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WRTSIL MEDIUM-SPEED ENGINES

The Oasis of the Seas, equipped with six Wrtsil 46 engines.

MEDIUM-SPEED ENGINES
Medium-speed diesel and dual-fuel engines for reliability and total economy .................................3 Compliance with environmental regulations and other standards............4 Main features.........................................4 Engine performance ..............................5 Engine design ........................................6 Engine block......................................6 Crankshaft and bearings.....................6 Connecting rod ..................................7 Cylinder liner and antipolishing ring.....7 Piston & piston rings ..........................8 Cylinder head.....................................8 Multiduct ...........................................9 Camshaft and valve gear ....................9 Operational systems Fuel injection system........................10 Turbocharging system ......................11 Cooling system ................................12 Lubricating oil system.......................12 Automation system ..........................12 Dual-fuel technology ...........................14 Maintenance features..........................18 Services ..............................................18
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The Thetis, equipped with a Wrtsil 20 engine.

The submersible heavy load ship Blue Marlin is equipped with three Wrtsil 8L32 engines.

POWER RANGE FOR WRTSIL MEDIUM-SPEED ENGINES


DIESEL ENGINES Wrtsil 20 Wrtsil 26 Wrtsil 32 Wrtsil 38 Wrtsil 46 Wrtsil 46F Wrtsil 64 DUAL-FUEL ENGINES Wrtsil 20DF Wrtsil 34DF Wrtsil 50DF kW 5000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

The LNG Tanker, GDF-Suez Global Energy is equipped with four Wrtsil 50DF engines.

The Naval vessel De Zeven Provincien is equipped with two Wrtsil 16V26 engines.

The tanker Bitower is equipped with a Wrtsil 6L38 engine.

MEDIUM-SPEED DIESEL AND DUAL-FUEL ENGINES FOR RELIABILITY AND TOTAL ECONOMY
The design of the Wrtsil medium-speed engine range is based on the vast amount of knowledge accumulated over years of successful operation. Robust engines and generating sets, developed from pioneering heavy fuel technology, have been engineered to provide unquestionable benets for the owners and operators of marine vessels. These benets include: Proven reliability Low emissions Low operating costs Fuel exibility Integrated system solutions All services from spare parts to reconditioning available from Wrtsils global network In shipyard applications, the installation friendliness, embedded automation system, and built-on modularized auxiliary systems are amongst the many added advantages. Wrtsil is continuously developing its portfolio of gas and multi-fuel engines to suit different marine applications, offshore oil and gas installations where gaseous fuel is available from the process, and merchant vessels operating in environmentally sensitive areas. Wrtsil engines offer high efciency, low exhaust gas emissions, and safe operation. The innovative multi-fuel technology allows the exibility to choose between gas or liquid fuel. When necessary, the engines are capable of switching from one fuel to the other without any interruption in power generation.
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COMPLIANCE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND OTHER STANDARDS


Environmental issues, especially emissions reduction and fuel consumption, have become increasingly important in the shipping sector where enforcement of environmental regulations, at both global and local levels, has notably increased. This puts pressure on the marine industry to constantly explore new ways of reducing the environmental impact of ships. Wrtsil creates added value for its customers by providing products, solutions and services that fulll their needs and expectations. The development of highquality, reliable, and environmentally sound solutions and services has come as a result of long-term collaboration and continuous interaction with our customers. We provide service support to ensure optimal performance throughout the product lifecycle. The upgrading of installed products can also extend their service life. WRTSIL MEETS THE NEW REQUIREMENTS ON SHIP EMISSIONS The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has approved amendments to the MARPOL Annex VI regulations on ship emissions. These regulations set stricter limits on emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) from the engines, as well as on the sulphur content of the fuel. The new requirements will enter into force in various phases during the years 20102020. As regards NOX emissions, Wrtsil has already introduced solutions that comply with these requirements. Wrtsil engines are designed for operation on any fuel sulphur content. As a response to the tightening Sulfur Oxides (SOX) emissions, Wrtsil has developed scrubber technology that allows exhaust gases to be cleaned to meet the tight regulations. GAS ENGINES HIGHLIGHTED Wrtsil has a multifaceted gas engine strategy, and can provide gas engines for vessels. Being at the forefront of technological developments gives Wrtsil many opportunities arising from the tightening environmental regulations. Shipping can reduce its carbon footprint through ship design, efcient engines, and optimal propulsion solutions.
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NOx emissions, g/kWh


20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Engine speed, rpm IMO Tier III, 2016 in emission control areas IMO Tier II, 2011 IMO Tier I, 2000

MAIN FEATURES
Wrtsil engines offer outstanding powerto-weight and power-to-space ratios in their power range. They have bore sizes from 200 to 640 mm and different cylinder congurations to cover a power range from 0.5 MW to 20 MW and are capable of using various fuels. Wrtsil 4-stroke engines comply with both IMO Tier I and IMO Tier II emission legislation without secondary purication systems. Full advantage is taken of the proven solutions developed in earlier Wrtsil engines, while new features and customer benets have been added. Reliability and total economy are the guiding principles, although emission control options and installation friendliness are strongly emphasized. Cylinder power from 185 kW to 2150 kW Nominal speed from 500 to 1000 rpm Multi-fuel operation capability High thermal efciency and low emissions High reliability and low maintenance costs Low exhaust gas emissions Fuel economy throughout the entire engine operational range Embedded automation system including speed control

ENGINE PERFORMANCE
Wrtsil 4-stroke engines utilize the latest developments in turbo-charging technology, which enables Miller valve timing and the Variable Inlet Valve Closing (VIC) system to be employed. At full-load operation, early closure of the inlet valves enables a low effective compression ratio, and as a result, comparatively low temperatures at the end of the compression stroke. The charge air, being both somewhat expanded and cooled on its way through the receiver into the cylinders, has a low global temperature that is still high enough to guarantee reliable and stable ignition of the fuel/air mixture in the combustion chamber. This contributes to the creation of favourable conditions for an environmentally friendly combustion process. In Wrtsil engines, these advantageous initial conditions are combined with a higher engine speed and a high expansion ratio, i.e. with design parameters that make the combustion chamber expand quickly when the combustion process has started. Due to the quick expansion of the combustion gases, high temperatures that are most critical to the formation of intensive NOX within the combustion chamber are rapidly abated. This combination creates a combustion process that is not only environmentally friendly, but also extremely efcient as the high expansion ratio produces the conditions needed for efcient utilization of the heat energy released by combustion at the beginning of the power stroke. However, it is not only the choice of the compression/expansion ratio that makes Wrtsil engines highly efcient. All versions of the engine are equipped with fuel injection systems that allow adjustment of the injection characteristics to the prevailing load conditions. The advanced common-rail fuel injection system offers the freedom to control and netune the injection process. This enables full use of the engines loading potential over a wide power range in order to achieve optimum fuel economy. Similarly, this freedom offered by the exible fuel injection equipment can be utilized to adjust the engine to the existing limitations of exhaust gas emissions, to minimize smoke formation. Thermal load and mechanical stress levels are kept within the safety margins established by Wrtsil over decades of engine development.
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ENGINE DESIGN
ENGINE BLOCK Nodular cast iron is the natural choice for engine blocks today because of its strength and stiffness properties. Wrtsil engine monoblock designs are based on modern foundry technology to integrate most oil and water channels, as well as the charge air receiver. The result is a virtually pipe-free engine with a clean outer exterior. Resilient mounting, available as an option, is required in many application types. The engine block has been designed especially for this purpose. Integrated channels designed with this in mind serve a double purpose. CRANKSHAFT AND BEARINGS The latest advances in combustion development require a crank gear that can operate reliably at high cylinder pressures. The crankshaft must be robust and the specic bearing loads kept at a safe level.
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This is achieved by careful optimization of the crankshafts throw dimensions and llets. The specic bearing loads are conservative and the cylinder spacing, which is important to the overall length of the engine, is minimized. Besides low bearing loads, the other crucial factor for safe bearing operation is oil lm thickness. Ample oil lm thickness in the main bearings is ensured by optimal balancing of the rotational masses and, in the big end bearing, by ungrooved bearing surfaces in the critical areas. All the factors needed for a free choice of the most appropriate bearing material are present.. The main features of the crankshaft and bearings design are: Clean steel technology to minimize the amount of slag forming elements, and to guarantee superior material properties

A crankshaft line assembled from three elements: the crankshaft, gear and end piece. The crankshaft itself is forged in one piece Each throw is fully balanced individually for safe bearing function Main bearing temperature monitoring Patented crankpin bearing temperature monitoring Modest bearing loads thanks to generous bearing dimensions. CONNECTING ROD The three-piece connecting rod is of the marine type used in Wrtsil engines having a cylinder power of more than 400 kW, where the combustion forces are distributed over a maximum bearing area, and the relative movements between mating surfaces are minimized. The connecting rod is optimized for

both strength and weight. The shank is fully machined. The three-piece design simplies piston overhauling, as this can be carried out without touching the big end bearing. The big end bearing can also be inspected without removing the piston. The two-piece design is used for smaller engines having a cylinder power of less than 400 kW. The design offers the maximum pin diameter while still making it possible to pull the connecting rod through the cylinder liner. The main features of the connecting rod design are: Two/three-piece type design depending on engine size Hydraulically tightened bolts Both strength and weight are optimized Easy maintenance

CYLINDER LINER AND ANTIPOLISHING RING The cylinder liner is designed to have the stiffness needed to withstand both pretension forces and combustion pressures with virtually no deformation. This gives the best cylinder function and ensures good basics for the tightness of the cylinder head gasket. The temperature is controlled by optimizing the cooling water ow in the upper part of the collar to achieve a low thermal load, and to avoid sulphuric acid corrosion. The liner is made of wear-resistant material developed from a dedicated and long-term R&D programme. To eliminate the risk of bore polishing, the liner is provided with an antipolishing ring on the upper part. The purpose of this ring is to limit the carbon deposits built up on the piston top land to a thickness small enough to prevent contact between the inner liner wall and the deposits on any

position of the piston. The absence of contact between the liner and piston top land deposits eliminates the risk of bore polishing. Nor can oil be scraped upwards by the piston. This signicantly reduces liner wear and keeps the lube oil consumption stable for long periods of time. The main features of the cylinder liner design are: Centrifugal casting with high strength and good wear resistance Cooling of the bore for optimum wall temperatures High-collar technology to ensure good cylinder head gasket tightness Anti-polishing ring removes deposits from the piston top land, ensuring proper cylinder function, no bore polishing, stable lube oil consumption, and low wear to the liner.
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PISTON & PISTON RINGS For years, the outstanding piston concept for highly rated heavy fuel engines has been a rigid composite piston with a steel crown and nodular cast-iron skirt. More than twenty years of experience has ne-tuned this concept. When it comes to reliability, there is no real alternative today for modern engines with high cylinder pressures and combustion temperatures. Wrtsils patented skirt lubrication minimizes frictional losses, and ensures the appropriate lubrication of both piston rings and the piston skirt. In Wrtsils three-ring concept each ring has a specic task. The rings are dimensioned and proled for consistent performance throughout their operating lives. To avoid carbon deposits in the ring grooves of a heavy fuel engine, the pressure balance above and below each ring is crucial. Experience has shown that this effect is most likely achieved with a three-ring pack. Finally, it is well known that most frictional losses in a reciprocating combustion engine originate from the rings. Thus a three-ring pack is the obvious choice in this respect, too. The piston
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ring package and ring grooves are optimized for long life by a special wear-resistant coating and groove treatment. The main features of the piston design are: A two-piece composite structure A steel crown and nodular cast-iron skirt Two compression rings and one oil scraper ring, which in combination with a pressure lubricated piston skirt, achieve low friction and high seizure resistance Optimized piston ring groove temperature to prevent cold corrosion. CYLINDER HEAD The cylinder head design features high reliability and easy maintenance. A stiff cone- / box-like design can cope with high combustion pressures, and is essential for obtaining both liner roundness and even contact between the exhaust valves and their seats. Wrtsils vast global experience of heavy fuel operation has contributed greatly to the efcient design and development of exhaust valves. The basic criterion in exhaust valve design is having the correct temperature. This is

achieved through optimized cooling and closed seat ring technology, which extend the life of the valves and seats. The cylinder head design is based on the four-screw concept developed and used by Wrtsil for many years. A four-screw cylinder head design also provides the possibility for having inlet and exhaust ports with a minimum of ow losses. The port design has been optimized using a combination of computational uid dynamics analysis and fullscale ow measurements. The main features of the cylinder head design are: Four cylinder head screws only, giving space for ow-efcient ports Inlet and exhaust gas ports that are on the same side The height and rigid design, which ensure even and sufcient surface pressure on the cylinder head gasket A bore-cooled ame plate for optimum temperature distribution Two inlet valves and two exhaust gas valves, all with valve rotators.

MULTI-DUCT A multifunctional duct is connected to the cylinder head. The functions of this multi-duct are as follows: Air transfer from air receiver to cylinder head Introduction of an initial swirl to the inlet air for optimal part load combustion Exhaust transfer to the exhaust system Cooling water transfer from the cylinder head to the return channel in the engine block Insulation/cooling of the exhaust transfer duct Support for the exhaust system, including insulation CAMSHAFT AND VALVE GEAR The engine is available with either traditional mechanical valve actuation, or variable inlet valve closing actuation. The camshaft is built of single cylinder sections with integrated cams. The camshaft sections are connected through separate bearing journals, which make it possible to remove the shaft sections sideways from the camshaft compartment.

The valve follower is of the roller tappet type, where the roller prole is slightly convex for good load distribution. The valve mechanism includes rocker arms working on yokes guided by pins. Both exhaust and inlet valves are equipped with valve rotators to ensure a safe valve and seat function. The rotation means that the temperature distribution and wear to the valves is even, and that the sealing surface is kept free of deposits. The main features of the camshaft and valve design are: Each cylinder section of the camshaft is forged in one piece with integrated cams Separate bearing journals The valve follower is of the roller tappet type Traditional valve actuation Variable Inlet Valve Closing (VIC) for IMO Tier II compliance. The VIC system is designed to improve the engines partial load performance by enabling alternative inlet valve closing timings. The major advantages are a reduction in visible smoke, load application improvement, and

thermal load reduction. The variation of inlet valve closing timing is achieved through the addition of a hydraulic chamber between the inlet valve tappet and the push rod. Adjustability of the inlet valve movement is achieved by controlling the oil ow into and out the hydraulic chamber. The main features of the VIC system are: Inlet valve closing timing that can be adjusted With VIC employed, the inlet valve is open longer As compared to the standard valve train, the VIC system comprises the following additional parts: Pressure accumulator Piston and oil supply Non-return valve

OPERATIONAL SYSTEMS
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM The patented Wrtsil multi-housing principle ensures outstanding safety of the low-pressure fuel system. The fuel line consists of channels drilled in cast parts, which are clamped rmly to the engine block. For easy assembly and disassembly, these parts are connected to each other using slide connections. Wrtsil 4-stroke engines are available with three alternative fuel injection systems depending on conguration: a conventional fuel injection system, with either single- or twin plunger injection pumps, and commonrail fuel injection. High injection pressures giving low smoke emissions characterize all three systems. The common-rail technology in particular, enables operation at any load without visible smoke.
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An unmatched level of safety is achieved through housing both the entire low-pressure and high-pressure systems in a fully covered compartment. Common-rail technology offers almost unlimited possibilities to adjust the fuel injection process to the prevailing engine operating conditions, fuel characteristics, and to achieve emission levels. The main components of the common-rail injection system that are designed especially for Wrtsil engines are the high-pressure pumps, the balance accumulators, the fuel injection valves, and the built-on control oil pump. The control oil is engine oil with additional ltration. The systems high-pressure pumps are camshaft-driven and amply dimensioned for supplying fuel to two cylinders. Each pump is

connected to a fuel accumulator that evens out the pressure and feeds the two cylinders. The accumulators are connected to each other through double-walled pipes, a detail that both guarantees continuously even pressure in all accumulators, and that allows the engine to operate with one or two disconnected high-pressure pumps, should this ever be necessary. From the accumulators, fuel is supplied at the required pressure into the cylinders through injection valves controlled by electrohydraulic actuators. The individual, and therefore cylinder-specic, control of injection timing and duration is an important feature that is made possible by this injection equipment. One signicant safety detail is that the injection valves are designed to ensure that the

injection nozzles are totally unloaded between injection periods. This feature eliminates the risk of unintended fuel supply into the cylinders caused, for example, by incomplete closure of the nozzle needle at the end of injection. The twin-pump system, likewise, offers the possibility to optimize the prevailing engine operating conditions, fuel characteristics and emission levels, thanks to twin plunger pump elements. One plunger controls the quantity of fuel while the other controls the injection timing. TURBOCHARGING SYSTEM Turbocharger technology has undergone intense design and performance development in recent years, resulting in higher performance and greater reliability. Only the best available

charger technology is used on Wrtsil engines. The main features of the turbocharging system are: One-stage turbocharging An oil-cooled turbocharger with plain bearings lubricated by engine oil A two-stage charge air cooler depending on engine conguration An LT water bypass valve for charge air temperature control The charge air receiver is integrated into the engine block A water mist catcher as a standard option Air and exhaust waste gate functions for best engine performance, depending on engine conguration

A single-pipe exhaust gas system (SPEX) or pulse charging, depending on engine conguration The SPEX system is designed for minimum ow losses on both the exhaust and air sides. The charging systems are designed to give high efciency and good load acceptance. SPEX is designed for best possible full-load performance. SPEX, combined with the exhaust waste gate and air bypass, meets the established low load performance of pulse charging. With its unique design, the load acceptance is close to that of pulse charging. Non-cooled chargers, with inboard plain bearings lubricated by the engines lube oil system, are used. The end result is that intervals between overhauls are reduced, as is maintenance.
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Lubricating oil cooler

Charge air cooler HT

Heat recovery

Charge air cooler LT

Cyl.

Central cooler

LT stand-by pump

LT pump

HT pump HT stand-by pump

Preheater

PRINCIPLE LAYOUT OF THE COOLING SYSTEM.

Oil cooler Automatic filter Oil pump Electric stand-by oil pump

Centrifugal filter

Electric pre-lube oil pump

Dry oil sump

Suction strainer

System oil tank

PRINCIPLE LAYOUT OF THE LUBRICATING SYSTEM.

COOLING SYSTEM The cooling system on the engine is split into two separate circuits: high-temperature (HT) and low-temperature (LT). The cylinder liner, the cylinder head, and the rst stage in the charge air cooler are all connected to the HT circuit. The lubricating oil cooler and the second stage in the charge air cooler are connected to the LT circuit. The amount of water passing through the LT stage in the charge air cooler is controlled by a thermostatic valve. This maintains the desired intake air temperature, regardless of load level or variations in the cooling water temperature. Engine-driven pumps and builton thermostatic valves are standard. As an option, the engine is also available without built-on pumps and thermostatic valves.

LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM The engine is available with a complete builton lube oil system that offers the following features: An engine-driven main lube oil pump (screw type) with built-in safety valve A pressure regulating valve that keeps the pressure before the main bearings at a constant level A lubricating oil module, including lube oil cooler, lter and thermostatic valves The lube oil ltration is based on a full ow automatic back-ushing lter. This requires a minimum of maintenance and needs no disposable lter cartridges A centrifugal lter connected to the backushing line of the automatic lter. This enables wear particles from the system to be extracted

An electric motor driven pre-lubricating pump, depending on engine conguration The oil sump is either a wet or dry type, depending on engine conguration. A separate system oil tank is needed for the dry sump Connections for stand-by auxiliaries. AUTOMATION SYSTEM Wrtsil engines can be equipped with a modular embedded automation system, the Wrtsil Unied Controls UNIC, which is available in three different versions. The basic functionality is the same in all versions, but the functionality can be easily expanded to cover different applications. UNIC C1 and UNIC C2 are versions applicable for engines with conventional fuel injection, whereas UNIC C3 additionally includes fuel injection control

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Hardwired connections Loadsh. CAN


LDU LCP

Ethernet CCM CCM

ESM MCM PDM

IOM

UNIC

for engines with common-rail fuel injection. UNIC C3 automation is also used in gas engines. The Wrtsil UNIC is a exible and fully scalable control system for large reciprocating diesel and gas engines. The UNIC system is designed to fulll the long lifetime expectations for large marine diesel and gas engines operating in the toughest of conditions. The system is based on a high degree of commonalities and standard interfaces, covering different engine sizes and fuel systems in a modular way. A modular, standardized interface provides an easily reusable design for off-engine automation systems. It allows, for example, diesel engines to be converted to dual fuel or common rail with a minimum of modications. Thanks to the pre-tested conguration,

minimal commissioning or installation work is needed before the engine or generating set is operational. The critical parts of the UNIC system are either redundant or very fault-tolerant to guarantee high safety and availability in all circumstances. In particular, parts like the communication and power supply are fully redundant to allow single failures without interruptions in engine operation. The electronic control enables the engine to be adapted to different operating conditions. The main features of the UNIC system are: A complete engine safety system Local monitoring Speed control with load sharing Fuel injection Timing control and knock detection Alarm signal acquisition

AUTOMATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS

ESM MCM TCM IOM PDM LCP LDU CCM

Engine Safety Module Main Control Module Thermocouple Module Input Output Module Power Distribution Module Local Control Panel Local Display Unit Cylinder Control Module

Start/stop sequencing and load reduction request System diagnostics and a eldbus interface applicable to each engines conguration.
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BMEP (bar)

45%

Misfiring Thermal efficiency (%)


2.6

Knocking

Operating window

2 g/kWh

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

Air/fuel ratio

DUAL-FUEL TECHNOLOGY
THE LEAN-BURN CONCEPT The Wrtsil dual-fuel technology operates on the lean-burn principle: the mixture of air and gas in the cylinder has more air than is needed for complete combustion. Lean combustion reduces peak temperatures and therefore NOX emissions. Efciency is increased and higher output is reached while avoiding knocking. Combustion of the lean air-fuel mixture is initiated by injecting a small amount of LFO (pilot fuel) into the cylinder. The pilot fuel is ignited in a conventional diesel process, providing a high-energy ignition source for the main charge. To obtain the best efciency and lowest emissions, every cylinder is individually controlled to ensure operation at the correct air-fuel ratio and with the correct amount and timing of pilot fuel injection. Wrtsil has developed a special electronic control system to cope with the demanding task of controlling the combustion in each cylinder, and to ensure optimal performance in terms of efciency and emissions under all conditions by keeping each cylinder within the operating window. Stable and well-controlled combustion also contributes to less mechanical and thermal load on the engine components.
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FUEL SYSTEM The fuel system of the Wrtsil dual-fuel engine has been divided into three: for gas, for liquid fuel, and for a separate pilot fuel system. The Wrtsil dual-fuel engine is started in diesel mode using both main diesel and pilot fuel. Gas admission is activated when combustion is stable in all cylinders. When running the engine in gas mode, the pilot fuel amounts to less than 1% of full-load fuel consumption. The amount of pilot fuel is controlled by the engine control system. When running the engine in liquid fuel mode the pilot is also in use to ensure nozzle cooling. GAS SUPPLY The natural gas is supplied to the engine through a gas valve unit. The gas is rst ltered to ensure a clean supply. The gas pressure is controlled by a valve located in the valve station. The gas pressure is dependent on engine load. At full load the pressure before the engine is 3.5 bar (g) for LHV 36 MJ/m3. For lower LHV the pressure has to be increased. The system includes the necessary shut-off and venting valves to ensure a safe and trouble-free gas supply. On the engine, the gas is supplied through large common-rail pipes running along the engine. Each cylinder then has an individual feed pipe to the gas admission valve on the cylinder head.

Gas piping in marine installations is of double wall design as standard. LIQUID FUEL OIL SUPPLY The fuel oil supply on the engine is divided into two separate systems: pilot fuel and back-up fuel oil system. The pilot fuel is elevated to the required pressure by a pump unit. This includes duplex lters, pressure regulator and an engine-driven radial piston-type pump. The high-pressure pilot fuel is then distributed through a common-rail pipe to the injection valves at each cylinder. Pilot fuel is injected at approximately 900 bar pressure and the timing and duration are electronically controlled. The pilot fuel system is separated from the back-up fuel system with separate connections on the engine. The back-up fuel system is fed to a normal camshaft-driven injection pump. From the injection pump, the high-pressure fuel goes to a spring-loaded injection valve of standard design for a diesel engine. INJECTION VALVE The Wrtsil dual-fuel has a twin-needle injection valve. The larger needle is used in back-up mode for LFO or HFO operation and the smaller for pilot fuel oil when the engine is running in gas mode and also in back-up fuel operation to ensure nozzle cooling. Pilot

NOX (g/kWh)

FUEL INJECTION PUMPS FOR LIQUID FUEL OPERATION RETURN FUEL

INJECTION VALVES

COMMON RAIL FOR HIGH PRESSURE PILOT FUEL

PRESSURE

PRESSURE

BOOSTER PUMP UNIT

BOOSTER PUMP UNIT

PILOT FUEL PUMP UNIT

MAIN FUEL TANK LFO or HFO

PILOT FUEL TANK LFO

PRESSURE

injection is electronically controlled and the main diesel injection is hydromechanically controlled. The individually controlled solenoid valve allows optimum timing and duration of pilot fuel injection into every cylinder when the engine is running in gas mode. Since NOX formation depends greatly on the amount of pilot fuel, this design ensures very low NOX formation while still employing a stable and reliable ignition source for the lean air-gas mixture in the combustion chamber.

RETURN FUEL

Control system

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GAS ADMISSION VALVE Gas is admitted to the cylinders just before the air inlet valve. The gas admission valves are electronically actuated and controlled by the engine control system to give exactly the correct amount of gas to each cylinder. In this way, the combustion in each cylinder can be fully and individually controlled. Since the valve can be timed independently of the inlet valves, the cylinder can be scavenged without risk of gas being fed directly to the exhaust system. Independent gas admission ensures the correct air-fuel ratio and optimal operating point with respect to efciency and emissions. It also enables reliable performance without shutdowns, knocking or misring. The gas admission valves have a short stroke and
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at all times and will switch over from gas to fuel oil if necessary. The plunger is equipped with a wear-resistant coating. PILOT PUMP The pilot fuel pump is engine-driven. It receives the signal for correct outgoing fuel pressure from the engine control unit and independently sets and maintains the pressure at the required level. It transmits the prevailing fuel pressure to the engine control system. High-pressure fuel is delivered to each injection valve through a common-rail pipe, which acts as a pressure accumulator and damper against pressure pulses in the system. The fuel system has a double wall design with alarm for leakage.

specially selected materials, thus providing low wear and long maintenance intervals. INJECTION PUMP The Wrtsil dual-fuel engine utilizes the wellproven monoblock injection pump developed by Wrtsil. This pump withstands the high pressures involved in fuel injection and has a constant-pressure relief valve to avoid cavitation. The fuel pump is ready for operation

INSTANT CHANGE OVER FROM GAS TO LIQUID FUEL MODE WITH THE DUAL-FUEL SOLUTION
gas to liquid fuel 100 % ~80% Instant ~0,5 h ~0,1 h ~0,5 h * liquid fuel to gas

Gas

LFO

HFO

Gas

LFO

HFO

In the dual-fuel solution the twin injection nozzles are used also for HFO operation. The LFO pilot is in use also during the HFO operation. * The time needed to reach full load on gas depends on the duration of HFO-mode operation.

Exhaust waste-gate

Engine control system

Load Speed

OPERATION MODE TRANSFER The engine can be switched automatically from liquid fuel oil to gas operation at loads below 80% of the full load. Transfer takes place automatically after the operators command without load changes. During switchover, which lasts about one minute, the fuel oil is gradually substituted by gas. In the event of for instance a gas supply interruption, the engine converts from gas to liquid fuel operation at any load instantaneously and automatically. Futhermore, the separate liquid fuel system makes it possible to switch over from LFO to HFO without power reduction. The pilot fuel is in operation at liquid fuel mode to ensure nozzle cooling. The pilot fuel consumption is less than 1% of full load fuel consumption. Switching over to LFO from HFO operation can also be done without load reduction. From LFO to gas operation, the switch can be made as described above. This operation exibility is the real advantage of the dual-fuel system. AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL The correct air-fuel ratio under any operating conditions is essential to optimum performance and emissions. For this function, Wrtsil dualfuel engines are equipped with an exhaust gas waste-gate valve. Part of the exhaust gases bypasses the turbocharger through the waste-gate valve. The valve adjusts the air-fuel ratio to the correct value independent of the varying site conditions under high engine loads.

I T

Exhaust

TC

Air

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MAINTENANCE FEATURES
During design and development, engine manufacturers typically emphasize ease of maintenance by including tooling and easy access in the basic design, and by providing easy-to-understand instructions. Wrtsils maintenance principle is substantiated by the following: A cylinder head with four xing studs and simultaneous hydraulic tightening of all four studs Uniform one-cylinder camshaft pieces Slip-on ttings wherever possible Exhaust gas system insulation using easyto remove panels on an engine mounted frame A hydraulic jack for the overhaul of the main bearing where applicable A three-piece connecting rod in bigger engines, allowing inspection of the big end bearing without removal of the piston, and piston overhaul without dismantling the big end bearing Weight-optimized and user-friendly maintenance tools

SERVICES
Several customers have recognized us as their preferred service supplier to ensure the availability and cost-efcient operation of their installations. They benet from having their entire power system fully serviced by one global supplier. Wrtsil Services provides full service throughout the product lifecycle for both marine and power plant customers, and is constantly developing its network worldwide. Additionally we are continually broadening our range of services by adding valuable products and specialist services to our portfolio. In this way we also support equipment onboard your vessel or at your installation and in our numerous workshops around the globe and in key ports, regardless of equipment make. We offer lifecycle efciency solutions in the following services product lines: Engine Services Propulsion Services Electrical & Automation Services Boiler Services Operations & Management Services Training Services Environmental Services These services cover everything from basic support with parts, eld service and technical support to service agreements and condition based maintenance; from installation and commissioning, performance optimization, including upgrades and conversions, to environmental solutions, technical information and online support. The choice available to you extends from parts and maintenance services to a variety of comprehensive, customized long-term service agreements, including performance and operations & management agreements. Our Services organization currently features more than 11,000 dedicated professionals in 70 countries. Wrtsil adds value to your business at every stage in the lifecycle of your installations. With us as your service partner, you receive many measurable benets such as availability and performance, productivity gains and cost benets. Above all, peace of mind in the knowledge that your installation is being serviced by the most experienced partner you could have Wrtsil.

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Wrtsil is a global leader in complete lifecycle power solutions for the marine and energy markets. By emphasising technological innovation and total efciency, Wrtsil maximises the environmental and economic performance of the vessels and power plants of its customers. Wrtsil is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki, Finland.

WRTSIL is a registered trademark. Copyright 2010 Wrtsil Corporation.

06.2010 / Bocks Ofce / Waasa Graphics