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Model-based Level-2 control of the Electric Arc Furnace Model-based Level-2 control of the Electric Arc Furnace comprises

the on-line observation of the current process state, and the control of electrical and chemical energy input as well as of the continuous charging of materials like !" or #$"%

&tructure of dynamic mass and energy balance model 'he process observation calculates the current status of the heat, i%e% the temperature as well as weight and composition of steel and slag% "t starts with the status of the hot heel, which is estimated from the measured tap weight of the preceding heat% 'he current heat temperature is calculated based on an energy balance% "t considers the re(uired meltdown energy of all charged and continuously added materials, energy losses by radiation, waste gas, cooling water and electrical losses, and the energy input by electrical energy, gas burners, and blown o)ygen% "f re(uired, additionally the energy input by *+ post-combustion or scrap preheating, e%g% in a shaft furnace, is taken into account% ,eight and analysis of steel and slag are determined within a mass balance% 'he effect of all material additions is taken into account based on their composition and yield, considering relevant metallurgical reactions% Automatic process control calculates the set-points for energy input and material additions according to the (uality-dependant aim values for tap analysis and temperature of the heat, taking into account restrictions and rules from the practice data% 'he electrical and the chemical energy input via gas burners is controlled via operating diagrams with set-points for different power steps according to the achieved specific electrical energy input during meltdown%

"n case of a thermal overload of the water-cooled wall panels, the electrical power is reduced automatically% 'he feed rate of continuously added materials like !" or #$" is calculated dynamically from a specific feed rate and the current power input% 'hus the feed rate reflects fluctuations in the energy supply, which avoids the occurrence of -ice bergs-%

&tructure of the model-based process control system with engineering data, measured data from the basic automation system and set-points for process control

E)ample. on-line observation of the melt temperature +n-line applications of the process model Ale)andria /ational &teel, Egypt Megasteel, 0uala Lumpur, Malaysia Marienh1tte, 2ra3, Austria &aarschmiede, 45lklingen, 2ermany $enteler, Lingen, 2ermany