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Introduction This document is a tool designed to help give teachers a clear description of what should be covered in Itinerary 5 of the Mathematics Carrousel 2 textbook. The textbook offers more material than can be covered in most regular classes. However, this summary should be seen as a guide only; the amount of time available as well as the students' interests and capabilities will determine the material which is covered. Further information about the material is found in the Teacher's Guide. Objectives Covered in Itineraries 5: This itinerary covers Objective 1.2: To solve problems that can be expressed as a firstdegree equation. Note that the word ‘expressed’ should be replaced by the word ‘translated’’ which requires using all the rigour of the rules of the language. Students should learn to appreciate the power and usefulness in using algebra to solve problems. They should be able to generate and manipulate a first-degree equation that could be of the form ax + b = cx + d to solve a problem. It is important to refer to the MEQ Curriculum document for more details on the objectives of the program (pp. 18 - 19). Time 13% of the year. (18% for Itineraries 4 & 5 which together cover Objective 1.2) The questions from the Mental Pit Stop and Marketplace as well as other activities could be divided up and used as daily 5-minute class warm-ups. Comments 1. In Math 116, students have been introduced to the concept of a variable where letters were used to generalize situations. The letter could be replaced by many numbers. In Math 216, letters are used to represent unknowns in first-degree equations. Therefore, the letter in any one situation always has one value. Students must learn not to confuse the two cases. 2. The objective is not to make students solve 5th and 6th grade arithmetic problems using algebra! They will not see the value of algebra as a powerful tool for solving problems. Caution: A number of the exercises given in the textbook fall into this category. Teachers may have to find additional “situations in which the students must analyze the relationships among the data in a problem, formulate equations, solve them, and interpret the results” as required by the Programme(p. 19). 3. Students often have intuitive techniques for solving equations. Some of these techniques are presented on pages 226 to 232 and should be welcomed as first attempts. The students should be introduced gradually to the standard techniques for solving equations. Verbalizing the different steps before writing them formally can lead to a better understanding. The equations to be solved should stem from a context. 4. It is important to both prevent and correct students’ misconceptions about the use of letters in algebra. Some of these misconceptions are presented in the questions on page 225 and notes are found in the teacher’s guide on p.667. Keep your eyes and ears open for misconceptions of this sort among your students as they can be stumbling blocks to future learning. 5. Test questions in the Teacher's Guide should be edited to reflect what is pertinent to the objectives of the program and thus what is valued. Feedback Please send any comments or suggested changes regarding this document to Carolyn Gould at tel: 514-672-4010, extension 4705; fax: 514-465-8809; or e-mail: sb-.gould.carolyn@prologue.qc.ca.

This document has been prepared by Françoise Boulanger and Carolyn Gould, Resource Persons for MAPCO.

**Mathematics 216: Carrousel 2: Itinerary 5
**

Topic Class 1. Equations (pp. 224-226) Solving Equations (pp. 226-240) 1% Time Homework Priority 1 Optional Omit

2.

3%

√

Activity: 2a, b* (shaded rectangle) Methods: A, B, C, D, E, (covered in 2b above), F (covered in Activity 2l) Activity: 2 l-r** Workout: #1-5*** Activity 1 Workout: #6-16, and approximately one-half of #17-36 Activity: Be selective. Workout: Do one-half the questions now, and spread one-half throughout the year. Activity: Workout: 2, 3, 6, 7

Activity: 1

emphasis on equality vs. equation pp. 232-236

i 3. Equivalent Equations (pp. 240-250) From Problems to Equations (pp. 251-264) 3%

√(can be done intuitively) √

one-half of #17-36 Club Math #18 Club Math: #19

4.

4%

5.

From Equations to Problems (pp. 265-267) Passport

1.5%

Workout: 1, 4, 5 Club Math: #20

6.

0.5%

Note: *Students should have the opportunity to work out these equations intuitively in small groups. This must be followed by a class discussion in which most of the methods A, B, C, D & E will come up on their own. The teacher should exercise his/her judgement in presenting those methods which did not come up naturally. However, the hiding method (p 230)should be done as it develops number sense and logical reasoning. ** The students should be introduced gradually to the standard techniques for solving equations. Verbalizing the steps before writing them formally can lead to a better understanding. Equations should stem from a context. ***The instruction “show each step of your work” is sometimes nonsensical and should be required only when pertinent.

This document has been prepared by Françoise Boulanger and Carolyn Gould, Resource Persons for MAPCO.

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