Partitioning in MySQL 5.

1 and onwards
Dr. Mikael Ronström, Senior Software Architect MySQL AB mikael@mysql.com

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Why Partitioning?
• For Large Tables:
• • • • • • ”Divide and Conquer” Easier maintenance Performance improvement for queries Control data placement on disk devices Control data placement on Cluster nodes Preparatory step for Parallel Queries

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Partitioned Tables
• Partitioned Tables are standard MySQL tables
– Can be part of all constructs where tables are used
– Complex select queries, Stored Procedures, Triggers, Views

• Easy to ALTER TABLE into partitioned table
– Syntax from CREATE TABLE can also be used in ALTER TABLE

• Easy to drop partitioning on a table
– ALTER TABLE t1 REMOVE PARTITIONING;

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Partition Management
• • • • • Fast Deletion of entire parts of a table Fast reorganisation of one part of a table Fast reorganisation of partition boundaries Fast adding of new partitions Fast split/merge of partitions

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MySQL Partitioning Types
• Range Partitioning • List Partitioning • Hash Partitioning • Composite Partitioning

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Storage Engines
• Partition applies to all storage engines
– – – – – MyISAM InnoDB Archive NDB Cluster Falcon

• Exceptions
– Merge

• Don’t mix storage engines in one table for now (5.1 limitation)
– Example:
– Archive Engine for really old data (> 10 years) – MyISAM for medium old data (> 1 year) – InnoDB for current data
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Key Partitioning
• Definition
– Same as Hash partitioning except that MySQL decides the hash function using the given fields

• Benefits
– Very good hash function – Tight integration with MySQL Cluster partitioning

• Drawbacks
– Same as for Hash partitioning

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LINEAR HASH/KEY partitioning
• The normal HASH/KEY uses a modulo function to spread records => Even distribution of data among partitions • Also leads to full rebuild of table for ADD/COALESCE Partition • LINEAR HASH/KEY partitions use an algorithm based on linear hashing which means that some partitions will have twice as much data as others if the number of partitions is not on the form 2 ^ n • LINEAR HASH/KEY only requires rebuild of a number of the partitions, thus faster partition management at the cost of a slight imbalance
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Partition Function
• PARTITION BY RANGE(f(f1,f2,f3)) • Partition function must always deliver integer result (5.1 limitation) • Partition function can contain any number of fields, but must contain at least one field • If primary key is defined, no fields outside of primary key is allowed in partition function • Partition function can contain a large variety of character functions, date functions and mathematical functions • If unique key is defined on a table, no fields outside of unique key is allowed in partition function (this limitation does not exist for tables in MySQL Cluster)
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Partition Options
MAX_ROWS MIN_ROWS NODEGROUP (only MySQL Cluster) DATA DIRECTORY (only MyISAM) INDEX DIRECTORY (only MyISAM) COMMENT

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INFORMATION SCHEMA for Partitioning
• Provides information of:
– Partition names – Where partitions are stored – Information about partition types – Information about partition functions – Number of rows per partition – Average row length in partitions – Other attributes of partitions (timestamps, …)

• Support SHOW CREATE TABLE • Support SHOW TABLE STATUS
– Will be displayed as Create option PARTITIONED

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EXPLAIN for queries using Partitioned Tables
• Explains which partitions will be actually scanned in a query
– Gives you everything that EXPLAIN provides – Plus a list of partition names used in the query

• Use EXPLAIN PARTITIONS to understand:
– How partition pruning affects the query – Which indexes are used
• might be affected by partitioning

– If there is a better partitioning strategy

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Partition Management
• • • • • • • • • • ALTER TABLE t1 DROP PARTITION p0; ALTER TABLE t1 ADD PARTITION (PARTITION p1); ALTER TABLE t1 REORGANIZE PARTITION ….; ALTER TABLE t1 COALESCE PARTITION 1; ALTER TABLE t1 REBUILD PARTITION p0; ALTER TABLE t1 OPTIMIZE PARTITION p0; ALTER TABLE t1 CHECK PARTITION p0; ALTER TABLE t1 ANALYZE PARTITION p0; ALTER TABLE t1 REPAIR PARTITION p0; ALTER TABLE t1 TRUNCATE PARTITION p0;
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Drop RANGE/LIST Partition

ALTER TABLE t1 DROP PARTITION 2002

2002

2003

2004

2005

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Add RANGE/LIST Partition
ALTER TABLE t1 ADD PARTITION (PARTITION 2006 VALUES IN (2006));

2003

2004

2005

2006 2006

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ADD HASH/KEY partition(s)
ALTER TABLE t1 ADD PARTITION (PARTITION p4); Old Partitions

p1

p2

p3

p1

p2 New Partitions

p3

p4

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ADD LINEAR HASH/KEY partition(s)
ALTER TABLE t1 ADD PARTITION (PARTITION p4);

Old Partitions p1 p2 p3

p2

p4

New Partitions

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COALESCE HASH/KEY partition(s)
ALTER TABLE t1 COALESCE PARTITION 1;

p1

Old Partitions p2 p3 p4

p1

p2

p3

New Partitions

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COALESCE LINEAR HASH/KEY partition(s)
ALTER TABLE t1 COALESCE PARTITION 1; Old Partitions p1 p2 p3 p4

p2

New Partitions

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Using REORGANIZE partition to SPLIT a partition
ALTER TABLE t1 REORGANIZE PARTITION 2006_2007 INTO (PARTITION 2006 VALUES LESS THAN (2007), PARTITION 2007 VALUES LESS THAN (2008));

Before_2002

2002_2003

2004_2005

2006_2007

2006

2007

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Using REORGANIZE partition to MERGE partitions
ALTER TABLE t1 REORGANIZE PARTITION 2006,2007 INTO (PARTITION 2006_2007 VALUES LESS THAN (2008));

Before_2004

2004_2005

2006

2007

2006_2007

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Using REORGANIZE partition to balance partitions
ALTER TABLE t1 REORGANIZE PARTITION 2006_Q1,2006_Q2 INTO (PARTITION 2006_M1_4 VALUES LESS THAN (DATE(’2006-05-01’), PARTITION 2006_M_5_8 VALUES LESS THAN (DATE(’2006-09-01’));

Before_2004

2005

2006_Q1

2006-Q2

2006_M_1_4

2006_M_5_8

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Using REORGANIZE partition to move partitions to new disk device
ALTER TABLE t1 REORGANIZE PARTITION 2006 INTO (PARTITION 2006 DATA DIRECTORY ’/home/user/2006/data_file’ INDEX DIRECTORY ’/home/user/2006/index_file’ VALUES LESS THAN (2007));

Before_2004

2005

2006

2007

2006

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Using REBUILD partition to recreate partition
ALTER TABLE t1 REBUILD PARTITION 2006;

Before_2004

2005

2006

2007

2006

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Partition Pruning
• Only scan needed partitions
– Range optimisations for single-field function, YEAR(date) and DATE_TO_DAYS(date) functions (RANGE partitioning) – Range optimisations for all LIST/HASH/KEY partitions

• Best use case:
– Full table scans on non-indexed fields

• Example:
– CREATE TABLE t1 (a int, index(a)) PARTITION BY HASH (a) partitions 4; – CREATE TABLE t2 (a int, index(a));

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Partition Pruning
SELECT * FROM Cars Where PRICE > 9000

8000-TSU564-1988 11000-YRG213-2005 13000-KAR365-2001

7000-SAG293-2004

12000-FBI007-2004 21100-GRO293-1956 8500-KHO297-2004

1000-YUK333-1981 34000-SIE568-2004

Results
Price >9000

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Partition Pruning
Select *FROM Cars Where PRICE >9000 and COLOR= Red
8000-TSU564-1988 11000-YRG213-2005 13000-KAR365-2001 7000-SAG293-2004 12000-FBI007-2004 21100-GRO293-1956 8500-KHO297-2004 1000-YUK333-1981 34000-SIE568-2004

Results
Price >9000

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Dynamic Partitioning Pruning
SELECT * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t2.a = t1.a; If t1 is inner loop it is possible to select only one partition in each of its scan (one scan per record in outer table t2). If t1 is outer loop it has to scan all partitions. Explanation: This works since there is an index on ‘a’ that contains all partitioning fields and this is bound for each scan in inner loop
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Partitioning and NULL values
• NULL values are allowed in partitioning fields • If a partitioning function is evaluated where one field is NULL the result of the partitioning will be the smallest integer • This also holds for VALUES IN (NULL) in List partitioned tables • VALUES LESS THAN (NULL) is not allowed • VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE will include all integers upto the biggest integer

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Partititioning Implementation
TABLE t1 (Abstract table, frm-file for t1 exists, Implemented by Partition handler) Partition p1 Handler Table (no frm for partitions)
MyISAM/ InnoDB/ Federated/ …..

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index_read Algorithm
Handler output Merge Sort Part

Sorted Output stream From Partition 1

Sorted Output stream From Partition 2

Sorted Output stream From Partition 3

Sorted Output stream From Partition 4

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Insert in Partitioning Table

YELLOW

GREEN

RED

BLUE

Insert GOX 123 $ 3000 2001 YELLOW

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Updating Partition

Yellow

Blue

Red

Green

Delete GOX 123 $ 3000 2001 Yellow

Insert

GOX 123

$ 3000

2001

Green

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Partitioning for MySQL Cluster
• Default for MySQL Cluster:
– All tables in MySQL Cluster are partitioned – Default for an ENGINE=NDB is PARTITION BY KEY()

• User Defined Partitioning for MySQL Cluster
– Supports same partitioning types as rest of MySQL (Beta using –new) – PARTITION BY KEY is fully integrated with NDB kernel – Partitions defined in MySQL mapped to partitions in NDB storage engine, thus no extra overhead for many partitions – Partitioning makes manual placement of partitions possible

• NOTE:
– No support for DROP PARTITION – Full table copy is always employed for Partition Management
• Locks entire table (=> not on-line) • More memory resources used • More processing resources
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Cluster: Partitioning Controls Physical Distribution
• • • Accessing relevant partitions only (partition pruning) for a query optimizes communication costs A table no longer has to be distributed on all nodes Altering the table partitioning can change the physical distribution

– Altering table partitioning is currently done as a copying ALTER TABLE Node groups can be populated on-line – ALTER TABLE account ADD PARTITION (PARTITION P2 NODEGROUP 2) – With future support for adding nodes (node groups) online, tables can be re-partitioned to populate the added nodes
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Cluster: Partition by Key
CREATE TABLE service(user int unsigned, int) PRIMARY KEY (user, service) PARTITION BY KEY (user) ENGINE=NDBCLUSTER; service varchar, parameter

• PARTITION BY KEY enables us to place all user records from all tables in the same node group
– Better locality of access for transactions towards a particular user

• Default number of partitions in MySQL Cluster == Number of nodes in cluster

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Cluster: Default Tables
• ENGINE=NDB is translated to PARTITION BY KEY() ENGINE=NDB
– PARTITION BY KEY() means by fields in primary key
• if no primary key exists it means by Hidden Key

– a unique identifier generated by MySQL for tables without primary keys in MySQL Cluster – PARTITION BY KEY() can be used also for non-clustered tables
• Only partition by primary key (no hidden key stuff)

• Default number of partitions for non-clustered partitioned tables is 1

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Backup and Restore for partitioned tables in MySQL Cluster
SCENARIO DESCRIPTION: • Backup taken in cluster with 4 node groups • Restore performed in cluster with 2 node groups • Assume table manually partitioned to be in node group 0 and 3 • What can be done for the partition in node group 3? • For mysqldump and Cluster Replication the table must be created by the user before applying the user records/binlog

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Nodegroup maps for ndb_restore
• Using ndb_restore it is possible to specify a mapping between node groups as specified in backup and the node groups set up by the restore program. • Use parameter --ndb-nodegroup-map ’(3,1)(2,0)’ • It needs a list of mappings from old nodegroup to new nodegroup • An old nodegroup map can be mapped to more than one nodegroup, in that case mappings are done on a round robin basis for those partitions • Tables that haven’t explicitly set a nodegroup is not affected by this mapping
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Future Roadmap
• Global Indexes
– Unique indexes fully supported

• • • •

Foreign Key support Import/Export Partitions to/from other tables Even more on-line changes Optimised locking/opening of tables
– Better performance

• Mix storage engines in one table
– Example:
– Archive Engine for really old data (> 10 years) – MyISAM for medium old data (> 1 year) – InnoDB for current data

• Enable queries on ”broken” tables
– Query even when a partition is not available
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Partitioning Limitations (5.1)
• Partitioning Function must return integer result • All partitions must use the same Storage Engine (with same options) • Use of a partitioned table => open all partitions ⇒Increases response time for partitioned tables with many partitions (execution overhead very little)
• Foreign Keys support is not available for partitioned tables (on the roadmap for future release)

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More information on Partitioning
• Documentation
– http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/partitioni ng.html

• Blog
– http://mikaelronstrom.blogspot.com

• Forums
– http://forums.mysql.com/list.php?106

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Thank You!
Senior Software Architect Dr. Mikael Ronström
MySQL AB

mikael@mysql.com

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