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Stresses in Beam (Advanced Topics)
in this chapter we continue the study of the bending of beam for several specialized topics composite beams, elastoplastic bending, nonlinear bending beams with inclined loads, unsymmetric beams, shear stress in thin-walled beams, shear center (these topics will discuss in Machines of Materials II)
6-2 Composite Beams beams are built of more than one material, e.g. bimetallic beam, plastic coated steel pipes, wood beam reinforced with a steel plate, sandwich beam, reinforced concrete beam etc.
composite beam can be analyzed by the same bending theory
vary linearly from top to bottom, but the position of the N. A. is not
at the centroid of the cross sectional area = y -C = y
the integrals represent the 1st moment of two parts w.∫ 2 x2 y dA E1 ∫ y2 dA + 1 E2 ∫ y2 dA 2 (E1 I1 + E2 I2) . if the cross section of a beam is doubly symmetric. then = . the N.normal stress x can be obtained from x.∫ A x y dA = . A. t.E2 y 1 and assume E2 = . r. A. and E2 are the moduli of elasticity for materials > E1. is located at the midheight of the cross section moment equilibrium M = = = then 1 = C = M CCCCC E1 I1 + E2 I2 2 . assume that the materials behave in a linear elastic manner x = E x denoting E1 and 2. the N. A.E1 y x1 x2 Fx = ∫ 1 1 0 force equilibrium in x-axis x1 dA + ∫ 2 x2 dA 2 = 0 -∫ E1 1 y dA + ∫ E2 + 2 y dA = 0 = 0 E1∫ y dA E2∫ y dA this equation can be used to located the N.∫ 1 x1 y dA + . of the cross section for beam of two materials.
then x1 = My .where I1 and I2 are moments of inertia about the N. A.CCCCC E1 I1 + E2 I2 x2 = M y E2 . the above equation reduces to the flexural formula Approximate Theory for bending of Sandwich Beams consider a doubly symmetric sandwich beam. of the (note that I = I1 + I2) area of materials 1 and 2.CC 2 I1 bottom = Mh CC 2 I1 3 . respectively this equation is known as moment-curvature relationship E1 I1 + E2 I2 is the flexural rigidity of the composite beam the normal stresses in the beam are obtained x1 = M y E1 .CC I1 x2 = 0 Where I1 b = C (h3 .CCCCC E1 I1 + E2 I2 for E1 = E2.hc3) 12 hc = h -2t the maximum normal stresses in the sandwich beam occur at the top and bottom top = Mh . if the material of the faces has a much larger modulus than the material of the core assume the modulus of elasticity E2 of the core is zero.
A.8 mm 210 (h1 .156) x 1.if the faces are thin compared to the thickness of the core (t ^ hc).200 4 .156) x 1.g.5 GPa calculate and min in wood and steel firstly. e.5 (h1 .75) x 15. ∫ y dA 1 = y1 A1 = (h1 .75) (100 x 150) = (h1 .000 ∫ y dA = y2 A2 = . we assume that the core carries all of the shear stresses aver = V CC b hc aver = V CCC b hc Gc Limitations both materials obey Hooke's law materials are isotropic and homogeneous for nonhomogeneous and nonlinear material.(156 . we want to determine the N. reinforced concrete beams are one of the most complex types of composite construction Example 6-1 a composite beam is constructed from wood beam and steel plate M = E2 = 6 kN-m 210 GPa max E1 = 10.h1) (100 x 012) = (h1 .75) x 15.200 2 E1∫ y dA 1 + E2∫ y dA 2 = 0 = 0 10.000 + h1 = 124. the above equation can not be applied.
2 mm) (10.CCCCC = .33x106mm4) + (210GPa) (1.37.2 mm 1 = C 100 x 1503 + 100 x 150 (h1 .33x106mm4) + (210GPa) (1.h2 = moment of inertia I1 162 .5) = .2MPa note that 5 .2 mm) (210GPa) M y E2 = .5GPa) = CCCCC = CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC 1C E1 I1 + E2 I2 (10.33 x 106 mm4 12 1 = C 100 x 123 + 100 x 12 (h2 .CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC E1 I1 + E2 I2 (10.2 mm) 2B (6 kN-m) (-37.2 mm) (10.CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC E1 I1 + E2 I2 (10.18x 106mm4) = 50.5GPa) (65.25.33x106mm4) + (210GPa) (1.2 mm) maximum tensile stress in wood M h2 E1 (6 kN-m) (-25.5GPa) (65.18x 106mm4) = 1.8 mm) (10.6)2 = 1.51 x 106 mm4 h1 = 124.7 MPa minimum tensile stress in steel (y = .(h2 .CCCCC = .5GPa) (65.18x 106mm4) = 34 MPa maximum tensile stress in steel (y = .18 x 106 mm4 12 I = I1 + I2 = 66.5GPa) = .8 mm) I2 maximum compressive stress in wood (y = 1A M h1 E1 (6 kN-m) (124.33x106mm4) + (210GPa) (1.5GPa) MyE = .75)2 = 65.5GPa) (65.2 mm) 2C (6 kN-m) (-25.25.h1 = 37.CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC E1 I1 + E2 I2 (10.42 MPa [y = .8.0.CCCCC = .h2 = .18x 106mm4) = .
is located at midheight I1 200 b = C (h3 . A.0 MPa E1 I1 + E2 I2 910.017 x 106 + 800 x 56.25 x 106 mm4 12 I2 the flexural rigidity of the composite beam is E1 I1 + = E2 I2 = 72 x 103 x 12. M = 3 kN-m E1 t h = = = 72 GPa 5 mm 160 mm max E2 = 800 GPa hc = 150 mm b and = min 200 mm in the faces and core determine (a) using general theory (b) using approximate theory ∵ the section is double symmetric.224 N-m2 the max for tension and compression in aluminum faces are M (h/2) E1 3 x 106 x 80 x 72 x 103 = ! CCCCC = ! CCCCCCCCC = ! 19.017 x 106 mm4 12 12 b = C hc3 = 12 200 CC 1503 = 56.224 x 106 max 6 .CC 1C 2C E2 = C = E1 34 CC 17 = 20 Example 6-2 a sandwich beam having aluminum-alloy faces with plastic core. ∴ N.224 x 106 N-mm2 = 910.hc3) = CC (1603 .1503) = 12.25 x 106 910.
3 Transformed-Section Method consider a composite beam.224 x 106 E1 I1 + E2 I2 from the approximate theory for sandwich beam M (h/2) 3 x 106 x 80 My = ! CC = ! CCC = ! CCCCC = ! 20.198 MPa 910. the based equation can be used x = . the N. of the new area is the same of the composite beam i. the N. a new cross section if each element of dA in material 2 is shown.017 x 10 max this theory is conservative and gives slightly higher stresses 6.0 MPa 6 I1 I1 12.E1 y 7 . A. material 1. of the cross section can be determined by the equation of equilibrium as state before E1∫ y dA 1 denote n n + E2∫ y dA 2 = 0 the modular ratio as = E2 / E1 then the equilibrium equation can be written ∫ y dA 1 + ∫ n y dA 2 = 0 x n. the new cross section consisting only one material. A.e. this section is called the transformed section ∵ only one material is considered.the max max for tension and compression in plastic core are M (hc/2) E2 3 x 106 x 75 x 800 = ! CCCCC = ! CCCCCCCC = ! 0.
CCCCC E1 I1 + E2 I2 x2 = = M y E2 . use n = E1 / E2 the transformed-section method may be extended to composite beam of more than 2 materials 8 .and the moment-curvature relation for the transformed beam is M = = = = . it must be multiplied by n stress in the transformed section. the bending stress is My .CC IT = I1 + n I2 = I1 IT M y E1 = .∫1 2 x y dA + . My . i.∫ 2 x y dA E1∫ y2 dA + (E1 I1 (E1 I1 E1∫ y2 dA [dA in material 2 is equal n dA of the original area] + n E1 I2) + E2 I2) same result as before for the transformed section.∫ A 1 x y dA = .n CC = IT M y n E1 . but in material 2 same as in the original beam.e.CCCCC same as before E1 I1 + E2 I2 1 E2 + C I2 E1 x = x1 stress in material can be calculated direct from the above the stress in transformed section are not the to obtain the equation.CCCCC E1 I1 + E2 I2 the result is same as before it is possible to transform the original beam to a beam consisting material 2.
6)2 = 65.3 x 106 + 23.CCCCCCCCCCC = .7 x 106 = 89.2 mm the moment of inertia of the transformed section is 1 1 3 2 IT = C 100 x 150 + 100 x 150 x (h1 .CCCCCCCCCCC 89.8.Example 6-3 a composite beam is formed of wood and steel plate as shown M = 6 kN-m E1 = 10.CC IT = = 1.42 MPa 89.2 mm) . of the transformed section can be calculated yi Ai 75 x 100 x 150 + 156 x 2. and max min [same problem as in example 6-1] n = E2 / E1 = 30.000 / 1.CC IT = 1A (6 x 106 N-mm)(124.000 x 12 4.000 x 12 x (h2 .h1 = 37. A.0 x 106 mm4 9 1C My = .75) + C 2.7 MPa .8 mm h2 = 162 .500 = 20 the N.8 mm) .0 x 106 mm4 1) 12 bending stresses in the wood (material = My .000 x123 12 + 2.5 MPa E2 = 210 GPa using the transformed-section method determine for tension max and for tension in steel and compression in wood.000 x 12 39 x 103 Ai = 124.869 x 103 h1 = CCC = CCCCCCCCCCCCCC = CCCCC 100 x 150 + 2.0 x 106 mm4 (6 x 106 N-mm)(-25.
0 x 106 = 50.2) CCCCCCC 89.2) CCCCCCC 89.0 x 106 6 x 106 x (-25.n CC = IT .the bending stresses in steel (material 2) My = .n CC = IT = My .20 6 x 106 x (-37.10 Nonlinear Bending 10 .20 = 34 MPa the results are the same as in example 6-1 6-4 Doubly Symmetric Beams with Inclined Loads 6-5 Bending of Unsymmetric Beams 6-6 The Shear Center Concept 6-7 Shear Stresses in Beams of Thin-Walled Open Cross Section 6-8 Shear Centers of Thin-Walled Open Sections 6-9 Elastoplastic Bending 6.2 MPa 2C 2B .
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