variable (the condition being measured). In the following situations, identify the independent and dependent variable. (a) the distance travelled (b) the length of the lever used (c) the number of dollars earned ____ ____ ____ the wear on the tires the force needed to lift a rock the number of hours worked the speed of a vehicle the number of workers the number of guests ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

(d) the position of the needle ____ on a speedometer (e) (f) the number of days needed the number of pizzas ____ ____

(g) the cost of a purchase at ____ McDonald’s

the number of hamburgers ____

**III. Multiple Representations of a Situation
**

1. You will receive 21 different cards: 7 describing a situation in words 7 displaying a graph 7 presenting a table of values Group the 3 cards which represent the same situation. Make sure that all team members agree. If there is a lack of agreement, what can you do to check your answers? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

IV.

1.

Direct and Partial Variation

Maria babysits for the family who lives across the street. She charges $4.00 per hour. She never babysits for more than 10 hours. (a) Complete the table of values relating to the amount she earns and the number of hours. Number of hours (h) Earnings (E) 0 0 1 4 2

Which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable? ___________________________________________________________________ (b) Write a rule which describes the relationship between her earnings (E) the number of hours she babysits (h). ___________________________________________________________________ (c) Draw the graph which represents this situation.

$4.00 0

Earnings ($)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 Number of Hours

Direct and Partial Variation

continued

(d) On New Year’s Eve Maria increases the amount she charges per hour to $6.00. Complete the table of values representing this situation. Number of hours (h) Earnings (E) Predict what change, if any, this change in rate of pay will have on the graph. ___________________________________________________________________ Using a different colour pencil, draw the graph of this new situation on the set of axes in part (c). If her hourly charge was reduced to $2.00 per hour, what effect would this have on the graph? ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Maria has a second source of income. She delivers catalogues for a major department store. She earns a fixed amount of $5 plus $1 per catalogue delivered. (a) Complete the table of values relating the total amount she earns and the number of catalogues she delivers.

Number of catalogues (n) Earnings in $ (E)

0

10

0 5

1 6

2

3

(b) Write a rule which describes the relationship between her earnings (E) and the number of catalogues she delivers (n). ___________________________________________________________________

Direct and Partial Variation

continued Does it make

(c) Draw the graph which represents this situation. sense to join the points in this situation?

30 28 26 24 22 20 Earnings ($) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Number of C l

Direct and Partial Variation

continued

(d) If Maria receives an increase in the fixed amount to $10, but the rate per catalogue remains at $1, predict what effect this change will have on the graph of the situation. ___________________________________________________________________ Complete the table of values below and then draw the graph on the set of axes in part (c). Use a red pencil to draw this graph.

Number of catalogues (n) Earnings in $ (E)

0 10

1

2

3

Write a rule which describes the relationship between her earnings (E) and the number of catalogues she delivers (n). ___________________________________________________________________ (e) Suppose the fixed amount is $5 as in part (a), but that Maria now earns $2 per catalogue delivered. Predict what effect this would have on the original graph. ___________________________________________________________________ Complete a table of values and draw this graph using a green pencil on the same set of axes.

Number of catalogues (n) Earnings in $ (E)

0 5

1

Write a rule which describes the relationship between her earnings (E) and the number of catalogues she delivers (n). ___________________________________________________________________

Direct and Partial Variation 3.

continued

Adam works in a store. His rate of pay is $6.00 per hour. (a) If he works for twice as many hours, should he earn twice as much pay? ___________________________________________________________________ If he works three times as many hours, should he earn three times as much pay? ___________________________________________________________________ Complete the table to show the amount he should receive for different numbers of hours worked:

Number of hours (h) Amount earned in $ (A)

0

1

2

3

4

5

...

10

... 15

(b) Write in words a rule which relates the amount earned in dollars to the number of hours worked. Now rewrite the rule using the symbols A and h. What part of your rule shows Adams’s rate of pay? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ (c) Adam usually works a 40-hour week. How much money will he earn? ___________________________________________________________________ (d) One week Adam earned $300. work? For how many hours did he

___________________________________________________________________

Direct and Partial Variation 4.

continued

Joe ordered 20 classical CDs for his store. After the CDs arrived he sold them at the rate of two per week. (a) For how many weeks will the supply last? ___________________________________________________________________ (b) Complete a table to show the number of CDs (n) there will be remaining after a number of weeks (w). Weeks (w) CDs (n) (c) What relationship exists between these two variables? ___________________________________________________________________ (d) Write a rule in symbols for the number of CDs in terms of the number of weeks after the supply arrives. ___________________________________________________________________ (e) Draw a graph. Would it make sense to join the points on this graph? Explain your answer. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10

___________________________________________________________________ (f) Use both your rule and graph to predict how many videos will be left after 7 weeks. Is it easier to use the rule or the graph in this case? ___________________________________________________________________

**V. “Not All Relationships are Linear!”
**

1. Ben is training for an upcoming 10-kilometre race. During each practice, he has been able to improve his average speed over the 10kilometre run. The following table of values relates his time and average speed during this training period. Average Speed (km/h) 3 Time (minutes) 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 30

200 150 120 100 75 60 40

Draw the graph which represents this situation.

Is the graph a straight line? ________________________________________________________________________ What happens to the time as the average speed increases? ________________________________________________________________________

“Not All Relationships are Linear!” continued 2. A seed catalogue has a “package deal” for 8 varieties of seeds for a vegetable garden. The suggested amount of space needed to grow these vegetables is 24 m2. If the garden is rectangular, suggest some possible dimensions for the garden. Use the table below to record your suggestions. Width (w) in metres length (l) in metres 1 24 6 4

Draw a graph which represents this situation.

Is this graph a straight line? ________________________________________________________________________ What happens to the length as the width increases? ________________________________________________________________________ What happens to the length if the width is doubled? tripled? ________________________________________________________________________

“Not All Relationships are Linear!” continued 3. Susan is pouring water into a container at a constant rate. She compares the level of water in cm to the amount of time the water runs. She records this information in the table below. Time (s) Water level (cm) 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 5 25

Draw the graph which represents this situation.

Is the graph a straight line? ________________________________________________________________________

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