You are on page 1of 399

2012-08-12 21:49:00 UTC

5017e1875493c 49.48.221.186 Thailand

Text=Books,

Manuals,

6:c., in

ORIENTAL

LANGUAGES.
CHINESE.

BULLOCK,

T. L.,

Exercisks Pk()(;k!"sive Roval 8vo, cloth, lav.

Professor of Chinese in the University of Oxford; Chinese Wkitte'n Language. in tiik


hJ. net.

SIR ROBERT K.. Professor of Chinese at King's College, DOUGLAS, "c. London, Manl'ai,, A Chinese comprising Grammar, with Idiomatic Phrases Edition. Fcap. 8vo. ioj-. 6d. and Dialogues. .Second V., Lieut., 6th U.S. Cav. GEO. STRONG, Medium Common 8vo, half-bound. Chinese-Japanese Chakac:teks. 8j. 220 net. pages.

HINDUSTANI,
ABDOOLAH,
SiN(jHASAN

HINDI,

"c.

SYED.

Translated into Hindi from the Sanscrit, in the Battisj. Royal 8vo. i2.f. 6d, N'agaii Character. Hindi, translated into Urdu, with an Introduction and Notes Akhi.aki in the Persian Cliaracter. Royal 8vo. 125. bd. B. H., Instructor in Hindustani
at

F. MAJOR CHAPMAN, Royal Military College.

the

N'ocahli.akv Pocket EN(;i,isii-HiNni'STANi : containing 2,200 useful in Roman in classified lists. (Urdu Character.) Second words lidition,revised and enlarged. 32mo, cloth, "is. net. Leakn HiNin:sTANi. A Manual How for all Students and a Guide to Higher Examinations. to the Lower Second Edition, and .Standard 8vo, Crown 6d. net. cloth, -js. revised and enlarged. Reader Urou Containing (Gkauuateu) for Mii.rrAKV Stluents. lists Urdu Alphabet, the of useful words, simple grammatical exercises Urdu),easy selections from various authors, (Urdu and Romanized military and historical selections, together with a complete vocabulary Royal 8vo, cloth. words occurring in the text. of all the Urdu 6i. net. js.

EASTWICK,
The explanatory

EDWARD
ak. notes.

11\gh-o-Baii

B. Literally translated 8vo. Demy io_v. 6d.

into English, with

copious

LL.D. DUNCAN, FORBES, Dictionarv, in the Persian Character, with the Hindl'stani-Engi-Ish in Xagari Hindi words Dictionary in also; and an English-Hindustani Royal 8vo. the English Character ; both in one volume. 42.?, English-Hindustani and Dictionary, Hindustani-English in Royal 8vo. the English Character. ^Ss. Dictionary, Hindustani P2nglish, in the English and .Smai.i.ek Character. i2(. Grammar, in the Persian and Hindustani with specimens of Writing Lessons, and Vocabulary. Nagari Characters, Reading Demy 8vo. 6d. IOJ.

CROSBY

LOCKWOOD

"

SON,

7, Stationers' Hall Court, E.G.

Text=Books,

Manuals,

"c.,

in

ORIENTAL
HINDU

LANGUAGES.
ST A N I-^ontinned.

Exercises Grammar, Manual, Hindustani containing a Compendious Character. for Translation, Dialogues, and Vocabulary, in the Roman New Edition, entirely revised. By J.T, Platts. i8mo. y. 6d. in the Persian Character, with a complete Vocabulary, Bagii-o-Bahak, Royal 8vo. 6ii. Characters. i2j. in Persian and Roman Notes, illustrative in English, with Explanatory Bagh-o-Baiiak, of 8s. 8vo. Demy Eastern Character. English Character. Crown 8vo. 5.f. Bagu-o-Bahak, with Vocabulary. Parrot," in Persian a Character, with Tota Kaham the ; or, "Tales of 8vo. 8i. Royal Vocabulary. a complete in the N'agari Twenty-five Tales of a Demon," Pachisi ; or, Baitai. Nagari Vocabulary in the Character, with a complete and Rontan Royal 8vo. Characters. gr. Ikhwanu-s-Saka ; or, "Brothers of Purity," in the Persian Character.
"

Royal 8vo.

i2.f.

6d.

HOLBOYD,

COL.
IDK

W.
EvEKY

R.

M., DAY.

formerlv Director of Public Instruction, Royal 8vo. 324 pages.


8i.net.

Punjalj.
HiNDLsiANi

KEMPSON,

M.,

Director

of Public Instruction in N.W.

Provinces,

1862-78. A Manual Hindustani. Idioms and ok i'HE Syntax of the Reading, in Grammar, Exercises Progressive Language ; consisting of Second and Translation, with Notes, Directions, and Vocabularies. 6s. 8vo, Crown net. Edition, revised and enlarged. cloth. in the Persian Taukatu-n-Nusuh, the of FiKST Five Chapters Annotations, Marginal Analysis, Character, with and Index additional Royal 8vo. X'ocabulary. js, 6d. Idioms ov and Syntax of Exercises Translation the Key to 8vo. in the Roman Character. Crown Hindustani, 31. 6d,

P. MULVIHILL, for A Vocabulary Character. Roman

the

Lower Fcap. 8vo.

Standard y. 6d.

in

Hindustani,

in the

PHILLOTT,

D. C, Secretary, Board LIEUT.-COLONEL of Calcutta. Examiners, Points in the Syntax Being difficult Stumbling-Blocks. Hindustani Crown 8vo. Exemplified. Explained and and Idiom of Hindustani 6d. net. cloth. 4-?.

M.R.A.S. FREDERIC, PINCOTr, Translated from the Hindi, in the Nagari Character. in Sakuntai.a Bengali recension of the Sanscrit. Criticallyedited, with grammatical, 6d. 12s. idiomatical, and exegetical notes. 410. Comprising a grammar Manual. Hindi The of the Hindi Language both Literary and Provincial ; a complete Syntax ; Exercises in various Dialogues on ; and several subjects styles of Hindi composition ; Vca\). Characters. Roman Nagari in Vocabulary the a complete and
8vo. 65.

CROSBY

LOCKWOOD

"

SON, 7, Stationers' Hall Court, E.C.

UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

SAN

DIEGO

3 1822 02457

8023

UliilNEbJ^; MAJNQAL
COlirRISING

CONDENSED
PHEASES

GBAMMAR AND

WITH
DIALOGUES

IDIOMATIC

SIR
KEEPKE OP IN
THE

ROBERT
DEPARTMENT
BKITISH AT OP MUSEUM,
AND

K.
OBIENTAL

DOUGLAS
PRINTED BOOKS OP AND
M.S.I

TEB

PUOPESSOIi LONDON.

CHINESE

king's

college,

eEDitton iEcis

gf,iol];ti

LONDON

CROSBY

LOCKWOOD
1904

AND

SON
Hill

7, Stationeks' Hall

Court, Ludgate

(N

Archive Digitized by the Internet in2007 with funding from IVIicrosoft Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/chinesemanualcomOOdougiala

PREFACE.

The
to

appearance
two
causes.

of

the

present

work

la

due
for

(1) The
to

increasing demand
study
want

practical helps
language such
;

the
the

of

the

Chinese

and in

(2)
a

in England size and


at

of
a

works

convenient

moderate The
8 new

price. of Burma has, by establishing

annexation point

of contact
more

with

China,

created knowledge

necessity for of

widely
our

extended

Chinese
at

among

civilians and

soldiers
now

than

present

exists.

Our

frontier is
on

conterminous

with that of China

the south-

iy

PREFACE.

west,
must

and

the

more

intimate

relations which

necessarily follow with that country make


we

it imperative that with the language


With
a

should become

acquainted

spoken

within its borders. all the have


in

few

exceptions have

works
been

on

Chinese

which in

appeared

lished pub-

China.

There

has

consequence

been

delay and
as

uncertainty in their reaching


as a

this country,
ment

well

considerable enhance

of cost.
are

But, besides this,the books themselves printed in shapes and


sizes

commonly them

which
baggage

make

inconvenient additions to the

and soldiers. In fact these of travellers


"

publications
work designed

and of this Sir Thomas is


an

Wade's
been

valuab in-

example

"

have

mainly

for students permanently

resident in

China.

This disregard of the English


by justified

market
apathy

has until lately been

the

PRRFACK.

shown

by

students in England

on

the
a

subject
brighter

of Chinese.

Fortunately, however, dawning

day
us

seems

to be

for the language among


that the stigma
us

; and

it may

fairly be hoped
to

which

has hitherto attached

as

nation

of being the holder of the largest stake in the


East, while at the
same

time

we

are

culpably

indifferent to the promotion

of Oriental studies,

is about to be wiped oflF. The have works dialogues and been


taken

examples

in this Manual native


of

almost

entirelj^ from instruction

intended

for

the

the

Japanese

in the language,

and

are

those therefore
are

which in the opinion of Chinese writers

likely to be most useful to students. Lastly, I would


criticsat the
errors

fain deprecate
which
must

the wrath
occur

of

inevitably
in
a

in

work

printed

in England

character

VI

PRKFACB.

30

strange

as

Chinese.

I feel I

can

fidence with con-

make

this appeal to at least all those

whose lot it has been to have corrected Oriental


proofs for English
my
AND

printers. At

the

same

time

thanks

are

especially due to Messrs. Austin


care

Soxs, of Hertford, for the


they have

and

attentio

bestowed

on

their part

of

the (ask, for the execution of which


in England, firm and the

they alone,
one

with

the

exception

of

other

Clarendon

Press, possessed the

necessary type.

ROBERT

K. DOUGLAS.

Kino's

Coliboe,
Jpril, 1889.

London.

PEEFACE

TO THE

NEW

EDITION.

The

first edition of this Manual this


new

having

been
in

exhausted,

issue

is publislied

obedience to the requirements of the pubh'c.


Eecent
events in the Far

East

have

forced

on

the attention of tlie people of Great Britain the advantages


"

both

political and

commercial

"

of

cultivating a closer connexion


the 400,000,000

than formerly with


speak the

people who
a

Chinese

language.
when

Such

connexion

is only' possible

the peoples of the two


ideas through

nations

can

change intercommon

the medinm

of

language.

The

of object

the present work

is to

Viil

I'UEFACE

TO

NEW

EDITION.

advance

this most
an

desirable consummation

by

giving learners

opportunity of acquiring the


away,
must
so

language, and

by smoothing

far

as

is

which possible,the difficulties


attend their studies.

necessarily

ROBERT

K. DOUGLAS.

King's

College, May

London.

6, 1904.

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS.

CONTEXTS.

Personal

Pronouns

Honorific and

self-dcprcciutory terms

Eeflexive Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns Pronouns
Interrogative
.

Interrogative
Pronominal The

Adverbs

Relative Pronoun
Pronouns
.

Indefinite

The

Verb

Substantive

Verbs

Causative Verbs
Iterative Verbs
The

Passive Voice Tenses


Imperative

The
The The The The

Mood

Potential Mood Mood Subjunctive Present

Participle

Auxih'ary

Verbs
.

^JLai

^*

K^ii

iVTa ^ Choh B^ Ying

COM

liN IS.

XI

%%'"^^ Kaifang
Yii^gfang B^ tt^ Kan Jj^3 ^3P"
.

f|3 Ts'ing

p^ CAVA Tao iij^ ji^ Tr/o ^' Tang

ij^ AW
E
^'^-^

"

Words

and Particles in

common

use

^3 Shou M'KH

The Negatives

Z^ Puh il/wA,Mci J'^


.

Xll

^*

Wei
Moh

Pieh ^Ij

Vocabularies and Dialogues A List of Characters which


.

have several
. .
.

pronunciations List of Characters which define variations in meanings by change of tone Provinces
. . .
.

360

3G3
369

The Eighteen
A

List of the Emperors Dynasty


.

of tte present
.

370 370

Weights

and Measures

Tabued

Characters

"

372

INTRODUCTION.

This

Manual, not being intended for any ticular parclass of students, but for all those, civil,
and

military

naval

merchants, who may either by the seaboard

officers,missionaries, and reach the Middle Kingdom


or

through

Burma,

it was

obviously appropriate to adopt a pronunciation of inthe language which should make the learner tellig
to educated

of the Empire. has been wisely chosen as the dialect they should learn. Being the dialect of the court, it is generally affected by the higher Mandarins; the people it is not heard beyond among
neighbourhood of the capital city. may

the greater portion For Consular Students Pekingese


men over

but the

For

traveller

desire to visitseventeen out of the eighteen provinces of China, Pekingese must necessarily be an imperfect medium cation. of communitherefore,who the tory non-migrahabits of the people, begotten by the difficulties of locomotion, have tended to create and
1

Unfortunately, in China

CHINESE

MANUAL.

which make crystallizenumberless local dialects, natives, who know no other speech but their own, unintelligibleto their countrymen beyond the very
confined
areas

spoken.
"

in which their particular patois are inconvenience The arising from this

bead-roll of unbaptized
others who

jargons

"

to

traders,

scholars, and

of their callings or for travel, be impelled to visit cities and towns beyond the limits of their immediate surroundings,

from the necessimay ties the indulgence of a taste

has resulted in the adoption by all educated


men

of whatever calling of the Ktcan hica or Mandarin dialect.^ This speech is spoken through
of the provinces of China, including those

most

in tlie central, western and south-western portions It is the Kican hica therefore of the Empire.

which has been adopted in the present work. But so wide is the area over which the Ktcan hica is current that distinct differences of pronunciat
are

observable in it

as

spoken

(1)in

Peking
and
*

and the neighbourhood,

south-western

the central provinces of the Empire, and

(2)in

PfereConvreur, the learned author of a Dictionary and " Gaide de la conversation Francjais-Anglois-Chinois," published at Hokien Fu, says in his Introduction to the last-named work, " The
Mandarin is the colloquial language, not only of the official and educated classes,hut of four-fifths of the people." language

CHINESE

MANUAL.

The further question then arises as to which of these varietiesshould be followed. But the Ssiich'uen variety does not materially
differ from the speech of the central and southwestern provinces, and the issue consequently remains between this,the Mandarin par and the Pekingese. The main
excellence

in Ssuch'ueu. (3)

characteristicsof Pekingese are (1) the softening of the initialsK and Ts into Ch^

followed by the sounds of " or m ; Hs for H, or the substitutionof the initials and (2) S, when these last are followed by either of the when
they
are

sequence vowel sounds above mentioned. One palpable conof these changes is the impoverishment,

of the dialect, since for example the five syllables by the Mandarin here as pronounced in Mandarin
"

elsewhere the Mandarin of the central and southwestern Chi, Ki, Tst, Hi, Si, provinces is meant
"

resolved in Pekingese into Chi and Hsi ; two syllables as against five. And the result is tliat there are about 532 sylwhereas in Mandarin lables,
are

in Pekingese

there

are

only 420.

Even

of syllablesis quite small enough when the}',plus their tones, have to express the sounds of the 12,000 or 15,000 characters commonly

this first number

found in the dictionaries, and it is obvious

CHINESE

MANUAL.

than that the reductionof thisnumber by more increase a fifth further an inconvenience must still sufficiently embarrassing. already to the Peking But apart from this objection dialect there remains the questionof over what extent of area it is spoken. Sir Thomas "VVade, who is the great authorityon the court dialect,
" the oral language of the metrospeaks of it as politan department." And this is probably a description in which it is just of the district

a town spoken in itspurity. Even at T'ientsin, only seventymiles from Peking, a change in the directionof the Mandarin is observablein the
*

pronunciationof the people,and as the distance ^^ ^'^y^rom the capitalwidens this change becomes ^'*^^-^* more that marked. Sir Thomas Wade considers vading though this is so, Pekingese is "by degrees in/
.

all the dialects of the Mandarin." But in a Manual of this kind we are called upon rather to considerthe existing state of things, And if we take allthe than future possibilities. Avorks of recognized authority native linguistic in general use,

and all the according to the Mandarin sounds are expressed pronunciation. Again, if we turn to the native centres works publishedin the variousdialectical
we

find that in

one

CHINESE

MANUAL.

hica, or if we for teaching the natives the Kwan go for evidence to the bilingual works employed
to

teach the Japanese,

Manchus,
we

Tibetan, and
same

others to speak Chinese,

find the

course

In no case, at least in no well-known pursued. work, is the Pekingese pronunciation adopted. Turning next to European works on Chinese,
say that, with the exception of those by Sir Thomas Wade, some of the Consular members toms, Service, and some employes of the Imperial Cuswe

may

all those purporting to be general works in the Mandarin and not in Pekingese.
Moreover,

are

Medhurst,

Edkins, Legge,

Preraare.

Basile, De Guignes, Goncalves, the Jesuit authors of Sikawei, the authors of the recent dictionary
and

dialogue book at Hokien

Fu, in the metropolitan

others, all accept province, with many guage. as the Mandarin the best standard of the lan-

In the reports also from the missionaries in the central, western, and south-western provinces it is to be noticed that their transcriptions of Chinese

are entirely free from the racteris cha.words it may And of the Peking speech.

be mentioned

of the thirty or forty members of the Chinese Legation in London, only two speak Pekingese. that out

CHINESE

MANUAL.

For tliepurjjoscs of a work of this kind, therefore, have no hesitation in adopting the Kuan we hwa, representing as it does the language of the
educated

classes from

Kwangsi

the metropolitan province on Ganhwei on the east to the borders of Tibet

in the south to the north, and from


on

the west.

Next
was

to the choice of speech only in difficulty hear No two men the choice of orthography.

cessary exactly alike,and when, therefore, it becomes neto express in Roman letters the sounds of

non-alphabetical language like Chinese, room is afforded for the widest latitude of individual For instance, the word %^ meaning opinion.
a

poetry, has been Premare,

variously transcribed by

rison, Mor-

Goncalves, the Chinese

tory, Reposi-

and Edkins, by She, Chi, Xe, Sht, This is only a specimen of the Shi, and Shi. the perplexing variations in spelling which vex

Wade,

souls of students of the language. work


as

In the present

little as

difficulties which Wade's orthography


so

possible will be added to the in this respect beset beginners.


may be said to hold the field is concerned, and to be the

far

as

Pekingese

best

generally known.
and

It has

therefore been pronuncia-

adopted

applied to the present

CHINESE

MANUAL.

tioned slight modifications to be menhereafter. So far as the phonetic values of the vowels are concerned, Wade's system has To the consonants been followed, even to the e. tion, with
some

also are given his values, with the exception that, to acquiesce in ears not being able to bring my the substitutionof Hu, Ku, and Olm, for the Hw, Kid, and Chw of Morrison, Medhurst, Edkins, Williams, Legge, and a host of other authorities, I have adhered to their spelling.

Vowel
a;
as
our

Sounds.

rt

in father.

sound cnje. ao; the Italian ao in Aosta, Aorno, but not


ai ;

un-

frequently inclining to d-oo.


e;
as

in there,

ei ; ey in grey, whey,

^n ; the

iin

in. fun,pun, etc. in hurr, purr,

^rh ; the

urr,

i; the vowel sound

in

ease,

trees ; in ih, in, ing,

shortened

as

in chick, chin, thing,

ia ; each vowel to be pronounced. ie; each vowel to be pronounced.

iu ; each vowel to be pronounced.

8 in tone.
tlieow
00

r.UlNliSE

MANUAL.

o;
on

as

as

in low.

i the

in too.

The
The
consonants

Consonantal

Sounds.
JV, P, 8, Sh,

F, JT, K, L, M,
pronounced
as

2's, W, and

Y,

are

in English.

J is the French Ss in ssii is


Morrison Edkins
wrote
a

initialJ,
very the

as

in Jannc.

difficult sound to express ; syllable szc, Williams


ssii.

6Z%

si, and Wade

Similarly
same

Tzii has been variously expressed by the


ts'i, and tzu. authoritiesby tsze, fsz\ In transcribing Chinese words I have

so

far

departed

practice as to write them as words and not syllable by syllable. It cannot be too strongly impressed on the student that each character does not necessarily represent the

from

usual

word, and that as a matter far more are polysyllabic than In words in colloquial Chinese.
a

of fact there

monosyllabic guage no other lanthe

has

the

confusion words in Chinese. the

between been
so

written

characters and

maintained
the
custom

as

persistently It has always been


words
to

in transcribing Japanese

CHINESE

MANUAL.

write them

as

the word of separate Jtfe Wi ^^ transcribed from the Japanese as C/iiri, but when transcribed from the Chinese it is written
there is no
more

whole words and not as syllables. For example,

number

Ti li,for which

than justification

there would be for writing its English equivalent Geo graphy. But besides being philologically

misleading, the syllabic system of writing is a great stumbling-block in the way of students. Seeing
they
the the syllables written
so

as

so

many

words,

as them pronounce result is that, when


a

many

words,
to

and

attempting

speak, out with-

they utter the

series of

jerkymonosyllables

of slightest reference to the rhythm articulate speech. In the pi'esent work I have not confined the system to such Chinese expressions
as are

but have

expressed by used it in a way

one

word in English, which I believe will

best assist students to catch the rhythm of the language. For instance, I have written such words
as

K'amhutih,

'a

student of books,' thus, rather

If the student will remember that in all such combinations the emphasis is to be laid on the firstsyllable,he will find that the
than K'an
shu tih.

S3'stem will materially help him

to

right pronunciat

10

chinese

manual.

The

Tones.

Chinese shares with the Shan, the Aniiamilc, the the Burmese, the Kareng, the Kakhyen,
Tibetan and other tongues of South-eastern Asia, These tones, the peculiarity of possessing tones.
or

diflferences of pitch of the vocalic sound, as has been pointed out by Prof. Terrien de Lacouperie,
are

the compensation required by the natural equilibrium of language for the losses in the

"

phonetic stuffof the words by contraction, ellipsis or otherwise." They vary in number in different parts of the countr}', from sixteen in some of the
southern dialectsto four in Pekingese. there five, which (1) Shang p'ing, or
are or
are

darin In Manthe

called by
even

Chinese
Sia (2)

upper

tone;

p'ing,

lower

even

tone ;

(3)Shang,
tone ;

the and

rising tone ;

(4)K'ii,

the departing

(5)Juh,
is a high

the entering tone.


even

(1)The

Shang p^ing

tone, the syllable being pronounced

without either a rise or a full in the voice. (2) The Hia ji'ing begins high and rises somewhat doubter would ask as a abruptly, much is it if shown a curiosity, "Real?" meaning

real? (3) The Shang begins low and lengthened, drawn-out tone, much a

rises in
as one

CHINESE

MANUAL.

11

would

exclaim on hearing " Wha-a-a-t ? " news

piece of astonishing (4) The K'iX begins

low and
tone,
as a

sinks lower, partaking of a desponding ruined gambler, on being asked whether


answer

he had Juh
is

lost all, would


an

"All."

(5)The

abrupt tone, and

is fairly represented

by the contemptuous
uttered.

contemptuo exclamation "Pooh," In mar-king these tones I

have

adopted Wade's the firstfour ; but as

system

of

numerals

lor

in transcribing the words

I have constantly

joined several syllablestogether,

I find that confusion would


to add

numbers

arise if I attempted I have to the parts of a word.

therefore thought

it best to add the numbers to the Chinese characters. It has been unnecessary the fifth
or

to mark

Juh

tone,

since all those

syllables transcribed with a final h belong to it. These syllables originally ended with either k, t, or now p, and their lost finals are commonly
represented by h. It must that the tones are not be supposed fixed quantities. They are on the contrary constantly While at Peking, for example, changing.

with that taste for the obliterationof distinctions in sound which is so marked in the people, the fifth or Juh tone has become in the merged

12 Hia

CHINESE

MANUAL.

south the have multiplied exceedingly. Tiie five numbers tones of the Mandarin being between the two fixity than those either extremes present more second
or

2)'uifftone ;

in the

in the northern
even

or

the southern dialects. But

variation, and not only does the same syllable take difierent tones as it represents different meanings, but sometimes a tion. syllable changes its tone when used in combinaFor instance, Chi or colloquially Chit'ou means the finger; but when used alone as in the

these

are

to subject

firstcase,

Chi is pronounced

in the third tone;

in the second. and when compounded with i'oii, As there is, therefore, a certain amount of uncertain about the tones, it naturally becomes that the right context in phrases should be carefully observed. In order to be able to do this it is necessary that the syntax of the language should be thoroughly in this Manual therefore I have
of the highest importance

understood, and

endeavoured so to explain the grammar of the language as to enable the student to avoid those in speaking, into which he must inevitably pitfalls fall if he learns the language
of thumb.

only by the rule

Chinese belongs to the Ugro- Altaic family of

CHINESE

MANUAL.

13

speech, and still possessesthe main structural characteristics of the languages belonging to that linguistic division. That is to say, the

subject

precedesthe substantiv precedesthe verb, the adjective it modifies, and when two substantives
come

is in the possessive case. together,the first In some other respects it has become corrupted

by the contact of the Chinese with the Mon, Taic,and Indonesian tribes China, of pre-historic and has in consequence undergone syntactical

changes,as well as phoneticcorruptionand decay. It isnow universally admitted that the Chinese immigrated into China from South-Western Asia
early period, probably about 2300 B.C., and that they brought with them a knowledge the arts which of Babylonian culture. Among they had acquired from the people with whom
at
an

they had dwelt

that of writing, and the scripts they carried with them into the land of their adoption formed, combined possibly
was

with the rude lines and marks which some of the aboriginesused to express their thoughts, in use the basis of the written characters now ever, howamong them. By the Chinese themselves, Ts'ang Hieh, a ministerof Hwangti (2697issaidto have invented writing. And 2597 B.C.),

14

CHINESE

MANUAL.

it is added that he imitated the coloured writing of the Kwei of Loh, and developed from it his

characters. "According was a resident in what


more

to tradition,Ts'ang

Hieh

is

now

Honan,

natural, therefore, that he borrowed the rude attempts at writing carved by the Kwei aborigines on the banks of the Ho
and Loh, and moulded them into characters ? The probability is, then, that such was the grams case, and very possibly Fu-hi's celebrated diamay have owed their existence to the same origin. But such characters merely supplemented the writing which into China, and the Chinese brought with them we may dismiss, therefore, as

and what should have

that the writing ever the primitive hieroglyphic stage through went in China. That had long been passed, and had been succeeded by a system of phonetic writing, by which the component parts of the characters
arranged as to give the sounds of the as words, which in those days were often as not polysyllabic. By degrees, however, as the Chinese
were so

legendary the statement

colonies advanced

further and

further into the

country, and separated themselves more and more from the head-quarters of the race, dialectssprung up, differing phonetic values were given to the

CHINESE

MANUAL.

15

sequently charactersand their component parts,and conthings were either called by different in different names partsof the country,or the characters

representingthem were made to undergo as the original modifications pronunciationof their


'

partschanged. Such was the state of things when Shi Chou, the minister of Siien "Wang (b.c. 827-781), attempted to remodel the system of writing,and for this purpose invented the "large seal characters,"

pictorial and symbolical featuresthan had existed in the however, was only earlierscript. The

to which

he imparted

more

project,

partly successful. The inevitablelaws which i^^ j not to be govern the growth of language were confined within arbitrary limits,and the same
process of change which had metamorphosed the Kuwen, or ancient writing,wrought havoc also with the large sealcharacters.

On the establishmentof the empire under the Ts'in Dynasty, Li Ssi1attempted again to introduce
fixed system of writing, and one which time be less cumbrous than should at the same the large seal characters. These new characters,
a

which
'*

were

known

as

seal

were characters,

small lesscomplicated and less

Siaockuen,

or

"

16

CHINESE

MANUAL.

forms. square than the older


the corresponding increased, th^ Siaochuen was
and
and
was
a

ness public businecessity for writing But


as

modified introduced

voted too elaborate form of character called Lis/iu in its stead. In the Lis/iu a

is observable to convert (he curves of the Siaochuen into angular strokes, and the characters, in obedience to the shapes of some tendency changes

which

had

taken

Lis/iu and

ceeded running hand," sucthe fourth century) the K'ieshu (in of the
"

underwent Ts'aos/iu, or

proplace in their nunciati the modifications. To

present day.

Chinamen
and

are

ignorant of the science of philology,

lack that power

of criticalobservation

which might enable them to arrive at th*" true history of their written characters. Their tendency
has been, therefore, to deal only with their later forms, and these they have classifiedand arranged into the six following classes: 1st. SMng king, or hieroglyphics, which are the primitive 2nd. Chi ssfi, or characters of the language.

characters intended to represent ideas to the mind by the position of their parts. Thus a character of parts representing the sun above a 3rd. Hnei i, straight line stands for the dawn.
composed

CHINESE

MANUAL.

17

significant signs formed by writing two or more idea. For instance, characters to suggest a new
or
" the character Sin sincere," is made up of the " " " and words," a collocation of signs for a man ideas which at least speaks well for the theoretical

morality of the people. Another character in this class is Ming "brightness," which is composed of a combination of the signs for a star and the and is identical with fhe modern Turkish imperial emblem. Chinese writers sa}' that the is smaller character of the two in this compound
moon,

that of the sun, but they have forgotten that in the Kuicen the characters for sun and star were identicalin form ; and the fact of its being completely is an argument overshadowed by the moon against itshaving been originallyintended for the
greater light. 4th. Chuen chn, or characters which, being inverted either in form or sound, assume diflferent Thus the character which, meanings. when

read Loh

means

"pleasure,"

means

"music"

when pronounced yoli. 5th. Kiataieh,or characters having borrowed meanings. As an illustration of this class Chinese writers adduce the character Shif
an arrow,

arrow,

which, from the straight course of has come to signify " direct," " right,"

an
"

a or

word

spoken to the point."

6th. Kie

sheng,
2

18

CHINESE

MANUAL.

adoption of these characters was a cardinal feature in the change effected in the It is seldom in the history writing by Shi Chou. of nations that
a

Phonetic.

The

writing is found to deteriorate,

conclusively that the and nothing proves more Chinese characters were invention of the people no themselves, than the fact that the firsttime they attempted a modification of them, they took a step backwards. Up to the time of Shi Chou a welldefined and elaborate s^'stem of syllabic writing
had been in vogue, but in the hands of the Chinese graphic reformer this retrograded in the direction of ideo-

were

writing, and the Kie brought into existence.


"

sheng

characters speaking

These,

a phonetic generally, consist of two parts element and an ideographic character. To illustratethis system of formation we may take the phonetic ^

Wo

or

Ngo,

which

stands

for the first personal

pronoun,
seven

and which, by combination with twentyideographic characters, produces as many phonetic value. with the ideograph mountain," it becomes with
same

derivatives having the this


way
"

In

combined
"a

|lj

N\\) (originally
ngo
"a

'^

high

mountain";

"a

woman"

ngo

"fair," "beautiful";

YY)

"grass,"

ngo

"a

(originall with ||illl certain herb"; with

,^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

19

"a

bird,"

||| ngo

these examples

From goose," and so on. it will be observed that the ideo"a

grapliic characters phonetics form an Egyptianand

in

combination

with

their

exact

Assyrian

parallel with many I was ideophonetics.

favoured by Museum,
showing

Birch, of the British with the following example in Egyptian, formation in the precisely the same the late Dr.

composition of the characters and in the respective in the Chinese value of their parts, as is seen I have just referred to. .instance " in Egyptian " a hare ; combined

^^

Tin

means

with the ideoTin u^^


"

graph
and

^"^^^;,

it becomes

Trnfrnf

to

"

open

0^ with this
""i
, (J)

^0"'c
/v^/w\

"an

hour."

r\

(ii

Speaking
Rawlinson

of Assyrian
"

hieroglyphics. Sir Henry


a

says,

Certain classes of words have

commonly sign prefixed or suflBxed to them, more the former, by which their general character is indicated. The names of cities, of gods, of men,
of tribes,of wild animals, of domestic animals, of

metals, of months, of the points of the compass, The sign and of dignities are thus accompanied. prefixed or sufiixed rjay have originally represented
a

word ; but, when

used in the

wav

here

20

CJIINESE

MANUAL.

not sounded, Spoken of, it is believed that it was but served simply to indicate to the reader the
sort of word

placed before it." Marking, then, the forces of the two parts of the Kie sheig characters, it is easy to imagine which
was

the way modify


ones.

in which
existing

Shi

Chou

set

We
to

may

new chanicters, and suppose, for instance, that

work to invent

to

to

tree

paper lie would

he wh'ch known was

wished to him

to

give

name
as a

on

colloquially

Ma.
mon com-

then, in the first place, choose

phonetic possessing that sound, very possibly "a horse," and would ma the hieroglyphic
combine
mnh,

with

it the
"

,^

ideographic

character
new

/fc

meaning

wood."

The
and
was

character

would
at
once

then stand thus

^,

recognise that it

the reader would to be read as ma,

and make of
a

the him
tree

ideographic
aware or

character prefixed would that it was either the name

of something made of wood. These ideographic signs, with the addition of few others, have been adopted by lexicographers some
for

the

characters of the fourteen of such


or mora

of classifying the langua^;e. Two hundred and signs have been chosen (one
purpose
enter

of which

into the

composition

CHINESE

MANUAL.

21

of every

compound

Chinese

under character),

or which to arrange the 50,000 characters, more less, of which the language consists. As the language is without an alphabet, some such

system
answers

was
as

necessary, and well


as

this

one

probably

radicals

or

Many other. of these determinatives, as they have been any

variously called, being primitive characters, are hieroglyphics, and they include, as might have been expected, 'the most remarkable of

objects

nature,

such

as

the

sun,

moon,

river,a mountain,

fire, water, earth,wood, a stone, etc. ; the chief parts body, as the head, the heart, the of the human hand, the foot, the eye, the ear, etc. ; the principal parts of a house, as the roof, the door, etc. ; domestic animals, such as the sheep, the cow, the horse, the
society,
as

dog,

etc. ;

the

primary
son,

father, mother,

relations of daughter, etc. ;

qualities, such as great, small, crooked, high, low, long, etc. ; and actions, such as to see, to speak, to walk, to follow, etc. They
run, are

to

stop, to

enter,

to

admirably adapted to form generic terms, and this is the part they characters.' In the dictionaries play in compound the characters are arranged under each radical, in

thus

order of the number

of the strokes of which

the

22

CHINESE

MANUAL.

part combined with the radical is composed. " For example, under the radical Tf; miih wood," the first character is ^, in which only one
stroke is added which
^

to the radical,and the last is

|^,

consists of twenty-two

strokes besides the

radical."
1

China.

By the Author.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

2o

i-H

a"

"

C3

s ri
"

"
P4 m

^ ;. ^ :. 1^ 5 5 FH S ti f^ J 2 JS k* w? rS -2
s
"^
"

-.

^.
".s"

^.

i
^

'S k'r

^
"-

.-""

K?

-^

bx t^

tJ

k2

i" .'"

K? t^
k'*

24

chinf.se

manual.

'^

'^

"

"^

-S

I
r"2

"^

2 -S

-s

""

Ft- t-i

-^c-i

^g

Ha

o
o

OS

"^
"

_;

:"f^ r^ i^2

-o

-^

-^

:" *""3 g "

..

fco
"

"
**

f?
C"

^ "
Tf^
10

CO

CHINESE

MANUAL.

25

fee

.5 'S a
*5c

's
o

^
^
(U

*S
"

tsi

n3

is*
e"

CO

'n^

=+1
rvu
"

"r^

--a

.^

^j

_j

CO

r5

I"

"D

(D

fcc

"^("
ft.

E^

'^

"^

^~

^ 1^

it "^ I ^
"

".

(C

.1
H^

fei

26

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"

to

"j

'"

p^ ?s
b-4 j'

-.

..

g
5^

Si:
""

laa
.

-^

"i

IS

5*

"^

to

"5

-g

.^

r^

b^

"

;s

!:"-""
^^

^4

N^lK^^l^^
^

"^

-^^
a

"4^

5S

" i.'

s;^

I'-

^^-'

*-'-

^T.

CO

"

CO

CO

CO

CO

"*

^S'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

27

P4
o

^
^
s

Ph

-" -"
^

fi

uM

-2;

"

fi
TiS*

s
"

""^

"

eS

"

"1 -S

fl

iS

r^
fee ^
c
o
-

=3

"

.2

'P^

5^
O

Q
O

-5

""!

"^

C5

5^ A
"W a3

fts t^ fi^

"^

"73
"a

'o

OQ
O

"

.2
c3 O o

I
g

o
o

"
o

"

B
o

-a

^ ^^ :^ :f^
"

"^
CO

H
00
05
O "o
i-H

if
(J^
o o CO "o

CO

2S

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"T3

,S

fee

-"^

-2

'T g

-^1

.1
O)

_3"

"^

Si

""

"2

'^

--"

'"^

"

"^

=i

'^^
""

""'*

'2 OS

-e h
-^

"Ts
S

:"

-^

"-.-

'^

-^

J=

'^

'^

"

c^

cc

CHINESE

MANUAL.

29

04

Ci4

"^

,^5

i-y

Si
"

^
"

be

o
o

ft
^
o
^

^
o

O
o

fcc
o

"

CQ
Si
=?
H"i

#;

t"l
n

#
^

m
o
-o

'"4J
""

^
o

03

"a

'^ _5

"

S
H

.2 ^
,o

i=!

-g
s

r5

H
-"

"
t-

5^

15

^^
CO

CC

"-*( 0|

1^

an

^"1 @ E^ ^ tl^ i!!^

na

c3

^t
-.

a,

O.

t"
2
o

P^

,"= H

r=.

cc
"jj

pq

^ te^
OQ

"a

'^

iH ^

-5^
^

^1 f^ !^ ts^e
"-,

2Q
.^

"
p,

^
"

J^
ij^

^
^

fc^
^

femm
"-I

n;^
-rtf o l^ l^
O i^ t^
t^

^
~

^ iS^
CD

C^
t^

t^

CO l^

CO I-

05 t".

O CO

I"

'TO

00

CO

CO 00

-^ 00

CO

iH)

CHINESE

MANUAL

-%
"
.

^
*
3 O
cS
0)

J
Cm

"

O
o

O
o

"^
S

2
iSif
"i

.1

-^

O
C/i

^^ I
fin
13
S3 03

fcjD
3

m
5^
Q

^
a"
_ ""

3
o

P^

^^
"

tJ
J.,

CO

(D

i fS
"i 1

.2

"
"-"

^-

tJD

i5

'J"

""

5-

e^
^

^H

a,

CO

^^m

CHINESE

MANUAL

31
o

H
05

m
^
a a
O

JO
r-H

^
O)

C3

CS

IS

"1

-H

CC
C3

""

f^

o-j

S
r"3

4^

T3 s
o
=3

O)

.5 fcc g

rt

"^

"^

-M

*5lo

^"^
^

H
?i
s

Bq
inri

0^ ^
a.

H-3

^
C3

Ol

""
o

O
03

t"

^
"r-(
"

^
.

"
.

H
^

o
o

O
.
.

""

Cj

r-t

C3

"1 P

^ j;?
"5
"-"*

OS

15
B
k2

"5 :^

L-

TO

^
o o

4^i

i^
1-t

IOJCOTt"OCCt^OOCiO OOOOOOOOOf-H
"

O)

33

CHINESE

MANUAL.

=*

"

=^

U) ^

^e.

^
t

"J

""

tc

-A~

e^i^^

^-^

"^.

"^.

-^

"

:=:
.^

I i

"?

i^

^ ^ J

I
"1
R. S! S^
n

C^ I* 2

CHINESE

MANUAL.

33

fco
"4

^
o
o

O
_(

s:

cs

cS ^

^nz

5:^

*^ o
3
O

"^
-"

"^6

^"^

!5
~

3 O
O

C
c3

[".

60

CZ2 ^
o

c
""

--

"
-^S

s^ :!^ Is,
-S
":

eg ^
(ny

"cs

"";

t~

-c*

k^

tS

"5c|t^ln2(^f|^

"D

to

ra
o

'*
"

S
-3

^
=""!

-.

"

**1
^

5;-

^
^"^
C5 C^
rH

li
.~

1:^S5 O
"^

^ 1^ c^ ^
e^i:
N.
00 05
O

K
CO

HH
CO
CO

m m

CO
rH

O CO 10 Tf COCOCOCOCOCOCOTt^

34

CHINESE

MANUAL,

-"

"
fco
o

o o

a,

cfc!
-si \r
^~

:g

":-j

+3

Vs

tr
'"

O
"

mm

fcri
^

^S
o

"^
OS

??."';to

s
o
"^.

"-

-2 ^
=s
b

Ph Ph
=
1^

C
O)

o
^"

ISJ
""

tc
C3 oi

"
-3

rt
t;
"

Ph
o

^
.=

S ^

.s;
"D

-,

a"

^^

-a

fcc

*^ H
5

'^

^ I i
o

w
fe:j ^ l:^

"
.5

o
o

t*^ "^
S^

^ t^ ^ t^

.o

f^

a"

" o

.J5

"1 ^-

i3

m.
"
^

^ 6 fc" ^ t? S % i?^g Itfe fc i E^ "K


"-l

^ ^ ^
C?
O

cs

Fnii fe^ ^in C"^


05
r""

CO
^^

^^

CO '^^

-^
^^

o '^^

00

O
lO

"

CO
O

"0

CHINESE

MANUAL.

35

0)

rfl
o

a,
'

to

5n

trH

t-H
O
tan

(#;
S
"^

6
o

C3
O

tc

" o

N ^ ^ iK;i
nW

H
ii^ SS

^
rtt"

"tti!

"R

IlK^

3
o
'"

bo
bo

's
CO

^
i4
js

s o

25
"-

S
^
%"

^ H r^ "J "tj =2 "1


?

"

*;

fL^

^
".r"

'^

"

'**

C5 ^ ^ ^ C5 cii

-?" '^

b^ fts fc-a tH 3 H

[ai ^ ffil I^ \\^EH]


Tt"IOCDt^G0050r-t
Ci
CO

CO CO

^
CD

O CD

CO CO

CO

36

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

37

^
cc

W
o

II ^ ^ -? i
J2j
O
-^

I
-

I
"
.

fee
?3

5:;

"TS

2
o

? rf

:.

:r^ g

I S
m i^=

^^i^js^igj^

\nE m

liS'

P
rfl

C3

-.

-"

g
-c

-.

^.

^'^

r-

.:.

rs

;,

-2

"

"

':s

.1
^ "Ei^
i^ im
r-iGO

-2

ifflK'
CO

i ^
JOCOCOGOOO

^mhuh
OOGOGiOOS

38

CHINESE

MAKUAL.

13

""

CE

E^

;t:

"

*"

"^

1:5

"^

.'d

b^

r"

{^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

39

0)

03
O
;-" O
'
.

be
c3
"="

"a

0-" t"i ^ C *-'


"*^

^
O

Coo 60
O

Z, 'O
^

8
O

3
o o o

""

"

"^"S ^ 1^ fei O

fc:^ ^
"as;

w?

J3
o o ""
""

fee
o

.2 o

fcC

fc-

"

"^ "^

c"

"

"

"

e-1

"^'

"

"o

o CM

CO o Oi

ro C"(

CO o CM

o O

o
"I

C"
""

CO
(

-*
I"

rH

c?

CM

Ol

"M

40

CniiNESE

MANUAL.

There is

no

in Chinese ; but, definite article

as

in all other languages, the indefinite article is, numeral when necessary, expressed by the first 'one,' yi with, in the case of persons or things, a
"

(see p. 64) interposed between numerative noun ' it and the substantive, as for example J\^ fj^
"

yi ho
'

jea

'

man,'

"

'

|"

'

yi

chih

chUtcii

ship.*

Noun
The

Substantive.

noun

number,

nor

substantive in Chinese has no gender golian, declension. Like the Manchu, MonFinnish

not
reason nouns

families of speech, onl}'^are all things which are destitute of but no and lifedenoted by neuter nouns,
whatever,
not
are even

Turkisli, and

nouns

which

denote

human

regarded in themselves as as such beinor masculine or feminine. All nouns destitute of gender. or are neuter, rather are beings, But in every language of which
there
must
are

the genders

certain words tinguis necessarily be dis-

and to such the Chinese prefix words Thus a man is spoken of as ^- A^ denoting sex. ' a species,' and a male of the human

nanjen

woman

as

a ^^ J^"^ niijen

female of the human

CIIINESR

MANUAL.

41

species,' and in the


'

nanerli

man

way a son is ^^ and a daughter is 2$C child,'


same

"^p 31^

n'uerh

'

woman
case

child.'

In the

^^
mu
'

hung

of animals other words are used. 'noble,' 'superior,'is employed to

denote the male of animals in general,and


'

to repre(anciently sent mother written ^ to indicate the female. the female bosom) ^ ^ ' Thus ^ ' l^jji kungssu is ' a lion,' and
mussti 'a

j^jji -f^:

lioness.'But

are

particularly, quadrupeds divided into J}i^ mou 'male,' and


monma
'a

more

'female,' as 4-t^ 2)'iii


p'inma
*a mare.'

stallion,' and

,I|jfl^ t'tinarc that |f^^isunf/and JUJtmuycJiu is 'a J^-^ only, thus ^,'?,^ t'linchu'a sow.' 1"^-^

allocated the 'male,' and

To horses also are distinguishing words


k'o 'female,'in the

especially

|g^
same

shan

way

applied to pigs boar,'and Hc^

For birds other words are considered more appropriate. Thus the male is described as ^j^

I
more

hiung 'martial,' or 'brave,' and the female as ^^ izu 'weak' or 'inferior,' hhing ngo 'a as ^|^|t|^

gander,'and /:;// ngo, As regards number

'

goose.'

Chinese is leftin

an

even

indefinite condition. As a rule the context determines whether a noun is in the singular or

42

CHINESE

MANUAL.

plural.
a

Often this
as

is

shown

by the presence of

numeral, dragons.'
that
lung

in the phrase Here the word the

3i^ fl^"^w lung 'five uu five/ indicates


'

is in
a noun

pluralising

Another way of plural. is by the addition of the

pronouns, adjectival
*

^^
'

c/ning 'roany,'

^'
:

iu

kie 'all,'^'all,'-g-i

tsUten 'all,'WW

l"iko

several,' and

Wo

many.'

Examples

were tfi* chung jen hat p*a 'all the men ^^ U^ W 1k^ t^i^67/" hao fengyn afraid;' W 'all are good friends;' A ^^ f^^ W ^^ j^n, hie tsengicu i'a the men ^ ^ all hate him ; //V/o the whole A'"^" ssM ^ ^ ^ ^ T ^ P^ ^'^^' family died;' ^' M' W^ M^ H' A' T' ^j^"

A' ^*

'

"

'

Kait'ou yu hiko

outside;'

jen lailiao several men W ^^ ^^ K^ %^


are numerous.'
'a

'

have

come

^^"^"' "t%A:"

jen to
The

'here brokers

suffix ^^ added
as

phrase
pen

f^^ ^^
'

class,''order,' is sometimes a sign of the plural, as in the ^-^^ gjiou "g,h^s ^3 ^1 ^j/z^^j^
of you attend to his own

^e"j^

fen leteach

business.'

It will be seen tinct that the use of this suffix is disfrom that of the pronouns given adjectival above, and that it forms with the substantive preceding
it
a

compound,

such
men,

as

animal-class for

animals, man-class for

etc.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

43

in absence of the plural sign is common the Scythian group of languages, but varies in its application. In Manchu, for example, the sign is attached to all animated beings, and in oriental Turkish to personal pronouns In this only.
respect Chinese approaches the usage of Oriental Turkish, though the sign of plurality is occas-ionally used with words indicating human beings.

The

In such has now


tromen
^

cases no

the sign employed


separate

is

men, fl^^^

which

meaning.

Thus

^^ -(p^^

is *we,'
2

fi);"' fl'5" nimin


*

'you' in the plural,

flil f^
in such

t'amen
cases
as

they.'

It is,however, also used 'gentlemen,' Another

laoyemen ;^^ ^^ jji^2

iC*iC*^Y
mode

faifaimen 'old ladies,' etc.

of expressing the plural is by repeating the substantive, as in Turkish; for instance, J^^ J\,^
men,'

jenjen 'all the

j^' j^^* ch'iiench'tien 'all

the ships,'etc. As has already been

said the substantive in Chinese is uninflected, the case-relations being expressed by position or by means sitions, of prepopost-positions, or
the
*

manner

common

auxiliary words, after to the Scythian languages.

this character some of the earlier Jesuit missionaiies thoujiht they discerned a reference to Noah's ark, since it is made = = a boat, up of eight, and P mouths.

In

j^

J\^

44 Unlike
the

CHINESE

MANUAL.

tlic casc-cndings of the Aryan case-particles in Chinese have as

tongue,
a

rule

their separate existences. We may thus indicated, recognise in Chinese nine cases
preserved naraelj,- the nominative, instrumental, dative, accusative, possessive,

vocative, conjunctive,

tive, locaviz.

and

ablative. The

first three

cases,

the nominative, accusative, and vocative, are represented by the substantive without either prefix or affix, and depend for recognition on
the position it holds in the sentence. The possessive case is indicated either by position by the use or which of the suffix ^ till,

is the

same

word

as

anciently pronounced

the classical suffix ^^ clii, tih. First, as to position;


come

when two substantives is in the possessive case,


shan
ma
'

together, the first

for instance,* llj W^'

tiiKj 'the

top of the

t'lti'the leg of the

^^ JJ^^ horse,' jS,J^^ yii wet


mountain,'

the tail of the fish,' etc. AVhen, however, it is necessary to express the to another by a noun relation of one particle,

ff^ tih is used, 'man's jentili siitg


*

as

in the phrases
nature.'

A^

U^ "^^
^(^((i-

^|"*^

f^ A^

Originalljwritten y\/\^\

CHINESE

MANUAL.

46
^

hrohtih

jen

'

man

of

foreign
'a

country/i^* P
When

6^ K'

cliurKjh wold ih
a

jen

Chinaman.'

suffixed to

personal pronoun,

singular

or

plural, tillconverts

whether in the it into a sive posses-

pronoun,
nifih 'thine,'

^^ fi^^^
as

g^

nolih, *ray,'

f;J;^ f\^

t'atih 'his,' in the plural


'our,'

^'
and

ffS^ fi^ uomeniih,

nimentili, '3'our,'

t'ameidih 'their.' Assuming

that tillis the

modern
was

phonetic representative of ^ c/ii,which these pronoun, originally a demonstrative of the personal and I + that, thou + or

compounds would be formed the demonstrative pronouns, that, etc.,


'

or,

'

my,'

thine.'
an

Tih also plays the part of


when

adjectival

tion forma-

added to certain substantives,and in such relation is the equivalent of the English en stance in such words as golden, wooden, etc. For in-

^^ /^
yangmao

kin is gold, and and


muhtih

/iintih is golden,

is wood, viii/i

is wooden,
*

^^^ ^^

Very
such

wool,' and yangmaotih is woollen.* commonly, however, the tih is omitted, and is
phrase
as

'

^^
as

fi^^*
as

hintih siang

*a

golden

image,' is

often

not

expressed

by

kin siang.

Tih is sometimes also added to when adjectives they have a relative or predicative force. For

46
instance

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^-' ^^ 6^ yaou lintih 'that which is ' importani,' 6^ e//J.o I'amj f@ |;F ^" ID.' j|^
'

shi U'ntih

this sugar is
a

coarse.'

As

also when
as

followed by

substantive in such phrases

Jf)*

W^^

^WW
*

U^ i\^'^^W

^(fko shi yihkc

ting haotih tungsi

that is a very good thing.' following a verb, it serves When the purpose of relative,as, ^ fi^sJucohtih 'that which was

said,'5*

that which was sold.' So also intervening between the verb and when an object itanswers tih,a person is suggested as the

fi^ maitili

'

to the relative 'he

Hh 'he who
or

ma who,' as buys horses,' or ' the buyer of horses,'

subject, ^^ j^^ f]^mai


who

writes ' the writer of characters.' When character^,'or is expressed, as in the phrase fj^^ the ^^ subject ' f\^ fa maitih that which he buys,' it again
answers

again

^^ i"2ig^

nie tzutih 'he

to the relative * that which.'

The

instrumental

case

is expressed by the

use

the verbs commonly of verbal participles, used in ^ tsinng the colloquial being ^^ na ^^^ pa jjf all meaning example
"

'to take,' and

fill^ ^H^^
a

*to use.' |3*!/^i"^0 t'a na ^T^ 7^ fil^ "iF^

For
hcin

tzu taliao t'a 'he struck him

with

stick,'Hf.

'he taking
pa

stick struck him;' ' s/iou p)ohk'ai with the hand

^^ ^^ ^
push

it aside ; '

CHINESE

MANUAL.

47

)ff' flfc*
a

m'

n'
*

J' i^'
spear
yung

i'^ i^iang

yiken tn'ianfj shah ssuliao Va


' spear,' lit. he

he killed him

taking

with killed him ; '

^('0 fK^ j^* S^ ^* ]l\^ 7jC^


' shui, I draw landscapes

pih hiva shan-

{/it. mountains

and

water)
when
hiang

with a pencil.* The dative is


necessar}', by

commonly particles

expressed,
* tiii [p] ^jj-*

the

"^^

//"

^*

i'^ ^i^d

^^

^^^h

as

in the phrases

^ ^'^*^ ''^'*" ^^"^ f^^ T ^^ 1^ -fife,^ to me;* ^^^ |pj* :Jt^* T^

shfcohh'ao 'he said


ch'iien hiang poh

k'iiUao 'the

'in the nang yii shan fi^ fk^ lU^ summer ^* ^^ (1)go to the mountains;' f;^^^ ff5^'^M-'^ ni i'i tco ts'ing t'ameii lai ff^ fill^ ^ ^ ^ for me ; f;)^ invite them to come f^ ^ ^ jf;(j do you buy ?2i A-^i^'" tnai yih p'i ma QT ,l]|3 horse for him.'
*
'

ship went JiM'ien

to the north;'

^* ^*

"

of the dative of giving particles ' ' to being are not used, tbe sense of the English ^ inherent in the verb, as in such phrases as ^ ^ f{\

In the

case

;^3 ^2
gave
a

^^

^3 ;^;^;i
-

^/.q

j^.^i

yih nlijeii

pei tsiu 'I

glass of wine to the

woman.'

W
gave

m'
a

6^ m' W
yih

^* W

f[i,* ^^ JJ,,^ 1m M.' na l-ojen


ts'ien
*

t'atih pengyu

kio'ai yang

that

man

dollar to his friend.'

48 The

CHINESE

MANUAL.

case, conjunctive
*

the preposition

hns the force of with,' is expressed by preposing

which

i'unr/, ^2 /^^^.^^ ^ g (BJ^ ^j^.^^^ t'a siang kiao 7C" Pj^ ^^ fill' tt' ^^ pi(/ik'o ijii must not hold intercourse with him;' ^' '(you) *I will f;};^ fpj^^ ^- tco t'lDig ni h'il nan ^^3 ^4 ^^^ go to play with you;' f^^ ^^ ^ij^s

the particles JSl^ Yii,

hico ni pu ssii *I have business with you.*

The vocative is sometimes


the exclamation
^ a pjij

formed
name

by suffixing

to the
a,

addressed, frequently

as no

Chang pij' '}^^


case

of the person 'Chang!' but more

sign is used to express this case. The locative case is commonly expressed either

' by prefixing the preposition ;^* tsai * at or ' in,' by suffixing the words f3i^^'" ^* '"'^ 4*^ or

wai or ^* Icicn,all meaning 'within,' ^\s^ HVou 'outside,' "^^ li,or 7^^ ]?ji2 ^* W' ^i^ailov,

chitng,

'inside,' Jl* shang


is'ien or

'above,'

'^^ hia

'below,'

"Ifij

ts'ienfou 'before,' 'in Hfj"Ijijor

front of,'

:^* hoH

houfou

'behind.'

Examples:

place do you

live ? '
chu 'I

^3
-^^
not

rienfsin ^.4 ^i ^^M j^4 ^p-Q ^.s'tfi

live at T'ientsin.'

0 ^
home

jnih f"^ ^^ Kinjih

tsai kia

'

{Ue)is

at

to-day.'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

49
fao ni liaUk'u*!

^' "V 1^"^ ^MS^


am

i*

Wo

going to your house.'

WW

^' W Ifi^

yell I/O h'an shu 'la the

night lie also reads.'

1 W' \'^^ik' ^- Wl^


himiliao
'

Wtihli kiahico tu the


room was

The

furniture

in

all

destroyed.'

W
a'
in
men

W
'

'""' ^' fi' Hare


"

CYenrfhVou
no

mci

jju diujaiuj 111 the city there

dwellings.*

:^' ^' A' -^^ JS'


'

Within i/ih/i-ia .i/,l


are

the four

^' Ssufangnei Jen quarters (ofheaven)


ta y'u 'In

all one

family.' the

^^ ^,- S/ininciyu ^^ ^'-^ 7\i^


water

there

arc

large lishes.'

^ ^il*%^ ^)V'

Ch'eiHjnciiseh to 'In the city

numerous.' robbers (are) 57^J^iacJmng M^ 4*^ ^li^ are

tu hao *At

home

all

well.'

Sinchuno ^^ ^.^ (till ,51v\i^


grieve in heart (m}-^)
for him.'

yunien

t'a

*(I)

Yangchung 4*^ -JJ^^ f^* -J^"^ '].^sea

polancj ta 'At

the

waves

are

big.'
tso

^^ .^2 r|4i
'B**

T'dmjchung

4*^ ?i^ i* W
^'

^^

To sit in the hall.' Kicanchung ya ssii to


'

^x\raong mandarins

M'

elegant scholars are numerous.' M " ^- Shikien kio piichoh

60

CHINESE

MANUAL.

poh

* I/in In this age

(people) all make

display

of money.'
"

^*
night.'
M^

'During the {J3 Yilinienlien Yekien lai 'To come Pt^^3!jS^

whole year.* during the

^V W
tsou
*

l^^ X" f^^ i,^J^iiiff irrnTou In puh


are

hao

Outside the capital the roads

bad

for travelling.*

#^ ^* ^^ MM

S/temcai tu tih licoh 'Outside

own (his) person it is all an enemy's country.' P3 ^4 ;g3 ||:3j^4 ^1 jPflunrfiyu yc tifamj

Outside the passes there

are

Jl^ i^' W^ HJ^ /t^ llj^


mull
'

wild districts.* 8hanshamj mei yu shu'


are
no

On

the mountain

there

trees.*

^^

J:^ M^
*

%^

*P^ :^*

Ch'uenshavg
.yu
on

toshao hico

What

quantity

of goods is there

the ship?*

#^ W^ ffiM^"^
it on

F^'^^O^^"^ '" shevshang

Put

-t*
(so
*

yon personally.'

^'

on

the upper

-L*

:^'

Loushang

To sit upstairs *

(lit.

31^1T*
'Beneath

store}'). ^^ i^* ^^

T'icnhia
an

int

tih shou

the sky I have not

enemy.'

%^ ^^ y^
Liao
*

^^ W

Under

T'a shouhia yn Chang Chang his command there was

Liao.*

CHINESE

MANUAL.

51

1'^ ^"^ :k^ %V ShihJiia yu ta she 'Beneath


was
a

large serpent.' ^* "B^^fHi^ M^ Miaots'ien t'a lih mjan JL front of the temple he placed a table.'
the rock there

'In

01' if' fifc' W


Pouliao

J'

"

:^' m'
eyes {m}')

YenU'ien

Va

ijUqK'u sliu 'Before

he stole a

book.'

fVW^
*

Hang jen ta K'il^ ^^Ments'ien


men
are

kk

In front of the gate two

fighting.'
yu ta

^ lli'
village.'

01'^^ :/c*j"^ ^'

^fian houPou

chnangtzii 'Behind

the mountain

there is a large

#* ^* ^^ W^^
hcoh

jen. 'Behind

% A^ Peihou (my) back he

ra

ma

Ying the

abuses

English.*
*-

^2 ^* P ^1 ^^ T^
one

Yihnien hov.hcoh tu the wholo

v'ingliao 'After
was

year

kingdom

pacified.* It is especially to be noted that these words have the force of prepositions in English only they follow the substantive they modify. when If the order be reversed they cease to liave this force and become either or verbs. For adjectives example ^-^ j^^ Lich'eng is 'The inner city.'

ft* M*
i.e.China.

^c^

i^ 'Inland

'or

'The

inner land,'

02

CHINESE

MANUAL.

4*^ A^
middle
man.'

C'huug

jcn *An

lit. *A arbitrator,*

Wni liivoh *An outside or foreign country.* ' The front gate.' Ts^kn mini '\\\^PT"^

^^ P

'The hinder house' Wl^M' "J*^ -ffo?(/""f/^2M ^ * liu Remote antiquity.' S/iaiig J; -^ f* "^^ Ilia shmg A lower tone.'
*
*

The
as

also become verbs by position, Shang king ' To go up in the phrases J^^ "ff^^ last two
* embark,' lit. to go

to the capital.'

y^ j^"^Hia
down

ch^uen *To

verb, it is pronounced in the third tone instead of the fourth, in other senses. which is proper to it The ablative is expressed by prefixing the preposition becomes
a

into the ship.' }^ Shang "When however

^^
or

T'snng,

g*

Tzii,or
Kiao
'

\^^3'/?
=

'from,'

*by,' and

|g* Pei, ^

hy,'

as"

ifr^^ ^i^ 3^ W
*

^^ 1^

^i
come

i^^ng n((U hiliao

From

what

place have you

'

A- e^ S^ "%' flS^
Yunnan
lailiao* That
man

k' ^"
came

1' Nakojen
from Yunnan,'
shcn 'From

tzu

d^^ f^^ A

^^

^"

Wienjuh

the

shallow to the deep.' * /"" ^^'"0 ^' %^ M^ ^^ Y^''P^'t^

(Tliey are)

examined by their

own

Prefects.'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

53 be laughed

i^* A^ ^*
by
men.'

Pel jt'ii siao *To

at

W
*

P^* B' P^^ T^


vessel was

Chhien Idao fenrj chUiillao

The

blown by the wind.' Adjectives.

in Adjectives

Chinese,

as

in other

non

Aryogender,

Semitic languages, have


nor
case,

neither number, of quality


or

but

are

which become in the phrases hard,' and ^


word

relation, by adjectives position only. Thus


Yuh shi ying Jade is ^ ^* ^J"^ p[J^ Yuh yin A jadeseal,' the
'

merely

nouns

undergoes no change, but is precisely in both instances. As is also general the same in the same group of languages, the invariably precedes the Ilao Jen 'A good man.'
noun

Yuh

adjective
sliaii*A

it qualifies,
Kao ^' |Jj^
ho

as^^ ^broad

high

mountain.'

Kwang ^^ ^{ij^

*A

river.'

But
are

* i?V/y/r/ ?;ir/. A quiet horse.' ,1^^ in Chinese, as in Tamil, some

]^^

adjectives

bj''the addition of a relative, or a of quality, substitute for a relative, to nouns acquires a predicative force. when the

formed

adjective

In

colloquial Chinese the word so added is 6^ Tih. As in the phrases ^4 ^"i g/^ j|* fQ* J^i^ * This sugar is coarse,' Chcl;o t^ang shi fs'titiJi

64

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^^

(i'j B^

^^ B^ if (i^ Wotih
fieldis square.'

i'ien shi

ssl-

* Jangtih My Other

are adjectives

formed

by

the relation

of numeral + substantive, after the manner of ' bicornis,** centimanus,' etc., such Latin words as Tn'thsing * The for instance \^ ^ as seven-

starred.' Others

^^
are

Liangt'oH {jfl^
'

'Double-headed.'

3.^ ^1 Wiifeng Five-peaked,'


formed
as

by

the relationof

adjective

-f substantive, ' The yun shan

in the phrases

white-cloud ' f^- Pohshti ts'toi The white-rat village.' Others again by the relation of substantive

Pohj^ fj' llj^ mountains.' j^ ^'

as in the names -f substantive, hiang 'The Gold-sand river.'

ch'ao shan 'The

^ Khich'i yih ch''eng 'The j^- Sliililcu


Others
also by

^' \p^ ^ Kinslni W ^' Ui^ Fimg^' "^ ^ phoenix-nest mountain.' 'The gold- teeth station.' ^ ^^
stone-drum

city.'

the

relation of the potential

A'o and ^^ //r/o certain verbs, as particles nj"^ -|^'" K'oaiao 'laughable,' pj^ ^* K'ongai "pj"^

'lovable,'
K'ohen
*

'detestable,' pI^ tS* hateful,' pj"'^ A'os/A 'pitiable,' jff-' ^* -ff

pI^ ^*

K'oica

Haomto
And
as

'

laughable,' etc.

by the relation of verb -f substantive, in the phrases ^ ^^ i^" Tuhshu lou *The
some

CHINESE

MANUAL.

55

M^ M ^^ Wangyueh reading-book pavilion/ t'ai ' The watching-for-tlie-moon tower.'


In
nearly

Chinese
the
as
same

bearing adjectives
meanings
are

the

same

or

together
and

for example '"*#"* honourable,' ^^ |||* P'in tsien 'Poor


to
*

often grouped Fit lacei 'Rich

and

lowly,* ]^^ f^^ Lan

Adjectives also are as ;#* ^* Kwci lowly,' ^^ ^* Kfio ai


when
so

and remiss.' frequently placed in apposition,


tsien
* *

Lazy

Honourable

Tall and short.'

and times Some-

substantives, as

placed in apposition they become in such phrases as ^^ ^ ^^ ^^

5!^*

^
*

fi^%W S*

t'atih k'ing chung P"^'' cJ"'it('o

I do not know

his weight,' lit. ' the light and

heavy of him.' Hai shen fsien ' The -^^ ^^ \%^ depth of the sea,' lit. * the deep and the shallow
of the sea.' In some by

adjectives by double substantives, the first qualifies adjective the second substantive and the second adjective
the firstsubstantive,* as in the case of the phrase 'The Yin priny^'^^y''"^''"^ (^^^oh 1^ F^ i^ i^ ^^^'^ ciple is impure, and the Yang
*

ievr expressions, Julien, when double

as

was

out pwnted followed are

principle is pure.'f

Cf. the passage in St. Matthew's Gospel : koI dBtpdirevafy avrhi/,SxiTi rhv Tv"p\hv koI Kaxphv Kal \a\eiv Koi ^Kiveiv.
+

Julien's' Syntaxe nouvelle,'p. 39.

56

CHINESE

MANUAL.

comparison is formed in several way3, cither by the addition to the adjective of adverbs

The

signifying more,
and

;-^'

luii, or
or

such as by the
by

^^
use
a

p'o,

^*

J^enrj,

compare,'
noun

adding

of the verb locative sign

4^*tsai, p? to J:^^
'

to

the

is to be compared, with which the adjective by forming a simple sentence in which the or is the to be compared noun and the subject by adding or quality of comparison is the

object,

to the
or
'

certain adjectives

words meaning
^^'^otlh hkn

'a

little'

few.'

As

"

W
hao
'

0^ 1' M' M' n'


My

iiauiip'o

lowly ailment is rather better.'

W "it*
keng chai

5^* M^'M''^' ^' ChePiaoln hienhien


'

\^' W^
'

This road gradually becomes narrower.' tatih hiaii'j I'l'J ytt t^cii ^1}^ Hi} ^J^ci

:/c*

There is not

larger river.'
hai yu

i.^W
*

^f li* n^ Bj^ T'a

tdentih

ma

He
m*

has cheaper horses.'

lll^l\i^W"^ lU^ W
compared

CJieslum pi nashan
with that mountain

' JiCio This mountain

is high.'

\\^^' ^' W
Va

"-* ^' n
is

O/^c cireng.
more

tih minclmng

sld laoslnh 'He

honest

* than the other people of the city,'lit. among people of the city he is honest.'

the

CHINESE

MANUAL.

57

"f Zl' M

[^' :^ J] W'
of the
year,'

^'-'^ynehlaen S^'^'^'

lullyucli ch'aufj,'The

sixth month

is longer than

the other months months

lit.' In the t^/elvc

the sixth month

is long.'
m, Chnngare

^' m A' fx- W" m' ^' A' m


hcohjen mei
not
so

yn Mientkn
as

Jioli, 'Chinamen jentUi

black

Burmese,' lit.* Chinamen

have not

the blackness of Burmese.'


pnhjtt To hire a cart is cheaper than hiring hu ch'e f'^i'rn, ' To hire a vessel is not as hiring: a lit. u vessel,'
*

M* ^'fil' ^n W' Z" ill-

c7^Wn

cart cheap.*

L^

tl*

W'

Tsoit man

/^Yi\]k yilicii

little

slower.'

57^ %^ fi^^I'-i^ 1^^


disease is better.'

T'afi/tpiiifjhao sic, "-'His

The double compnrntlve is formed by the repetition of either ^ Yuch, 'To pass over,' or ^J' Tii,
'

More,'

as

fo yiteh hao, M ^^ M ^7' ^'^ic^i

'The

more

the

better.'

M it" jL^ I^"^^'l"(toywh j|" itj'


higher the
more

luir

ison, 'The

it i? to tiavel difficult

(over).'

A^ 1:^ ^^ M*
'The
more

1;^ ^^
the
in
more

*' p^' ^^'^'' '^^" //'' '^

the

men

The

comiDarison

the

straitened the land.' is positive degree

58

CHINESE

MANUAL.

expressed by the example,


" -

use

of

^o '^^'j^s/ like as/ for


'

'

M
was

0^- in' H* Yiieh


bright
as

The mingjii c/iou,*

moon

day.'

eithef (1) by the intensive adverbs prefixing to the adjectives ^^ /ten, 'very,' ^* tsui, 'exceedingly,' g* chi,

The

superlative is expressed

'highest/ 'most/ ^^ chi, 'the extreme/ % isueh, 'exceedingly/^* shen, 'very/ ^^^ /lii, 'extremely/ 'very/ X^^ ^"^(/^'chief/"^ /.///, ;^* ia, 'greatly/ by pre'very/^^ /lao very'; or (2) fixing
'

or

the phrase -f* ^^ shUifen, 'entirely'; (3)by suffixing the adverbs ^^ lieth 'very/
lihai,'excessively/ |^^ sA/y;^,'excellent/

^Iji ^4
and
the

others, coupling verb

them
obtain';
"

to
or

the

f^.feh, 'to

by adjective (4)by repeating

the

; examples adjective T'iotk'i hen "R^ W^^ "^^

lemj, 'The weather

is very cold.'

W
are

+' W%' :k' M' n' m' m' J^'Sichmg


'

tsni taclie Idao tolo

.s/,

The

largest rhinoceroses

called Tolo rhinoceroses.' ^('^ ^" c//e Men, ^^ S* W W

'The

sea

passage is very dangerous.'

1"^^-^J WC^ ^'^ Jlf:^


'The

^-^^ h'enJwig

chi hao,

aspect of this place is extremely beautiful.*

CHINESE

MANUAL.

59

M* f@* ^^
*

That young m "' W

^^^''^""^^'^^ ^""^^^^^^ girl is exceedingly beautiful.'

IS H'

tr- ^' m' ^' ^'

NgohyusUn
are

' siang, slieng hcan shin to, Crocodiles

(animals

lay very many eggs.' (and) of) very good omen ft^ "* i"' 11^' ^' A^ ^0 kienkico hii to Jen,
*

saw

very many

men.'

^' ^' m

"' ti' lU' ^' m' m' 6^


'

tscu

Kiulung shan ski ting kaotiJi, The KiuC/iiingJiiVoh lung mountains are the highest in China.'

fifc^ W^ fei^' M^
possessed of very much

^'"

y"

^''^'^"' ^"^'^^ 'He

is

wealth.'

^'
of
men

M'

A'

-if'm

1-

m' ^'

Tsai

kents'kn kweijen

Idhnan kianghica, ' In the presence

iS^
waves

to converse.' of rank it is very difficult 'The M^ ^^ Polang ta li/iai, M^

:/c*

were

very dangerous.'

i?^ ^^
kien mien,
*

B ^^ ^
I have
not

"^ M*
seen

Hao

to jihtzA muh

your

face for very

many

days.'
laoshih, ^^ ^* S Kwohjen sJdhfen
are

P A^ +
'

The natives

extremely

honest.'
shui tso kw'ai tih

M- yK^ M^ W
hen,
'

^^ ^" So

The river flows very

fast.'

^' fV ^

%' :k' # W
are

^'

T'amentih p'ao

ta teh lihai,* Their guns

extremely large.'

60

CHINESE

MANUAL

B^ W ^^ B^ftl-'^
it is an

C/"en ho hno shhifi V, 'Truly

oxcecdiiigly beautiful country.'

lailiao,'A

most

above commonl}^ in

The

urgent letter has come.' are the forms of comparison

most

use.

There

arc others which occasionally employed, but with which it is unnecessary to burden a

are

the pages of

manual.
The

Numerals.

tvrn,''to split.' t Ancient sounds teot, uok, c". Ostiak ret


t'r

"

Cf. Dravidian

'

or

ruef.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

61

numerals between ten and twenty are = ten, with the addition of the expressed by shi/i s/ilh yih, number required. Thus eleven is
The

-f-

"

^'"^'j Twenty is twelve 4" ^^ '^'"^^ ^^^ ^^ on. expressed by *two tens,* ^^ -f-erh shih, and ' * san thirty by three tens ^^ sfiih, and so -f* on untila hundred is reached,for which number

the numeral "^ poh, or as it is sometimes written ^, is used. In combination with figuresabove a hundred and below two hundred the numeral

is placed beforepoh and the additional * number follows. For example a hundred and twenty' is rendered by H* -p "/ih """ poh erh ' * Two hundred is ^H^ "g erh j)oh, and shih.
"

"

one

"

the remaining hundreds are expressed in the * manner same A thousand ' up to a thousand. is ts'ienand * eleven hundred' is ^^ ii'ih
"

Ten thousand fs'ien ^^ "g" "/ih yih poh. is ^^ Kan^ a characterwhich in its oiiginal shape
"

'

'

"

was

of a bee,and hence the idea representation connected with it of swarms and great numbers, ' chao a j^ yih is a hundred thousand,'
a
'

million,'^^

hiiuj

'

ten

hundred millions.' When sequence of figures it is indicatedby the word ' ^ ling=. residue or remainder,' which corre-

millions,'j^^ lai a a break occurs in the

")j"^

'

62

CHINESE

MANUAL.

employed to the cypher used in in similar circumstances. For our enumeration ' * is expressed a hundred and five (105) example

spends when

so

in Chinese by hundred

"

"""^^ 35.^ !/^^^ 2^oh


a

Umj

/f?/

with

is very commonly The numbers /"o/i* and


uan

remainder of five. ^-^ liany used instead of ^H* erh two.'


'

hundred/

ts'ien
are

sand,' thou-

*ten

thousand,*

frequently
e.g.

used to express

indefinitely large numbers,

"g"'^^ Poll
body

hican,

^^ J^^

fcan

w*m*The

of officials' and *all the people/ hundred officials and ten thousand people. Or ^ Ts'ien s/tan wan 'All s/itd, ^* again, ^- jlj^

Avhole lit. The

tJC^

mountains

and

lit. *A thousand mountains rivers/ by prefixing ^* ^? to ^^ ti san is 'the third.'

and ten thousand rivers.' The ordinals are formed

the cardinals. Thus ^* The English expression 'upwards pressed of is exby the word f^- i/ii 'the remainder'
or

'overplus/or

^^

fo

'many/ which

are

thus
of ten

used,

S//ih yh tseih 'Upwards -f*^"- ^ %^ Wq ^''^^ "^"^* ^^ "^" robbers.' Zl* +

wards 'Up-

ore

of twenty horses.' As a matter of fact all numericnl calculations in China made on the Abacus, which would
to have

appear

been introduced into that country

CHINESE

MANUAL.

63

about the eleventh century,* and only at schools The are worked out on paper. arithmetical sums in which following is an example of the way
such shown
a

multiplication
as
a

sum

as

25x25

would

be

school exercise.

(2) ^ f5) "J

0 (2)

t5(5)
"6
The
and
two

figures

on

the top represent the multiple

those at the sides the multiplier. (1) The fives are multiplied together and the result

placed in the two


square by

( Ij t^)

the five and the lower left hand

halves of the lower right hand 25. (2) The two is multiplied in similarly the result shown
square

(|o)
=

10.

('3)The

five is multiplied by the two

and the result given = 10. in the right hand top square (lo) (4) The two is multiplied by two and the result is placed is the left hand top square (o ^) = 4. (5)The figures
are

added

up

diagonally of the

is placed at the bottom


"The in China."
*

the result figure, in this


and

Old Nnmerals, the Counting Rods and the Swan-pan By Prof. Terrien de Lacouperie. 1883.

64

CHINESE

MANUAL.

case

(-i*Ij ^)

625.

It will "bo

seer,

froin

tl"at the value of the position of this example numbers is understood by the Chinese, and there

is evidence to show that it was known to them Of course the number at least six centuries ago. of of the squares is governed by the number figures in the multiple and multiplier. As in Japanese, Persian, Assyrian, Numemtitcs.
"

other languages, the Chinese, more especially in the colloquial, interpose certain monstr recognised words between the numeral or de-

and

some

which
to
a

the substantive to and pronoun they refer. These numeratives correspond certain extent
to the
use

of such words as *head,' 'sail,'etc., in the English phrases 'Five


* Six sail of ships,' and as a rule head of cattle,' bear, as in these cases, a reference to the meaning

of the substantives to which thej' are ' is expressed hy For example a pencil
'

attached.
"

^^ ^

'one lit. Yih hican pili,

bamboo

tube which is a list of Subjoined Numeratives: %^ Chan

reed pencil,'referring to the forms the handle of the brush.


some

of the commonest

'A

small

cup,' used

before lamps, cups, etc., e.g. H^ ^^ M^ Sancha7i ' Three lamps,' ^e;?(7 ^^ ?%^ Yihdian nan 'A
"

tea cup.*

CHINESE

MANUAL.

65

^
or
'

Chill * standing
"

gems, etc., e.g. ship,' 0^


FeiKj

alone/ before boats, fowls, ^ |5^ Yihchih ch'iicn 'A boat'


'

H ^
*

SsiichihId

'

Four

fowls.'

^^'

To

seal,' before

letters, packets,

etc., e.g.

ahusiii 'Six y^ ^^1 ^1 fg* LuJtfeiHj

letters.'

4f'
e.g.

A'?/;* *A

pole,' before fowling-pieces, etc.,

3l^ ^V
*

|"^
An

7r"/.f^/i ^6'w/"^ 'Five

fowling-

pieces.'
^ 7ir"V" PhJ

ings, apartment,' before houses, build"

[SJ^ ^- .^^ gardens, etc., e.g. Yihideii 'A house,' H^ ft^' famjtzQ, g^ 6'""rooms,

'^^

* Ave/jA/rrt y"fe;t Three gardens.'

To A7V" f|: ^1 ^2 Yihkien


'

divide,' before clothes,e.g.


khciny 'An

"

-j^^

(0 *

or

or

Ko

'

articleof clothing.' An individual or thing,'

beings, animals, coins, boxes, fruit, A^ Pahko jen 'Eight watches, etc, e.g. /V flSj* men,' W ^^ ^^ Ts'ihko siangtzu 'Seven before human

-t

boxes.'

\^ K'o W 1^^^ ^^^

*A

rank,' 'order,' before trees, e.g. y^J^'ois/iu 'A tree.'


reed'
or

/f/myi *A

flutes,etc., e.g. 0^ flageolets.'

^^

'pipe,' before pencils, ^^ Ssukican siao 'Four

j^^ Kw'ai

*A piece of,' before dollars, bricks.

66

CHINESE

MANUAL.

stones, etc., e.g. hHcn


*

'Three
stones.'

Sanf.tc'ai ^' l%* #' t/ang -fe^^ dollars,'j^-^ \%^ ;j5Liainj/cu-'ai s/ti/i
hold in the hand,' before knives,
"

Two

^"3 Pa

'To

spoons, forks, etc., e.g. taolzu ' A knife.' Pen ;?[C' Yihpen shu

J2^ 7)^ T'^ YiJqm


"

'A. root,' before books, e.g.


*

^* Tji^

A book.'

gC P'/A *To pair,'before horses, mules, donkeys,


CJicp'ih ma 'This horse.' K JB^^ and camels, e.g. 5",^ 0f;2 T'o?( 'The head,' before animals, e.g. ]yi,Pou niu 'Five cows.' 5.^ g^2 i|i.2

[JH^Tiny 'Suramrt,' before hats, sedan chairs, YihdiKj hhotzu fH fw^ and umbrellas, e.g.
"

"J*^

*A sedan chair.' Wei * Those who i^4


position, and
hcan
cannon,

.,

sit erect,' before persons of Erhirei e.g. ^* 'g'^


^

'Two
*

ta paou

mandarins,' pg Four big guns.' g

-^^ ^^ Ssiiirei -(ji^ ;/(;^


These
are

DiSTUiBUTiVE

Numerals.

"

expressed
t'icn 'Each

either by repetition, as day' or 'ever}' day';


Koh
'

^^ 3^^ T'ien
or

by u"ing the words 'each,'

^
or

or

every

4^^ ^^'f ^oth of which mean ^ '; A" Koh ag. ^ ^^' g; ^
had

yu sini(s'lcn

jen 'Each

5.^ /A ^

%"' ^^ several thousand men'; luh yueh s/tui Meisiii uu 7^^ M^ f5M^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

67

pao

chang

Every

j'ear in

the fifth and

sixth

months

the waters

fiercely overflow.* Firstly, secondly, etc.

Adverbial
are

Numerals."

formed

hy

adding
e.g.
"

PjJ Tseh
glj Yili

then,' to
Uch

the

cardinal number,

'Firstly,*
scries is
tn'ie 'And

Zl} ^Iji^rh tseh 'Secondly,' and


commonly
moreover.'

the

closed by

Q^ VJjJ^

Hwang
are

'Once,' 'twice,' etc.,


by
adding

commonly
/iirnlto the

expressed

Tz'ii,pieii, or
"

cardinal numbers,

e.g.

^^ ^^

Liaitg 2)ien

^* Yih fzu 'Once,* hwui 'Twice,' H^ '^"^ 'S'rtw


"

'Three times.' Fractional by


^
"^

Numerals.

'A half

is expressed
are

-^

^^^* P^'^y ^"d

other fractions

noted de-

by the decimal
whole

parts of the whole. Every is divided into ten ^^ Fen 'parts.' In


4- is expressed

this way
*

Eight parts,' or by

^^ Pah fen + ^^ ^^ ^-^^4 Shihfenli


event,

either by /V

pah

fen 'Eight
Time.
"

parts in ten parts.' As in Chinese history there is no

Christians the birth of Christ among Mahommedans, the H'jiraamong and which could be taken as the beginning of an era, it
such
as

was

necessary to indicate time by the reigns of the Emperors, and this is done in two ways. On ascending the throne every Emperor adopts

68
what is called a which import, and

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^- ^

Niin-hao

'

Yeur

designation/

becomes

words of felicitous which to all intents and purposes he is his name until his death, when
consists of two

* Temple designation,' or until with a endowed During the earlier he changes his Nien-hao. dynasties the Emperors very commonly changed

their Nien-hao, hundred


years years
no

but

for
case

the last five

or

such

has occurred.

six The the

of

the

reign

are

numbered
e.g. the

from

adoption of

of

the

Nien-hao,

Nien-hao

is ^ the present Emperor ^* Kicang-su 'The succession of Glory,' and 1876 being the

first year
as

of his reign, that year is described * The first = 5t' 1^^ ^^ Kicang-m ijih"?Vyj
"""

year

of Kwang-sii,' year

present
'

and in the (1888)is Kwang-su

same

way

the
nien

s/iih nan

thirteenth j'^ear of Kwang-sii.' The other way of expressing time is by adding the years of the sexagenary cycle to the Nien-hao.
"=

The

The

of the sexagenary cycle dates back to a very early period, and its years are designated by a combination of two words from two
use

in China

seriesof words,

one

of twelve words. shown

consisting of ten and the other Prof. Terrien de Lacouperie has


are

that these words

of Babylonian origin ;

CHINESE

MANUAL.

69
the

call them twelve branches. They


10
STEMS.

the Chinese

the ten
are
as

stems
"

and

follows :
12

JiU-VNClIES.

m Kiah Zj Yih W Pi"g -71Ting

^3

Tzu

^3

ch'ou

m.^ Yin

jf^^s ",3Ki
^1
Keng

Wu

^3 Mao J^2sij6n B* Ssu ^3 Wu

^1Sin
^2 jgn

"ie* ^1 Shen
giYu ^Suh

Wei

:^iKwei

:^iIlai
firstyear of eacTi cycle is therefore ^ ^' Kiceiyu, the eleventh Kkihtzii,the tenth is ^^ "g"^ The

^ J^ ICtahsuh, the
on

twelfth

2" ^^

Yihliai,and

so

until the last two


in 1864

words in the two

at the sixtiethand closing year.

series combine The present

cycle began year

"

Kiah tzu

"

(1888)is

therefore

/^^

the present jyufzu. But jjis and

of

course

year of history, and

Wiiizu has stood for the twenty- fifth every cycle since the beginning of
in order to mark

therefore which

70
Wutzfi is meant,

CniNESK

MANUAL.

it is necessary to add the Nien-hno

Thus ^' of the reigning Emperor. 7^' |^' ;J^'' Kicati(j-su uulzii marks it definitelyas the twenty-

fifth year of the cycle during the reign of Kwangbe no other than the equivalent sii, which can 1888, unless, as has occurred once to our in the
long history of China, the Emperor should reign The single instance of such over sixty years.

longevity

K'anghi, who that of the Emperor ascended, tlie throne in 1662 and died in 1722. It thus happened that the cyclical year ^^ |^3
was

Je"y/rt=

1662

and

1722, occurred twice in his

reign, and, to obviate all possibilityof confusion, indicated by prefixing the the second date was
*a second time,' to the meaning Thus K'anghi jenyin is equivacyclical words. lent

word

3C

y""

to 1662, and K'anghi

yu

jenyindenotes 1722.

The
The

Personal

Pronouns.

wealth of personal pronouns, or their equivalents, in Chinese is in inverse ratio to the As in Japanese, they are frequency of their use.
never

employed

when

the

sense

being omitted ; but when most used for the 1st person commonly

will allow of their called into play, those


*

'

are

"

(1)^^

Ngo

or

Wo, anciently pronounced

Nga,

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^1

It is interesting to compare with 1st personal pronoun these words the Burman rid or ngd ; the Tibetan nd or uga ; the Malay diam
ga, go, hin,
a.

nd ; the Australian ydn, ndn.

nga,

nganya

; and

the Tamil

Ngan, (2) ff^^

which

is used among

uneducated also

people in parts of northern may


. V

China, and which

be compared
H^o.

with the above.


1

(3)pgi Tsa Isan (4) ""-2


,

r,.

used in Chili and Shantun*.

Examples

"

'K' ^' ^' tfe'

Woyu a' W.' 7ts;3 fl:i


'

Imochuug

Iditfs'u chq^eii s/iu

I saved

this book

from the fire.*

fig' m' W- W
to trade.'

BI- M' M' 1*


'

^o^"^

i^o

tso maiinai eh'eng lit'oit

am

going into the city

m'
shop
on

s^

m'

"'

m'

i^m'

^^

Tsa
a

k'ailiao p'litzii *I have fsai /to2^'ieiis/inng

opened

the side of the river.'


Tsan tsung

M' ^Ai'1' "' 1^"' '^' "1^'


fa
hdliao
'

nan Yun-

I have

come
'

from Yunnan

fu.

For the second person

Thou.'

"

(1){fr.'Ni. NInov (2)^^^^ (3) -^3 j,^

Nina.

72

CHINESE

MANUAL.

* Jiishop Caldwell compares the Chinese ni * thou with ni, the Dravidian pronoun of the second person ; with the ni of the Scythian tablets of

Behistun ; with 'you


two,*

the Ugro-Ostiak
nen same

nen

thou,' niii

and

'you' word

(indefinitely plural);
in
some

and with the languages.* Examples


"

Australian

ft"' fc^ ^^ ^
you
nor

^^

Ni

tvo

tu pnh

'^(i\\.\\eY cJii

I know.'

^i' II' Wi' W


and to take
a

Wi' f:' Niii

hicai fs'ing Ic'ai

chUing yin ? 'Will you be pleased to throw off care

\k^ P"
'

'drink.' socialcup?' lit. JtS^M,^ J^i cJt'ilt' y"^n mo?

'Do

you

smoke ? For the third person,

'

He,'

'

She,' ' It.'


tat 'he,'

(1) W
Tamil
ta
'

^X

lit. 'that,' cf. Lappish


'

(2)

Examples

.Jl/

self,'and Sanskrit tat ICi (unusual).


"

that.'

fiil' ;r^ ^

' ff 5i'

^'" P^'J^

'M

ynhimj

'He

does not wish to travel.' * He ^"'^''^ W W 7P ^ ^'" y^^ " ^*'^""

has

-Jt^

extraordinary abilit}-.' Like the Chinese nouns


*

the pronouns

are

not

Bishop Caldwell's ' Grammar

1875. of the Dravidian Lan;T,iages,'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

73

but remain unchanged in every relation, inflected, being indicated, when the cases necessary, by
the addition of either prefixes or suffixes, exactly As for example in in the case of the nouns. as the phrase ^^ ^2 ^^^, ^4 ||4 ^i w^o fan ni trouble you to teach him,' it will be observed that though both ni and t^a are in case, they remain unaltered. The the
Va Jiinohiciii
'

I would

objective

plural is formed personal pronouns, Ni 'Thou,' Nimea 'They.'

by

suffixing fpl^men ' I,* Women thus. Wo 'You;'


Ta 'He,'

to
'

the
'

We

Tamen

The personal pronouns have no gender. The possessive pronouns are formed by suffixing

65 iih to the personal pronouns in both the singular


Thus Wotih is ' my ' or plural numbers. ' ' ' ' ' thine ; T'atih is ' his,' mine ; Nitih is thy or ' * hers,' ' its ; Womentih is * our ' or ' ours ; ' Niand
meiitih is 'your,'
'

or

'yours;'
same

their

'

or

'

theirs.' The

and T^amenlih is formations apply

also to the other personal pronouns given above. In addition to the above pronouns a number depreciatory terms are very of honorific and selfcommonly used in lieu thereof, by the employment

of which the speaker seeks to give a complimenta importance to the person addressed

74
the expense

CHINESE
*

MANITAI,.

at

of hij

own

intellectualor

social

position.

brother,'

^^ .^.")\^^ ^*
sheinj
'

I'm ti 'Your

Siao

stupid younger little younger ti Your


*

brother/"J"^ A^ ^mo jen 'This inferiorman,'

P^'

^^
on

Wan

Late-born,'

are

the usual self-

depreciatory terms

employed by tlie speaker, but locutor the other hand he delights to address bis inter^ Lao himifj'My old elder brother,* as ^ JljJ^^
*

^^ ^^ Ta ho or ^i ^^ Koho 'My elder brother,' fH^^t ^ J^i^ hiiimj My benevolent elder brother,' ^2 )^ Hieii hiung 'My wise elder brother,' 3fe^ ^^ Siensheng Before -born i e. elder,' J",f
'

'

'

' TsuJiliia Beneath

' the feet of the Sovereign, i.e.

Minister.
In

like and

manner

the speaker refers to his relation personal belongings, as |^* Tnien


'vulgar,' Siao i\\^
'
'

"cheap,' Ts'ao

1^4 Pi

'small,' I^"

and cold and to those lucci ' honourable,' of the person he addresses ;ft^ Tsuii 'respected,' ^^ Kao 'high,' ^^ Ling d|l^
;
'

'coarse,'

^-

Han

honoured,' Examples
"

^^' Lao
'

'

old,' and

J^* Ta

'

great.'

b:- t^' ^'


brother has
report
news.'

u '^^ ^' ^'


come

ii'

Yii ti

teh laipao liinjih

sin 'Your stupid younger

to-day

on

purpose

to

CHINESE

MANUAL.

75

"I^'fh' M*
brother's
personal
surname name

W
'

"'
Your

M'

Siao ti dug

CIiatKj i)iin() I

little younger his is Chang and

is I.' Sinojenweits'eng
man

A^ ^^ '^^ M^ ^^ "J"^
'This t'iiiffln'en
yet heard.'

inferior

has

not

as

0 ^' M'
chi

^' 6^ ft' H
jih 'The
day

^"'"J"'^' "^'*

icanshengtih

morrow after tois the late-born-one's day on

duty

^'
tsHng

(asTang-chi-ti) %^ ""' LaohinngtsHe Si} ^' W


fang sin My
'

'

old elder brother be


at rest.'

pleased then to set your mind

A' m'
brother

^'
be

P^

U'

W
a

^'
*My

Ta

ko

ts'ing ch'ih

yilipei hicuik'u

elder

Thou

IW'

I wine)

pleased to take before you go back.'

glass

(of

#^

t.' MM1|2
'

m'

J^olco ch'uen

kishi k'ai? 'At what

time does my

elder

brother's vessel start ?

t.' 5V m^ H' %} w
Jenliiung tsai
liao
'

n' mm'i'
wochoh

san

mienk'iang

pieii'

My

benevolent
me

thrice urge

elder brother j'et strongly and it will be

all right.'

76

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^^

lE^

^*

vyailiu 'My

wise

^^'cn JfiiOW "^''''" elder brother is very

M*

kind.'

^
"

%' ^' W
Before-born
converse.'
"

m'
u'cmen

fff m
shwoh

n'
hica
*

TH'ing

sienslieng hiao

Please
us

to [or Teacher]

teach

to

J" T' :^' "' ii* S'


Iliata iiniig kicanerli ildu
*

B' :X^ TmhThe Minister's


ears.'
^

great fame has long poured into my

M^ W

Tsienyang tu hao

{lly)

humble

ailment is quite well'

W.' m' m' -k' W M' 1^ it' PiJ"i^ng U Talifa pull yuen *(My) unworthy village
is not far from Ta-li fu.'
tientih Imo ^^ til'^ A^^;S*fi^ ^ ^"'"S'?V/o
*

ye imli sltao
are

The

also not

goods of my few.'

little shop

l^.X' \^ i'i^iW m' n'


v)iih tao siao ti Waougan
'

^^

^'"^""
not

(You) have

been
coarse

to

little younger your hut for a long time.'

brother's

m' ff S' M' W W W yiienli sin hiva '(My) cold


isin the garden wife'i

H^^^l^ing tsai thorn

(i.e. my
hceifu

looking for flowers.*

ih^ W

tich'upai ^^^ ^-^ 'M^ M"^^^'^'0

CHINESE

MANUAL.

77

Your little younger brother firstpaid his respects at your honourable palace.'
*

Z" ^' W fiijen yanrj

^' A' M' i^' ^^ Puh liao foil (I) don't know
*

c/iitsim-

your respected wife's ailment is well or fl^^' ^- in' 1- ji'5^ Nitih kao mhuj f;5^' ja lei hun(j erlt 'Your lof(y fame like thunder

whether ' not ?

sounds in my

ears.'

M^'^'A' "' 1' "K^m' M' "' ^' W i\^ ^' t'iiiyliicn ItiungchaiHjti isun fujeii ^^ ^^ '^^(^^
sheiigliao Unginjai 'Your

little younger

brother

hears that his elder brother's respected wife has i.e. a given birth to an honoured beloved one,'

daughter.'
Laotzii tmi pull tsai *Is the ^^ "^^ ffi^ 'T'"dt* your father) alive or not ?* old scholar (i.e. hH Si(foJen A' :t' T. ^H^ "' A- ^' '\k "J"' How can this inferior man ngaiauh puh clu Uijen
'

be ignorant

of the great

man's

kindly (your)

sympathy?' These depreciatory and


are

complimentary
used

tives adjecin these

also very

commonly

combinations. Tsien sing *My M* itj^

I ^ ^ I I^*

}"

,,

surname.' (humble) name.' miiig ^ly (humble) designation.' tzii*My (humble)


'

78

CHINESE

MANUAL.

M ft* ^^'^''^ "'^^ ^^y (bumble) wife.* *"". ^6V/t My talents.' (humble) I Tf' customs.' i^ Pi s"/f Our (vulgar) jl^* *^^y (unworthy) surname.' I ti^ ^'^i"0 ^Jy (unworthy) I J!i^^ ^'^'''* place.' ti I W dwelling.' 'My (small) ^ Siao i/il "J"^ My (little) son.' 1 5it'M My (little) dog,' i.e. /""''''"'" I ^^ my name.' -^3 yg2 Xs'do niing My (coarse)
*
'

'

'

"

'

"

""

son.

'

^I I ^ it I I

-^^ ^ *

ITrm she
"

\
"
*

A7"
men

My

dwelling.' (cold)

f^
^4

'

"

)
*

I I
I ^^ I

surname.' (honourable) ^'' Your (honourable) tl'^ person.' c/"'" Your (honourable) place.' J^^ 7.e"//7Your (honourable) age.' jj?' /iVfoA 'Your (honourable) 1^ country.* business.* /""""'Your (honourable) i]^^ keiuj 'Your (respected) Tsiiii age.' )|?^ liia 'Your (respected) (^^ chariot,*
"
'

'

J^ii'ci sing 'Your

"j

'

"

)"

"

,,

i.e.you, sir.

designation.' (respected) 'Your (lofty) reputation.' |pj' H^ Kfiofeiig i.e. Your ^s" ancestor,' (lofty) I ^'

I ^^

"

i'r//

'Your

'

""

great-great-grandfather.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

?nj M^
"

' ^^'^^*^'^^^ ^our *

L/y^f/ cheiuj -^ J"

(lofty) age.* Your (honoured) principal


i.e.your wife.

one,'

tsun 'Your
one,'

honourable (honoured)
i.e.your father.

AI)^ .^3

laiifj 'Youv

(honoured) gentleman,*
son.

i.e.your
' Your i'aiiff

hall,'i.e. (honoured)

your mother. /iiiiiy' Your (honoured) man,' gentlei.e.your


son.

I "'
-^2

'

nil

Your

(honoured) girl,' i.e.


(honoured) mother.' tzu 'My headed (old)
one,'

3^our daughter.
h'ii
'

Your
foil

1/^2^3 "^-'

Zao

i.e.my

husband.

I ^^ I ^'^
4k^ I 3fe' 'K^
TiiK
"

,,

l-nng 'My

(old) gentleman,'
husband.
woman,' (old)

i.e.my
"

p'o 'Your

i.e.

your wife.

(old) master.* s/V"s//e/?5'


*

A" Tajen
Reflexive

Great
^v

man,'

i.e.* Your

Excel-

lency.'
'self in

Pronoun

Chinese

corresponds

but it may

in meaning to the Latin sui, sibi,se, of often be regarded as a pronoun

80

CHINESE

MANUAL.

the third person, seeing that it often stands alone as the nominative of a verb.
It is expressed either by Tzuki, g* ^^ Tzula'a,ov g^

Q* T:.ti,^' ",' (0* ^'^Tzuho-erh.


commonly
"

Of these forms the second Tzuki is most used in colloquial Chinese. Examples

U^ ^'^ ^- ^^
went

TzA Mug

t'ou shoii ' He

himself

and owned

^^ WL' W
his
own

his misdeeds.' M^ ^~" t'ou /o"w/i7

'

He

fellinto

net.'

g^ f^' Tzu i'ao *He has brought It on 3 Z^ Pi Q* '1^^S* Puhk'o tzii mi


should not deceive oneself.*

himself.'
tzu 'One

7
cannot

I5i^S^ ^^ fc{'^

g*
'

^''^^'*' '2" c/"?rC/i *(I) -P" upon yourself.' allow you to take (it) S*^ !"^ T^ tP ^ ^~"^"" ^""^^'rto kits'ih stratagem.' chUMiao

(You)yourself arranged the S* ^^ \^^ 1^ iV Tzm

lit.'eaten himself has suffered loss,' These reflexive pronouns are also used

'(He) injury.'
as em-

hc'ei

phatic

additions to each of the personal pronouns in the compounds like the English ' self,' myself,' 'yourself,''himself,' etc. Thus
'
'

"

W
'

^^fi^
I
am

i^ E^^*

Minrjt'icn wo

k'ii tziila

To-morrow

going myself.'

m' n' ^ ^' f^"'u' u.' m' t^ nv n^

CHINESE

MANtJAIi.

8l

/iaitang CheJdcn ssii s/u ni tzuici pantih 'This business

is one

which you yourself ought to manage.' Demonstrative Proxouns. Tlie colloquial demonstrative pronouns are ^^ C/ie, and less
"

frequently frequently

jjfc"'

Tz'ii 'This,' and

JYa, Jf)^

and

less like

Pi 'That.' j|j^'^

These

pronouns,

the numerals, are commonly tives. For instance


"

followed by

nuraera-

ilMB'

m' HSl'

Oheko E' Tit/

tuugsl sht

' This thing is his." t'ati/i

M^
wang

W: I"- ft' "^


Shanghai

fah

'

ChccJdh ch'ueii Tliis vessel is going to

Shanghai.'

7^' Cheliang jjl* ^^ f)^^ '^* il'l*


liao 'This cart is smashed.'

ch'e2)'ohicat-

f^^ llb^
*

:v;^

15:^W

Tz'ulden king

chi hao

The aspect of this place is very beautiful.' "' m Nating Idaotzu f)' rr Ir^'^'

"S^

shi t'ai chuiig 'That sedan chair is too heavy.'

m'-^'W^'^^'Wi^^^'^^
Jthpen liicohlaitih'That book
T'a ^ lib' fife' ?i' 6i'
comes

Napenshushi

from Japan.'

shicoh tz'u faopi'Re

spoke of this and talked of that.' Liang 40 " W M' 1 ^'

lib'

hroh
one

pi

tz'u

dang
one,

'

cheng

The two

countries, that

and

this

contended

together.'

82

CHINESE

MANUAL.

The above demonstratives Che and Na are used in forming adverbs of place, as '^^ ^^ Chcli or W ^- C'//e-""MThis place,''here,' and %^ fSi'
'

NalioY
m'
'

i)^ "^2N'a-irh 'That place,'or 'there.' W ^' ^V A- ^' Chcli yupwgjeii to


are

There

many

illhere.'

m' %'(i^ ^n' \r ^' m'

%'- f\^m' ^'

Che-erhtih ch'ueii mci yu na-erhtili ch'iienta * The vessels of this place are not so large as the vessels
of that jDlace.'

Tsai nali shan kao ho shell ' In that place the mountains are high and the rivers deep.' interrogaNa lior Na erh are also used for the tive

^' W

llJ^W

IpI' ^'

'where?'

But

when

so

used, Na

is pronounced

with the third tone.

%' %' ^' w


yii chemo

m'
'

^' m w
Where

%'
so

^'"-^'-/'
great
a

tatih maimai

is there

trade?*

IS ^ S* Wi^ W

T'a tsai nali ' Where

is he?'
'

Che and Na, in combination with sort' or 'kind,' form the compounds
'As that,'thus
"

/H

mo

'

'As

this,'

^' ^' m W

W^ W

t:' ^^' 6^ ^i'


'

Tsai

Chung kicoh meiyu chemo tatih ma are not horses as large as this.'

In China there

CHINESE

MANUAL.

83

m' M'
Namo
us

M.' m ^ m' ^' ^' *p' % m^

chungtih shiht'ou shi hishaoteh hen 'Stones


as
'

that are very rare.' The Interrogative Pronouns

heavy

(1) who/ (2)

' * whose,' (3) which/ (4) what,' are expressed by Jen (1) 8hui ' who,' and ^* Ij^ ;^2 s/t{,nnio

ef|2
'

Shuitih whose,' (2) p^-^^ 'whose' or A^ fi^Shimmo jentih and ^^ J|P-^ *what man's;' (3)%'^ f"* Nako 'which'; and (4) ^^ W:^ Shimmo 'what,' fpjHo 'what.'
'

who

or

'what

'

man

Examples

S^ a- W (1) 11' n' m m" fi^nhwoh shuitih kioa-Mi k'n


'

Shuilcemj
^^^

that his own

is willing to sav/. j.'* * ? (lit. gourds are bitter whose)

Who

(^)m' M' W
(3)1'

Ghekofang^' ^' ^' fi^J


is this house ? '
Mai matih shi horses? * wlio sells

' tzii shi shuitih Whose

nako Jen 'Which


'

6^ g;*M' M' A^ ."^' is man


the

(4)m' M' W' W


mo

B' }^'ffi'
use

yungt'on

What

is the

^"^^0 y^ 'him' of that ?

W
*

W' W

What

Che ch'uen ho ch'u fah ' place does this vesselgo to ?

It may be convenient here to speak of the pronominal interrogative adverbs 'when,' 'how,' and
'why.'

The first is expressed by

j5os/^,^-^ 'what fnj2 (lit. flt^

Kishi, j^^ \\^^ and ^^ '^^ time')

84

CHINESE

MANUAL.

Tsenwio, ^^ K'i, the second by ^'0* jf;-' Ho, and ^" 2b; and 'why' by 1^- ^* ]^^^ fiij2
Totsan;

Wei

s/umniu,

^- fnj^ Wei/to, Wi' W


Examples:
-

^nenho,

^* i/oA". -(JiJ^ ^ fiJ*^ ^ UMll


-

' iV" c/*'"6^* k'ai Wh.in ^-/sAt (511


'

does your vessel sail?'


3 7J5 js ^1 ^1 Bg^i

r'" ''o^srtii /ai//ao*"When

did he come?'

W ;^,*f=:^
Tsemtno 'How
can

^.^ ^

fe' ^:^ ^r* ^^-^^ 151;


htca lai

UUng

fien pohjih shuo/ik'i meng

dreamy give utterance to (such) the light of)a clear skj'nnd bright sun ?' words (in
you

^- T" :^M^^
*

J^'^ i^"^' ta flfc^ 'I'H

t'fi '(""""""/*
'

How

were

you not greatly grieved for him ? //o 'How Jffb ^sM/i ^""/i7

^' JE ^^ ^*

is

(this
'

to justify j'our congratulations? sufficient event) ^^^^0 "/'"" ^J"^ io ^'"o 3* W lll^ 7^^ %"" W
'

How

high is that mountain

'

m' M
chou ping

^' ^' m' t:' w


icei shimmo
kiao

m' A- es' ^"^"k'i/euni


'
'

Why

are

Manchu

{^

? soldierscalled banner men T'a tceiho yuen ^- W W ^.''

wo

Why

does he dislike me?'

i^' ^'' ^^ '^^


so

Yuc'ko long ?

liu imh
'

hi

'

Why

have you not been for

i^"' W fl'f

lik' m 1^' '^ ''A'i'

^^''^'^''* ^'oku

CHINESE

MANUAL.

85

laileh hnanrjsuh

"Why

did

you

come

so

very

quickly ? Relative The

'

Chinese

has

no

is made

Strictly speaking ficienc relative pronoun, and this deup either by dividing a sentence
"

Pronoun.

which in English would take a relative form into two or more sentences, or by using a relative

pressed participle which is followed by a substantive eximplied, or by the use of tbe particle or ; f^ so. The firstmethod is by far the commonest

for instance, instead of such a sentence as * There is a man at Shanghai who is the richest in the * Empire,' a Chinaman would prefer to say There
is a very rich man in the Empire.'
at Shanghai
.

; he is the richest

But when
case

adopted the possessive


to

the second form is sign ^ tih is suffixed

of expressing the meaning with, possessed of, having, which has, endowed etc. This peculiarity is common also to Japanese,
the verb, thus the older Scythian languages, as well as the languages. Thus in Chinese 'The Dravidian house which I hire' is expressed by ^-^ f^^ f\^ lit. 'The house of my j^Q kutih fangtzu, i^2jjps
hiring,' or

by

^^

boat which I bought yesterday ' tlfe 3^^' M'^6^ 15" ^0 tsoJd'icnnmitih ch'iien,
'

The

lit. 'The boat of my

yesterday buying.'

But very

86

CHINESE

MANUAL.

does not require the frequently, when the sense expression of the final substantive in the clause, it is omitted, and this is very commonly

the

case

when the relative clause expresses an action and forms the In many such of a sentence. subject cases the Chinese tih is the equivalent of the
in such words as * speaker,* etc. For is he that speaks ?' or 'Who is the example,* Who ' * * W-^ speaker ? would be in Chinese |^ l^ fi^

English

er

xi

Shicohhicatih shi shuL

Here ye/j*a

man'

is understoo

after tihy and the phrase then literally * translated is 'The man of speaking words is who ? Or again 'The man who builds boats is named Li,' sinice
shi sing

iW

Li

^^ W fa' ^^''] 'The (man) of


Or, 'Who

^^

Tsoch'iientih
is

building boats

named

Li.'

otherwise 'Who

is he that has come?' is the comer?' is rendered by


shimmo

^^"65 ^^ "* IM^ A'' Laiti/i shi In this ca"e jen is understood after
the sentence

jen.

then reads * The man In the same ?* way in the phrase what man i"' Wi 6^ ^* W fi' ^' ^'" shcohtih shi hut'u
hica, hica is understood after tih, and

the ////, and of coming is

the sentence

is to be translated
are

The

words

which

he speaks

words of folly.'

The relative' whatever,'

'

whoever,' is expressed

CHINESE

MANUAL.

87
lun

by

7(" t^*

or

5^^ |j^* piih

or

imi

lun

'no

lit. 'not discussing.* Thus fjli,^ ^* % matter/ ^"" ^'" 1^* "' Ji' m' H' ^' ^ i(J' ^^'"'""'^'
shimmo
tungsi tupuh

hao [Whatever
2 Again^ 4ffi #^4 ^

things he sells
4

they

are

allbad.'

|^3 ;^2 ^3
am

' puh tsai/iin Whoever at home.'

^ ^^ /f^-S^ ^^

^^'' ''"''
comes

lai sJncoh uv s^iiniiiiojen

say that I

not

'Which
* by Jiif so

or or

expressed the firstof which follows the 2'///, fi^

'that which

is sometimes

and subject

precedes the predicate, while the tih immediately follows the predicate. As i^^ j"J[*

Wt ^vf l$*-^^ *^
you
sense,

shwoJitih hwa

'The

spoke.* So is also used by as in the phrases M^ ^4 ^^


*

words which itself in this

"^2 ^^^

^^

;)"A Kci

There

was

4it2 ^t

;;j; -1^3
he cannot

nothing which he did not do,' ]^,,, fiopnh neng' There is nothing

which
ya
so

(do),' fi);^ j^i -^^^i ;^-3


is that which
'
"

piih eld 'There

you

do not

know.' Indefinite Proxouxs. by Some


as

person

or

thing'

is expressed

^"^ Moii,
youth

in the

sentences

il:* '-^^K^ %^ ^^ H* Jlt^


tzA ti ' This is
one,'
*

Tz" 8hi kia moiijen


some

of the household of
^'^'^

^^ ^^ ^* M^ ^'

There is some

important matter

-^^^ *

yaokhi
'

ssic

'

Some

in the

OO

CHINESE

MANUAT,.

' Ki plural is expressed by ^ ^ I ^ ko. S/t' or ^ f[g and !^ 5'/e

or

^j| [0

'

Ki ho

' ' ' ' l" 1 S' W ^1'fS A Jen In tliegarden there are some men.' ftll^ 1% W ^^ W* T'a s/ncoh hi hiihwa
'

xVs" ^*'"*' ywi-w^'yii f^if^o

'He

spoke

some

sentences.'

ffi* M%'
some

^"^

m' ^' W

Tsai Kn-muj-

iiUHj j/u sicho ia ch'hig *In Kwang-tung

there

are

large cities.'

2^' 'A' ^' fife'


sic Mienticn
'

W
has

W
some

T'a nienhco

sliu

He

read

Burmese

books.'

W'

^' P2IJ'^^ W^
to eat
or or a as

^^^^ ^'^ ^^'''^^ ^"^^


not ?
'

'"^"''
.'/"

there something *Any'

'anything'

is expressed by

^^ f^"'
means

Shimmo,
'

what,'

word whicli more commonly has already been pointed out.

As

"

^ ' ^ t"pith #: il"^ ill ilfe^ 'S'/'^^' /f^ t"

ch'nn fi/iinwio

'The mountain

fr
shimmo

^v
hao

lands do not produce anything.' m' ^^ m ^' t:' n' m^ w


tungui
mo
'

Have

you

any

good

things?'

'No,'

'none,*

and

'nothing' thus
:

are

expressed by

the negative with Shimmo,

fc" ^
fan I have
'

1^^ T* W il"^
no

^f^omnh

shimmo

hea

inferior fooa/

CHINESE

MANUAL.

89

R "^ W, ""' ^"J W


was no

'

^i'^i shimmo

lih'ieii 'There

money

proKt.'
mei yu sJdivmo

^^ W
*

W^iE* ii' U^ fi^Wo


'

haotih *I have nothing

that is good.*
'

or

is expressed b}' J^fti, ^Ijfi^PiehWi, tk"" and ^^ TV/. Other


or
'

another

^Ij pick,

H* fi^ ^' ^^ ffi y;lj ?|jt


8SU

^"/' cA'"/' piehi/oiuiUh

lai * To

arouse

and

develop

another

kind

of

business.'

^1

^^

J3
'

A' y^ij
He

T'a M"- ift*

Ic'ienliao

ts^ienchai a debt.' owed another man fiehjen hi 'Call ^'J6^ A'^ '^^ J^MO piehtihjai I'Jl-'

another

man

to

come.'

^'J 1

I"*^ ^"o/' i^'"^fi^35C^T^ |p1^ 'It is differentfrom learning

Incohtih icinpnh

fimg

the literature of other nations.'

^'
ymnjizu

a^3
mo

M*
'

"^* ^'

I'-'iliPhho Jf:' '^Z'*'

^3 g^3
on

Is it of another kind P' /r//: /"rtf?7'2"n 'I will ^1 ^"2 jf/-^

conic

another

day.'

H^ "iJW fill'
' You tsili

;'C* ?^

l^.T'aJihpih"/utnfa
a

will assuredly make Yuench'u

great mark

some

day.'

M^ fiil^ :^' ji;^


' '

'He t'afang

lives

far off in another place.' Each other is expressed by

Slang.

00

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^ ^ To help each Sifmgpnng ;fn ^ W Ji* ^* ^' ^' "' ^'^


' *

other.* ^""^ ^wut'aufj

siangkien
we

Please to

come

into the inner hall that

may

see

each other.'

The

Verb.

Verbs in Chinese
many
nouns,

without conjugation, and of them are used indiscriminately as verbs, the voice, mood, and adverbs. Whatever
person they may The force they
or

are

tense,

number, or remain immutable.


on

be in, they
pends possess de-

certain other verbs which are occasionally added to them to indicate the exact part they are intended to play.

the context

on

Chinese

verbs

are

transitive

or

intransitive

the actions they express according to whether Thus in do or do not terminate in the agent.
the phrase "^^ ^^ Ts'ao sheiig 'Herbs grow,' but in the phrase ^^ fl^ sheng is intransitive, "^^ T^dtih mien Hlidngliao chUvaug *Ilis ^} T"^

?^^

face has grown an ulcer,'sheng becomes transitive. In the same with the verb f^* Siao 'to way Ta laugh' or 'to laugh at:' %^ [I^* siao 'He

laughs,' and A^ J^'^ ^" "'"o i'f^ '^^ 1^^ f8l' 'Men all laugh at him.' Some verbs are never

CHINESE

MANUAL.

91

transitive, such stand,' ^- Lai Some

as
'

^^ Tso 'To sit,' J^* Chan *To


come,'

To

etc.

transitive verbs become

intransitive by
"

being repeated with y/A 'one.' Thus ^^^ ^^^ ' ' T"i'ai yili ts'ai To guess intransitively, Jigij //jjl S/inrih yih shicah * To brush' intransitively, ^^
"
^-

^^

Fan yih fan 'To turn,' intransitively, etc.


are

The substantive verbs ^2 /[/^/^"To be,' and


to place.

^*

Shi,

:^^

:^*

Tsai when

Yu, and it refers

Thus

"

il5* ^ f"' :i*


'That is not
a

"!' M*
2

iVrtF'/^ Shi l;o crhhi


3

child's play.'

^l^*W ^^
e^

W^ A
;?;

W^
some

WaiVou
come.'

yu

jtn
be

laI

JIao * Outside there

are

men

1^*

Wei

chUtn puh

i 'To

minister is not easy.'

:^' ^^ ^
master

S^ """'

Tmxjhla jmh

tsai hia 'The

is not at home.' is
no

causative verb in Chinese, that is to say, there is no single verb which expresses the force of causing to do a thing, as there is There
in the Turkish, Dravidian, and other languages. in the Indo-European guages lan-

But

in Chinese,

as

it is necessary to express the idea by a circumlocution, and for this purpose the auxiliary * To teach ' is used, for which )^^ verb ^'^Kiao

92
Kiao

CHINESE

MANUAL.

*To

'Cause
Moh

call* is often but improperly substituted. Thus" fc' ^1 i^^ 7j^-Kiao Va tilai him to get up.' ^ |^* f^3 ^^3 ^3
wo

kiao

teng kin

Do

not

cause

mc

to

wait

long.'

^'^' t%- M.' i^^'


men

P^V^'

Shuikiaonihaikia
at home?*

ho

'

Who

caused you to sitmoping

In' i^^^ W
'

W ^

Ts'ingnikiao t'afah ts'icn

I beg you to cause him to advance some monej'.' There is a large class of verbs in Chinese which may be called iterative,that is to say, they are each composed of two verbs of identical or nearly identicalmeanings. As for example :

^' fi^ S/iangliang


'

to consult
*

on,'

from Shcmg

to

'

consult

and Liang

to deliberate.' 'to
'

J"ica"gmang ij^3|ji-2
Hicaiig
'

be

agitated,' from

to

be apprehensive

and

Mang

'

to bo

flurried.'

m* iSl^
'

wait upon

Ssiihou 'to wait upon,' from ' to wait.' and Hon


'to

Ssii 'to

f^/ C/t'aoimo Pj;"'


'

brawl,' from
a

C/i'ao 'to

wrangle

and Nao

'

to make

disturbance.'

Pf5* IH'
Wen
'

Wemin
'

'to

examine
'

from judicalh^'

to

enquire

and Sin

to investigate.'

fjf' P^^ Ch'enghu


'

'to designate,' from to call.'

Ch'eng

to

'

style

and IIu

'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

93 from

Sicanki ^* |-|**
' *

'to

scheme,'

Sioan *to

calculate and Ki to plan.' Jg KUcaihwoli *to be delighted,'from K'wai

'1^^

to be glad

'

and Huoh
'to

'

to be cheerful.'

Chitien ^3 |jij3
'

indicate,' from

Chi

'to

point out
^*
im

* and Tien to point out.' from /'to deliberate ' Ilun 'to discuss,' %* pi '

and Lun

to discuss.'

^'^ ^
beg
'

K'iuk'ih

to supplicate,*from

K^iu

'

to

"jf 'j-fi^
H* j|^*
and Lwig
'

' and K'ih to entreat.' ' /fw//a ' to fear/ from Kii

'

to fear

'

and
'

P'rt 'to be afraid of.' Hilling 'to sport,' from 5V


to toy with.' *to
save,'
'

to play

^* 1^ Kiuhicoh
and Hicoh
'

from ^"" to 'deliver'

to protect.*

^^1^*
*
'

Ts'aolien 'to drill troops,' from


'

Ts'ao

to drill and Lien

to practise.'

'to ^- \^'\rijang
*

watch
'

against,' from
against.'

T**

to attend to

'

and Fang

to guard

15 '^
and Shuh

Yohshuh
'

'to restrain,' from

roA 'to bind'

to restrain.'
*

^ Kilshuh fyj "^i

to

coerce,'
or

from Kii,* to bind


'coerce,'
"

'

and

Shuh

'to

restrain'

and

many

others.

The

Passive

Voice.

"

Chinese, like the Dravi-

94

CHINESE

MANUAL.

dian languages, has

regular passive voice,jior has it any means of expressing passivity by ever annexing particles,as in the Sanskrit. It howindicates passivity either by position or by the use of certain auxiliary verbs. For example, in the phrase
lucailiao 'The

no

^^^ ^^ ^^ j^* J^
furniture
was

Kialnco

tii

all broken,* the position of the verb points to its being in the passive; or again in the phrase ^^ ^ A^ %

:^'
shi

^' m- A- K' A- Ji^ Chumjhcohjenpuh


k'i jen min

fen

Jen

mo?

'Are not Chinamen

divided into Bannerraen


when

and

?' Civilians
to

But the

it is necessary

otherwise

convey

force of the passive, the auxiliary verbs ^* Pi Shoii 'to receive,' and p^; Ch'ih 'to suffer,'

'^^

'

to eat,' are

This formation, in common employed. also with the Dravidian languages, in which
'

pad-u

is used in such expressions as suffer,' killed,'lit. 'he suffered 'he was 1ioUa-{p)pattan
to
a

killing,'much

in the

same

way

as

jn is used

and the Dravidian tin 'to eat' is used like the Chinese ChHIi in such a phrase as ' beaten,'lit.' he ate a beating.' adi utiddn he was in Chinese;

Examples

:
-

^' P^' ^ 4u' ^' m' E' feng yih kH ch'uiloh-liao It has now
*

T" Jtikiu pi
been

blown

CHINESE

MANUAL.

95

dawn
a

by

' gust of wind,' lit. it has

nov/

suffering

gust of wind

been blown down.'

^^ W
*

H' iJ^ M^
were

J^
a

Ma

in lei ta ss'uliao
a

The horses

struck dead by

thunder storm,'
storm
were

lit. * the horses suffering struck dead.'

thunder

'^^ M.^1^

^0

I was ^c'iliao' ^^'^'w

scolded,'

* lit. I received scolding.'

i^* 7Mt"M5 fifc^


k'ifa He
*

4\*^M'

T'a shouliao nitih


'

was

insulted by you,' lit. he received

your insults.*

^^ T"
am

n^

\^t W

Wo

puh

ken ehHh
am

k'lcei'1

lit.* I unwilling to be ill-used,' to eat ill-usage.'

unwilling

it' m' m'

A' ^' i^' fv w- pt'T

m'
man

T'a nakojen (sai yameiiU ch'ihUao k'lcei'That ill-usedin the Yamen.' was

fi".^ |J^ 1^ ^^ T'a cmhliao hai 'He was lit.'he ate injury.* injured,' To see is also occasionally The verb ^ ^ Kicn
' '

used to denote the passive, as in such phrases ^To be laughed at,' lit.'to ^4 ^4 ]^j(,,j gi((Q laughter,' or lit.'to
see
"

as see

^^ ^*
The
tenses

Kicn

k'i 'To

be

rejected,

rejection.'
in Chinese

Tenses. expressed

by

the context;

commonly for example, in the

are

96

CHIN

BSE

MANUAL.

sentence
come

^^ ^^^ %^ ^'
no

W^o tniiigt'ien lai

'

I will

tense-particle is required to show that the verb is in the future tense. So ^* ^* ^'" tsoht'ien again in the phrase f"^ flfe
to-morrow,'

ku

yesterday,' the verb is plainly in But when the context is insufficient the past tense. to indicate the desired tense, certain verbs
went

'

He

and particles are


tenses

of the

used to mapk the past and future indicative mood, the imperative
tense

of t^he potential mood, The common the present participl'^, and gerund. signs of the past tense are the verbs ~^^ Liao 'To finish ' and j^* Ktco ' To pass by,' both of which,
mood,

the present

follow the verbs which they modify; and ^* 'past,' with the compound Ts'eng and "' ",* 5^^ Iking 'Already passed by,' which always
.

precede the verbs which

they modify.

Examples

W^
san fahliao

Wl'

'E' =^' W^
and
some

%^' ^' T^nngtuh


Viceroy paid hundred (taels) of
'

ts'ien ki poh yiiitzu * The

out

three thousand

silver.'

W' W^^

^f^^ng ship'oh'ao iiU Using iJC

his advantage, he defeated the enemy.' W W ^%' ^0 ^' ^ m' ^^' 51)'
iiaho

mci taohco

tifang I have
'

not been to tliat place.'

^'m'

^' w

^' "' m'

m' -%'

CHIXESE

MANUAL.

97
kienhco
a

'S* "K^ W^
k'ikicai tungsi

^'^^'* ICO l^'iitziiHt'ou


'

yiko

In

the

shop

saw

curious

thing.'

%^ ^^
' t'ienhia He

pM^

^' 3*^^T^
a

^'^' ^s'ertf/ pientsou

has made

circuitof the Empire.'


-^''^ -JE^
y"^ ^ y
^'^'^^'*^'*i?

^^ ^
night.'

B^ W^ H^

*It has alread\' reached

the third watch

of the
i pan

Nakien #* :i:*P,^ M^ S-^ "i"^ Jf)*


Votanrj
'

8SU

%'
^//"w
'

That business has been arranged securely.' ^'^"^ ^^'^ E' W W m' it' T* ^''^^ '"/""'""^
has hiin down
on

He

the ground.'

m' m' #^ T^' B^ a^


shentzd

T*

1*
body

7'

"?/'^/'^

ikiiuj kiafsicniiao* This

has become

disgraced.*
The Future Texse.
"

This, in

common

Avith

the other tenses of the Chinese verb, is very commonly expressed by the aid of the context ah)ne,
as

in the sentence,

^" WL^ ^"* M

f^^ d^ Il| Jg' Jij* J^ g* skii/un taoiiao fzujan l:i-JFoti7i


-

' tsiiikiciii Jakfs''ai(AYhen) my

chance

has

come,

then assuredly I shall be able to make money.' Here the verb k"iui 'to be able' is necessarily in the future tense, and no tense-sign is needed to show that it is so.
At

other times the future is indicated by


7

the

98

CHINESE

MANUAL.

of the verbs Hf Tsiang 'shall' or H'' Yao 'to want or * desire.' Thus
use
'

'will,'and
:

?fi*

pa-

-'

9i^ Ping J"' #.' ;il^

hiung

'The disease is virulent and he certainly will die.* on' ^2 Ssu icanliao t'a ^' ^' T' f"'
yiting t'a tsiang ssH

;lf'

tsiang hwuilai 'When

the business is finished,he

will come

back.*
T'ienli tsao ^^ IS^ Hf ^* ^' Tii'
yao k'aihiva 'In the fields the early rice

ffl-W
tao kang

will be

W"
*

bursting into flower.' just ^" fc^ ^-* ^* Mingnien

ico

yao

kUi

The imperative mood, iscommonly expressed when itisused affirmatively, by the verb alone, as, for example, the order which
"

Next year I shall go.* The Imperative Mood.

is to be heard

the execution ground or in a street riot,^J^ la 'Strike.' Sometimes the verb ^1*Pa * To suffice is added to the verb, as in the
on
'

phrase

iff^'-^ ^^ ^| ^

Ni k'u pa 'You

go,' lit.'you

Jltt ' To allow ' ;' or the verb ^^-^ go and it suffice is prefixed to the verb, as in the phrase f,^^'^ f^^ 'Let him go in and out.' {ij/V mi t'a ch'iihjuh The negative form of the imperative mood is at times expressed by the Pick, $\\^-^ Pieh )3lJ
use

of the following words : Pnh yao 'Do yao, 7("W

CHINESE

MANUAL.

99

not;'

/f^^^
It'llDo
'

Fuh

yung

'Do

not
*

use;'

|^*

Puh

not

Moh

'

Do

allow ;' not.' Thus

Iliu {J^^
:

To stop ;' and

^'JM^ Wl^ ^^ Piehje huo


gratuitous evil
on

ssfi 'Do

not

bring

yourself.'
^''^^^ y"o
^"* s""i/A-?7" 'Be

1: X'J^-* -k^ 'li^


not too hasty.'

Z" ^^

S^ f# ^^

Puh

Bo 9/ao sicte/itcai'

not

write it askew.' Ji'i*Do ti^'^O ^ ffi* M,* ^"^f' !/^f"'(/ Jl)* angry.'
t'^ tachamj ^T^ fi* -P"^^ Ji'f^ /P %^^ fi"^
not

not be

'Do

let them

fight.'

iS' /^ ^ fTtc'
tsoh tsien

f-^W
not

K^ Hill Uumj
allow
the

lah ch'uh

Jen 'Do

six domestic

animals to

M
'

men.' injure Wt ^^ M" Z^ ^^

^oh

shicoh t'ien It puh

yiOKj

Do

not

say that Providence

is unendurable.*

The fuiure imperative, answering to the tensesign must,' is lormed by prefixing the words "^ Pill, ^J Sii, ^J ^. Sil i/ao, ^Ji Pih sti, all
'

;i5

'

meaning

must.'

Examples

^
must

-P^'^' be not alarmed.'

di* M

1^* T

* P"^^ Txinghicangliao You

^%' m' ^' w i^-^'


mentih

n m ^'
must

^""

^'%
we

^'""o*

sJncohhu-a 'You

listen to what

say

100

CHINESE

MANUAL.

i!t"' W
must

5i-'"a'*
use

%V
of
names

^"

'You *"/A'^ ^''/''''"'" wliicliarc

shun the

tabu.'
UhJroh

"- ^' " i^l;'


fsiu hii * You
must

M
come

W
"

^$' m
The

pilmi

instantlj'.' present
tensse of

The

Potential

Mood.

is expressed either by suffixing the auxiliary verb ^^ Te'i 'To obtain' to the ' principal verb ; or by prefixing llj K'o, or "HJ* the potential mood

}.^3ICo-i 'Can/
be able.'

or

-^^

Hiciii,or

Ai'^nj |f^-

To

f| Yumjteh Jfl* be used.' %^' f^ Mniicli or 'it can 'Can use* 'Can buy' or 'it can be bought.' \\^^ ^ T^vo^eA be done/ 'It can ^ ^ Shuohteh 'It can be

^^

As, for example : S/iifeh 'It can be done/ fl}

said.'

^ Q ^;:negative

Tv/ /r///eA 'He


can

can

come.'

^"

fn ^
"

^^^ s'nleh *I

believe.*
of such compounds

The

form

by the insertion of tlie negative


between

is expresse ^ Pith

the

principal verb

and

the

auxiliary.

Thus

^ ^ "Oil'
cannot

S/i'pu/ife/t 'It cannot

bo done.*
use' or

Jfl^ /f^ V4 YuiHjpuhteh 'Cannot


be

'it

used/ etc.
used in the potential
sense

fl} Teh is often


compound verb and
a

in

expressions composed complcmentarj-

of the principal verb. Thus :

CHINESE

MANUAL.

101

B^ ^

in

T' inffte/ich' IIh' Can hear dkt[r\ct\y:

I j 3"ji'
W'^ I ^ IM I ^M ^^ I I
^

tinctly Siaiifjfelich'nh 'Can think it out dis-

Jeiite/ich'uh 'Can recognise.' Kicotehk'ii ' Can pass by.'


K'aiife/d-icn 'Can Tote/iliico 'Can
see.'

5'S

escape,' and

many

others. The negative form


Thus

of these compounds by the substitution of ^ Fxh for

is expresse

f^

Te/i.

Cannot hear distinctly.' T'/y^^r/Ji^/zc/i'^A* ^.^ /p {"{ ^^ /filijSiangpuheli uh Cannot think it out
'

distinctly,' etc. In
some

compounds
a

suflBxedto
much
so

in which the auxiliary Teh is principal verb, it appears to have lost


and only to retain single act. As :

of its independent meaning, much as to limit the verb to


ICit eh 'To

tV ^
'To

remember.'

f^ fig^

JeiifeU

^^
teh
'

i^^ % Sheiigteh 'To avoid.* recognise.' ' To escape from.' |f"^ J//e"^t'//. f^ T'iiuj:ff:
To hear.'

'To understand.' But in such cases the negative is fonned not by vious substituting % Piih 'not' for teh, as in the preinstances,but by prefixing Puh. Thus

^""'^

Tungteh

^^ Z" tV ^

'^^0puh

hiteh 'I do not

102

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^ remember.* -fife^ nS* does not recognise,' etc.

fl T'a

piih

jenteh Uq

'

Occasionally Teh takes the second place in compounds is a verb of three words, of which the first and the third an adverb, and when so placed it
frequently loses its potential force. As

f|{|' f|. t}^'

Chanteh
'

shao *It has been

little profitable,'lit.

profit it has obtained less.' making have deducted much.' Chehteh to ' (I)

Shicohteh shi* It is spoken rightly.' Tsoteh hao *It is well done.' In these and similar Pul" cases the negative is formed by adding
'

^ ^ 3, ^ f# ^^ j^^ ^ jQ/f"

after 7VA and before the adverb. Thus: ^ i}}^Chanteh puh ahao *It has been
littleprofitable.'

^* ^
not
a

^ %

a-'

%^

Chehteh puh

to

"I have

not

deducted

much.'

:";*

Shuohteh puh shi *It is not spoken rightl}'.' Sometimes again Teh takes the second place in
compounds
an

of three words, of which

the first is

As ; and the third an adverb. adjective Mi % ^^ Jehteh hin 'It is extremely hot.' ^" It' # M" ^^^ mmujteh kin *I am urgently biisy.' ^^ % ^"^ Haoteh kin It is extremely good.' ^^ ^ f^^ Juiteh kin *It is extremely
*

troublesome,' etc.
Teh is also employed
to form

the optative mood

CHINESE

MANUAL.

103

in such expressions that it might be so.'

as

^
OF

P" piih teh

'

Oh

pj*K*0
Examples
:

AS

SIGN

THE

POTENTIAL

MOOD.

^^ 7
few cannot

^^ pT' iiJC

Kica puh

k'o till chiing 'The

stand against the many.*

f;);' rT' ?"' xl' ^'


suhhieh 'You
can

lie-^"

*'o 's"* cheli

W
cannot
3

'^

pT'

sleep the night here.' ^0 chHh 'Wine ^^ P^ ^^'"" i^"/^/';'o in large quantities.'
a sign of the

be drunk

e;"o-ias ]ij jj^3 Examples


:

potential

mood.

T'a filL^ pI^ J^^ ^^ RT^ JtU^ he


or can

k'o-ipiih k'o-i * Can

he not ?

'

^''ik'o-i ts'ung hioh *You iff^"^ vi^ i^^ ^"- ^ follow (his) instructions.* can ^-Q j.iQ.i jiicohliI can make ^ ^,j4 ^3 ^3 jj^3
*

profit.' HvvEi,

-^^

Can
MOOD.

'

to

be

able/
:

as

sign

of

THE

potential

Examples

^^^ *^" ^'^'^"^*^' USt^ '^^ M^ It^

*He

can

make

poetry.'

^"' '^^ ^
characters.'

^^"^ ^^"""'' *'^

^^'^ *I

C'''^

write
kH

3^ f"^ A^ W^ W
*

Nako
.-j'

jen huei

ma

That

man

can

ride.'

104

CHINESE

MANUAL.

W' ^

H^^ ^V

' f"^'"'iO ^^0 /""'^*' I ^f'"^

can

shoot

with the bow.'

1"'5*"^ '^* n|S iS^ Ni


able to drink wine.' 1^- NeNG, *To he
POTENTIAL Mooi).

hicei ck'ih isiu 'You

are

AliLE,'

AS

SIGN

OF

THE

Examples:

iro iieng tuh shu 'I can read.' fjj'T^ Kfe-%"' f#* T'a puh neng kin tai 'lie

^^

Hu'

11 #^

cannot

wait long.'

i'iho i^^ J^'"^"'^^"^'W W ii^'"(/ for how long?' Man's lifectin (endure) %^ i^^ tu' lU ^.^ ^"^ Nl. yen neiuj ch'uJi ico

A-

^^

Hb'

k'i * How

can

you

arouse

The

Subjunctive

' my anger ? Mood. The


"

subjunctive
"

in Chinese either by position mood is expressed by prefixing the particles ^ Joh and ^G ^^ or Jh kico 'If to the verb. As for example :

^ ft"''^-i-' ft' tfe'


;;"A A'm
'

5"* iN7 ;"*^A/."'"?ro//e

If you do not go, I also will not go.' ^'' i5^0'^T"a imh cheh pea incn liao i^^ ^ tif does not reduce
his capital, it will be
^'ffo hioh khuj yung

If he

well.'

i'y^H^' ^ gi' ^- ii'^^


'

If you

were

fond of learning, it would

"

^^^ ^"-' ^ -t^^ 'W hV^' 'l^keng licnmia joli

^' "?'

be easier.' ^^"//^

* tsie sie kintzii If you, Sir, would

CHIXESR

MANUAL.

105
lend

consent
a

to have

compassion,

and

would
'

me

few pieces of gold.'

^ m' M' tr m' w i^"'


Ni you

i "if^
you

^'
must

%h'
'

joh

ymni
to

Inn die

ssU

pihs'd k'u-ai yihtien

If
a

wish

discuss the matter,

be

little quicker.'

W^'Z" ^ ^' Pi?' WV fi^


naotili ssu
no

Joh -^AV be

"/u ch'aoa

pah

led *If it is to
come.'

riotous

business I will not

Joh ^ "'' itD'llh^ shiju tzii 'If it be

thus.'
so.'

:^' "M.^'^m^ E i^' "' W' ^' ^' m ^' m' Chth Imhang jukico yu tseh xco jao In taon
arc

ill"

Jukwo

che yang

If it be

i^r L'
*

If there

robbers

on

the straight road, I will go by the

round-about

road.'

iir ^'

ftV W

ii' "' ^'

J^'J^-'"^o '''"""""
good, the

hno 2)ohmuj p'ingnyan

are 'If the officials

people will be peaceable.' Participle The Present by suffixing either Thus :


tih fl'IJ
or

is sometimes

formed

eJioh to the verb.

^^
'

6^ ^^

L^ fi^jL^

T'ioti Uo

tsoufi isou

Let those sitting,sit,and those walking, walk.' ^-' %t^ fi^^^ ^' 'g^ PatolikHhich'itcnkuan
lie steering is the captain.
'

'

M'

.fi^m

m'

(^ J' m'

m'

m'

ir

106
Kwanch'iianchoh

CHINESE

MANUAL.

ts'ien

tsohliao

cJieko kinrflien

'Stringing necklace.'

together

(some)cash
M

he made

this

^' ^' M' W


choh
hicaU'mo

^M' T'
goods

0/te hico tientaoupset


were

'These

being

spoilt.'

^^ ^
tiny
'

^* ^^ T* ffi^
arrows
"

carrying the Auxiliary Yerks.

He

T(dchoh fsien shi pingis a soldier.*


are

There

certain auxiliary

as complements verbs in Chinese, which are joined to other verbs to develope and give direction to The most frequently used of their meanings.
' A-'m the verbs ^- lai to come,' and -^^ *to go,' and, as is natural from their meanings*,

these

are

they

are

more

approach and * it forms the complement to of the verb ^- na *to take and come' take,' and thus with it means = to be brought is the *'tobring.' When

commonly added to verbs to imply departure. To speak of Lai, first,

object

mentioned, it is placed after the na and before the kii. As in the phrase (iq-^ fijl^ '^- '^- ^- Kiao
t'a
na

ch*a lai

'

Tell him

to bring
or

tea,'

lit.' tell

him

#^"

take tea and come;' ^^ 6^ #^ 2K' ^^0

to

again

^^ If"' fj;*
na

^*'''"i/ ni

s/iit trofi/t

Uii ' I request you to bring my

books.'

Lai

is also added

to

other verbs

having

the

CHINESE

MANUAL.

107
For instance,

sense we
*

'

of have

drawing

or

'

bringing.*

fjl^ ^ ^

^]^ y^^
his and
come.'

wished to draw pull out his sword


used

He

sword/

T'a ynh pah hien lai * lit. he wished to

It is commonly
or

'to drag' also with the verb ^H^ liinff 'collect.' As ^1 ^* m' %' n' Wi' M'

^'

Pa

cheko

iungsi ts'u/nng lai

"

Take

these things

and gather them

together.'

^' %^ fl^ ^

^*
tV
those

fH^ 35^ Na
and
sweep

nako t'u saolung lai 'Take

that dust

it together.'
na

^'

%^ j^^ ^^

}||2^2

Na

sie shu

taolung lai 'Take

several books and gather them together.' Prof. Julien described such words as J"' pa and ^^
na

in the three foregoing


case,

sentences

as

signs

of

the accusative
tlie above
as

and

would together

have

translated

'gather

those things;*

'sweep

that dust together;* 'gather those books

together.'

tion Lai is also used to give the approaching direc' ^ ^ with verbs such as pj Tao to arrive at,* \^
Wang Ku-o
'

'to go

Hwei towards,' juj^

'to return,'
out,'

j^*
in

to pass,' and

^ Ch'uh

'

to go

and

the place or when all these compounds object is interposed between the principal verb named
and its complement.

Examples

lyj-%' ^' %V

^' 2K'

MingtHen

108
chihlcn fao

CHINESE

MANUAL.

chc-erh hd

'To-morrow

the district

* magistrate will arrive here,'lit. will arrive here

and

come.'

"' w
the

{^' m' w
die ch'eng
came

^^' i'

t^oh

nansliang

I'snugtuh nang

lailiao 'Last

evening

Viceroy

in the direction of

this city.'

^"' 0j)^3 [012 ^ ^2 jfti


Cliiing-knoh lai 'Next
to

Wo

mingmen
come

Jmci

year I shall

back

China.'

a' iW ^- 5^' m- ^$2 T' fife^


Inco ho lailiao * He eh'iteti
came

TUi fsaisiao the river

across

in

small boat.*
"

^' tli
of
a

Kan "g ^^ f@' IM 21^.2


came

ch'nh yih

poll to ko Ueh hi 'Hurridly there

out upwards

hundred

robbers.'
commonly

Lai

is very

immediately

attached

to these verbs when

the place is not mentioned.

As

for example
'

^3 fl^:^^ #=^ ^$- iij*T^


iaoliao

Wotih
come.'

fumu

lai

My

i'ather and mother

have

f"^ Iw]^WM4'
'

^" T'^ T'a

Jiiang si icang lailiao

He

came

^' m
month.'

in the dii'ection of the west.' t^' T WoUhpenggu m'^'JL' nW

shangijueh hacilailiao *My

friend

came

back last

CHINESE

MANUAL.

109
to

V^* f"^ i"* Wcome over.'

Kiao

Va

hcolai 'Tell him

^^
out.'

Linw i"^ tn 2$!;^

^'" ch'vhlai 'Bring

him

This last compound


as

complement

Chhthlai is frequently used to certain verbs, as, for instance :

U^ tfi'W' ftll'
KO

ii' T" ffil^^ T'atih

Inm

t'ing ptih

* ch'ii/iiai I cannot

hear his words

distinctly.

m' n' m' -^' \^' "l^W


fun
ssH

i'Pm *'
must

CM-ien
search

' cli'ao ch'u/ilai You ni j)ilisu

out this illegalaffair.'

f^^ M' Ui ^^ M
'

^- T'a

luch'uh makioh

He

let the horse's hoof appear,' i.e. * he let out

the secret.'

M^ fllL^
hd
'

Ui ^^ fli^ ?^^ ^*"

/liench'u/i pen

siang

allowed his real likeness to appear.' Lai is very commonly used as a complement K'i 'to arise.' Thus: ^^ fJi^ to the verb j|ll2

He

-5

2 r^^ii ijin^to get 51^ j^i^fQ{c^fj.^iifii


i

up.'

$:2

JS'ak'ipih ^ 51^2 ;li^''

lai * Take

up the pencil.'

Ii'ilaioften also expresses the beginning of an aclion, or that it is going on, as in the following

phrases

"

^^^iw)^^ 5^^ I I

Siao tiled

'

To begin to laugh.'

" To begin to cry.' jr?fA:'/7rt/

110

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^K4 7^3^2
Ik' m'

i ^^^ f..^f"i Xo become

angry.'

Han

k'ilai' To begin to call at.'

Kicei k'ilai* To become


Tsien k'Hai
'

dear.' cheap.' hot,' cold.'

To become

Jch k'ilai' To become Leiig k'ilai To become


'

T'eng k'ilai' To begin to ache.'


' An ulcer began to form.' Yang k'ilai ' K'ilai is also used in the sense of to rise into Ch'ih-poh k'ilai 'The sight,' as ^. 11

j^5 5J42

naked

shoulder appeared.' Lai is also frequently used in the


lai ' I cannot

sense

* of to

be able.' T\m^" lil^ ^^^Kipuh

/?^

remember.'
read.'

I ^3 I ^^ \ Wi^ !^
J^' 0'
'

I I
1
'^

Tuh 2iiihlai ' I cannot

Sie puh lai '"'L canvioivfviie*


Kie piih lai ' I cannot explain.* ^^ Pi-kohpuh lai *I cannot screen it oflP.'

I I
2^
'

TrWye-//?^^;^^ /o/ ' It cannot


'

be

restored

to its former

state,

^ fi^^

* ^*'"^ ''^^ I cannot 7-"'^^

do it.'
as

Lai is sometimes

used in

participialsense,
year.'

^$- ^- Lai

nien 'The
'

coming

I
}

W ^
'

Lai

jill The coming day.'


'

[hand.'

Lai shou

The bearer,' lit.' the coming

CHINESE

MANUAL.

Ill

^2^2

i J^^^l ^f.(.n"jjjg present despatch.* Lai occurs also in such phrases as


"

1^2 ^2 Yiicnlai 'Originally,'for example ^^ TMIM^ ffi#^ Yucnlai Ida Uien chhih
'

^^
sliai

He originally came
.

^' ^2 p^;^/,,,T^ Mi jienlai i maiUh ^^ # "M.^


was

low and Originally,' a^ ^' from


a

mean

rank.'

:^' ^' ^^

kiceiliao'Rice

originally sold at a dear rate.' ^^ ^2 j^i^^i^i'Lately,' as ^^


so

^$- ^- ]f^'"'

Jfiiilai yu ^2 i^^o

fan

nao

'Lately there have

been matters

^" ^2
^^
once

which have worried me.' ^o?^/r" ' Afterwards,' as ^^

^^
when

^|
you

JJoulai yih make

fahts'ai Afterwards
'
'

money.'

as

' T6'""^ Mn i hi ^' ^ C8"' -^' ' t"^^^ jy3 ^- T" P] i^ R^

Hence

forth/

'

2's""r//.m i lai

pull "o

k'iitu
"

'

Henceforth

g
as

^^ 1^' "ilO n' ""' W- ^' 1^' W


nm

go to gamble.' T^u hi erh lai ' From antiquity,'

I cannot

^' It ^V -k Tzu
nu
'

Jill erh laifa

ufjaisih erh

From

antiquity

fathers and mothers

"B^-0 yA^ ^^

have loved their children,' T^'fo^ JiJ^ i f(f^ 'Since the day
_

before yesterday,' as ^^ j"2 "l^^g _j^3^2 i lai yihlien shuliao 'Since the ^(^ T ^ ^^ ts'ienjih day before yesterday I lost continually.' ^^ ^2 7:s'?m^/"?'Hitherto,' as ^"' ^f- ^^

^4

112

CHINESE

MANUAL.

M" W
'

isaic/i'Sngiifotr M'- fi* 7^ ''"ots'u)if//ai

chidiao

I have hitherto lived in the city.'

^- ^- ;?;T'simrj/oipiih 'Never,' as f^" :^2 ^^^^ t.s'uii(//ai '" *I lia"^'e 2^''^'^ ^5" ^ M^ i^'^ 2)1(^1
never

deceived you/ 'Go'mg and coming,' as fj-g* ^' ^f^cnohii ft'^ A' ^ ^" llitifjhno h'ohjen mnujlai

1^'^21^'

' pith is'iirhDealers in ordinary goods go and

come

without censing.' ^- Lahju

To originate,' as ^g' f^,^ -^^ 'J^2 T.seimw laii/n 'How did it originate?' iJj From the first,' ^' ^' ^Ai' ^* ifl ^-^ Yuhd *He has been ^' ^ A" T'^i yulai ahih laoshihjeu
'
-

'

from

an the first

honest

man.'

When 'nearly'

Lai follows a numeral, it has the force of


or

'about,'

as

^Ma*

T^ +

^-

^2^3

j^r^tsieUaoshih lai Hang yiiitzu*I borrowed

about ten taels of silver.'

K'ii 'to go* verb ^^ complementary plaj's a similar part in the direction of departing to that which La/' plays in the direction of coming.

The

Thus,
awa3\'

as

Na/ai

is 'to bring,' Na/c'iiis 'to take

For example: ^' \^^ |^i^ ^* Na tsiupei ' Ic'ii Take away the wine-cup.' And like as Lai is
used

with

the verbs

^^^ Wang,

03

Hicei,

j^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

113

Kwo,

{!] ChUth,

etc., to

give the approaching


to joined

direction to them, K'li is the


sense

them

to give

Thus : of departing. ft"' /4' "^^Ni tcang na-Mi you going

are

Wk.?'
W

k'il 'Where

f^3 ^^ ^3 |y|2^2
M

J^^o fjao fsao Juccilc'u 'I

ant to go back early.'

%' W
nan

^' %' i^' ** 1'


'He crossed

T'a

fao ho
to

pien

hcoh'iiUao

over

the

southern bank of the river.' fifi.^ *^ T=^ T'a ch'iM'Mao'He ffi


out.'

has gone
'

Kii is also used with such verbs

as

"^ K'ai
'to

to

separate,' ^^ Fan

*to

remove,*

^^

Tson

go,*

3"4
*

TUii 'to retire,' ^* Tsin 'to enter,' ^i Tiii to throw awa}',' ^* K'i 'to throw away,' ^^
away,'

Ttii 'to push

and others,

as:

i"^ W
^3
remove

^ IJi13 ^*

J^"' 2/"o s//?rok'aik'ii 'Do

not speak of going

away.*

^4 ^^1 ^4
elsewhere.'
"

^0

pao panic'u

'I want

to

iL^
'He

ji- Ji^ )L^ ^^


in
a

^'" yi^i miti fsoulc'ii

is walking
-"

W
W

^^ M,
next

fool'sparadise.' ^^(^^^ M' ti' T' J^(^^^ y^^^ i'i(^'^


day the rebels retreated.'
Taoliao

tuik'uliao* The

J'

M'

m' ^j' T' P^' fill'

114

CiriNF-SK

MANUAL.

ch'enfjmen

' t'a tsink'iiliao Whcu

he anivcd

at the

city gate he entered in.'

m'
angtsang

m'
if ah

w
*

5^'- m

m'

^^

Na

die

tiuk'u

Take tlicsedirty clothes and

throw them

away.*

%' *" W
hico no
want

m' f^' %'


'

Z" m'

tu ptih yao

Throw

away

li^'ik'ii Che I don't this fruit,

it at all.'

i)^ W
^* T^

W
^^ flfc^

K'

iV ^'
jen
men

W' A-

Uangho

f/ao tachang jyangjin

i'uik'uliaot'a ' Those two

wanted

to fight,but

the by-standers pushed them away.* K'u is used also participially, as

^*
year.'

^^

K'iinien 'Last year,' lit. 'the

gone

"The despatch ^4 ^2 7^*/^,f^;2


gone despatch.'

sent,' lit.'the

KHshi ^j^ -jit*


world.'

'Dead,'

lit. 'gone

from

the

K'ii sometimes phrase


*

also

means

'

to die,' as

in the

ffi,^ "^^ ~J^^^ ^J^"*

T'a pingliao siang

jn/ikii He

is ill, and I think must

die.'

The

verb JJ^ Ta
sense as

'To
'

complementary such phrases

of the following

strike' is used in the ' to make to do,' in or


'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

115

Tdchaug'To fight,'as flj^ ^T^ fit* i'' W^ M^ 10'*A" JT^ i^^ Kies/ianr/yii UaiKjlo Jen tachaiuj
*

There

were

two

men

fighting

on

the street.'

M' ^* Tmhingchamj 'To guin the victory,' ^T'^ i^^CkwamjIcientihtashin fis^^ M* ff^tT^ ill'
' cIkduj The

^T^

strong one gained the victory.' R^^ {ft^Tapaichang 'To be defeated,'

as

#^
*

li TKj tT^ ^^ fit^ Juanjohtihtapaichang


one

J he weak

was

defeated.'

ft' ^fi*^"""o 'To ^^ ^T^ ^"* H' M


fangicuh Take
'

^^^3 ^2 sweep,' as #2 ^f'' yihpa t'iaochou tasao


_

broom

and sweep the

rooms.'

,rp^ squabble,' as f7[c^ JJ3 ^4 x^^J.l^ ^-^ I^- "f * talda *Do not A^ ^T^ "S* Siitijao t'loig Jiiajen squabble with your inferiors.' ^"^'""^" 'To arrange,' ^V i/i^
as

Igl^^^ Jj3
arrange

S/i' '^ J^^


matters
are

'^^'"^

^^ ^a^""?"^J"A ch'ing 'Business

so

numerous

that I cannot

them

properly.'

fr' II Tafah'To send,' as ^V W ftfc' i'JMIl^ pg2 ^ 4 j^y^^ ^^^ ^^0 yamin k'ii Send him to the
'

Yam

en.'

Tashwui *To draw water,' as ^^ ^^ ^3 7j^3 ^""o "fo/"A kenpan tafi^if^'Jjt^ tT^ 7jC^ ?i^^
' shicai lai Tell my

servant to draw

some some

water.*

#T^ W

^^

Tat silllai 'To get

wine/

as

lie

CHINESE

MANUAL.

t-w'

f^' if ii' ^'


some

Ts'inr/Hi tatmilai 'I request

you to get

wine* ^T^ M^ tk^ T(i hiangt'an "To speak a village ^ as {^^W Hiu yao ia hiangt'an dialect/ i'] W tk'^
*

Do not speak a village dialect.' ^T' m' TasJiui *To sleep,'as fifi.' ffi' J^' "'
^

JT^ 1^* 7
is asleep
on

^""** chw'angshmig -^'^ the bedstead.'


as

tashniUao 'He

r"/'"rt 'To speak,' JT^ ii^^

f"i fl' ;?;W


do

not allow him

T'amSn fT^ 'fi!l' P$*

puh

Jm

t'a tahica *They

to speak.'

J73 ^3
important,'
ta ho kin
'

Tfij^i^i 'Important,'

sl^W i^^ "^^ ^^

^]"3^3 j^ciMen
or

affair is not f\^ fj^^ ||3 X'ati/iJura %^^ fj^ fij2


taldn 'That ssic 2!"iih

J73 fp
water.'

-fifci 7K'

Of what importance are his words ? ' ^Xo drag out of the ^"2 ^^^^0 ^."^7^,,j|tt3 ^'" i^' 2l^' ^^^ Jj' i^iS' ?3l^
is in the water, drag

talao k'ilai' He tsai shtcalli

him out.*

fys -g^2 Tnt/ii'To fish:


Ta is also very commonlj'- used in its legitimate * of to strike.' It is the word of command meaning

given

by

the

presiding

official at

an

execution, authorising the executioner to strike; floggings, as JJ'^ it is the word used for official Ta yihpoh pan *To strike a hundred blows "g"l^"'
-^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

117
in
*to

with the bamboo,' and it is used in every sense which we employ 'to knock,' *to beat,' or
strike.' As
:

If he is not striking him, he is abusing him.' ^J^ fi 6^ TatHchtih *A blacksmith,' lit. 'one
strikes iron.'

^T^ # S* Tat eh chimg *To beat severely.* i'V it II' Tateh kinrj 'To beat lightly.' 7 M* ^^ Wj^ Pi(hsMtapicns/nma /":MT^

who

^j3 ^2 Xalei 'To thunder,' lit.'to strike the


thunder.'

Examples
as
*

of the

use
'

of

Choh

To put

on,'

to order.' clothes, to cause,' As an auxiliary verb choh commonly

signifiesa
4

^ j^i J;. ^jj4 completed action, as i^i :^^^ -{pJ^ T'a tsai ho pienshainj chanchoh * He stood upon the
river'sbank.'

T'a wangchoh "^/ tati'hfangtzu 'He looked towards his house.'

6^ W

^""

W fl'l^

:/c*W
an

W.^ Women
imperative

yuchoh ta

fciKj po 'We
Sometimes
verb,
as

encountered it gives

great winds andAvaves.'


sense

to the

""^ ^

^^ -^^ "j^

T'ingchoh

Picn pien

' /irio Listen to heaven

and it will be well.'

Choh

also sometimes

gives to the preceding

118

CHINESE

MANUAL.

as ^ ^ verb the force of the present participle, T^ohchou m' %v w ^*^' m "n w w

k^iienshi chepan

hcan

chohsliih k'oicu 'This sort

of grasping -at -power detestable.'

officialis very

rightly

1^' W iife^
t'angchoh
*

"*
an

^'M?m
down
on

T*a

fsai kieshang

He is hang

the street.'

is also this force from

Choh

intensive particle, deriving belonging to the verbal sense


to fit closely,' hence it has the

it of

to put

on,'

derived meaning of sticking close. Thus ^ ^ in the C/iohshi/i, as phrase above quoted means 'fittingly right,' or 'very right, or rightly;*
again ^ ;^^ C/ioh i is 'Exactly to my mind/ * lit.' exact intention ; and ^ ^ Cholikihis 'Very
anxious.'

Choh sometimes serves as a sign of the potential mood, as in these examples :

lilfe ?^MI' f^' W


'

T" S= Tsoh/eU

ICO

shiiijmh-

choh

Last night I could not sleep.'

f^^ f^- z^ m
'

W'
I cannot
*

Ml' ^'
find my
:

Wo

sinpuh-

nhoh tcotihmafu

groom.* Ohoh

Choh

also

means

To order,' as

^' fill' m B' /^ 1


loads of grain.'

fe'

ling fa

hih jwh tan 'lie ordered liim to sell six ch'ithi'iao

hundred

CHINESE

MANUAL.

ll'J

m
'

rr t'' m
ordered

m' w

M u ^' ^'
na

C/ioh li'oh ying, hicn, haik'ou t'ifang sJiihlihch'a He

(the ofl"cials of)every

camp, district,
and

and

port, with genuine

energy, to examine

take them.*

The

exauxiliary verb 'ought' is commonly pressed by ]gi Yimj, or |^i Kai, or ||i

-^i

Yinglcai, or
tang,
as
:

^^ ^^

Ka'dang,

or

J^^ -^^

Ying-

n'
Met

^' m'
ying

m'

^'

""' ^r)^^' t' m


tingngoh

mien

siao toshao tu yu

'The

quantity which fixed.'

should be fused each year is all

"!"'# 1^^ B' If* M' ^ ^' W


shing, ying

n}

M'

m'

m'

mkoh

""'

Siao h'ohhcan yiug


kiang, ying

Ciao, ying

pit, ying

* Which til kiceifan-t'ai

of the small mandarins

ought to be promoted, or transferred, or recruited, vincial or degraded, or cashiered, all rests with the ProTreasurer.'

^'

6^ #*

1:' W

W'

T'atih

tsui Chung

kai ssii ' His crime is heavy, he ought to die.' m' if' t' W ^' m' m m ^V^nm hran kai kankin
sheh

fah
a

'

The

local officialsought

quickly to devise

remedy.'

120

CHINESE

MANUAL.

fE* it^ ^^ ^-^ Nimenjukin tu 2)itco fIS*


ye

kHiineng

kai ko ko 2)i

ico

Itao

You
am,

now

are

all more each of

diligent and able than I you to be better offthan I

and

ought

am.'

Ni yingkait'ien t'iennien shu 'You ought to study every day.' ^'" Ji' ^ %' ^ ^' m,' m' w Wi

fi^' W

H' H^ ^^' W

i"'

puh cJiitaoyingkai shico shimmo

hica ' He

does not

know

M'

what words he ought to speak.' ^' ft"' a' tl' Pc'i ssii ni yinyB' W

kai kins/ten 'In transacting business you ought to be very careful.'

"-^ W
' sie You

^^ 1*^ ^^ '-M^
ought to be
more

Ni kaitang kiensheng

careful and thrifty.'

m'
kwantih

'^' m

m'

t^

f^^ m'

m' ^^'

tsoto

kaitang i kiu kiceiku. * Officialsought

follow old customs.'

fh' m' ^'

m'

^'
'

d^ t% n'

kaitang

brothers ought to listen to what their elder brothers say.' ft^' M' l"^ W t%* ^^'"'^'i yingfang kihnii
'

t'iiig hiungtih shtcokhwa

Younger

You

ought

to shun

.t"'

the

use

m' #* ^ B' t' f^' W


tang
*

of sacred names.* Tanshen k'oh yingto

tifang Solitary travellers ought

be

on

their guard.'

CHINESE

MANUAL

121
Eioh^hcmj
to be

^' ^^ JM' ^' m' il^'

yingmore

taiig yutifjsinsie * The

students ought

careful.'

^3
^^
Kan

Kan.
a

verb very commonly used in the colloquial,and its meanings vary from *to dare' to 'perhaps' in accordance with the
context.

*To

dare' is

with

In its proper sense it in such phrases as


Ian tuitih 'No
one

of 'to dare'

we

meet

^t^ ^

f^^ f^ J[j^a

Wvjen

dared to oppose them.'


lai chuc/n 'Who

11'^ tV ^^"^W
dares to
come

"^ Shui kan


'

to oppose ?

K^

^^ ^

^^

T" Wi^ T^ i^^

Fummlii

ming

pulihan piih-i 'I dare not

disobey the commands


*

of my father and mother.' Kan often has the force of


polite sense,
as :

to venture

in

?'J^' ^' Li' ;:^"' W' JA' "'


tso tsenhan
'

Lielmei
are

imi
on
*

chansliang

While

you, Sir,

your

throne, how

shall I venture

to stand

up ?

11 m.' m ^' Wi' m' ^' ^' ^' w ^* H)^ Lao/a shililisui joh yc kan kU'iig kia
fengtsu 'Although
venture

my to impoverish

power

my

is weak, yet I famiiy by respectfully

helping you.'

m'

^' ^'

^'

M.' m'

W' il

Chhi Cheng

122

CHINESE

MAKLAl..

tsunming

IcHkan ViiiVoh 'When

your

honourable commands, ' to prevaricate ?

how

I first received could I venture

3k^ 7 '^^ t^ Ji^ Jlolcanpuhnr/aij'en/tiuug "OiJ^


for my not to feel aflPection could I venture benevolent elder brother ? '
*

How

ik 7
^^ W

WC ^

^^

-^"^^^

i;"//Awi s/d/isin 'I

certainly shall not

venture

to break

my

faith.'

T^ )ji' ^*

^(^ ^'^"pttlich'engk'i 'Many

people venture

to be inefficient.'

Tfi^ ^ ^^ tE;^
not
come.'

Kanshipuh

/rti 'Perhaps he will

SC^ ^^ W
ICO

^^

^^

Kanshi pHen
me.'

ico

'I suspect

that lie has deceived

7 ^^ 1'fi* ?t^ ^' ^^


*

Kcmj^'a 2nth cMtao

Perhaps be does

not

know

my

intention.'

jg3p^"TQtake.'
This verb is often used with ^- lai and ^* to be exactly as ^^ Na is used, the object jfiT'w, brought or taken away being always interpolated
between the two verbs, thus : 'E^ W W ^(' ^"''"^"' 'Bring

wine.'
fsch kUi

^'^ M" f^
'

I^iao ch'aii/ih U. pa -'E^ -i:*

Call policemen to take the thieves away.' Sometimes it is used independently, as :

CHINESE

MANUAL.

123
k'ioh pa jfT^jneii

ijg4 ^
*

-^ ^2

j^4 ^4
took

yits'icn iciipoh tceiits'ioimailiao ssiishih lull Piao

singming

"VYc thus

fifteen hundred

cash

and boug-ht forty-six lives.' -i ioh ch'uen 'Take the -P" si('"^9 box and put it into the vessel.' %^ ^ T^ ^"^^^ P^ y^^''"^ M JC^ shahliao

JE^ W

^^

*The
them.'

thieves took the whole

family

and killed
^^^"^i^^

m' iV
stream

-^' iS' M

T' "' @
*So they

7i7' hwanliao c//t'Z'"?

mingmiih

took the

and changed

its name.*

tV m' ^'
treipah Vung

^'

^'

i"^ til'

y"*^2r.

*He

took the silver, and by dividing


cases.'

,fen

it made

up eight

ir

IS W

tt' 71 ^' M^ Mi' J' ft'


'

T'it'outsiang tsiupa taolzu tihcHao t'a then took the knife and handed

The barber

it to him,'

JC3 ^1

^2 ^2

^4

^4

^1

^3

p^

hiunghtcang yenmoh

fang tsnipeili 'They

take hart-

all ground fine and put it in a cup.' K^o *To be able,''can,' *may,' etc. TiJ^ K'o is very commonly used as an auxiliary verb in such cases as the following : should not lightly withstand him.'

124

CHINKSE

MANUAL.

^ f;);^ ff3'
must

pI^ ^^ Nimen

2n(hk'o cMng

*Yo\x

not

quarrel.*

ifr"' m

m'

1^' z"

n'
*

^' ^^
Your

m^

Nmh

j/eiif/t/H pu/tlc'osiangldao t'a


not associate with him.*

friend should

T" 1^=^ :?" ^-Mi* fill'


*He
must

^'" P^'^^^'o P"^' y^p^

be upon

his guard.'

A^

1l 7f^ "PJ^ ^

"/^"

/"A /""/'/.;'o Ai/i 'The

cannot strength of man effectit.* When prefixed to verbs it sometimes transforms as : them into verbal

adjectives, k'osiaoti/i ssu it^ #^ T^^ 5^^ 65 ^* C/ieliien


f"' :i:-^ Sf)^ E W^

'

This laughable affair.'

-ZVa^'O That landscape is delightful.'

^*

/'mr/si/^ k'ongai

1'

#^
was

5^^ ^

:?"'' Hi' ^'


'The

J/""m-mA
room

hiangicei shihtsai k'ongni

scented ; it

whole truly delightful.'

was

tS.^W

'^^ ^^W

Cheyang kican k'oicu 'This


-"

sort of mandarin

is detestable.'

Wi' M' A' m ^" % ^4 f|:4


K'o is also used

'"' t- Pi' m' Nakojentih


man's

slngtsing k'ohvn 'That

disposition is hateful.*

-^ pJ3}^
as

Cheldcn

ssu

choh-

' shih k'osih This affairis trulj'lamentable.'

polite permissive expres-

sioD, as

CHINESE

MANUAL.

125
I'o tsai '^kK'""J"^

^'

U' ^
'

'"' ^' W

chcli suhhieh

Ijj ;f; pf^


do not put
on

Do stop the night hero.* ' " gi Tmh imhh'o k'o/it'ao Vray

company
"

manners.'

ft"^ pI^ P^
then go back.'

0- ^* l"f"Mfi^
drink
a

k'o cJiHh i\^i"

' yilipcitsiu /ticcik'u Do

glass of wine and

hI^ W
him to
Ko
come

f^^

*i^ ?1^^

K'otsHng Va tsiiilai 'Imite

in.'
sense

'had

in the is often used with ^^ Niiiff, better,' 'to prefer,' as ft"'^iiingk'oshuihiao pa

of

hI^ (i^

Ni ^^ l"|'
to sleep.'

'You

had better go

m^

^^

r^ ^^ Pr=^

;?; TiJ^^4
'

^4

T'a

would rather wet his clothes than disturb his footsteps.' K'o often forms with J^ ^ an interrogation, as :

skilli pulik^o la an 2)u niiigli^o

He

W'

W'

^-' Ji' Ji' M'


proof is there?'

^^'0 2/" "/""''""o

pHiigkii 'What

m' n^ ^1' ^' fii*"' PJ' ^fl'^' "'


sing ming ni k'o chitao
mo

T'atih his

'

Do

you know

name?' K'o sometimes


use

implies

question without the

J^^ mo, as: 3 Pj* ^^ K'o ski ^ ifp^^ "^ /^^ ^i


of

'

May

it be ?'

k'o leiig ' Are you cold ?'

120

CHINESE

MANUAL.

Ti-'i/ii/* To f7^3
TaHng

invite*
sense

of *to 'please,''to aslc,'be plcaserl/ *I beg,' etc. invite/ Ni Uing t'a /"/' Invite him W ft*^' Vvi^ ^r;^
to
come.'

is commonly

used in the

X.

'E' ^^- m'


come

%'

3?"*w

^^
excuse

PuJiHenrj chanrjiaifantjiceii tsUng shu fs'iiig s/in '1


cannot
me,

often

to ask after j'ou ; please


me.'

please excuse

'i^'^'

yv

m'

%' w
ts'iiig kiao
come
over

w
*

w
the

^^'"".7

Idn i liou changhti

For

future

I shall constantly instructions.'

to ask

for your

if' W
*

W
you.'

^Ma^
come

E^

T.Ung

tsin /wut^ang

sianglden

Please to

into the hinder hall that

I may

see

%n^ ffi* pei i"P 5"^ Ts'ing 1/itng fT"^


*

ts'tm tsiu

I beg you to take

W
take
a

^' it"'
'

m'

glass of rustic wine.* W ^' TsHng ni k'aihum


and
to

ch'ang yin

I beg yot to throv/ off care

social glass.' B'out'ienwo my


kia ts'ing

M' 5c' ^' ^' It' ^


k'oh
'

On

the day after to-morrow

family

are

inviting guests.'

f3' *' ^' n' If fil' ft"'


t'amen led ' Invite them

^^
come.'

i'i ^0

tsUiig

for

me

to

CHINESE

MANUAL.

127
h'huj

ft ^^* 7^

Ui^ ft^

TehtmiUao

mien

*1 have sinned, please to forgive me.' /lieu hica 'Please to have tn^ tf^^ f$* I's'/y///
chat.'

If

{^^' nt
'

%^

t,' Ts'wo
to take
a

ch'ih

yi/ipeihiceik'u

I beg you

glass before

you go back,'

m' Ji' ^'W


to-morrow,
3 ^i llJj in in ^ tn'^Ih^
-

^i^"' W
am

^'
some

MimjtHen

no

ts'ingk'oh ni ye led ' I

inviting

guests for

do you also come.' Ts'iiujtso * Please to sit down.' Hicei tsHng * To invite in return.' An T^s'm^ ^.s'/w^ expression equivalent
'
'

to

Goodbye

; the pidgin-English

word

chin-chin

is a corruption of it.

W. 51' %V
hiangJiao
to return
'

F^' 7'

Tseht'ou ts'ing t'oube (to allowed)

The

rebel chief begged

to his allegiance.'
or p^ (l|g

C/m

To eat.'

Ch'ih is also constantly used in the senses of ' * to drink,' * to inhale and ' to swallow,' as : W W Koho tu yao fi* m' W P^ M} W * chHh hiunghiccmg tsiu Every one wished to drink hartall wine.'
1

^3

iJa

fi5;3 pH
a

^^

:^^ ^0

' yii ,,/ch'ih yiJipei I

will drink

glass with you.'

128

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^' W

%^t

J^'f'ft ^"''" *It is it^nf^^i cJi'ih

difficult to drink wine alone.' Ch'ihi/on'To smolic' P" W

w w \ik' m' r^ m' ^^ Kn'eihica weitan ch'ih


Wui
'

1' f
rosea

%'
i/u

tao k'oitlii/u hiang

The

inhaled

flavour of the Althea into the mouth is both

when

scented

and

delicate.'

W
myriads

r"

T^
nank'ii

'

icanhHen

74* ^-1 li- -^3 jiTo chHhUao I have suffered (lit. swallowed)

and distresses.' of difficulties W S.^ P^ W Nitsantsieclfihh'icei'Yor ft"^


are

the time being you

unfortunate'
-"

(lit. swallowing

misfortune). W^c^l^W^^
*

*P^ Woch'ihUaokingpuhshao
in
no

was

ashamed

fJl'^ -f' r"


in ma
*

small degree.' (0*^' E* T'a puh

k'eng chHh

He

P^ ij^ beating).

is unwilling to swallow your abuse.* ' to swallow Ch'ih ta * To be beaten (lit.


'-

* p^ is Ch'ih p'ien

To be deceived.*
*

Ch'ih when written (ig means properly as stutter,' but Hf^ is also used in this sense, K'vuch'ih To stutter.' the expression P ^
'

to

in

n"^

of Ch'ih in the sense of by those instances. bo illustrated The


use

to eat

may-

CHINESE

MANUAL.

129
T'a

f"^ Pg W.^ T^
tsao/an*He
breakfast.'
eat

^^

W
was

chHh

paoliao

until he

satisfied at his

^* 1^ m*
meat

^' Pt (^^'^M fsuihao


to eat.'

ch'ih 'This

is very good

^^ Pfe /i^ ^^ ^"^


to eat.'

* I ^o not wish ^^*'*^* i^^^ ^'"''"

fS-i' ^^
'

H ^=^ F^ ^* ^"o

ch'ih siejihtzii

su

good few days I have eaten abstained from meat and fish.
a

For

plainly,'i.e.

^' fifc^

m'

p^ m'

m' ^

m'
'He is

u
an

^'" ^hi eating-

liangtih t'oumuh ko ch'ih ts'ieih

pay-and-rations figure head.' Tao JiJ*


*

To arrive at,' *to,'*up to,' *at,* etc.

Tao is very commonly instances :

used, as in the following


Wo
tao nitih kia k'ii

$6^ $|JM^^^ 65 ^^ **
'

am

going

to your

house,' lit.* I to j'our house

am

going.'

H* S^ yt"' J^ i'J*
to

Pi^'i^ iao crh king

*Up

the time of the second watch.'

iiL%

m' %' W
*

mii/a kiaoming

shi

%' W' Chihchihtao ''4' threw (the dice) right on to


yihking tao

the time of cock-crowing.'

5^4

Yu ^-^1 ^4 j,j4ft"3

tiifang

130

CHINESE

MANUAL.

'And place.*

went

off direcll}' to

the

gambling

fiH'f\'
'

^' f'j*T'amen j^ "^^


"

Idhldn iceitao

They have not arrived up till now.' ' ATTwcd. 0 Tsao faoliaoj/i/ijih #^ ill*T^
day early.'

'S- i'J^ ^^

M^ W

^'(""" ^'^'^^' 'Having

lost

myself I arrived here.'

W- Ti W ":^'

W
was

:t"^' ^'
*

^' T'

Fangts'ai teh tao ehclijn s/n' ynnrjUiao in reaching this just now
not

To succeed

easy.*

W
"

T^

%^

if^

Ts'ai faoliao

hueifaug
pHm

I have

W
S'

just arrived at IPS-m' i'J*W


M'

your honourable place.'

W
W

%''

Women

tao cheli lai ' We

drifted to this place.' y^'"i^^c^ ^J'it^'eh


come.*

fiV- B ^'
m

* iceitiw Because your time has not yet

T^ ^' m' ^'

i'j^w
'

%' wnot

p^'hchi
much

hai yao htcohtao hitoshi

He knows

how

longer he still has of life.*

fj3

Tao

'To fall down,'

'on

the

contrary/

'but,* 'after all,' etc. This Tao is erroneously, but not unfrequently, interchanged with the last. The following examples show its use in its various senses :

"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

131

NipHngtUhwiy m ill' fljt=* ^ it' "' fi' B."'


shangtsie tiehtno
*

You

have

even

fallen down

on

level ground.'

w
Uai

^' ^' m' \w m ffi'


a

T'

TsiH tao

luVing pien shuichoJiUoo 'Then

he fell "down

by the side of

^"' ^T^ W
knocked

roadside shed and went to sleep.' T^ f"^ Wo ta taoUao t'a 'I

hiui down.'
lou ch'uitao

Ta/engpa ^^ B.^ iV ^' ^^ M'"^


'

A great wind blew down the pavilion,'lit.* took the pavilion and blew it down.*

n' w
Kao
tsHang

m'j'

w' w

r^' +

#.^ m'
'

taohia yahtao

hietien shili iju kia

high wall fell and crushed down


shoe shops.'

upwards of

ten

w
taoye

^' m^

w
'

m'
Who

Tfr*^^ ^^
could have
.

Shu!, chx that

IhJii k'ilai

known

contrariwise a profitablemarket would crop up?" B ^^ T=^ Tao puh Ja m' T" in" #=^
-

tsao

ssiiUao yihjih
an

dying at

After all there is nothing like earlierday.'


'

^3
on

jgjsjg4 ^: y3

Wo

tao shuichohUao

*I,

the contrary, slept.'

"!l' Wi ^^ fi^ ^' A^ ^\m/m7juk


to
'

tao

fujhx
were

But

of those who

were

drowned

there

many

women.'

132

CHINESE

MANUAL,

m ^ m' m' i^ in' w ^' w m' w ^* y ^ Kiao Va kai ychliioh tso maimai, taoye j^c/* Jin liao '3Iake him exchange his pursuit of
learning for tiade which

^'

m^" T"
am

is after all his true role.* ^0 tao 4n' f^\' puhjn ni'\, on
not

the contrary,

such

one

as

you.'

^' U
mountains

ii^ fi^fJ^ W
sie 2)H/iji(.

"^
*

^ AD' Chimgkicoh
the

ahantih tao yu

(The Ginseng) of

of China is,on the contrary, in several points inferior.* When Tao is proused in the above senses, nounced in the third or ascending tone; but when
it is pronounced
'

in the fourth

or
*

departing tone, it

means

To turn upside down,'

To pour out,' etc. as:


shin tao tsai huH

M^ ffi^ S- 7jC'^ #- W
'

Na

Pour

some

water

into the kettle.'

^^ ^'
Tang

Tao ch'a lai ' Pour out tea.* is suitable,* 'right,'


act
as,'
*

''^^
*

*What
*to
'

ought,' match,'
:

'must,*

*to

serve,'

'to

to bear,'

then,' etc. just

Examples
tang

^^ Wi' IS* @ f-J**'

Ni

sie changmuh

You

ought to write out the bill.'

H' ^^ W '^' H' fi^fl#'


shi/ion tang
one

H'

lai t'ien

'

When

one

Shou nantih culties, gets into diffi-

should trust in heaven.*

CHINESE

MANUAL.

133
tso hao

1^' ^'
'

fM* W
u

A'
good

JVi tang
man.'

jen
ta

You

ouglit to be

#"' ^'
liicanssU * You

m'

iV

t'

^i

tanrj hai

ought to go to law.*

Tang ri^ A' ^'t' m: W '^' fll5 *Men who serve in jen ch'ncn he an {full ch'aishitili

t^

official employment

wear

clothes.' official

pingtih

jen
who
*

chiingkien
serve as

Hnnan

jen

to

'Among
men
are

those
numerous

soldiers Hunan
Tang

I"' ^^ 65 f^ i' #'


'

Idatih tsoh chu-i

He

who

is head of

family decides matters.* T'a ts^ingliaoiro


me

W
tang

Ih'T'
'

^' ^' ^' A'


has invited

chungjen He

to act

as

an

intermediarJ^*

l-wan

uen

tah

*I cannot

face mandarins

in conversatio

m" ^a^ H^

^' '^' ^- W
Vang pang k'i
'

m'
They

Tsiang

faqfan san

ining tang

took
hall.'
yu

three robbers and

bound

them

in the open

it' ^' W=^ :^^ "iJ^


Sfiiu

Tang m ^.-'^
at

Jan

pih

tell ch'nhh'u
am

'Just

present

havo

business and

obliged to go out.'

'!"'^V W

^' -"' m' ^' ^'

Tang

sin tu

131

CHINESE

MANUAL.

ahi pan

pao pan

ngo

At

that time all were


,

half

filled and half starving.'

^' ^"-' m'm^i'


^
^

Tang nien

E' ^' m' "" m' m' hi poh Hung san tn'ien tsungtuhfahliao
Viceroy expended
three taels of silver.* in the departing
'
'

' tjinizii In that year the

thousand and several hundred l^iiig is pronounced When


tone,
*

it

means

properly,' etc.

pawn Examples

To

or
:

pledge,'

safely

^' M 3 ^i "Jtangliao
'

m
Yu Some

m' ^' m

^' m' ^^ \r
ifuh,tsai
pittzith

tseh iohliao mien

thieves stole (mj'') wadded


a

clothes

and pawned

them at

shop.'
'^'
m

^' ^' m' Ji- m' 7' w m %' w T^ f"^ 6^ ^-^ ^" ^^(^^iitch'aug sJndiao
hiayeh tangliao Patih tsH
at
a
'

f-atih

gambling

^" IW W
he is pawning

lost his patrimony house and pawned his wife.' ^* ^"'"* "^'"^**^'^^ ^^"{J *A* one
He his pledges and
at another

time he is redeeming them.'

i^

Nai
*

resource,' alternative,* remedy,* * escape,' to bear with.' Examples :

'

W
tcu

i|- ^' ffiW


'

^"* ^^(^"9 """

"""

c^'"^^

nai

There is no

escape from these two

difficult

affairs.*

CHINESE

MANUAL.

135

JFo f^^ ^-^ i?.^ ^J- itll^

yao naiho t'a 'I must

bear with him

somewhat.'
pu

/i^''"'// naiho !^* ^* ipj" /?* 2l^^

hi

It is

utterly unendurable.' ^^'' naiho 'There ^" ^^ 'f'?'


or
*

is

'

no

remedy

alternative.'

i^* W' ^* W'


done ?
'

Naiho, naiho 'Wh^t

is to be

The
'

verb

iVoi fjj-^

To

patience,' is used as above. Examples

bear with,' *to endure,' sense often in the same


:

f^^ U pi- M^
endure

H* W

^^0 k'ioh 'puh nai Umj

'I

really cannot

bear to wait.'

%
't
'

ffe' 'S^""*""'^^^'

^'" 'Who

can

him

W
exigency

ii^ S-^ ij*


demands

^"^'"^'* ^"'"" i^"

"""

'The

patience.'
an naif

WI'^ shangpuh 'M^J^int'icn '^^ 5c^ fpj* '^


*

To-day

I stillcannot

bear to be troubled.'

K*

ih'^
Nai

Nai sin *To have patience.' patient disposition.' is sometimes read Neng, and
'

ml* t4^ Nai

sing

j^-

is

synonymous
with which

' Power,' ' to be able,' with fibNeng it is sometimes compounded, as :

ffi*\r

^^' W

IE* m

t^' m'

13G T'a

CHINESE

MANUAL.

bliihtmi mciiju chhi

chengtih

neitgnai *IIe

certainly has not

any

real ability.*
*to

J5JT^oh
m J'

*To
*

undress/
to
*

strip/ *to escape/ je' itf'm


hao
sheng

avoid/ to ^' r^' w


hie

get rid of.'

s^
Hang

T'ohliao ishan

tcah ching

'Having

taken

stockings, one Tsoht'ien yu


'

the cool.' enjoy H^ "^ n ^' iJl' Bfe ^' m' ^^ 311^

oiF one's best can

clothes and shoes and

taofan san

ming

t'ohshen

tsouliao

Yesterday

^^
'

*"^

three robbers escaped and made off.' i^" "2" !/f'0 ch'uh ^' Hi U fiS.'
a

tolli'a I have

mind

to part with him.'

Z" 1^' U

#' ^5 di' ^j'

^"o P"^

"^"t/

t'oh s/ioutih ye yu 'But

which I cannot

I also have those things get off my hands.'


T'a izu Urn
t'oh nan

%^

^^ %."^ 1^ %5S: P

'He

committed

suicide to escape from

his difficulties.'

t' ^'
Tang
nkn

^^ W^W

h'

%' n
who

^'

f-oh hicohtih hueihuel

Jen

toteh hen

'In those years the Mahommedans from the Empire were very numerous.*

escaped

^^ W
hiang
'

M^ M- ^\^ TFo yao


to

t'oh shen hicei


return

I want

slip away

and

to

my

native village.'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

137

f^l ^j?l :^/ J3

J3 JJ3 ^l 5|1 ^4 ^^4 ^-^^


haoshi, VoMiao
a

1^4 ^4
out
a

^"^ ch'aosi'e/iao yichang

haosieko tzft 'He

copied

proclamation and

left

good few characters.'

m^ ^'
tsonliao
'

fi' U

^' iL' T'

^'^' y^^' ^^^^ ^-^

In the night he slipped away


off.'

from

his

home

and went

fs' E
away

M' ^' IS^'

W'ot'ohjan7nil^i"Igot

without being entangled.* *A

51p*^" jJ5^
one,'
*

deficiency, *to

'to injure/

trouble

to lose,'* owing

to,' * in consequence
nien ico

of.'

^^ ^"

P^; T^ 15^^'"

ch'ihliao

' Last year I suffered loss.* Icicei

^' W

m' ^
*

*' tV m'
I went

7'

W-oyeli
in the

tutsHen k'ilkic'ei shuliao

to gamble

night and lost.'

SB' it' rf"'Ji' 5c' ^' ;^* W


tsemmo

^"'''"^i t'^

It is good of him [lit. he troubles himself] thus to study every day.'


t'ien t'ten nien shu
'

m' M
you to
come

i^"'-^^^ r^"*it' W
yuen
wen
'

^'
was

I"^^"^'ci shah

ni lai tsemmo

ngan

It

very good of

thus far to enquire after my

health.*

m' i^"' ^ nr- ^' ir^rwmw m' m ft"' hai jenteh nifih pengyu 1 thank you for still
'

recognising your friend.*

138

C41INESE

MANUAL,

m* ^' ^^ W

m' ^*

^'

^'

Hon-

ssi'i shi to hic^eit'a 'That the young siting tu ts'-uiuj

people all follow teachers is much

owing

to him.'

m'
Kw'ei

^'
HO

-n'

m'

^' w

tk' 1'
to

yenij'ut'amen

tu hiceikailiao ' Owing

what I said they all reformed.'

i^"'r m' "i^' m m' m' ^' i^ /f*^W T^ Kic'citeh ni k'eng

m[^

tc i^'
yung sin

tii/i s/iiiVat'icn kungming


can

jjih puh

' siaoliao If you

your miud in future day reading, you will assuredly at some reputation.' gain no little

bring yourself to willingly use

J^Mf J^^ llfc^


yUipih hao tzA
*

"

1^ *f' i?* KiD^eiVa


was

HteUh
a

He

kind enough

to write

copy of good characters.*

i"* W
W
*

Kico

'To pass by or over,' fault.'

'to

exceed,'

*a

f4' H'
^J]-%^
I

M'

*'

T'
towards ^^0

T'a

irang

si

k/rok'ii/i(W'He

passed by

the west.'
ho

'M^ M-

mingt'ien kno

To-morrow

cross

1%,^f^
lit.' Having

-^^
"

the river.' KicoUao icusJii 'After fl^'


noon.'
' yi hicei After

noon,'

passed

j'S*y fl' ^'

^^

KuoUao

time.'

:?^ ^'

i"' H ^'' Fan

t.'ien puh

CHINESE

MANUAL.

l39

kail h'H'oji/itzu 'His food and money


to get through
-

are

insufficient

the day.'

IS' ^^ m'

^'

#'

fid W
'

tien^mh

kico shilUo kientih Jucouiih

Wi Yih shop (stock)


heat
was

does not exceed upwards

of ten kinds of goods.'


nan

^#11-^^
to get difficult
over.'

Jchfeh

hvo 'The

m'
only

%' %
earned

'M' m'
did [lit. hundred
*

n
not

---^
exceed

%^ %%^

Mel

t'teiipuh kico ch'enteh yiJqmhto ts'ien 'Each

day he

in earning

']

upwards

of

cash.' Ptffi ^'i(^o k'iushih

^
'

^* ^^ ^
'

J!t*B

tujih

He only by begging

got through

the day.'
Uangko

ff3' ^ f^"'
I'eii

f@' A' ^' ^' i^' Nimen


'

tilyu kico

Both you two

men

have faults.'

A^ ?I M* fiiy ;^* W

^*
who

A^

Mci

kwotih

jen shiko
is
a

sheng

jeii A

'

man

is without faults

sage.' Kuo is also often suffixed to verbs

as

sign of

the past tense.


".

^2

Hican
'

'To
'

return/ read also Hai'^ 'still,'


'

yet,'

and,'

also.' Examples

^' w
jen hican
back my

m' h'm'
'

^' m ^'
man

raao

nako
me

ke icotihts'ien Tell that

to give

money.*

140

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^^ y^
*

M
home

5i^ M^
next

^0

Jdayueh

htcttn hiani)

I return

month.' W^o mingPien


htcan 2}ai

^"' RJJ' 5^^


*

tI^ #^

To-morrow

I will pay my
'

respects in return.'

m'
w""//

5c^ \t' w
/?rt/ meiyu

m' m' %' T'

ci'^"u ^''""
the

Kcinliao

I have been busy

have not finished.* whole day and still WL^ 'W %^ ffi^5l^ fS Sin 2)00 fu, ye hat he is excessively rich, he is still suh 'Although

vulgar.'

^'

m'

W
'

m^'
He

P^f^^ ohi %' fli' how

hai

yao hicoh Idto ski

does not know

long he

yet will live.'

W
*

"^^ 3^ W

%% W

^"'

^""*" w"^i tu/isfm

He

is still there reading.'

1?^^j1^ ^" ^^
are roads still

1^^ -^^

hai meiyu

han

'The

not drj'.'

tV f^"'W
hai

m' n

65 W' W fi5*"'
'

^^cei

jenteh nitih

niuis'tn

I thank

you

for still

recognizing your mother.'

iM^

jS^

'(The effect of)


off yet.'

P^*^^ *"'.^ '^"^^ ^'^"^ ^''''^ last night's wine has not gone

H^

M'

m'

M] i' iJt' M'


*How
amuse can

^a.

siang

hat

ch'uhk^iL uanshica

you

think

that I

go out to would still

' myself ?

CHINESE

MANUAL.

141

n' %' fi^^1^ "^^ tti' 5E^ T^


TztikiatihVaikiao ye liaipuh
own

i"^ W

%'

shen

tsHng

ch'u'My

i"^
want

share in the undertaking isalso not very clear.* ^?fo *I also ^^ ^^ ^^ ^(7" yflfo A;'fl"i
to inspect the goods.'

ji^ J^-*^
kantih
'

*'
no

T'

fi^ -"""* s/"* puh

siang.

It is also

matter.*

5i^ ^^
np awnings.'

W
on

^^ ^

tahp^encj 'Also

?!' -^f" the side of the lake they put


-

^"^^' J^ii pien

4'
hai yu

W'

f0' ^
*

Iff' W'

San

lu

yiko pnh

hao ch'n

Travelling by land also


in in

has

disadvantage.'
Hai

Sometimes which
case

is repeated

sentence,

gative, the sentence commonly becomes interroand the second Hai is to be translated *or'; be rendered * whether,' the first may sometimes and at other times may
J""4 ^1 ""fr3 3B. I'J^ S
^t-i PP
:"i

be left untranslated.
H.4

tS

Xe

,s"i
ea

Ml ^

-"^1 TE; ;^S

M-^

"S*i W

"f^^
kia
'

Ni che sie hwa


These
or
a

hai shi tang chin, hai sM

tang

truth

words lie? *

of yours do they represent the

m'
6ha41 we

^'
make

m'

m'
'

^*
Shall
we

m'

saisu
or

haishi tso shi chih tsiii,

drink wine,

poetry ?

^n^ m' ^^ A'

5i^ ^' ^3

Fuh

Chi haishi

142

CHINESE

MANUAL.

jen liaiihihiei
man
or
a

'

I do not

know

whether

he is

devil ? * Particles hand'

"Words

and

in

common

usj'

^3

ShoH

'The
as

meanings

shown

is used in a variety of in the following examples :

^' j" m' T' m' %%


tsuh t'anliao Uopuhteh
shimniv

^' m'^'
sm
'

s/wu
and

My

hands

feet are

paralysed and I cannot

do anything.'

m' 1' ^' m m' m^ m' ww


5c ^
2X01

f
se

^*

Hwangliao
t'ien *He

shou kioh pan

tung pan

naoliao

tossed his hands

and
a

feet, and
noise half

east and then west, made moving first the day.'

^' ?k^ fCs^ W^ % W' ^


'

workmanship been very difficult to do.' 3 paojao fM"* ^3 g-,j ^2 j'gQgJ^Q^^


nanteh

The

S/ioutican hao nanteh is good, it must have


'

He

pleaded
has not

with his hands for forgiveness.' 'He f"^ "^^ T^ ^^ ^"^' ^'""' Jiia-^l'ou
Degun
to work
as

yet.'

f^^'65 ^' W
weih^eng
come

%' W- "' ^'


'

shangshou

Your

Nitih shusin letter has not as yet


^0

to hand.'

fc^
'

65 T* :g* |3*"^ ^3
under
vour

shi nitih shouhia

am

orders.'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

143

^3 ^1 J;^3 ]^^ Shnishoii yjC^


*

tu

shang

ngan

The sailorsall went

on

shore.'

#T^ ^^ W
some

^^-Jiif'ohikotmhoa
^'" "'"'I/^^^^'^ ymfiou

' shicak'iien Call

athletes to box.*

*He

fife.^ /S^

"

f@^ ^- ^^

is a lazy fellow.' ^'" ^Jioii sheng

7 fl 3^' X' ^' ^' fl^' fill'


tsopuhteh
cannot

k'iaoliiing 'He

is inexperienced

and

do delicate work.'

w ^*
'

m' m' ^'

m'
yiliko

m
a

a' n'

^'

Ts'ien yuenli yu

ta hingfahjen

shousid

In the front courtyard

there is

doing juggler

tricks.'

ftii^ "
off-hand.'

^'

m'

1'
*

m'
He

n\^\r^
did his business

pohs/ioii tsoUao

chckicn ssti

'^^ ^^ ^^ M^ ^^ ^^
'

C/ie iceishiko laoshou

This

man

is an

expert.'

fin m' afe n' iii^


Tso/U'ienyayih jm the Yaraun runners

^' 1'
a

m'

a^' ^'

naliao yi/ikoshtos/ion 'Yesterday

captured
as a

pilferer.' with certain

Skoii is also used substantives, as


"

numerative

^' M* ^^ ic"

YisJiOu hco

'

A lot of goods.'

"

Yishou foil 'A throw of dice.'

144

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^^
*

:g2 t^' ^".W


caa one

K'i

'How/

'

what,' why.'
^'i
nhuj ch'ih Juca tsiu

How

5c' ^' A' ts'uiiff jenyuen Is it not


/f^ S'
*

^2 ^'

drink wine alone ? ' 3 jpi /-an ' How dare I ? ijjr

'

K'i i!^*
'

Piih shi t'ten

that Heaven

with
that ?
:a'
not

the wishes of
'

men

How (lit.
*

complies is it not

etc.) ^ ^^ ^^

K'i 2^uh

stu

ssU *How

shall I

' die of shame ?

M^ ^- W^ Jlb^
ho such
a
' doctrine ?

J^'i pnts'itli *How

can

there

:t- z" ^'


Jiaosm
mo
'

m'

ir ^' j^,'K'i
an

p^^h Shi ko

Is it not

advantageous

affair?'

W
hicei ma

t' B' A'

Ahow

^' ^
hicei ma

t^
tco men

JcH pith jen,jeii

W .1^ I (If)
'

Wo
am

able to abuse men, ?' to abuse me

should

not

be able

^^

T-siit now,' 'Then,' 'immediately,' 'just

etc.

^' ^' iW m M' m' %' ^' ^' I'M' KienUao na uienki siaotih,tsiu khient'a IM^ ^^ -f^^ hiaoshun famu (If) you meet young people, then
'

advise them
parents.'

to be dutiful and

obedient to their

CHINESE

MANUAL.

145
*He

M^ ^' M^ ^^ Tsiulai tsiuk'u come and just gone.' W ^* T^ Taiu shiliao 'That
'

has

just

is

right/ or
IshsiW

That will be well.' TsiucM ^n^ 0^W

1^

mhujpoh*

Then

understand

it.'

w ^' m' ^' T" m' li m w w "f^* M' ^^ %^^ Tsiushi ts'-unglai pull jenshihtih, yeyao
sii kiku hwa
'

But if he is one

whom

you have not


a

previously known, words to him.'

you still wish

to address

few

WL' ^' m^
ye 8hihjen

A*

tii^ m' ^
But if he

n
were

TmisMtieh
a man

kinpuhteh

of

iron

or

stone, it would

be impossible to restrain

him.'

ji^ Nantao. lii:W' W W ^V M l^ ^^ Nantao hai pakioh be (lit.It is hard to say ') fihshoti It cannot
* *

that you would feet.'

also kick your Nantao ?' Nantao

hands

with your
*

^ ^ ^ ^* H" tE"*-fill

t'a puh

lai

Can

you suppose he won't

come

II'" JS" T^ tI^ i^"^


cannot

rd wangliao

'I

II'
cannot

suppose that you have forgotten.' M^ ^^ ft}^ W Nantao shi haossu

It

be

good alfair.'

146

CHINESE

MANUAL.

The

Negatives.
are

The negatives in common use ^Miih or Mei'V^^'ithont'; U^

X^ Puh
Moh

'

not

Wit

'Without';

tIs*JTfi'Notyet/ Hin *Do not'; f;^;^


*

'never';

^
*

'Not,'

or

'Do

not';

^^ ^^
not.'
*

Pu/tt/ao

Do not

'

; and

Pick ^Ij
as

also

Do

;7i Puh
every

is used

'

the negative
exception

verb, with
as:

the

of

with Yti 'to }f^^

not

have,'

m' m' m' ^' H,'^ ^^ ChcU


tos/iao It shit
*

m'

oi^ m y
tao
na

z^ ^'
how
many

rr

^'

aJuin kiohhia imh

cltiiju

I do not know

miles it

is from this to the foot of that mountain.* P"^' *^'^" W lli^ "^^ ^ M* Wi^ ^^" */'f'"^'"'" is certainly not very high.' hao That mountain
'

^^ ft''
*I
cannot

^
see

"' 5^* ^*

Wo h'mqmhkien

si tzfi

small characters.'

#'

M' ^ 1^^ ffil'


'

^'
to

Chekien ssii t'a

tsopuhch'eng

lie is unable

bring his business

to perfection.'

i"^
to

"fe^
/i^ ^^

M^

T'a tsoiipuliiiniff *lich\xxi^\i\Q

walk.'

^"
*

tE* :^* pB'


who it is.'

Wojnih

chitao sJd sJniL

I do not know

CHINESE

MANUAL,

147

Miih, Mei

with the verb


pronounced

is the negative commonly * to have,' ' to be,' when yu


use as

used

it is

inei\ but its

is not

confined to
seen

with the verb, compounds following examples :

will be

in the

%^ 5;^ W^ ^^
has not
come

^^

To

i'icn meit/u

lai 'He

for many

days.'

ix' W^
*

%}

"^

iB^ 3Ieii/u

t'ung

shusin

There have not been letterspassing.*

^' 1^' m' W


yu

Ji' W
*

%'
has

M'
not

T'd

md-

shimmo

hao

tungsi

He

any

good

things.* It not unfrequently happens that the verb ;J^' or the sense, the yu is omitted without aflfecting pronmiciation,
as
:

M^ f^^ S* ii^ ^'J'


was no

MeisJdmmo

lih'ien 'There

profit.'

f^3 ^2 ^1 ^1
'

^1 ^1

Wo

mei

tan k'wujfu

shu

I have not leisure to read.' ^1 jg3 2"a ftlji ||ij3 ^2


_

met

yihtien k/co

* isiit He

has not

drop of anything ivl^^ dislikes.'

but wine.'

fo^ j'x"1^* W
*

tP

'^^^ ^^'^'' ^ii'^^o ^i^^^i'^i

I have not many

il^ iA^ iV M

M^
A-

^^^^ ^'^'' ^'"0 lulimim

*lt

has not the least favourable appearance.'

%'

m'

'a'

"' ^

A'

^'

ni' Na

148

CHINESE

MAXUAL.

hien fengk^icanyjen

inei jen hcolai


no one

'

That madman

seeing that there

was

passing,' etc.

^^

'Indeed f5' fi "?' Weishih mei fahtzU Iff


remedy.'
"

there is no

flfc' i^'
haq
'

W
a

^^

T'a

met

yihho dang-

lie has not

single friend.'
PnhyaoMamj
are
*

^' Bi' il' ^' :^ fi5 V^


nervous

mei k'i lildikhim

Do not talk in words which

without

strength.' ^ Tz'iiMen tsienkingch'uh mei FpT \yi' W W lii ]lb' 'The footpads in this part come out and disappear.'

in- ^^ ix^ J^^ W


t'a
'

^^ J"Mn

mei

ch'ii siin

Xow

there is no

place where to seek him.*

4iE- Wu

'Without,'

originally meant 'vacuity.' Examples: earth, hence 'emptiness/

'destitute of,' 'wanting,' the space between heaven and


^^'^9

Id' W
*

i^' W

W^
a

'""^*

'M"{/

"""

^-^""9

Altogether without

^^J tli^^*^ S
without advantage.'

shadow or a trace.* J^'ioJiije wu yih 'Altogether

^;^ A'

W
no one

iJC ^Vn jen

Ian

fui tih

There

was

i^^ M^
for
ever

who dared to oppose him.* fifi" M^ ^^'^ P^^ ^"* y"* 'I shall be
tih s/iou 'I

^1

boundlessly grateful. ^ rp T'ienhia -^4 |irt2


an

icu

have not

enemy

in the Empire.*

CHINESE

MANUAL.

149

'

^^
W

M^

^'

^"

SO

2mh

n-ei

'There

vraa

nothing

he did not do.'

^^Z"

%W

puh Jpf K'lcangtzij,

teh

icu

A roadman

Mi' \W'
*

should not be destitute of manners.* f^'d H^ ^^ 1^* ^^t ^s"' s^" /"?'*
no

He

has

had

wine

and

yet is three

parts

drunk.'

"M^

\W' ^^
_

*This wine is not very mellow.' fc2 tsai kia 'Not p ^1 ^1 jj7-" yiji ji]^
a

J?* icE*

^^'^ fs'"

n-u

shin

hou

day at home.'

^" ^^ W
to depend
on.*

\k^ Wusoii
^*

'Without

any

one

^"
nothing

^* ^^
to
accuse

^f^" sok'ungkao

'There

was

him of.*
"" C/i'""/i ?iff?"

ttj ^.^ ^*

'There is no
*

escape/

In combination with |^ Fei forms a strong positive, as

Not,' the expression

f;5?' fff i^' #' P^ %


tsiti mo ch'ihjeh
'

?"' ii^ ^^'"^^e"?nf/"'/

'Do you always drink hot wine?' ^^ Wei Not yet,' ' Never,' is used only with verbs having reference to a past time. Examples : ffS' 4*' ^^' ^ij'T'canen hih kin tcci fiS.^

5"

tao

have not up to this time arrived.* P^ W W' B ^* W ^/"'^^y^"^ shitsieh ?rci tao 'But because your time has not yet come.*

'

They

150

CHINESE

MANUAU

^ ii^*
thinking

ll#' ill'*li'Hi 2K'


'

^"

^"'*"^"

"^^^"

"/V7"(7 ch'uhlai

could

not

avoid

constantly

of it.'

B^ Ji' W
feng
was

"'
we

^'

Pj' m' ^'


'

TsohVlen

ia icei h^o k'ai ch'iien

Yesterday

the wind

so

high, that

^3
not

^4-^2
-

j^4

could not weigh anchor.' ^y-Q iceiWeng s/nii *I have

slept yet.'

W
not
as

^^ '^- ^
yet learnt.'

T'a

wci Ueiig

hioh 'He

has

^*
*

^^

Isl'M^ ^*
a

^^^
return

^"^^ htceil'ou hco

I have not yet bought His decision is not

i^ M^ ^^ "Jk f"' fJvJ


*

cargo.' T'atih c/tii-i tcei hiieh

j'et arrived at.'

^" ^^ f^* j^^ ^^


^^
yet
seen

TFeits'eng lean
Shang

''Not yet finished.* irci k'-an *I have not as

it.'

g* tl^ ^^ tu" ^
tah h'iyih
*

:]l-^

"

TzCi hcei treineng


not

am one

ashamed

that I have

been

able to return
* I have kicoli

of them.' '^0 weits'eng iao visited that State.'

^^ 7k^ ^'' W
never

%'

na

i^^ W
not
'

:^' %-

J^''^J^tio n-ci n-an

'They

have

finished raising the goods.' H Mo/t Not,' * Do not,' is often used with verbs

in the imperative mood.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

151

refractory towards your associates.* M W ^^ ^^ A^ Mohldao ico temj kin *Do


not make
me

-^

'T

S^

^^

^^^^ "'^^ ^^" ^'^'""^ *I^o iiot be

wait long.'
*

^ "g* Mohliicai Do not blame me.' m ^ E m' t!l^:^^ ^' ^' ^'
moh shicoh Pa ye ta lao nlenld
*

Shu-oh
not

Said

or

said

'

he is in any [i.e. case], very ^oh Kei ^ ^" ^^ Rjlc


traitor.'

old.' Men ise/i'Do

not be

"When
means
*

with ^ it would be better,'as :

Moh

is combined

Jol/, the phrase

joh
be

fsin t'zii ngaochan

Jdieh ko ssfi hicoh, *It would


a

better than

this if
man

bloody battle

were

to
or

decide for each live.'

whether

he should die

^ ^

^ ^ Mohjoh 15;* 1"^ tjt:'

hiao Va

kai

yehhioh 'It would be better to make

him exchange

his pursuit of learning.' When preceding an


'

adjective,
:

Moh

means

'

incompar

nothing like,'as
-^^h MUi

^" :k^ 60 isMt*


M
^ 'M^ "^^ 5c

tsaohwd 'An

compara in-

great chance.'

^0^'' ^^^^ y^

^''^'*'There

is

nothing hisher than heaven.*

152
When

CHINESE

MANUAL.

combined
means

with
*

^^

Fei, and followed by


:

^v

the phrase

isit

not/ as
*

^'

^'j'w'
shimmo
some

s* m' J^' n^- Ji' ^^o/ifet


mo

linrj yu

saop'i

Is it not

that you

have in addition

' vile temper ?

#' ^' f^^'%V


*

fi* 7'

Shi Ji' -aro/i/"

ni ki fs'oliao mo

Is it not

that you

have remembered

* wrongly ? followed by When not

mo
:

the phrase

Mohfei

makes

strong postulate, as

M
can

#^ ft"^ #*
no one

^lohfei ni

lung

isiii *It

have been

but you who

chattered.*

^^

Hilt *Do

not/ is used sometimes


with mood,

^
as:

in combination perativ yao, with verbs in the im-

^^ i^^ Wi^ ffi^


tell lies.'

Siuyao

ch*e1ncang 'Do

not

^' f^^ Ic* 5)v^ p$*


'Do not "chafF"me.'

Emyao

siao

Inca

tco

f^' ^* JT^ ^^ tk^


not
use
a

Hiuyao

ta hiangtan

*Do

f^^ W

country dialect.' ^* Hmyao Wi W

simo k'ai h'ii'Do

not speak of going.'

f^^ ^^
much/

o"^

-^'"

^^^ y^"

*^o

^o^

^^^^^ *"^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

153

7 7

is used Ic* P^if"!/(io

the

same

sense,

as

M*

Puhyao

iii*

tuM

*Do

not

be

eiiFious.'

'^^M^ ^

1S^ %^^Puhyao

shicoh hiahica 'Do

not tellfalsehoods/

^-* ^
tt^

^*

Puhyao

f ah hH 'Do
*Do
not

not

get

angry.'

/f"M^
hurry.'

PkJi^cio mang

be

in

^4 /fi ^* f]*3

* Pi^//yfl5o Do not quarrel/ ^flrA-ifl

^Ij PeVA

Do

'

not

is also used
as
:

in

the

same

sense,

^'J^^ ^* P^^h K'J E flP/^^

sheng k'i *Do not get angry.*

Piehshicoh k'ing
your family/

Ida

'Don't

apeak of impoveiisbing

164

CHINESE

MANUAL.

S
o

""

"H

s
w

1-5 "5

".

" O

"'"'

^ !}

5^ 5;

!"

^" H

^ o tl:!

^_

;^

"i
-

GC

.-

"

^ ^ ^2^5 J^ t^ ^ k '^ ^ ^ i5^ ^ ^ ii' ik3 i:fcik ^ fe fe -"^

5
3Q

I
i
s3
"

"
J

1
c

b
o

^
s
"

fi

J
d
S ^

H
="
*-"

"1

^
S^
'S

h;
'3S

v^

^^f
^

.f.^
=0

:S

1^
"??

t
"^ .1^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

155

(9 O

a"

o-t^

-t;.::^

o)

"^

do
tn
2?

\.

i^ '=^,:*" ^ .S

"-"

^Qj

""

-^i

5S

So

"J^ "

.w
~

,^ '"J r^:

c.

:=

156

CHINESE

MANUAL.

5^""^"-.

_,=-p-tH

^"C"j:^""

"| I

^.

"

1^

-^T s

"s

^-^

rS

::

H^

f-

e3

:z:!

;:i

.2

cc

r^

-r-.

'-^

'-

^3

rt

""

P.

IS
H
s~
-~

M'S
IBf fe
;;o
^

^
-5

-2

I
1^
^

"

""

H
.5:

-"
""

^
"-

"

"?

"S

*5,

yu

"

ik

"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

157

be
o

-:3

"r

^
o

bo

bO

S3

"'-'

bo
a, to
O
^"

'Ti
o

a
3

'^

P^

5
^
cj

!^

2
^

*
"
^

P-i
:3
l-H

55
o
o

fcc

-S
O
o
"

r-" "J ^

r^i
'^

-^

^,
rH
--^s"

-r

S3
C
4.3

H
'S
Jh

P5
_

^
"s
's 55

-S -^T
-", -5
^ .vT

I
-^
.--

"

^ s^
^^
"^

:^
"^

:S

:3

OS

."

.3

K^^^

^ ^
"

sT"

^ i^ " ra
^

"

"^

,,-"

be

Ig

" o

f-i

o
I

Cr"
o
"

S-1

p p

p
o

bb o
"5
p
"
C3
.

P
O

"^
"^
"
"

^
cl
^

03

"5
p

i
rP

tf
"

^
o

"

.S
o

Oi
o

tS

-^

Ph H

H
;^

i5 ^
^
1=^ S^

?Si

^
~

5^

'^

"^

"i

^ ^ e;

fed ^

Rh
a
CO
"

"

^ N

!:d
c"

Ph

StI

16-^ii^^lil^^

.^^wit ^ ^ ^n
"

ss
"

158

CHINESE

M4NUAL.

"T3

a:

a"

"j

j|^

EH

H P=.^

"1 ^

"!

Ibi iski^^" ijuhh 4K fe-tsfeH % ^


"

"

"

iH

iff M- "'

bo

"'

^ H
""

oi

a"

"if^

^'^ :"
S

^
t

^.

"J "!
.rr

t. K
CO

.^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

159

"%

03
__

^^

^^-"

=-.!

i"."
Si,

-a
"^
-^^

rfi

OO

r^

H
i"ii

""

"

"d
~

o
s^

^
^-

5~-^
"*^

05

-^

""5?

._?"

.^

"

CI

at

160

CHINESE

MANUAL.

3
a
o
CO
.

cS

M
o

"

I
9
^

(=

.2

to
03
"-

t3

to

^
0

'd
c

fcc
^

g ?

"-3 -t; "


~

3
o

-ii

O
'i

;5

'="

"1 "Jl
a

-^

"

"
'^^
c

^ -I I*

5^ ^

!^

as ^

J ^ :|s" i^ ^

i^4!^E=^^^

^0?

B 4K

^ -k"^

^ag::^

mrCa^lii^
o

to
es

00
O
GQ

.~

*-

"0
o
-.-"

C8

-:s 3

P
r;

fcC

'^ C
r*'

fco
-3
w 1"

c3 I
ii

o
^j

g
fco

" "
o

fcc

a
.

s
^

s
^

"
"^

"J

.^-

"a'

^ -I 1
"
-^
CI

%rs^ ^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

161

fa

a
o

fee C
""="

3
o
^-"

c2

s
""
OS

O o

:S

"^

-^
.~-

s
"i
"^

"^ s

1^
2:

H^

S^ 'd :2 " S t^ r^ '^ l5' ^ Pk, jg ^

.^

^{-fijitfii-^^feiHk^i^^^
^lii^rS'^:^:^
m m
'^m
c3

a
o

fa

03

,H
Q

Ol

feO

^
!?
CO

i
bo
03

t^

c c3
m

"^
3

03

^ -5 -^
"s
o
(i"
cs

"-d

a
c3
5Si

"

"

1w
"Ss

\"

"

ft
;S CQ t"" H
'HI

5-( fSH
CO
"rH

2Q

j"i

1^
CO

CO

cr"

JaS*

Jg

Jt/ its' tgiX tjqL US Ji" /SZ TtS 2^ ^

il

162

CHINESE

MANUAL.

.2 IS

^
^
"

r"

4)

CO

n3
o

-p ^ iS 5 o

a"

i
cc

^
'S

c
i*

g
-"-"

eS

"H "

r"

tj

/-I

E^

fe:; S

E^

t^

g ^
o
^

-^
^^

"
.

00

-*J

feifl ?^^ ^ ^H1^ ^ ^ i.

S
o

is
--

"

C5

d
=*
CO
"

-5
o

Qi

^
be

.s

" " O

Sg

cS

3 "
CO

'Oi

"a3
~

'^ s
^

1"1

^
"D
"sT
"S
"-"
""

-!"'^"
'^

"^^^ "1
^
r^
CO

,^

-^

rS
^

^
"D
u

"~

-^

":^

^
""
"~

"-;s 's
^
r"

ao

bo

ni

js

"i

I 2
^ E^ ^
"M "

I"
C5 ^
"=^

^^ tq t^ ^
__

^
-'

^
"=S

1^
'-^

'^
'^

i^
s

*5

2^

4h^

CI

"

"

^ e
"*
"

E^ ^ ^ g "5 ^ -ip r^ ^ BH] i"^ ?ll^ {nn ife ^ g fe

{"hmmm
i"" ^D: ^ ii

CHINESE

MANUAL.

163

o
o

a
as
CO

"

.^
O)

Q)

e3

,^3

5g
2
o

n3 d
"

^
eo

S
CT

^
"^^

a.

f=^ -::!
"
5ii

u
"3

C3

?5

.^ "1 s^"i
.^
"^

rd "

rf5

-i2

.a"

~-

"^

-^2 r^

i=
o

^-^
^
r'S fis ^ iTm S(
_~

-M

r^ bi
e"

^ t^ ^
" CO CI

1^ O
'9J

-)"

e
2K 2^ ^' "
"
"
"

!^
"

e:^

"

lina 5ji llc$

"***" =!;l -"is:


ua

a=T "iisr

^^l^hN^^

164

CHINESE

MANUAL,

s
eg
o

60
C3
~

'"1-3

^
k! ^55

Ix, -5l hH
=:
iSi
(U

eS
O)

"=1

"

|fr|

s ^
^'

^"^m^k'^^^^^^n^^

S
as

p^ ^
""

-fcJ

l-H

o
03

1^

-5^

Ph

W2

1^

-^ ^
^

t^! S

"^

t-"

CO

CHINESE

MANUAL.

165

-a

I"

O
J3

HH

fis
(M

"

166

CIlINfcSF,

MANUAL.

O c
1-5

en

r--

^m^^^^^^

^s:^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

167

09

'w^

to

rO

H
a o o

o
o

C3
00

o O
o

.2

!-"

""

!=!
O

a
o
'^

a
bo

fci
O C3

a
03 O

"^

"IS
"5
."''^

-a

^"

"^ -21 ^
55
"^

o^
t

o o

'G
-

Si

IS
irs" a
7^
"

:"
Si
'^

c5 ^

in "
o

r's

I1"

8 i^
K

fcJ3

^
.

fa
"^
"

"" ^
^
".

^
"-,

7,

^^

"

flfin! ^ Bjii j:'s

168

chinf.sk

manual.

bo
p

:3
o

!5
00

O
"^

fco
c

el

"t1 o) "
-

.^

-2

5
o
."

"

"^
"

OQ

03

J
a

"^

g J

*"

^"^~

I
HH r~^

"^
'^

-fii

^
g
S
""

""^

.*^

"S "^ 09 GQ
"=

-*;

-5

-^ 'S
2
'"^

S 1^ '^ "^
S
^
1ST
c,

"i

nil?
^

.^

^^

CO
"4-*

issi.

^^5^

t^

K^^^M^^d
^ a 6

i?} fe^ i fe isfe fe tfe

CHINESE

MANUAL.

169

^
fee

"CS

a
fee
:3

O
"

GO
1-1

L^ "

:2 t^
"*^ii
.

03

"-

-2

:^

fee

g ^

fl

s
" c3 0)

"
C

6
e

"

"^^
OS

O
03

" l"^ ^
^ ej " "

CQ
"

Mi:

Ki!^

rr

"

";

c
o

Elil'^ ^.
cc

m"^
m
^
r-l

a
"v

to
t-^

O
toi
~

I
CO c-i

^ ~ ^-^

fci
_""

r-

'^

's

^ ^ fc^ CC "

-^

fefeH

-M

^ "3

"3 ft5 ^

Rft

170

CUlMbiSJb;

MANUAL.

0)

O"

""

(-

^cs
o

2
o

""J

:3

'^
c"

2
O

_a

en

a
CO

'3
to

*3

^
.'Si

C3
O}

-tJ

C0

.4^

.^

"
_^ H
^-

"S

^
CO

-"

fl

o)

72
w

.s
"^
05

'a3
o
-*^

4^
-

'^

^
"^
-"

^
..Q
o a"
"

vc

"S :S O
"D "D

^
2

s""

c3

.2
-^

^ W
"

""
""

"
^
"^

==3

^
-^

H
s

"aj

s^

^-j

-a
=0

s
""

s^
-==

".
"=*-"

;^
"-.

42
js
_*

-^s
K
00

i~ l2
"

"'^

Si ^
jg
^

---

'^

"H

00

^
^

'^

1^ ^
"

-"

^
-

Si
."

5::^

S^

Si S

fee

El

5tg
cu
-

e
-

:s ts

rii^
=5 .^r

'^ ?= ;^

to?

-^

.^ CO

1
l^R
"
^ c-

"

"

"*"
t"

"

JJJ
^

^
^

Jm*
"

VJ' "r^
-

.^ i" ^
^

CO

JtT'
.,

n^

,,

"

CI,'

lEf

^
^
r^

SI

CHINESE

: MANUAL.

171

eS

cJ

0)

0) J3

,G

G
-^

en

2
O

Om

"s
60
c3 c3

fcc

-5

^
inai

13
I
"

13
I

r5

-^
cS
o

W
1

1 c^

2
_

0)

"^ CO
L=s

-G

"^

;:^
5
^
CO
-^

"~

-Si

.^

^
t^
^H
_

5Kf
"

^
H
^ ^
" "

"-

ikik mi"v" ikik


3

ikik

"^

"^ "r s^ :^

4";S^s

172

CHINESK

MANUAL.

-3 o
O
o o
09

e3

B
o es

:: ^
P-i
CO

5^

Is
(3
09 ""

5^
^

""
CD

"^

fcD

'S:
a"
""-

es "
1"1

^.

e+H

'^

*?
S ass

ti
O
CO
^

-Si

13
o

s
";5
CO

^
^
o

^^

e3
cj
""

'

^^
i^

^
.

-S^^
^5

-^

fS
o

-Si
%^

^
S^

00

ii-5
2
"^ 3: ;^^
"*

.2
S ?

^
4te

,12

^
St

in
fco
^

"i 1^ ^ ^
v"

1 w"
2 I?? 5^
"S2
-S

R"

g^is*? :"^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

173

be
a

6D
5^
o

"
PI c3
Si (D
CO

Ph P-i

cS

i=U
O

"J
-

%
" o

H
o
-

"^
-"=

cc

2Q

^"^ ^iP:iln
CO

o
CS"

"

^
~

o 1^ O

nsi

"

.1 v^
.

J
o

2
H

o
(D

A!^

11] ;t
m

:^ ^

.2

ICh

"^

174

CHINF.RE

MANUAL.

3
0)
jj

0)

Si
ft

bo
..

To

".
O O
^
O)

O
H H

""-"

"

bD
CO
(4-1

o
,^
a?

o
CO

"5"

o
"

d
2

,"5
c3

to

o
o)

B.^
C3

a
S.
^

'2 .2P
fco
u

fcC
o

to

o
GQ

Ol

^
Cm

3 I" I

"
"^
00

"

SI,
00

"

iHl

^
^
^

^
H"

""

gl

mm

^^K^feJi ^ fe

nJ^^^i
5n m^^"^ 1=^ i^ ^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

it:

d
o
;-

n3
"

a
I"

"
H

2
JI3
53

rd

O
I"

;=!
o

to

t*
o
"

"Td

rd

'S

P"
o

"

S
^

fcO
"
,"}

s
"

tri
o

\S .2
tn
CD

'a
;^

"
"

bo **
0)
o K

Q "

-^

^
"

Jh

CO

J.

"

-"?

1^-Ha

:""

h^i

H ^ ^ l!!i j;^

170

chinf.se

manual.

*^

.t5 TU
3

(a

"
o

-^

^
O
-*^

to
S3

'^

S
-r

Hi
"

"5

O
-

t;
O

fciDH

If
hq
^-

,-5 C3 "^

"^

" e3

fcc

1
S"
"S

"!
-

^"^
2
-

"
o
o

12

.s
L~

^ !3:i

"S

"^

t^

i^ f^i
Q
M

Ph

C-l

-^t*

fM

":

C'^. %^ ^ -M ;t
o

""

s^

o
c

O
"
t"
1"1

n3
O

o .C3

"

H
o

^^
t-'-a

^^
5=^

it

.S

i^e -M
M
^

US'

Si

;^'r^ ^H*^'

Chinese

manuai.

177
"="

-^

o o
"
"

.a
d
-^

S3

d
"
""

o
o

ni
o

rfl
^^

"Ti
d
CIS

t :S 5"
"

03

^
'"

a
d

"

.4:3

I"

"

d
"rH

"3

pq

"*H

^
O o

s
"t:*
"

n:i

"

'^-^
".-"

^
a

d
"

^
ni
"

"

fl
_,

"

"

o
"

^^
"5
"
I

"^
"

"

r"

^a

-TJ
"

^
^
5=i

Si
cd

I
d

ns

B
rS

-S

5!i

"^ "
-"
'^ !?"-

"^

-5;

?=^

^ii

"
cx

ex

"*
,

CO

"

t^ if]
ni ^

^ ^^
-*

""

"

TK^ .1"

av

-i-f^

iife 1 fe i " %:Srfe i is ^ Sia ;g tk


12

;S

178

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^
^
03

-"
t^

^
a
S
"*^

n3
"

be
O

cS

f^

'^ "

"

c3
"

P^

"

be
C3

r^
OS

"

O
r^
o

03

Ph

sj

:2

""

"
Xl -?

2".Z

"2

"Mlil

^"
1^ ^1
^3 I:?

^ ^^"
*^ t-" ^
j:, Ky ["^) ^
v" "."-!

^
?u

iSi3 TTi .-;;;: ;^ c=r

^:3

CHINESE

MANUAL.

179

i^

bo

rt

-So
o

":"

-.

IS "=

;z;
3

-5
-

-^
o

^
==" "=""

g
2

-2

.S

-^

"^

s^c

f-

L=
Co.

fcjot"05:;

"

S-^'^

QcSs:^'^*"'

-^

Cl

"v;
'^
"

'ii
~

s
a.

vS

5
""*

mu

-^

"?: U~

I ?
o

;^

-S

-i

^ 'S.

:5

^ ^
-.

-"
..,

"

-^ of O ^
-^ ^S3
.H
-^

^ ^

.g
-

..

S^
?
-5
--

-^

S.

K^
^

1^

-^

-g

^" .-5

t"i _S

^
O

^ 5i i; I -^ ?ti euj "^


2
^

feis ^ ik"
^s*.*'^

|f|^
ii iEi3

fii

isk^^-"

fei^ 'iiniii"] isfe'^" fei^

180
tx.
."
.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CO

a
,"3
o (3
C3

o
'^

".
"

=!

s
o
CO

2
03
o

a
o C3

"

o o

I
o
"x,
02

o
-

e3

,-

.t:

0)
"
flU

C3

VjJ
o " " C3
^

":
"

g
O

CO

"

O O

J3

S Ti

"-

o
-

^
"*".

1^

"^

.^
;"

Ci

"^

"^

^
00

!-""
CO

"S

I
""

II

""

^ ^
"^

^
"*a

t ^ I '"i
~

^
.5!
CO

"S;

-.S

.^

;5;

eS
'^'

^
:s5
CO

""^

OS

CO

(X,
"

'*

"d"

'^-'-

^ 45^ t,,'

^^

S ^ rl

y^

^*=*

^
CO

'i"='rr
-i''

^^

"n

^^

t^

"
__

'

"=

"*

j^

ij^ fefe

fe" a w K *i i?fe

iss iif

CHINESE

MANUAL.

181

^S
"3

'it; _""

*S

"-"

5
Pi

S
^

OS

%,r,

n.

'^
,"1

'^

pJ:^

-^

2
o::

"-"

.,

-^
s
.~

%
."s
-k^

"

p
ei

.-?

'5 5;

"E

."ts .-iS -^

lO KT

a,

p.

^:

-^

III?
M.T^

-^

^ *^n g

"n't
u^ t^

^V^rr-^X^
W
"ci

1^

182

CHINESE

MANUAL.

M "5

^
fcO
CO

ev.

2
.S ^
a

S-^o-n-S
.S
-e

CU

rO

-^
.B

fcD d

eS
"

-Sw^CSg
^oO^"^

O-^sM

~^c^

SJ
'^

-^ ^ S

I
^
_=a "

a
43
2

I
3.
60
"
^

I
!""

^
--^^
""

-^
S
j=cv-.

I ! ^
^
fl

^ '?
S
""

l2

J"

t"

" "45'^'"
Ti

^
"3

;^

^s^^..
^

""

""

"^

i
00

:"

^^

-.

"l
^
"^

't

l-ti^*^ ""^'
rs
2

tri

tS

"^

c^-^^ssk^'c: ^ s; CO
"-^

00

"

"

-Sd'^'^S'^

"".a

^2'1'S^
^^^^:$^'^'^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

183

m^
fts

OQ

Bh

a
CD
O)

"St?

a
"r.

-.

'^

1^

fts

!^

a ::! c3 ^ ^ J5l) r^iS"

KK? cii^

fe 5iJ

184
"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"

"

0)

"

"^

R
"

"-i

"

Q
CO

S
-iS
"

"

"

..

o
*^

^
"

---

fco

s
O

o
"

o
o

i
c3
o
"

^
"

fcD
to

e3

a
o

"

-^
o

bD
a

ri5

-^ O

.S
o

"

"

^^

^ '3
!=!

fc:

CO

tio
W

2 s
I

"

s
O

^
+3 m

I
"-"
"

"

c3

"

"D a

c3

03
'

"

'-^
"

P^
"

"

:::

CV-.

-"J

a
o

^
O
^

O O

-^

be

" e"

Ph

00

5"!

CSi

^1

il

CI

^
id.

ex.
C" CO
"-"

;gK5g"^

CHINESE

MANUAL,

185

CO

rd !='

2
p
nd
o
O

""

pi

"

Q)

.9
03

^
o

"^

K*

"

S
^
^

"^

c3 r^

O
O

S-

.2

.5 -5

"0

1^ "

-Si

^"s
Si
4=*
CO

r"

w-

ten;

Xs"i

53
to

K^

w.

CI

"

It

11^

186
S

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"u

d
o

"2
rQ

fl

fl

fl

i^

2 a
"
^

S
o

S
fl

a,

.2

fl

"r^
.
.

.3

"X)

t-i
"(3

,j"

C3

C3

C3

CO

CO

CI

,2

^t^
C3

hr

K-

K-

K"

^
:^
-.

1 1 '^
e3

^
O

'^

^
^

^"

-"

!S

"-

63

O
_

.S

"
o

-.

"-

-*

.Si
^
.,

g
o

."

-S

CHINESE

MANUAL.

187
" Si

-4^

ai
"U
03

1"

"^
jj

""I

(U

c3 OS

a
"*^

-M

H
en

ra

:3

a c3
I"

o
o
"

"

"""

s
O

";

,2

"^

^ '3
60
60
O

cS
C3

a"

w
^

O)

H
"u

"
o
'^

"

CJ

OH.
"4i
^
O

-5

^
K^l

H
"

sr
Wtt iiiiaS

iR

JS m S^ie^^

?m

"""

03

^"^^iS

188

CHINESE

MANUAL.

P4

g
"

a
GJ

"^

"

.2

;r:

"

P p

3
-

go
O

S.2o^:::g
O
O ^
00

::;^^

P"

1:^

fih,

mRkHi-ihh

fi

M
c

^
-

*"

-^

si.

^S^^^-^

"

^ ^

"
*"

^
"

c,

^^

"s t: -fr"
*"-

^
una

FI"

'ri Ilia

?
5;

;* CiQ

"^

-i^ S

CHINESE

MANUAL.

189

-^
.

d
"

"
ei

"
oJ

^ ^

I
do

"^
_

c
O

?S.
M

"

"
CS

-d

S""

-tj

-3

|c
"

c.

S I

^ ^

^.

-?

i
w^
d

^^

.S

^
^

:g

111

1^

c"

,L

?i

J
.

-s
-"i

'i -s
;S
.2
S

i* li
^

-^

'^
"^

S^

00

'S

^^- ^^
'l^'
"

imiSi
.

s^
^

CO

int. CS ;i^

IfK

nilg

190
0)

CHINESE

MANUAL.

2
o

'^

0)

0
a

-^

^
o
ti-i

.1
a"
to
-^

CO

es

^
o
o

"

rJ3

^
J
o

I
a
o
o

-S)Eh
C3
0)

S3
'^

"
i-M

2
-M

CO

QJ

CS

6C

.g

1^ "
05

s^
00

I
^

i"i

O
*"i
-^ *"

fti

V""

-^

-x
(X.

"*

if.

"M

ma

^^^m

^Q
""

Tfl

"*

CHINESE

MANUAL.

191

"

"
CO

I
^.^
"
" "

" I

0)

1^ a
S
0

-"J

"

-a

to
to

-".

It
"=
.

PI
c3
*-i

c8

"

n3
a o

to
-e
o

to

"^

_5

to

"TS

t:^ :^ r
^
^a

a
"

to
o

OS

I "^
fel ^

ra
"

.^

"

c"
"^

..

to

o,

(B

it ^^ ^ -^
"

s
9
""

"s3

"|5"=^

rJ3

to

a
CO

to

r5
H
""

H
1^
o
fei

C"

--

CO

1^

-:" ^

..

Rs

i:^h- " -^i^


**^
CO

^ii^.^^1
JK "=3r

is

'^,

Pi;

isIt @ i^ fe

192
2
o

CHINESE

MANUAL.

'^

60
a

.2
^
c3

ni
h

.2 r, s
o

d
^
'a
"'-

-^

"73

"S

nd
O

-^

I
0)
a

"

11
o

-S -2
o o

oT
bo
-*

pi4

S
o

O
o

5b
o

s
o

2
a
o

""

Ph

"73
u
o

CS o

,"3
o

C3

e"-i

IS

f
^H

a
O

ci

.2
r-^

:s

'to

%
^
S

"2
J2

." -="

"^ l^'g -^
53

5^

j3
5s

^i

r^

CQ

^
M
^

js

b:^"i
"'

^
^

^ ,g S
"oo

^ is

T"

"*

v^^ K "^

^^ "

?^
'7

"of

^
-H

^
*-"

e^ Jn^
'"'

"^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

193

II
".

--d

"^

"

"V

"
!D

F^

S3 c3

rC3
-

a ^ ^

^
o

5" c3
c3

O
o

a
o

CD

PL, W
S

!^is ^^
M
CI

-TS rO
-"

.ss

Tt"

03

:*5

-^ -i

Si nn^lii^int^
ID
X
-1-5

^
?3i

1^

"^
l"

a s
(D "

2
g
o

e8

5si
O

PS
O

3^
5!i

S
3

J
-

"

-s'

""-

D|iJ
"^
na;

^ 4-

"-^^-^

""

1^ 1 ^

^":

mm

k ?f
II

194

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^" ^
05
"

GO

.-

b^"'

60

:5

nt""

-!"

t^
^

bo

rfe

p.

S^

Tvi

iii

CHINESE

MANUAL.

196

3
as
0)

f-"

(0

,"3

" d
Ol
"rH

60

"a

I
gj CD
" GO

15
2
o
o

1"
"

f-l OS o

rQ

60
03 O

"

"
,-

r"3 -"^
^H
a"

CI CO
3 O
o

.2

a
o

I" I

IS

"is

w
S

^
3
o
u

5
"

33

(V

.15

"

S
.2

-2
rO

Ph'Eo

S
5;
s

"o

-Si
~

!"

'"
"i

.s S

"s
00

Is

^
00

"o.j

'^

'^

ma
"")H

^
3flr"

i)i'^

z.m
m

"5^

196

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CO

c
rO

fee a -pi

be

f*
o

"T3
O

13 O

tD
O
"4

bo
C3

(3

bo

^
'

2
a"

^
o
O

S
o
""4

2
s
r"

J-.
0)

So
"'-'

ro

2
I

"4^

OS

a)

"^
be
?3

-5

rd 60
o

bo

^
.

"? I

"
-

^
-

"

^^^ S

^ "!C^

S
o
OS

P
~

5J

S
--s

^
CO

^ I

-"

-^

O
o

g s
"

-"

^' S" -^

be

fi

ia
5-.

j:

"I
fO

^
"*^

:P " "
.

c3
'"

.iOi

S C:
I*

? 5;^

"" "^
t

'? "s

^ci
O

1
*fcO

.|Sa
'o'

"*

"""

M
.'a

g
'S

^
~

"-

t-- Iv? ^ 1"1"!

m
m

fe

c,

^
^

O
T)"

O
"

^ t=j
CJ

OS

m^ Vi^

"K

whm

hhkh

CHINESE

MANUAL.

197
a"

p"

CO

08

to
!-"

O
o

d)

tp
o

ta
C
O O
"i"

"^
^
"

!3 o

.5
c3
;-i

"xi
to

CO

,2 60
O

r"

"^
St
"D

o o

a
c"-.

o o

Pi
o

60
e8 "

rt ^

=^

n:i
-t-3

j:^

j:3
CD

11
rd
o o

OS

o)

W
o

"^
"
00

13 -^

5si
"3

2
^

2
t*

"

tH

23

^
Si,
W

^ "S *"
^)

"-I*

"

k\ ;e ^^ "?
ex.
^

^jk"^"^33t^"53

=^S-^"

198

CHINESE

MANUAL.

.a

r^
S
"i
O
O

r"

60
"

iH

3
oi
"^

"I
f" "

CSS
o

o3

"S
"*^

CO

""

bo

"

1-1

Qi

^
^ os
f-

.S
^ M
oS
'-

"" oj

QJ

" a "

"S
3

"

fi

5 o

t^ S
0)

^sl

H
o
o

It i?l

"S

r-3

60

pi

.$

PI

,:Q

03

a w
03
-

o1

153
fez
"^

^ ^ "^J t^

tC
^c

"TI
*=

w^ ^

'^
O

CiSi ^

^^ai=

CHINESE

MANUAT,.

199

52

fe

^"5

g^'^ ^

.a

'='
tt

'S
a

"
"" .2 -2 2
n"

"T^

r^

O
K"^

3
QQ

,(^

03

fH

""

O
r"

CO

C3

P^

c^

I I i
'^

11
Sin
.---

"-

"
'""*

-'^
--^
Va

C"J

:^ 1^
.5
^

,1
* ^,"i

r*^

^^

CO

GO -=^

"*

^..

=s
^

'I

.1

I -I^.

-^

-^

"-*

-'

^-.-r.

il:j^
5-

:g

55'^ g^k ^^
-

wu

" fe!=;i Sii^i"

K J^" fe:ii ^ 5iiJ. ia^

200

CHINESE

MANUAL.

OD
*

CD

.)i
r^

05

"?"

OS

4"r^
-,

a
o.

-i"

o
o
"J

'i^ % " iii:l?j ^^I^ E^ ^

ir

^ ife

CHINESE

MANUAL.

201

3
o

"

"

03

" .a
o

"

Eh
d
O
CO

c3

0)

si
CO

iSi

2
cS
"
03

'^

c3

S
03 03
S-i

P-"

PI

ra

(V)

1^

HH

ft^

"r?

'S

--^

.J3

S"i

^ S

CQ

5!i
o

^s^

5"j

Bfj

53 ^

^
^
S

B|i|

=;

r^

r J.?^

?
--

^
^"

ml

"^^

H-

feiiiJ i?^ %: K- % 1^ feit ^ i"^

202
(D
"u

CHINESK

MANUAL.

53 ^s
-^
00

fl

r,

fl

tin

^
-"

"-

2
"

-p.

"^

^ fl

rt

^.

fco

2 S
s
"

1
^

o
-

S w
-

.s I ^"1 ":sc^ ^ " : " a .s


^ QJ
"-*

g g

13

'S
"r'*

i
s ^
M

f^

"^

^^"z

^s
'

Ph

"

"

ra

"

z, "!"
"M

3 ii ^ Ill35

tad

"^

"="

S"

k^
o o q

fco

"

fl
"."

i. ^

-I

1^ i 1

^ I.

"

^R
.

In?:l.

*^

^ l^H

"^ ;$

;^

"^

^. J^: f

""-"

c^

c,

-v

iki

1^

Iks fefe^ 'fe

%^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

203
60

fee

"3

en

fco
o
o o o

.S
O
^

e3

C3

o3
o

"u

rt

CO

g
.;3
o

c3
o
a

^
.

^
"^

fee

7:3

-*3 cC fcD bC O fl

d
fee O
C3

"

5
^
M

^
fi

5 o
fecM
3 o

'G

"C

"C

pq pq p

w '?
~

"

-2

s
"
"4j

52

55

'?

E^

s
.lb

-^s

"
-

KA f^

^ ^~

jv

"

Bi^
"-

a*

^^t;^!W^"

^ *'^"^^^. J ^ BllJ -^
"-N

r^x

^ TN

204

CHINESE

MANUAL.

-S
0
o
o
-^
CO

'tj
03

60
I

':3
T-l

"

O
03

a"

r^t if

fl

Pi

'g
"

rd
o

"
o

a
03

a
o

0
o
"

03

d
"

"-a
"

.S

J3

03

S3
O

"^
-1-9

03

'T3
S3
O

5ss

'S.

CO

5s"

'S.
5!i

g
Sin

IS

Ill

EfrA,*^

ml

"^

1
f. ""

ggi^sSyW
4^ S=l

1^1^1^
'G'

''.K ""N

tX" .'ilJ iv line) J55 "5S

j^i^i^rn^^is^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

205

?3J

m
^1
"41^

"ss

io. TO

?,, M ^

{,^

Iffi^^-"

Kni'

CQ

-2

c^

"

uy A"i i"? ijijr" i5 tPs on; iBi "fas


i"

^ ^iS?

206

CHINESE

MANUAL.

i"s:

^
^.

-s ^
Si-~

-5;

2
S

'iJ

Hi

g
^

"^ ^

"S ^

CQ

^
in.

"^ ^^ B

m
'?V
^2^

HS{j

Mm

^^s
-

it^^'^
"^^^
"'

v/

vy

:U 3^

L r^

m
S_:
"

iv]-^'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

207

"
o

o
"

'

60

?!
03
^

g3
O
o

"

t""

^
+="

6D

s
ai

-p.

5g

50

"
"

"-

^
"73
O

be

^^^

be
8

"5

M
p
00 ""*

"""

o
o

00

"

^ ^^
5S
^

^ e

g ^

"

"

5"

BjW.

'^ Av
r-,

TS
-*

Ate

""?

In*

CO

^
^

P^
C^

% % fel
TP

^
CO CO "=^ CO

K-

hhhhh

208

CHINESE

MANUAI..

rt

I |.|"""
-

I
^

1
2

";

.^
o

all ^^
'^

^
^
OS
.

g
t: ^
"y

"*5
o
.o)

^
rt

to

.S 'S

12

-^

60

^
C

^
"

^
"

'^

?""

i E. 5^ :."
S

::^

I 1 I II I
"v^
"^

L^

a,

**(

^
*

'^

.:

I. ia

4!'

i;m%33C"a^""i2fe"^K"teK

CHINESE

MANUAL.

209
1^ ^

o "D

^
o

fc
c3

^ .^
O

be

i^
-J

.03 H
CO

^
o
QQ

03

be
o
^ CD

^5

""
-1-3

b
.2
C3
I

"d

.2
O)

o
03 C_l

fcJD
o O
03
09

"il)

03

00

00

t*s
"Si'
o
CO

"Jig
r*"

Ssj

2""

fei
'Si

2a
.S t3 ^
.^

"Si
."!)

"fif' r:;

r^

i^1 1 ti -I
00

-^

Jlp

^^JH
,

^
tn

""=-ii5m4^
^

h h

"^ h

hh

h^"^^

CO

-I

"*

"^ i^
14

210

ClUNESE

MANUAL.

t-

fco

a
o

o
^

'd
fee CV.
-5
t. ^

5
~

cs

(C

^
(u
'*-"

C3

G
'r

n3
"

'i

ei
_^

S CD
X

O
-"-"
'"

'^

Ai -"

-S;
-^

"-.

-^

^ t^? 3
~"

??
=ii

I" I

!?

fi"^
ca
-I-

k1
l-H

fci
"

^rn s"a
-f

j"f

TV. ^

.fcf
rv

1" I ill. it- fiS "v-

25:

Hi*

-a

r^

=s

r"3
C3

r"5

rrU

l"

S 1 "ai -^
"

""".^

'rSrt
fci

^
,^
KTi
"^

"^

o
^'

K| fe}T^
"

L^"

*H"
**"

T)"

"fClh

"^

?S4

an

CHINESE

MANUAL.

211

!""

C3

C"-.

^
"^

O
O
o
c

fco

"^

^
J3 C
o

2
"

09

^
c3
".

'Tj
O

"^

-^

"

"

c3

fe

-"3
o

" o o
^

a
o

53

^
"4H

:^

". 1" I

5 "" i? t^

o
!=

o :j:2

" "

"

-5

"

^
o

.2

p.'-0

J*

"^

""

Si,

"^

5!J

e
00

"

Es

"*^

tl

"^

K"

-^

^
"^

"
-s

v,^

*^
";j "^ -2

5
-+i

5
-+^

t^

I-?;

iX

Sf h Ik ikS: i'"j

hmhU

^ ^ ^ fig IbISpJ "| il"f^ {i? p;

^ ^ -^^ :^

isii ^ i ^ i ?ysii

% c+ is

feiafg

CHINESE

MANUAli.

,212
"

o
54-1

c3

ni

S O g
S

2
O

c3 ="

g
B

-TS

OJ

"^

r^

"
-C--

O)

-^^rA "" 2

O ti
^

rd

Tu.#'4
.

*=""
'"'"*

"

fJ

^
"S

*^

'

'

CO

^^

?^

*'"""^^^^

^^^

-ii

^ S^

o 0=

"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

213

1^

"

i=!

"1
OS

a,

I" t

.S
P c3

o
-t-3

O
."

^
P-l

M
-

_j^

1;

6C
G
o O

S
r=3
OJ
r-

ni

fl

"^
l-H

03

"TS

CO

S
H

'^ "4-1

C!

.2
f=

"t^

rd

03

ff

*a

"o C^i

."

ftn

SI
can

i:
"
(M
,
_-

IS
KJl

ig :i; ^
J.

j^^

^^ ^

tin

"JTf

CO

"^

"*

"^"^ r

-fd

"^

^^ ^-

f-i

-^

CO

^ ^ 1=^ :^ K- 5^ ^a "$r -fr" -t -d ?" ^fe

214

CHINKSE

MANUAL.

:3

r^
a

5
cs

"
e*

(u

o "

S
.

b
.2
"

^
^
CD

fco

is

I .2
"'-r=i
o) a"

o
o

So
"S
o

c
C3

"

;"i
S^

"

c5
C3
r-

i^

"
00

.5
03

'+-'

be

c "^

-a

"

'^

fcc

J5

-=1
o
03

-ts

?- H

".

"^
"

r.
r^

-ii S 5S

"

"--

J
.

1^ ^

-^

S
.,

"-. -^ ^
.-

"^

^
tt*^

-Ss
Co

"c

"^

S^

:.=

--."""",^
'~~'

"---

-S
o*

,"
""

S S
?

'S

*'^

"""

tr

=;

r^
00

"

:::

""

i
.^

"
'S
"^

^
S
1^

"
-^
""^
^-^

"^
"^

L"

"
"^
.*

iv

r"~-

'^
.

%^
csg

f r

^ Sji-

iir

?^,^ ^^

^
CI c"

7T?; "nTN'-^

i"r S ?3i^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

215
60

2
^
d

as

be

O
CO

^
tc fcO
pi
e3 o

fcO

03

S J
""

o o
o

'

CD

I"

c3

6C
-"j

EH
ij

^
-e
"

p^
o

1-t

to
~'

S
o

;::

t^
fco

CD

^ ^

CM

2s P: ^^ c5 CQ h~

'S

S
pi

"
"

ft

P-"

lil^ ^ ^ "^ ^ ^ E|B|


Zl
"^

r~i

^^

^^
o o
ra

ajj *s t^ o iji^ "Wo. -t^r. y


e

,^
-

J2

ffi

CO

ft

S*

5s"

^
.""

fcl

Oi

(D

iP^ w

m
una

^. m

m
^^^

^5p3
."

If 1"1^
cc

CO

Vk^

""^

-tr"

'

:i?:^ii4il

216

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CHINESE

TMANUAL.

217

60

;i^

73

"

2
bO
c3
o
^

"

nn

s
o 3

be

fcc
"^

o
"

s
O

o o

o
1^

?i
rr-"

fei

^'

CO

S
.5
j^

00

"2
I?

r^;

:| -^ "" ;|"
"5
^

!5?

"tH
"

H
"*

3?3

UQ
liun.

i\^

K"EH
c3

una

g
3

r-"

CO

"

218

CHINESE

MANUAL.

o
_

^ "

fee's

"

all
-^

^^

is

^i

--

"Si

-S

'^

=:

F=

.:

t-i

r^

O
.^..

'^

^-^

"

"^

"

fi^

H-

h'k

f^^^ bM

h'hh

hh^

'^=^ ^^ Bi- fe s:'=J ^ ^ Tii^ v^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

219

qS
i^

^
03
"

ni

bo

r^

C3

rM

s
c c3

?^ -d

:=:

c3

qJ" o

fee

fee

^
'"

P-a
O
'ti

.5

t^
00

^
.

"? :'-^o

s^- 1
-^
O.
~

-2 tS '^
S
";-

f^ ^

"^

-=A

==1

^""^

^^
"r ^

^M" ^ s^ ^

^U

^i^m^
j^
5=
I'W

1^
-_

-^^

m^ E^ ^ ^ i= H

220

CHINESE

MANUAL.

g
"""

"s

-2

Ph

s
t'
(1)
."

o t)

t-i

to

9.
o

is
o

3
O

O
s:

fcD
c3
o s=

IT-'

"^l

""
"

O
S-i

"

^OIJ^

S-I

a,
o

H
--^

-^
"--

"

^ ^

^
PI

"-"

en

.t:

CD

-ii^

K3

^
" tn^uiiii
T=r

??" "i^ ^^ KH
;"J

tS?

tiia

:s "I^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

221

OS

-^
to

a
ra

Ph

Ph
I

$-4

ri4 CS
CD O) 0)

I
00

o
ID

" a"
o

S
-^
or,

'a

-I
^4 "
X

O a
o O

"75
o 03
o
CO

PI
?3
O

r-i
O

"^

^'
l"H

"n
o

r:i

3 O

a
o

"^

Ph

""

r^

5=^

??

'Si

""5
2
S

"^

^
G"

^ o;
^

4
n
^

a; ^ fi;
Ah

ilsii

m 5P
33

m^h^.
55 y^"

rt*

M.

ff
"

"h4
Y^
eo CO

"mi ^

"

"^ i" 5^?f"g ^

IH*

t? is?

tS* la*
CO

i^^hc^[T"^

K^Kt^

222

CniNFSF,

MANUAL.

t".

^
.^

(^

(^ (i; (i;

"9^
M
CO

I",

;Jf';^

CHINESE

MANUAT"

223

"

-r-

rd
ts

"

0)

"^5

c3

~'.

"--4rt'^_

^
*"

"U

-"

'w
"

-^

1^

F"

1^

S^
S"

"

"

"iJ

r""

-z

j:i

^Z

'"

o 5i
_:*

"t!

;"^

'i'

rt

'/3

.rt

c3

^.^

^
o
" " ."

""

""5

"".

Ci

"i.

"""

"5

5.C

^03
OQ

^
CO

"
^

^"^
m

224

CHTNl^SE

MANUAr,.

to a
O
c"
CO

d
o

^"
o o "u

bo
CO
"

o o

S-r

PL,
"

rH

d
i-i

C3

d
60
Sh

"%
0
a

o
2J

aJ O

o)
r/J

3 .2 S
"1

="

"^
_--'

oj
*-'

'^

'C
as

J3

ea
O

rd ri4 o3

d
53

60

""

Ph
O

^
P-i 03

to

TJ

^i
"5i ""

t"

,d

-^

""
5^

5S"

-JS

"^

's^

.S

Sii

-" OQ
"*

^
Si,
"

-^

"

"T""

CO

^^
"$\

tn

^.^^fs
"^

CO

.-4

sij Q^ ^j K i? ^ ^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

226
"

fcC
CS
"

3
o

o O
"

00 GO

03

a,

60
"

2
"

.2

el

"

5^

fei

13

!3

fei
^

^
."

.IH

9
M

"^

lis
tx
o

^
5s"

it

"^

Pi
C3
" "

OS o "
m

'"

be
"r-l
"

o
"
4-3

H
I"

"

"

CO

^
o

1^^

226
a

CHINESE

MANUAL.

eS

c5

d
a"

"

2
03

I
o
O

r3
r"3 o

s
o
CO

t4

PI

w
CI

1
o

S
03

ns

bJJ
a

o
03
I"
I

^
o

d
o o

o
u

"S d

Ph

3
o

^
o O

rd

"
M
'

;5

""

""
_

a
pi
o O
03

^
!S

"

fcc

?5S
"--*

""

-3^ -S
-Si

Si, s

-is ?34

1 1
"

Si

"
""

"o

"s,
s

.^
?^
CO

f;
-s;
-si
O

"^
Si

^
-H
(X.

"ii

fJ^

t4i

S!

%6l ^
m

CO

C3

^'hn
H"

J? \^

."5^

^i"^
Cl

CO

nH^"\"^n^^^^^''^^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

227

03

fcC
"

\
cTi
"-"'

"

-r

-"

CO

CO

^ ^ a Si -K "^

228

CHINESE

MANUAL.
"

60
a

fl
"

"^ p
5
03

OS 03
"

1=1

S
CO
I"

^
H

fecg
CS
I"

-Q

"XJ)

-1-3

to

"

6C

-^

-s

"

g'a
I" I
"

"s
03 "

g
o

n3

03

03

.2

^1

6S
5j"

"-"^

CO

SL,

S
"^

is

t^

I
OS

^
S

^.

tn

"^

^".
m
1V"
iw"

"i^

E!r"

CI

"

"*

+3

^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

229

S
.2

3
rO

fo
c3

"^
O
t-l
OS

to
03

s-"

p^
O 0)
a

-"

02

^ -s oQ y
03

03

03
J-l

"-d

03 o

rC3
-tJ

"0

g
o
^

Ph
o

i=i
03 03

03
00

,d

_Q

rd

-2h
3
C3

60

?;

S03

f3
^
o

""

"

L^

""

-"

lii
"^

""
-"

-%

"

5s CSi

^1
w^

s
f^ m ^
T^,

-^"

^^
"i

-^

^
u

fe

"",

i?

"

ii]
^:g

# ^ m ^
iliia

^'^m
"

'

CO

eo

230

CHINESE

MANUAL.

r^
TJ

"U

rt
^

'^ o

2
^

fcC

il|-=

"J

2 -s
"H

.S

^"

'^

-^
^
.2

f^

15^^"

r^
(3 e3

g ^"1 ^ ^ ^
'o

EH -g 2

-TS

"i-i

^-n^
"

1^

^
-NN

^a

II

I, ^: ^

Cft

-M

J*

'I
s

1^ s
T.J

^ ;:"

5"

0?

CHINESE

MANUAL.

231

fcO

232
03
"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

",

9
(X.

S
*"

S "is

sa ^ID .S p "" s ?"


"*
"

is

-^

03

"^
09
09

f-i

a)
CO

^
"
^

"to
c3
M

-^

"iH

"

03
M

O
"

"Ti
o
-^^

"

"S a
O
+3

I
w

60

cu

"

"S
(P

1^
cS

" ^

i-Q

Cii

X
"**

53"

Ott.

p
o
O

bo
c3
O

'-S "

^"i

00

"1

g
^^

fe ''^

O
O

"*-"
^

03

il:

^
o

55
"""
-f

,^

^ ?
IM
*-^ "^

"^^
"^

g^^i

IS

CHINESE

MANUAL.

233
M
trH

rC4
(!)

c3

o o

:3
r^

s
r^
o o o o
00

B
I"

a
"

be

.2

c3
Q t-H

PI

.'t^

"H O

1-1

?=5

"

S"
O cs

55i

^'^
t"l

OO^^eP^

H^

gg
H^
^

"-"4s

is

tM

5S.

JliH

ia
eo eo

"5 i^

hr " ii^

"*

CO

i^

mm^nfi^^

m^^^^^

234

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"

^
jj

^ o
I"

"*"
"^

'rj

11
I
jjj

"I I
e3

"fcb
o

"
-^

e3

d
o

""

s
"
Cm

"3.
o

a
o

P4
o

a
u o

.s

^
W

s
"5

"13 ^ rC3 rt- s

"
"'-'

OQ

fl "i

5 ^

"^

S"

.1 "" -2

-i -^
Si,
?s, :;^

-"

-S
CS

1 ?^ ^
Ss S
k5 ?""

=o

Rh

c^

R^

:^
'^""'

m3

"*=

ip^a
^
"

t^

rv

-"-

f-.

^
e^

-e

"*

5,

"-"

"

Tjl

"

CO

#)

jBi S2

mm

CHINESE

MANUAL.

235
n3
O)

o
0)

60 P
e8
u

o o

(t

"
o
"

OS
i-H

O)

o
o
CO

O
(D

""

"
03

Bill
H P O
'2

"

bo sa
eS
U

60

-^

-,

03

m
5 ^
5^

^ ^

"

5S

rS^ lO

r^ ^ ^

'S *^
^^

da
BBX.
-^

^53
^

^
cc

^^i^i^n^

^^ Fi?i i^

236

CHIN^SB

MANUAL.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

237

O C3
o

o
o

n3

"
fee
CQ

o
O

--5

a
^

(D

^^
r.^

o
f"

"^

'O
O 03
CD O

(D

QJ
I"

"

S3

fco
0)

PI

"
*3

P-l

I" I

n^

;^
(U

"^

e3

"

^
c

"s ^
V

fe
fin O

,^

*10

*^

N:

^1 "!^

_"

:^
^

ti^
"*

CO

3a

^ f~"

tk

"
.

"*

CO

eo

e"

ei

"*

238

CHINESE

MANUAL.

r
o
o

S
o

-^
.S
o

n3

G n
o

(?"

W M M
P
cs
o

4(^Ji??issg
o

""

"
o

^ ^

-^

1^

'"

.2
o

CQ

tei
"*

ss

IM

FW
M

_P

^
1
a

-^
e3
00

^ %sy

4"^
^ ^

bp mU^

fa^

i't^ ^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

239

I"

"

rt

o c3

60

fl

60

^
S

o^

a
03 o

.2
"

n3

2
^
'"I

e3

ai

to

i "^

0)

"s -s "i1
"

bo

d
O

03

PI -fl

60

"r=i

r^
rd

00

"S2

fci

5Ji
5^
o

a,
""5

I
00

5:5

5" ?5s

"
-^^

a.

^.;
"-^

"-

"" -rfel "^

S5n"-;

^^mi^m

h'k'^h
is'^H i^

^ife^
li s

"

1^ ^ ^

""

"

^ ^^ i

240
o

CHINESE

MANUAL.

o
o
."

"3

-^
^

e3
"

.15
c e3
O
"D

T
K*

O
O

" o

"
=!

^
O

rc". o

O " o

H
^
~

CJ

S
"'^

60 CI
"

^
^

-5 ^

P.
O

^
o

^
^
o

"I ^

^:.

-;

rii

"

^
C!4

^'"t^ " "^


^i^^E?

\^^k

p4

52

Ph ;s

cs

"??

,5

H
""""

-"

.^

life*"

t^gj OQ
=^
ffiT' 1^
a

ii ^ ^in

"?=; ^^ ^

CHINESE

MANUAL,

241 S O
*

e8 c3
CO
CO
S-4

c3
(D
CJ_I

r^

I" f

be
Co"

te sy

a o

03 c3

^
^

5^
t3

"
CO

"

"
as

J3
60

s
O

11
"73

fee

.2
o
o

'^

^
C3

^
2

a
o

"
"^

"". ^
IS
"Si
*
00

s -^

"s
"^

i^

E"j
S
CSS

fc"

fa

g
K-^ti

^^ "^ i-

I^

1 ^ ^ {nfl S
^
CO
'H

Si]
^^^K^

u m
eo

JS* ^
"*

^5?

CO

"*

iil'^

"^i
id

242

CHINESE

MANUAL.

floo^^Srag---'^

t-i

iL '^

f-"

=3

*-

*j

OJ

2?

"

:ft

:"

00

V?

rii

"$

"^
"

"

"

"

^s

fe

-J^ 5
-"ocr^

p"

"^-^s^S.^w

OIL

"^"

cH

CHINESE

MANUAL.

243

s
fe

'S

"
eCi

liiiQ
rj"
C^l

^^
"

^, ^ ?i^ I
e

T\
CO

iiiia
-f
"
^

"

"r^m^m^

244

CHINKSE

MANUAL.

;^
1*=*
CO
^

"$\

"*

"fe^

IS
^^;
*

TfTN

CO

fe

CHINESE

MANUAL.

245

art

ga,0e3^^a
:2^"o""2io:Ss"-

3.

tfo^'o

246

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CJ3
o

"3
o

p
"
.

P4

-3

a
o

"

s
V

o
a

^
" 03

.-" C3

o
"

PI

"="

EH

r-^

-^

-S

r"

se a

go

?:5 '^ S

C
03
e3

M
5=4 Si

ei^i?
o

CO

^2 1^

^1]

Mm
".
"M

mh

^h^xikhk

CHINESE

MANUAL.

247

1
o o
o

"

"

^-^ " s
cu

11
"
-4^

02
f-i-l

03 ^

;:^
0}

"

S3

03 W

,5J
N
"

s
e3

''*

1
rd

a
"

g
o

pi
o

^ W

P^

5S"

""
^4"
."to
,

00

.^ 00
S
"u

.5^ "o

CSi

"~

'S

^ rs

-^
"""

S
'^

" c

if
M
eo
4. "
i-i

^:|^
^
"-"

H-"
^^
"
-

"

"

?J"

S3]

3^ ^^

ik
JCJ

^ i'^

t^^^l^l?

248

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

249

fl
03

"i

i3 03

C
Cj

S P

S rS
rt

,^

t-

3 h-J

^
""""

S
'

"
"="

'^
"s

--^

"

vi

CQ

^^

G.

32

-S

^o

.(J

?a ^'^
IT'
"

ra IHi

. "N

IN ^^

Sg ;^ ?S
Jrr"

\_"

"N

a\

250

CHINESE

MANUAL.

e8

*"""

bO

"73
O
O

""

'rS;=3
f-i o

3 O

fco

.2
o

Oi O
C3

fco
r5
ri

a"

CO

^
o
-^^

a, fl
CO

""

fco
3

"5
o
""

nS
o

?3
""

fco fco
c
__1

"y= ,if

'T3
"

fco
rt

'r;

rCj

"^

^
P"
"4-l

fclO

OS

5S
""

5;
^

"2

"s

5"

4"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

251

60 "0
a
o

2 To
^
3
o

rd

;=!
C43

!3 "t2
60
O

S
0)

o
OS "
"

rT?

^
"D
CD

o
-

60

;=!
to

r3

fcO.2

03

""
-

S
'"s

$"
"

"g

.^-

^
JS
:"

OS

a,

-3

"1

^ h k fe^ -;
j~5
^
^

ink

^
tH

r i55

^ K- ^

i'S! ^JS ^

252

CHINESE

MANUAL.

?3

i
'S

c3 '^ "^^

"3 ^

"
"o

15
-e

""

".^'5
fee

!r

g "S
CO

-tj

==

t:

fl

*=
.

.H
'^

-^

-^

--

.S

fcO

.2

fe"

CO

^
"

il
e"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

253

a
o
"u

6D
'o

7i o
"I"

o
i-H

fcJD O H 43

.2
ri
o

Ph
-*^

P 50 fcJD

(D

pi
CO
43

0
"^

(2 C3

G
""

0)

a)
43

""

5h

^ ^
o
o

--a i3
C c3

w
o

fi

Ph

s*

1"^
"; a.

t
e

fc:^
-^

ll
^
"" 4""
lliin

^
HF

^
^^
4i

^
^
Ij

-^

-ii? ^

Iji-j '^

254

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"^

-2
'7^
ps

"
.5
o
" O

o o
CO

a
o
o

be

"J
0)

c
!=!
O
00 CO

13

0)

c3
""

^ 1=3
it! 03

f-i
.

"
"'-I

*^

""

,"3

" ^

."^

ID

a
I-H

0)

X M M
5^
CO
.r~

s^

"r

pi? P o
o

!^ 5

1^

(^^

tq

^ ^ S
p^

m-

Si'?)
I'lin

^
K

fe^T ?$. ii^ ill

fe i:^

"5 J.^,

CHINESE

MANUAL.

255

?!a( m

:^K

JSfc

CO

"

256
t-l

CHINESE

MANUAL.

P*

d
OQ "U
_

^
" a

CO

P4
i3
rQ

I
fe
""
f-i

"^
03

03

"^
p^
O

a
0)

3
o

"-d
m

P4

rJS
a" 03

"~"

a
fl)

00

to

"

i
c3
^

O)

^3-1-3

=3
Poo
o
-1-3
"

o o

-^

Pi

s "as
'^

?5i

"is

fei

5^

t^

^ ;";

ft, "

\ib
;M
CO

m
^
-if
^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

257

tq

c$ ^2,

17

258

CHINESE

MANUAL.

O o
l"H

0)

^
-r^ o
CO

4)

Oh
CO

e3
o
"y

73

.S
"u "=3

?1 ^
"D

Ti
o

ni

r^

:3

.-^^
o
o

?
s p

"73

'o

P
o

P
P4

p
O

P
ri

s p
Ph

"-"

r^

I 1*
.^

""

^ ^
5^
"o

!="

":j

5?i

=n

PI,

f^ r; ": R.

ft.

-^
^

Rs

f^ ?^
"52

fti

.^
CO

5"5

i^"

M.

ani "^

^'
^

r.. tas/ "i"

h^

h^

ili K: K-

CHINESE

MANUAL,

259

bo
"73
o

S
9.

%
^

S
3

-J
o

p.

-^
0

tj

!^
c

g, S
^""

^ ^
o O

PQ

pS

? "

G
o

f^
o o
^^

c
o

_fco 'Pi
0)
O)

5 P
c3

cS

,"3

CO

-ij

^
""5

^
"^
""
" o

fe

5S

fin
-^

Si,

f5
m
m

o
"4-3

60
-TS

s:'?!

"jaV "toe

^i
.O

linn.

'3

sslgtrK-RK-

260

CHINESE

MANUAL.

fi

-^

.i3

-^

^ C^ "^

.2

-28
a

I^-S
rv_.
.

""g2
cu

-i^

-tS

rr!

'?.

'^

t^ ^
e

!=i

:S
!B

53

S r Kq
5s

""

^ I
.^

"^

^ ^^

fti

4"r

1W?-

IWf-

CHINESE

MANUAL.

261

o o

K'

o 3 a"

CO

tH

fcc

+-

CO

CO

f^-H
"

^
n3

S.S.
03

6c

a
" "

M
CO

3 o
o

CO

pi
fco "' a

a
O
-t3
-t^

CO

S
o,

-^
"

fee
o c3

^
"

So
"

"-,
C

" 03

"

S3
o n3

3
as

^
O)

a
o

".

O r^

Qi

03

'^^
"

^^
'"

*3

"

5" es
5=i
00

-to

!Si

CO

"
to

2-

1=^ " 'I.

IS
^E

i^
^

l^K

i^ H

262
2 ^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

a
-"^

CI
OI

60
o

1.^ 1^

#^
o
-"

tap 'T^

n^ ^ :t
C-'

Tj"

CC

4Sf

CHINESE

MANUAL.

263
JJ

f"

(33

o C3

S
-73
O

CD

1"

M
PI
o

.2 -^
03

rJll
3
O ed
O

-TJ
02

"^

el
0)

e!
o
I"

05 03
I

."

.-tf
u

"^

^
el
O
CO
"

o
OS

I" I

'^
be
c3 03
03
"
+-"

03
l-H

5b
cv.

;-!

3
"o
""I
..

be
^00

03

s
Cm

;?

r-l

ID
"
r"

CO

a
03

s
"

"!

"4H

C3

P^

:S
""

-" a,

JS

'^
?S5

rS

:t
"S
=s
"

?5i fei

'^

's

i^
V

s*

S*
?2

^ S

^9J 5^^ i i ik^^ ^^

.K^ ^^

^ !J

^
"
" ^
"

"^

""

00

"

o^

CO

00

264
6B

CHINESE

MANUAL.

t""

"^'^
d

S)| ^^If
^

K-5
..

I1
05

t^

I
^

i
O

^2

I I3 1 ^ "S:S'Sg^|3g-5e'^
S

-3

^"

fee

es

^"'Z"

-s

v-^

^
"" .2

5 ^

s ":: "I 2

pSI g

'-s "i ^S '-g-g ."

""

"-

s"

^
-

J^
,"

^-^ ^'^ fe!J5 ^v -^


-^^
^,
'

"
--

"^

BS"
-

s^

14 1^ {{"

^^

la*

j:l..

CHINESE

MANUAL.

265
00
"'-"-'

45

rH

rt

^4

O
""^
--

O)

r^

fcD S

?i

-5

jj S8

"" ^

':t

^ "^ =S
"

__

'-'I2ES
^

^tiO^"fi,^
"
^

;3

t"

^ "

l-(

^ ^

-H

"
I

CQ

s
'U

JS

iliia^
""
.

^
"'^

"S
o

5^
^

cT ^

"5

S
,^

,^
-"

"

"ti

-S -S
V^ S
^

^
^

'5
3

i~rl

-^S

"a

iMJ

-?

.^
s Si,

.-s

^
"73 C

^
^ ^ "^

"

"is
rH f-l

^
C"

55^
"

"

ri3

-T*

"^3

CO

IJ

^'^4"K-i"l^

266

CHINKSE

MANUAL.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

267

g a
"u

g
r^

-"3

-tJ

-1-3

""

"c

S
5^

"

es

o
c3
a

bO
w

"o "o

-k3

"=

5
o a"

s-

c3
o)

;""
o

E^

".

,2
s"
~

C"
=;

,c3

P-

"i "^ I"


.S

'S
si
o

-^S

s
"^
f ""

.^

ml

KE
i^
ci

-^

"-'

268

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

269
^

(D C3

p i"

a.
O

a
o

(3

to
C3

'x:
o

C3

60
"^ rH

S
z;

C3

.S

t3
00

^
CD

m
o

a
J:^
..

^1

,-5
(D

S3

as
o

""

'

.i2

O)

:3

aj
^
o "
"o

a
o

oo

^ ^

.2
TS

,.

2
=

C3

"^ j=

Ol

t; a"

-S

"
O
CO

O
+-"

"5: 5

;si

!"i

^
~

'2
C

"
CO

:^
5^

"P
,i

:"

"?

.1
OS

J^
XS

i
2i

rS fts

5S

.S

"H "^

5^

^f^^^

^^^

i^^^fei

270
^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

.2

C3
O
"

O
^

+s

"n

Cu

"

g^ --^ "S to g fi oi
p-

ej

^
es p

^
c3

fee
e3
"

CCS
^ !==
O

be
r-

'

=*

p^

"1 "^

-a

'^

^.
H

c
.o

"C

?5?
tS
12

"s -2

:"
CO

k5

M
o o "

c3

S
g
" o

^
^
o

P.

"^
m-j
b
'o

-d
~

.?

iS

^ fe^
^4 "% ^ ^1 ^ i: I
CO
.-I

CO

"

(M

5q

E ^ g^ ta^ ;@{ :":

CHINESE

MANUAL.

271

c3

^ .5
-SCO) fee
n3
Ol

2
-^

^
-c
-*^

CO
n
O

-e

.is

03 "

.S
o "

6
Ph
o

"

03 n3

r"3

cu

ns

";5

.2

^
^

g
O rC

^
"v

s
n
O

;3

60
1^

fcC

"

CD

Is* '-^
CD

Eh
M 5Si

rG

CS

c3

Pi

?5l

:s

"

.g

5S

";s
"5

JS
S^s

J:

"""

'"

5^
"$

S
-s
.s^

h^

kh
^
"

^h
-^h

^
m m ^_
my/
V,

.^

^,"^

'^ ^ Q^ i"^

^ "^ 5l!

?^.
.

"We

272

CHINESE

MANUAL.

S3 O

IS

P
c
o

5
o
^

fcD
"
O
'^

o
CO

,13

C8

OJ

13

c5

d
"

Ol

ri3

2
o

'|^k

CHINESE

MANUAL.

273
09
"r,

"

p^

fee
^

"^ i
03
O
O)

,"!
C3
O

^:
"

fcc

P.

r-f^
"

2
03
m

"^
^
"

*i
"^ "^

'^

s
o
en

3
CO

5 2
S
""

" "

S ^-2
o
fl

"

riJ

o
00

""
53i

5Si :S
~

'

"
a,

"

?-*

52

5!i

"oo

""s -"

1^ "

1^'^
ti:] i:

5=i

^
"

'^

K-

K.'^

"

J^
" CO
,

m
M

u g-3
e-) ,,

1^ B3

BJ

11 ^

*"=

^i"ii^ "r
"KE
iliia
^
CO
^

nH

"

"^

"

CO

^^:0^

Km;

^K
18

274
O

CHINESE

MANUAL.

S3 O

P
+s

o
CO

I
a

to
o

"*j

l-H

03
CV-.

"
.2
o
rrt
to

fcO
o

P
-M

"D
"" -^

-3
o "

""^
G C3
O

.;:i

eS
^

"
.1-1

J
f^

"^

^"
c3
a "
t"

""
^
_

e3
"-^

^
"^

e3 o

O
+J

cS
o

oj

""3 U ^

?"
w

fl
3J

_,

"^
"
"-

iW

.2
o

Pi

"

.S

:2

5fl H
"T3

86

f^

5
o

"^.

a,

'is:

.S

5^
"~

^
."

"^ ^

1-^

iq

"o ^

kT N

^ f^

s
s

M CO

"

IS*

"ftij
r^

ife"t^J
"

r-

CO

eo

se

% %3i;%

^ ^^fe

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

275

r3

S3
03

C3

."^"

is
CO

03

60
n

"

"73

'T^
^3

.^

ba

S"

"

g
o

ft

5^
"*
^

;h

t-5

Si

CO

o o

"
""s

"?
,

tq

"")"

IM

Si

^^

^ |i fe il, g hk ".in iio

iruiD

4^

IS

276
5"^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^r^

-+3

14-1

.2 ^
ci
"
.4^

S
e3

rd. fcC
CS
CO

o
O

o
CO

"S

n3
O n3

"^

II
O
O

^
(3

5=i

i^

1^ "
.2 -S
"" s
^

^
'J^

"ii

";

fis

^ S ^ ^
-"

^ ^ t^

-"

f-^ j;i. H I?!


nr"
"

Hm
.V

weNt

*=

33

r^ ."ei

life
r"' "*

"*

P"

C"

I*

"*

"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

277

CQ

"^
^^ m

K-

5X

4M

^^

278

CHINESE

MAKUAL.

to

^
9?

^
_fco
"

-^
-^

"73
"

S 2i .2
r^
C3 "

C3
(U
rrt

O
" ri

O
"

p
"pi

o
^^

.2

I
"
"s

60

"T3
03

fco

.S
" 03

"

*5
CO

^
"
-4-3

S
"
05

"

"

"

OS

"

"

^
"

r^

'9

"^

""

'^

S* ^
!5i

"

fc^t3!:q^^S

.ss

^^.S^'^^
^

4"

"H5

^^

"^fcii^^"^

r^

^^^la^iHK

CHINESE

MANUAL.

279

"-"

as

03

.s ^
-^
o O r2

:^
15 ^

.2

" "

1=5

2 '^
"

^
CD

iB
"^

"1

a
r-l

S
^

CO

^
TS
4J

So
C3

^
ra

^
;^

-5 t! C^
cc
c3

i-O
I

"=^

'^

.2

.2
Ph

so

"^.

j^

"to

t"t^

."

I?'
^

Si,
.S

"Is

5si

"":

IttV
n

tzif

tea

4^ Ig

jv

nn

""!"

H"
,-"

"N

""

:iJ "r ^ i"si^' [g "r ^ ^J;: ;^

;S4 Ei"?

280

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"

s
o

"

60

S
"

o "

^
"

^
"

i"l
M

i^ ^

1^
Si

P
O O Hi

^ ^ te^

CO

ii^a""C
ec
r-"

ci

"as:

"^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

281
60
"o

03

O
CO

.s
"

bo

o
.

CO

a 1
"o

"

'-" .S
o
CO

o
_

o
_

"

TJ

"

"

="

"

"
"

" cS 4)
'"

0 3 .5

05
...

"

'

"

"

"

^
a '" t-H
k-

^
"

"
P-

PR
"

t^ ^

l""

[x

-i

"'^.

:"

5Ji

SSI,
r"s" :^

a^ S4.

,t;

1^ ^ f*j

ggg

"H^iPl^

e"

.-"

"

to

"

282

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"
O

I
"

"
CO

-1 ^
!3

S ^? '^^^'^"^O
^
tH
"-

"
:j

0)
rt

rH

GO

'So"

^-S

k-g-^^fl

"D

C3

'3

ew

1^
."
"^

?^

-".

r^

"

.^
ito
-^

-i'

r*!*

"".,

"

ft;

%" 4 ii
"*
^
--

"
("^

i-5?^
^uj]
If

ea*

""

"

Snik^" k "\^

hhh-^^

ithfc^K^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

283

284

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"

.g

rfl

"3

CHINESE

MANUAL.

285

1^
60
o

C5

"

C-l

CO

!" M
p
o
o 1-3

-"1

"4

286
(O

CHINESE

MANUAL.

eves

Fh

^
60

o
CO

3
O

o
*^

Ph
"

bo

^-

-Si
OB

^^

"3

.-S -^

"
'fH

-'^
,Q o
CO

SOP.
".
c

fcos

a
60
CO

s
Ol

CO

Ph
d
o o

a
o
o

o
"

a
f-" O"

"S

fco-5
^

o
o

iJ rd to
o O

t"
^

fl
"

p.
O)
-"J

'rt

"^

_*^

."to

"

5s"

ti

s
"s^
"^i

^ -I

ilua
CO

pi)

CO

ii_

oa

^
CI

-^

"^ ik

Pi

cr-"

"iSh

CHINESE

MANUAL.

287

a
l-H

O
"

fcO

-^

"
^j

'^ -t-a
a

2 CS
O

S 3 rC!
"

c"-.

S
"
.^Jl

J2

.5
^

-^
"^

C3
rirr

.2

.2 :a
c3
?=i

=;

^
a, ^^
.s

'^

-^

S. -S
'""a "?""

"*

2
vT'
"
^
*"

tn
'"iS
f";

"i Sin

GO

1*

^
"I2?v 43s

"^

^'IS

"5
1

CO*

CO

CO

-^

"ft-'Nt^:S?ii^

288

CHINESE

MANUAL.

as

S""

3
.9 .5
o

Pi
o

9. "^
o 's

"

O!

eJ

fco ^

^
nb
03

S
r3
cs

PI
I

bO

g
^

I"

rt

_2

^
c3
.jj)

"*

a"

M
I" I

ma

^
5Si

M
"
CO

^Hj

p o
o Gi

"

p!
c3

",
"

U'^
^
^
-

Era "fti

fco

ill
J^ J_|
r^

i^

aa

i3j#

'^m^m

CHINESE

MANUAL.

289

^
o

I
O)

^
O

2
o

:s a
o

a
60 0

to

0)

rS

Ph
tn
'r-l

I" I

03

"t; d
jj^
CD

03
W
r"

n3

"^.5
0!)

"

HH

1"
60
I

Ia
0 o

8
00

$!i

i
lT*
"^^

2Q

!^
."

k?*

!^

-i^

k'*

^
33
eo

,"
^.
^'^

liiia

eo

C"

CO

ffO

'"i*

CO

-i*

-^

CO

T^

"^

EHpti."^g^^SCIlN^#:glJ)^^^"H^^^
19

290

CHINESE

MANUAL.

1:2

"

r^

'^

.S

"^ 13
O

=3

oj

O)'^

S-^

ri*:3

"_]'-=3+s
^

^ -53

.s
^

^ -^ %
"^

^
r"s

lH

?"

"i

J=

-^

Si,

"

"";

Iji
m

"^
^

5if^/J i^^
'^
^

I^=N

hh "mCV..

CHINESE

MANUAL.

291

5ip

SZ

H"

^
CO
C^l

C)

"'

CO

"

"^^

"*

292

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CO CO

,o c3

43

03

O
M
"^

"d
CO

to
;3

Ph
03
+3

Ci

S "5 60
_^

d
'd
03 o
o

3
"

n3
-"^

s-i

2
+3
iJ

Qj "03

"^

d
C3

Ph

K^

P.
o

C"-.

.2
o

"

3J

"0

-a

.o

60

""o

5Si

5S
"D
--^

.^

? -s

Si ",

.00

^2

"

fe
1^
"^
..

'^'

157

4"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

293

irt

i^m^^^

io!^ -i-i

feif " 1^^^^

294

CHINESE

MANUAL

CHINESE

MANUAL.

295
n3

S
^
(D

"5 O
id

QJ
OQ

a
^i"^

fcC
C3

3
'a

"+J

tM

nd
(B (B

cS

"T3 a

^ r"

"-H

n3 3

-I
"

""
S

"73
"
c_i

"

r3
"

OS

5 H
o

02

"

.2

W
o

60

"5

ca

Si
5^

S5.

OQ
Si,

1^

V=e^

tiiC
CO

^"

"iiij
st \x
"

t.

^
^^
"*

^"^
"

296

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^
o3
"

^
4A

S3

f-"

fl

.2

^ -^ =3 0) ^
_

O)

" g
"
M

"

-3 hi^

.5
""
."i^

5:

=0

1 1

ijiia

fe r=j^

"UM

"^"^ "3c|?
OT"

"

'n

ii^ fe .^ i i^: " li H fe


^ ^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

297

rd

i
.a
05

S
o
QQ ""

.s
rd

'^

t-l

Ti

rd
"

^
OQ

g g P Ph
s C3
d
o

,d

"

60

.d *rd

"^

S '"

"

s
M

"
^

d
s:
o

Sfi S

P^

1^
*"

"

T3

05

""
rd M

rd

;5

'^ -^ pd

Ph

CSi

d
...

d
d
03
CQ

"S
OQ

'S
O

"a,

H
-

,^

-5

Cail
CO

^5
m

"
ex.

^
@

in;
M

te
eo

a;

^
*".

j^^
^

*^

5"S

"^
^

L) *!2?5 d
o
C^

^ s

E^ ;i^
--'

.^
CC

^ ^11 ^ i|ni
c^i

CI

cc

-^

"^

ten

298

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

299

8 a
o

a
^

tt!

""

-a

1 s-l B g
^
^

.g
3
.O

"^

'^ ^5

"^

'eJ

.55

CO

l-l^f

"

1*"

300

CHINESE

MANUAL.

C3

B
"-i

'3
d
a"

O)

*2
o
"**

bo
eS
"^ "u C o

a
o

"^
a
o

a"

"

o o

a
p"
-C
_

*; d
"
^

d
P3
0)
00

Oh
O

^
'*^

n3

" "
a

;^

if*

n]3
$""

r^i

Rh

-^
O

"1
"to

'^

^*

^ ^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

301

f^

"^
.S

^
"U

""
-i

"~

=S

"^
t"
"i

r^ ^

^ ^

tiw

d? ^

I"

eo

rJ

302

CIIINKSE

MANUAL.

""^
"E?

Idu Ii^

ts"

is

^^

^ i^^i^j^l-smisl:; -^ 3^5^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

303

^
CO

a
"

"

"TS
o

""
13 o
^

fc^
f*

60
"

-e o
c

^
-

-3 bO
o

-*^

S5

c3

S
;-!
CO

a
to c
O

J3
?"
as
CO

's
o

I" I

I" I

IN

CO

""r
P O o

"v

iSi

."? _"o ^ fe

^!S

("1

hv

2cs

^f iiaf;4"
"ra

^^^m

304

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"^

"

fl

1:^

"

"H

"5

05

a"D
O)
r^

M
e"

2
H

:^
^

^
"

-t
CrS
H
cs"^

-^

-s
o

.^

03

c,a

cS

_:-S

k.^

|hh
ti
"i

I
pLi

g^W
Ph

J
Oh

-I 03

fJ5

?Ji

5!^
rijj

^"
00

'^

":=* "

-^

1^

-s

I. "a

-"

t? fc?

"

"

5^

'^

-t

f"

"^

i" S5

f^

"^

""

li ""

CHINESE

MANUAL.

305
"

"D

"D

Ti

-1^

r^ s;

! I : ^i

""

"

its

I
s
""

S
1
^
.e

I
"=

'^i

I*
^
a.

r"

J
CO

"

JK Ix^

J
""""""*""*

l"^

n3^4ti"^t:^^

^T5^

mn
20

306

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CO

"

"

c^

K-

^S?,^^!!

CHINESE

MANUAL.

307

" "
03

"

TU C
to
"
"

"

1^
"
I"

" o
H

rrt "*^

P-l
_tn ^

a
o
"
.

O O

cS "
^

03

C
o
"

2
60 C Q

^
o

r^

"
OS

'^
f-i

60
13

+^

"

,G

"

^
"

ts
"

i-^ i^
.O

i ^
a,

00

.8

S3

Si.

t" S
a
Ml
"

^fS

i^i;^

I;

CO

CI

"^
VA
tx
CO

is? KK"5

i^m.
C" M C^ CO

308
o

CHINESE

MANUAL.

a e3
O
SO
"43

" O

pS es

;J5
o
'"-

a
"

60
"

d "

15
r"

""
e3

o
o

3
o

.-t:

'fH
_,

"

2
to

a
^-1 o

-^
c;

Ph

'S.
TO,

"^

iik3

53 2g?
53

''^

1. la

IS?

^
^
^

"liaB
C-)

"*

"*

"

05^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

309
h
"^
d

ffi

.a

J
^

^
.3

cO

-g

nd

cS

" -J
?

"

":

i^
Co
^

--^

s5

a.

..

"

J
as
"D

rtS'yg.2^^0
p
^

60 S

"

^s

p
o o "J
**
.

"I"

e:; 5S
3

s
4"J

-"

OS

it

^
^

e)
"

^^
CO

"?api

i^
^

'^
,,

S*^

t:

310

CHINESE

MANUAL.

n3
r^
:3

tJD
a

"a
to
CS

IS
03
r"

'o

"T3
0)

St o

5
P"

ri4
O

"5
3
(3
O

to
C4H

.5
o
C3

o
^

o o

5a

w
,

5o

a
CO

to

.2
H
^

"^

vZ^
O

c3

fcJD O
M

"^
o

PLh

'^

t:i

'S.

" I ^
^^

6^S
Si:

CQ

J^

"^

"s

fe ^
eo ^

i
n
"c

;!2

E^

is

Eri

^-lll
i^H ^

IB

" ris
bka

^= Ie
i|iii

siJ

;"v

-x^^ ^_,s D.

"iN

.^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

311

i'3#is^:S.SS^S^B

^^

312

CHINESE

MANUAL.

e8

mm

Mu

*Ji

CO

mm

"H
g

^"^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

313

-M^K
^n
^
^

la tr
^^

^"^"

i^SsK % ijil
#tti

ec

--

^ # ^

H]i? ^ K H ;^ "" K^ ^ 1"1^

314

CHINESE

MANUAL.

-s

S-i

rJ=

to
"

"2"

ij

"4-S

d
o
"

"1
CO

"

t-t

"

""

a
bi
"*^

"

"^

" "

mi; 4^^

+3

"
"-"

^
m

-"
-,

e3

P-.H
c3
^^^
"*

p5
V.

".

^ "!"

i"Cr

'r^

t-

glfr
^

^^^ti^:^

"^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

315

^1

"/"

C3 O

O o

", "

Pi

+3

(D

a
-M

a -s
3
CO

03

^
CO

CO

"^
05

03

r^
o

C3

P" 3

'::a
CO

12
O

"Ti

.a

-4J

-f-i

.a

^ fee
fcD

"

a
Si.
C3
o

!3

03
0)

o
03

5. a
p-

-i

to

J
o)

pl

-5
a) o

c3

te

es

^s;
"
O

rJi

.^

".

1 12k

00

553

"X

S. '^

"^
Rft
r^

feiL h
^

316

CHINESE

MANUAL.

n3 ^
a

g
be
"

rO
"

rd

03

"

2
"

-73
d
.^

OS

Ph

"-'

"-'

C3

PL,

"

.2
o
-M
.r-

rd
o
-f-"

-^

6C

ri4
M
ii

S
'P
03

"

:7:

nrf

"^
a

Pu
"-i
'i-i

""",_,

03
M-l

""

"

CO

o .5

H
d
03
"

"

fcc

""s

"2
?5i
GO

!"

25

-^ O

H
5""

"
4K

K-

*t!^
1^
"*

1" ^

ffii

i^ 3

^ E$

K-E^^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

317

3 O

t,

to
CO

a"

C3

cs

cs

_^
"9j

Oh

.2

'-3
^
-

a
o

c3
(D

"t:J

a
o

.2
".

^
OS

H
o

rO

.y O
60

"13

Oh
CO
i_l

^
s

c3

.s

03
I" I O o

^^
P O

33

Si. ^
00

s
"

^
;^ ^
^
o
^K

s
*2

'5

I? i^s" ^-^^
.-I

I"

I, I*
"^

fflg

'"'"*

4s "b

318

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"

"%

.2
'f-^

'S

-=

'^

^^

'o

^
^

^A(

,^ s
60

-"ri

".
C3

"S

o
^J
CD

5
*^

r"5

8..2
oi
OS
'i-i

"S
o
OQ

O
as

rJ3

d
CO

" ^

03

a
s w

*^
CD
OI

a
Qj

"

;=! ^ ** 2 " S ^ M
'^
"^s;

^
GO ""^

^
^^

""i
to

s?

S
"-

St

g ^
?3i
"3

I" i
"
S

fcc
CO

2"
r"J
n^^

ts ^
g

"Vi

te^
09

OQ

"^

4K

^^
^i

CO

"rts

"^

"^

"rr"

":?

CHINESE

MANUAL.

319

TS

^
?s.

-s
^

't
*

"

."
s

,"
^S

i:^ :;^
5"i

-^
"M.

5;

5^

??i
s

K^

"u

.S

"

"oo

bS

-52

-S

"s

320
^
09

CHINESE

MANUAL.

a
"
(-1

"

09

1^

3
o

CL.

""

t"

1=1

"s
o

tJD

E-1
Qj "^
M

o
t-

5-1

S
s
rQ

^
03

'r3rci
_
"

O)
09 O?

CO 09

3 J3
QQ

03

O) O

""

pq

^
o

o3

cS

0)

^"

"Si

03

5J"

o
^
-

"u

;=i
^

09

5i
to """

""U
^

'^

CO

^
^

o
eo

T)"

5lt^E=^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

321

to
" "S ti

fco
"

C!

r"3

03

"

^^
3 O

!""

"+3

c3

a
o

'"
00

rjj
O
V

03

" o

t^

"

3
rO

bo

ef-l

.r! CZ2

"

"

^
ep

"4j

""

I'
CQ

S5

"*

^^^^

l^i^^
21

322
u

CHINESE

MANUAL

""^

.2

-t
^

^a

^^

s-^

-s

-5P)

fej

5^

"?

'J

^
-"
:S

ts
^

"

'

U^
-M"0

=0^

?=i^

."
"~"ai^

i* =S 5"i"**

M
tor

fei?
"

lif
-

hk
.hh

iim
;^t?
'^h

-^

1 *^^-

"-**!

"iQ

!" g

ikiaisH iii "^ "^

" " " E

CHINESE

MANUAL.

323

-2
es

r^
o

3
"

tn

2
OS

03

"S

0
rQ
;-!

o
^

I
8

^ 5, ^ 11^
g-^
o

""

^x
CJ

ttW
CI
^,

^
m o
o

f^S!^s

"W4)

"

\-"
*2
s

"^
"

^ i "

I
^-"

!: ^
-

O
"^

"s.

^
"

^
~

j"5^
eo

f=^ ^

"EI

1^ !^ E^ ;d

^a
CO

"^^^1^

JTfT

324
"

CHINESE

MANUAL,

s
r^

^
-^

2
cs
"

CO

03
"

"Q)

o S^ "u ?;

a
o
^

.2

t
^

"
a

^
q
X" Ph
c3
o

2
^

a
o

"73
Cj
U ft

rr^
a"

.2
^
"4^

60
a

" s
1

C3

T3

.2
o

"

"D

b^

"

"
O

A"
a

"

w.

I"

.2
"

II
ri

IS
o
,o

rrf
-

"u

e3

e3

I
o
^

a
"Si
s

^
^ s

rd

'^

S^
^

"^^

5S

"^

"S

;53

CO
Sii
"

55"

"*

v''^."

J-

^ ^

?^

1^

in5^ ^ IW

CHINESE

MANUAL.

325

Cii

326

CHINESE

MANUAT"

t-,

09

"u

713
CO

60 13
o

e3

S3

"

^
C

T? 'S
C

"G

P4 P^
O
o
I"I

GO

Z'

"

.2

"1
O

CO

+3

1 Ji^lm
"S
fti

"5i

$i

S
o

'"^

0
O
S3

-a

r"3
u

a
"r-(

g
00
*'

G
^

^
!^

^
J2V

"CT"

-f

?"

^1

gEK f 4^J
-

t^ v-^

02

P"g
ffll

g,

r"

^o

'-"

"it.

JV

"^

hr"

^ ""^;fe^iin
ro -""

js^

CO

-f"

1*-^^ iS:^!

CHINESE

MANUAL.

327

00

"3

g
"
o.

03

Ti

-3
^

60 fl

5;^ ^
^
0)
rt

2 .s 03 c3
CO

1"1 M

cT

a
"2

^
O

.5 03
CD

n3

rt

'^
e3
QJ
03

fcfir^
o
"o a O
35
^j

^
,

"=

"
I

f3
03
OQ

03
O
"J

=3

00

3
e3
" o
00

O
;h

CO

03

"

'

^H

rt
0""-i

"
00*^

P4

"S

Oif^

oCjOQ

"4H

'*i

'S
CO
""s"

;2i

""

r^ /o
S
^
"

C3
-"J

",

551

"

r"

CO

II
"""

"
!5i
^*

r^ :q

1^

"jg-^
"Ki
'^

"'5i

^^*

tS

-si bl S

Si,

OB

=0

"ft-

fei^^*^^ k ii!^
Jinnc
-

"-a

""

o
"
-*

328
60

CHINESE

MANUAL.

I"!

CO

rt
--H

t".

"

^3 c3
e3

c3

g
"

.2 r^' a
fco

.5

S
C3

^73

"^

d
=5
o

S
fee

"
B ^

-^

^
"d
o
"

" ^
r-

.d
d
e3

rd

ii i
CO

0)

'Ti
a
*o

d
^

B
c3
CO

o o

J;
_i3

'd d

'^
p
O
O

to

C3

r^
"2"
00

rd
s

it
-73
r*2

?
.

Sri "": 60
o
vt
w^

V9

^r

^ S ^M \W ^^l^
dJ3
-^

^T

'^

"?^^

3?a ;s

mm

s
m

410

CHINESE

MANUAL.

329

^
-2^
.^

-^ ^

".

1^

"?

SS

S
53

"S

""

-S^

'5i

"?
-

"

,--

330

CHINESE

MAKUAI..

0)

"

5
bo
d
d
.

o)

"
.

d
o "

ri;

tS

"-

"
o
"

CO

^ H
"
-"

f2 T"

-Tij d
"

1^ H
^
i=

H
s

1^ I ^
-i

^
8

'S

???^ ?^
^ ^
P
O O
1-3

i-33 E 'i fe5i| feSa" is^ "^ 5'^

"1
M

ft

tf
^

^ 1^
"^
.-H

r. 5" i"^
(M

Tt"

CHINESE

MANUAL.

33]
+3

=^
O
rS2

-^
7i

-^

.,

4
J?
03

.a
a

'm

"^

(B

to
c

fl

-"

"

1h"

03 O
O

S O

be

03

JZ"
60
.pH

"^

^
O
CO

fee
o

"i"

a ^

'^

n2

"fj

si
CSi

00

I
J5?
-kS

o
03 O

03

"^

""

?5i
'"W
CO

"Si

-*"

.9
55i

5ss ""

-ii
'=o

S^i
"

'*-.

5^ -s

"
"

^?^

5s,

:?

g
^
'^i

e ""

5i

-s

K
-"

H
Wb

li 55 ^^ ^ig
tJ
'a?
" ie^ia

^ ^ jLt5"fe^
'^
"
-

41)17,

"^^
.

":3 ''^

332

CHINESE

MANUAL.

'

B Is
e3

a .2 3
t"" d

"S
S
"5^
"

c3
-

a
2
e8
O

C3
rl
"!-(

.2
.22 ^
-^^

cO

a
C3
I"

",
O
i"

o
+*
I

o
.^

fl

00

d
M
-*-'

^
-TS ^

"S
kj
"

"-J
i-l

a" T^
e+H
""

cs

-^

si: "T^
k_|

05

CO

I" I

+*

r;^

"^

"
^

P^ -2 S

I
;"
d
d

"

rO

00

CJi

s J

?5i
^

;:s

""

mm
-

CO

CHINESE

MANUAL.

333
o

""
.

aa

60 03

-^

-d ^

"D
-

-B
Cm

t:}
OS

o
(D
_

I
a

i
a"

C3

^ ?S
-"

o QJ

P^

:2
o

2
"!

s :^ s :i3
,^

=8
o

"i"

o
^

.g
o

"1
O
^
-^
n"

"Si

60 n

"
"^

-I
'^

O
O
.1^

C3
-4^

5-1
-"-3

OQ

GO

WV.
X
i?
H
^

o o
J^
CO

^
.""

0)

n3
"*

fee
o
.

^
o

-2

"""

^ -"

'S

60

a.

"2
"Si

s:

CO

^
CT

P.--^^ R^
" """
"M

e"

^B

334
to

CHINESE

MANUAL.

tC

"

= C3

'2 C

rCl

n3
03

S
C n3 S
S

"

C3
"

c
"!-"

"a
O
"

c3

"

I
rO eS

^
"

"

o
^

I
"
"

s
o

o
"

.s
.;;
"

O
"

,A s 03

fcfl
c

C
03

ti; e3
"D

fl H
O
"

to
C3

-5

"

T3

Ph

"
r3 -.-"

a
03
=4-1

a
2
03 "

03
a
e+H

fcc;=!
"

"^

.2

rO

K^

"^

-^

5:

s^

^ ^

.^

"

'^
^

-X

^ -^

-"

1^

s
"to

I
f4i

js
"";"

-i
r^

.?S S -S

s S

S:

t^
E^

.2 =0

.^

S
!^

"
'r*

li

-"^ S

S
~

js?r fl,

^"^ ^

f=^"

''^
c,

J-

---

if^ ^ ij i

E^

fe^ fei in" I2fec^ ^ fe

CHINESE

MANUAL.

335
tc
,c

r:i

'^
r"i C
o

r-H

O
a;
"*^

"

"".

a
o

,^

T3
"

o
a
-

*^

Oh

a.

n3

60

"2
^^ "

2
O

S
^

TJ

^
0)
^

?i "!=" i" 'r


QJ

o
"^

t^ rf

rQ

PI

"-(

""

^'^ "^ s rs
o)

'^^

CD

ro

60

y
o

-^

-5
.^

?"

S
"^

"'U

"0

rS

r'li

"^

"^

-"

-s

'^
""

i
'^
a

-s
s

"5
S
"^

1^ :^
5s

"^
^

"^ :ii ::Q

S;

""

s?

"
^
si -^

^
'S
"^

fN.

^
g
~

le*

53

"S

"
03
""""

"
""*

-S

.~

J "i -Sj ^
CO

""
""D
"to

"s

s:

r'^

-Itj

"""S5

-":

iii^fe i^ i

i: H isi

"^

i^

5 1^" '^ii

336
O O

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"^

03

eS

13 O

M
-t-"

a
o

-a

a ^
0)

-^ 2
cc

" ;3 a
o

.2

n3

Si '^
o

c3

OB *-"

"
I"

O
I
k^

c3

s
""

^^
o

a,

Si,

5si

^
p

'"

C5
O

2
CSl 5-

'"
"x. O)
00 CO

pn

QQ

"

fcjS^ ^
^
"N ro

a;

k 'kj^"^^l{h'^
,_( ^__l

T""

C^

I"

"

M"

^21"
#

Ji:

^^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

337

"

CD

r^
CO

05
(V)

a
03
01

cj

C3

"%

03

a"
CO

03 o

0)

U,

"
o

a
o
o

-5 -^
-a

".

OJ

c"..

"

S
fee
^

I
a

"

"3
ra
-t^

crt

fcc

03

"

^^
i^.

^
l?^
*

-2

:^

"2

""o

CO

a.

"^

5S4

.?
a
S3

-^

'^
S^ ^

t"

Sfj

-Si

lira

"T"

"M

CO

CO

CO

"^

CO

;^N:|"li^!P^lm^lPi;.-{i^ili?ii^
22

338

CHINESE

MANUAL.

.^

03

"o

"5 "
rj
nd

?,

,o e3
O
."

a
s

a
"
-.

3 .2
O
0)

d
O

a
to
c8

03

"^
3

si
00

(-1

'd
6D

o
o

tr

to

+3
"/:

-M ^ :2
"

"^

1-1

"2
o

'^

oj

"-!:) ii a

uq

'^

-5

CD

03

OS
o

r3
!="
"^

"5^

^
s;

'S
e

^
S
u

s
5^
"

C5 O a

S5

r^

5^
o

""

fc^
"^
CO

t-l ^
Tjl

'^
CO

"

^4"
S I*
""
""

k2
CO

CQ

1^
tUS
111

1^ ^ ^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

339

340

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CHINESE

MANUAT*

341

2 s
o

5"" ^

t;

c3

'^

^
Qj

^ -te i^To

^
fee

"s

fco

.9
60

-"^ " V
S
6C

a
fee

"
g C3

"s
s

:^ I
:" ^
H o

^
1^
^

53

fee

5
fco

,0

"

g
"

E'^i

"Lf

^
"~

^ 1^xs 5si
-S

S
-^

'^^

J^
o
o

SS

o
^

CO

"

g
a
c2
o

-^S
^

'^ e
^.
^

"""

"

"

"i?:

"^ '^
r^ 'is*

a
o

o
tr

lo

**

"2

""?

"":

"i

.^

5^

^
p2

"S
"
" c"

fr^ ^3"
"^

ss

1^

Ui

it
1

eo

c"

'"*

'I

S
"

!i^ ^)
-^

""""

"^^ g:^
1^^^

342
^
o

CHINESE

MANUAL.

60
P

"?^
03

"

.5
""i

cs

60
"

-"

"-"
"

"

g
"+-(

.5
".

-^

S
o

s
"

^
M

60

S
Oi

^
o

p
P-(
00

n3

00
"

60
00

'

P3
O
CD
"^

"
O

^ ,o
""

T3

O
"

3
3
,o

60

"
c3

fcc fcO
"
"
"1-1

60

""!

c3

a:

00

J=

^s

"^
"""

*"^

k~

-S

Ij

"^

^4J

Si

^
-=e
00

e
'^

-S

Si, "^

(M

M"

|!!i^ 4^ ^
CO

"on

J;^
-.

fehv

IS)

44

m
^
Dry

^ m ^

CniNESF,

MANUAL.

81")

5-2

fcD
e3
o

c3

^?

O)

to

Po

^
GO

"-a
eS

"

ca

o
es

C3

P4
CD

00

o "

r"3
""^
-'-^
r-l

n3
OS

1
S
r^

^
o

CC
3
O

rt t-^

.5
fee
03

"

PR

'-0
13
03
"W
-

fcc

1"^
"""

to

^
Pm

\s
CO

"

"^

l**^

.Si
CO
"*^

CO
SI,

!:

s
Si
s:
00

"
w

?s
=^

."!i

^
"^^
.

-2
tr"-

-^
L^

^
"'^
Co

-Si

"*

"w

"""

"""

"

"*

"

S=i ^ CT*. VN

-^S^ tsS ^T"

"fe^
-h-

eo

eo

tnVJ

^f
CO

WH

^"^

""

.A3
"~^

.Sic

"Wl

m^i"

CC

is^ ^ jL.

^ ^ fc

^ 4- ^"^ Isi; '^fel

344

CHINKSE

MANUAL.

J-

-z %
O

a
o
cj_

-^ "*^

s^

,-d

P
c

;-"

P.

d. 2
a.
l-H

S
?

S
fl
"

a '5
r2
""
"

O)

o
O

-5

feD
^

"

.S

g
tc

2
o
4J

2
I"I

fl

^
3
(-1
-t^
"

,a

tS

CS
-

"

rQ

"^ ^

be
S

-5 S
"S

"

CS

a
CS

"5;

-i^

^
'Si

"3:

N
."

5si

fci

-3

'2

I
"

-^
~

"^

^2

^
"~

-S

-^

w o

""

"^

.?s

.=;

^fe^
I ^ ^^
f^ ^

j^

ir 1^ i ^ ^ ^^n ^i^
m^^
r

4ni

q^f^
"

1^^
'^

h
^
--,

'^

"

:ii ,

^
H

_-

~3

-"

-4

CHINESE

MANUAL.

345

346

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CO

_j3

'^

'"1

is

"S
W)

^
^
rt

3
,"3
o

.2

^
Q)

"

'w

g gj
fcc.3

CO

"f?
rO

^
r2
e^

^ "^

-^
CO

I
^M --3
"=

fco

2
.2 Sfi

O
"

;5
fl
"

=*

fl
T-

^-s.s

H
o

CHINESE

MANUAL.

347

a
c
^

o "

Pi

OS

to

rO

n3
..

_Si
O
"

Si,

"=i

.2
:?^ "i^
5j"

";

" "^

S
a:

^^
p^

^s ^ ^ #
1^
o o

.s
-(-3

"
t|-i

.2

2^

'g
Q

t ^^#

"
P-

:"
"SB

"
"--

I
"
.^

"I
"

to

-in

348

CHINESE

MANUAL.

O
"^

jT

(D
"-M
-ta

a
""

bo be

"=!
u

rC

d)

r^

'3. a
o
o
;-"
w

W
o

ri^
I"

"

a
IS
t-

'3 S
o

,_,

(u

i"

P
en

60
a

K^

c3 O
o.
.4-3

"^

-e

P^
o

rt? 3
*-^

"^

3
"^

^
"-"

c3

2
03
o

So "
CO

2 ^
ns

'^
o

.1 Q

.4^

Ph
o

"'-'

e3

fcO
c3
O

.2
rd rt

fcO
n

C3
c3
-^

r^
^ "

's2

I"

"

fl

a
^

Ph
"

"?

r^ ^
bo
c

c3

"
1"1

P4
O
t^

-S
."I

S -2
i-d

"H

^
c3

C3

"

P.

-3
"

bo
fco
C3
t.

?:i a

a
bo
a
53

'S
rH

d
ri

r^^

+3

.2

^ ^ m m ^S" " !?" il (n^ ^ ^ S :^ ^,5;i nN^

iS ^ -frFg "^^

l^ ^ ^ 1*j :li

"fe Q^ ^ ^D: 1=i9 Bji^

^ {n5 it ^ H ^ 1? ^ "^ ^v 1^ $!? 4^ 5f3 "# f.i^

^^ ^ ^ -^

-^

ffli t^ ^ Kts) ^]a ija r^ ^ aM [5?

CHINESE

MANUAL.

349
{",
o
_"

-1-3

^a
"

"S O
rH

""^ :d
2
",

C3

rt

w ^-c

-8 M
"

a d
CO

3
d
CD

.2 S
j3

"

'^

"Ph
" f-i "
"J

o
CO

.O ,l2

CD

C3

S
r/1

"

fcD

"5
0)

S
^
^

I
P-i
OS

is

"

rH

^
CL, "

-^
o
^

""

"

r-i

ra

"

d
o

o
"rl

-a

t
"

" S
O

r-M

4J

.2
oo

n3

"

S
"

fee

C
"

fcc
c

cu

"S

j^

z;

"u

'^
O
"

n3
" CD

00

"
.2 S p 03
,ii
""

"

3 O

E^
tu

"D

3^^
l=! ^
"
3
w
w
.

.5

""

"

.2
CS

^
O

2
S
^
C3

P4

.2
ns

'Q

d
o
O

q3
"
-+J
+3

CO

ph

;"H

^ "^ 181 4^"1 -ft-

^ li^

^ ^ il CI inn -N ^ c=^

^ ^'^D^ # t^ "^" -ile

F^ -N -W si

^J Mi"^ rO

"N

hi

IS K

^ ^^ im ^ 4" ii^ :^ ^ ^ "i li^ ^?S

^ K- 51 ^ =^' # ^ f^ lii ^in -N ^i9

^-^ ^ ^

350

CHINESE

MANUAL.

"0

t4

CO

..

a
O

CO

rd
"

5
o
"

g
^ ^
CO OO

cS

aj

rd
"
o
"

^
CO

"

I" I

"

rd

"

-d

0
o
,

^
03

fee
c3

O
C3
"

".-^
'^

rd
"
-

"

^
03

"

'S
"

to
o

"

""

'S
ea

S3

g
-

S3
"

^
S
to
"

"

'5 c2
^

2i
E3 O o
"

"

d
o

!Zi

^
5
M

*^

+^

"

r=! --d
o

^
.

13
O
OQ

.2"
-d
o

"

rfl "

"3
"

Q)

CO

OS =i
"t-3

55

-^3
"

TJ

rd

rd

^
d

,C3

a
"

a 7.
H

rd
^

d
o

-^
03
" O

^ -^
d

!d

pd
-1-3

??

;-!

Ti
"

"

"

d
o

d
03

tS

ni

"

d
rt

_2
d
O
^H

^ d

"
"/3

C3

iir"

^' ^ K4 "fi^ h ^ # iJ:'?J ^ h^ II 3p^ "^ i^


n

^3 1^ ^ ^

|^^4^^^^^^tia

S ^ i^ S :^ ll? "^ ?ii^

^ ^ ^3 ^^^

S ^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

361

"

c3

'

SI

^
-*"

'^
'a

s
^

-s
CO

"0

-^

'ill
g
2
-a
"w ="

"^

'^

a
3

"
^
bo

="

t""
"fl
rt
^

a
a" .9

-J^
fl
o

^2

bo

S
03

I"

5
o

2
o

t3l
a
03

S
"^

c3

03 o

bo

a
" a

.2
3 6C
3
O
-

-^
OQ

^ ^ "S
"

bo

o"

"

.S
a
oj Is
"^

""

S
"
00

-"
a

o
"^

00

.2

^ "
*-'

S
00

C
""

"
:S

fl
03
OJ
"

o
OQ

I
4)
~

^
o c3

rO

-f^

.P

P
0)

"73

CO

g g "
03 a O
^

"" ^
^

S3

OB

ii i s
03

bo a
.3

..

OS

I^

"5
"

50 "^ Si 4" t^ fS '^^ ^n^ ^K^ "lg "^^ K" !^ ^J ^

;^ "iislIlK- ^ 4^

^ ill{it^^ a

^ ^ IhI

d 5" 4" inn ^ "5 """ Ig ^ ii= Du^ ^^ ^^

^s m

^^^M^^1"K^-"'^^^^R^^#'^^"

352

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CO

d
a.
o

C3

00 08

CO

P
C3

fe

g
'^
+--

"

'^

Ph
fn

t^
.,

"73
a

*-"

feo_2
1=1

^
*"

-5
'^
J-

Pi c3

^^

tS

OS"

Pk
r,-(

""

^
^

1!
a

^
eS

S rJQ H

a a
.2
"

CS

""

ni

'P. S

2
o

^ a
^
"

t i
c3
c o
"^

"

"-.
"

fee
("

ns
.*

+3

i :"
I"

fciD.S
C c3

c c3

c2
"

r"3
03

2
" o

.2
""-s

"

eS

+3

^"^

q-l

^"^
O

S
^

2
P^

S
03

"

c3

S
"

.2
C3

a
ea

"n

^
^
ej
"

r^
"

to
o o
CO

'^

rp
!"
"

"

"

"S
"

" c3

n3
"
CO

Jj
H
C

P
6C
"
"I

-P

"
"
"

".
CO

p
03
**

J-.

(U

g o
"

P
S3

"*-!

03

Ph

^ " E^ :3J!:

JM m IS 11^

li"MQ^

5^ N^

1^ S ^ ^'^^

^ ^ 1^ e Kfl9 EjJl v^

CHINESE

MANUAL.

353
o

c3

j::?

O
o 03
Oi

!=i
O
,-_,

,J3
^

C3
CO

a
02

"^

03 .z:
-^

^
".

a,
o

1=

9
"^

3
o

""

rfl
l-H
^

.s

o
C3
"

"^|

.22

C3

s
o

5
0)

o
"U ^
30

s
o

"-"

c3

ni

"-"

03
"

Jh
O

.2
t-

-B
fcD

i^

-g
p^
o

I -^
03 OI
O)
w

rt -o ""

to

.S
s

C3

fl

03

^
o

.2

^M

-5

11

03

03

"^

a 3

Ig 1n

^^ 4" {nl ^' ^^ f^ l"i^ :^ " ^ " lili(

23

354

CHINESE

MANUAL

fci

rf

Pi

c3

n3

a
00

'""^

fee

PI
o

c3

S
"%

"H

a
o

03

a
"

a)

n3

be
o

a
P

."3
-4-a
-

fee
.-

O O
^

0) o
_

"

o
J-

k"

(3
CO

^
'

C3

-^

^
r"

.a

so

o
I

OS OJ

5
-^
o

.-:5

"1
=
""

+J

CO

"^ a

a
,

be
p

o
M

rO
CO

__"

% 3
03
DO

S
O
OS

TS

^^

-73
03

fl

c
c3
"

ITS

03

S 03
"

"
"

P4

te
03 O
OS
"-

'" "

.S
"

"^

i-

05

"

i-|

o
03
U3
_

I
PI

a
PI
"

GO

13 PI
c3

05

03
u

a -5

-^

Ph

"^4":^^m^^

m^^^mum

^ C^ fa: ^ ^ S5 Cnffl ^ ig Bii^ :^^ ^19

N^

1^ IS'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

355

@ Eli? %' C^ C"a 51 ^ c^

fe

^"n fj ^ ;^ ^ jaff. "=^


^ "5 4" Ml

'^}

i? ^ 43^ ^ ^ ^ K jei 4.1" K- .*"

a: "^ m

"5 K- ^ g^ ^

,*^
K- 55 ^

^ iii

^ ^ CtKCna El^

;^^

^ is$. ^ ffi^ Ji! ^ ii ;^ ji:'^ ^ft i5"

856

CIIINPISE

MANUAU

Ph

rj

03 '^

% I
(D

.5
3
or)

d e3

I
^
.9
a
o

d
0)
.4_"

"AM
l-t
""^

-(J

a
d
o

d
o
O)

" O
CD
O

"^
*^

c3

.::2
rt

rd
^
cj
-JJ

a
C3
T-l

60

rd
-^=

5^ a
c/2
^

d
cs

"^

a
""d d

rd

^
.2
(X.

.-5

^ ^
d
o

1^
c3

*"
"r-l

.2
d

d
O)

S
"r'

S
^^ Ph
d

rrt

M
o

1 -5 ^ -g

"-

"T^S
"i^

^
c3

"^ 'd
rd

rd

""

d
-d d

1:^

2 .2 i5

^ 5 I
"5 a ^

rd

o
CO

^ ^ ^

ii

^i ^ ^j ^ iii'pj

Tfi^

^ ^"^'^ *^ * "^^

5^ .:^

^ ^ "" =^ ^li^ ^ 93 i9 ^ f^ v^ ^ilJ -^

^{all^^rg^t:

h jviS

"^^

^ s: ^ ^5

CHINliSE

MANUAL,

S57
o
o

tt)

o
t-i
-4J

ri4 o
o

a,

s
a,
rt

e3
03

Ph
O)

"

Ph
O

^
"T3
O)
-"-"

S
;3

J
p ,J3 O

ri^
fco
o

Tc
to
-

"
c
"^

pi
O o

p
^

p
O
O)

P!
03

h O
'^

s
9
t: O
"^

p^

p
"

a
p

^
s

9^ ra
"**

o
"4-l

r^

o
C4H

^
pi

QJ

k"
^

Ph
""

O o
CO CO

f=!
3

S
O
c3
4^

^
*

"'f fl

Pi

.:c* 3 f-i
f-l

lb 5
'^

-^^

CO

a" "^

Ph
OS

"3
r^
p

P
rP

-s-p
"

^ " -s

P"

'S

P.' 'P

":::

^ "5 """ ^

tr 4" g^ ^ ;^ ^ ^ i^ ^ :g iPl

^
S^

^ K' 1^"^ '^ *^-^ ^ II ^ ^ '^ S^ ^ -ii^

".^;^

^M" S ^ ^ ^H
i^

ti }^ ^

J^-Nli{^

^ mm"

m^

^"^ '^ t^ m ^ u^m

^ U W W B ^ i""

"^;

W.

G^i^^^^^\'\

358

CHINESE

MANUAL.

rfl
^

rd

=1
-

(D

0)

'^ ""

"73
o
a"

S
-"

^
'ui

"3

^"^

"*"

-5

fc:
.J3

o)

S
2
pi

'^ w

i=!
M

bo P
OS

n:S
(3

*^
eS
0) t-"

--d
o
3

tS

CO

o OJ

^
pj
O
O

^^

2
OJ

Ti
CD

as
"^-i

n3

.g
:

""

H
"D
M

^
M

fee

" C3
't"

=*

e3

"
tQJ

eg
rP ""

^
rC3
^
-

P P 'P

^ P
to

2
e|r
.-^

CS
"

EO

C3

O
eg

P 'P

"73

r^

rP
-^

P p

^
M

to
O

C3

"(-!

rP

rP

GJ

Ph

-P

ISIn^ H-

^J 1^ ^^ 11 if # "^ m

H 3 ^ 1^.

^" 2K H^

S ^ fi-

C3

M U^iS K 4be 111 ^^ iiiQ

K IS( K ll^lSl^ -^ ^^:1^ .^K

li.^ "

i^

CHINESE

MANUAL,

359

"^

bo

to

;^

*^

0)

00

5
03

-"*

^ "l Si ^ ^ I5P1

P H- ^ jl^nll^

"360

CHINESE

MANUAL.

There

nre

some

characters which
to
as

liavc several
many
meanings,

pronunciations, corresponding and many meanings others which

define variations of Of the first


:

class may

by change of tone only. be instanced the following

Hie numbers indicate the tones in which the words should


be pronounced.

^i

CHINESE

MANUAL.

361

To point at and hit.* ' A lord's servant.'


"

To dislike/ To dress
a

'

field/easy.'

"

To change.* To speak.' To urge on.' Pleased,' ' to delight in.*

'

'TotakoofF.'
*

Pleasure,' * to take delight in.* Music'

*To take delight in.*


An
*

ancient

surname.

To eat.'

*Food.'
*

The substance,* * matter.* A witness,' * a pledge.* A


woman.'
a

'

To give
Dry.'

daughter

in marriage.*

'Thou,' 'you.'
*

'Firm,' 'stable.*

'To return.'
'Still," also.*
*

To revolve.* To see.'

362

CHINESE

MANUAL.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

363

^ ^
I7"

Yttng Fuh

An

ice house.*

'

*jPo?(

To and fro/ * unstnLle. * To cover,' to overshadow.*

t;

^Wang ^Wu

'gone.' 'Lost/ 'destroyed/

'Without.'
'The

1^

^T'un

beginning

of

growth/
64

*a

^Chiin

village.' The third of

the

diagrams,

'thick.' 'difficult/

and

some

others.

define variations in meanings by change of tone, may be cited the following :


those which

Of

J: ^

^Shnng
*

Shang

*Fu
^Fi(

'To go up.' ' On,' ' upon,' 'A father/

'

'

exalted/ supreme.'

^ ^

^Fu ^Fu

A terra for old people. 'a husband,' 'To assist,'

'a

man/

'Now,'
'Long.'
'

'forasmuch.' 'therefore/

^Ch'ang
3

Chang Ch'en Ch'en

'

'

Old,' ' senior,'' to increase.' To arrange,' * set in order..' ' talion. A rank or fileof soldiers,' a bat-

H;

'^

Chung

'Heav}^'

'grave/ 'decorous/

^Chhmg

'To double,' 'to repeat.'

364

CHINESE

MANUAL,

CHINESE

MANUAL.

365

366

CHIXESR

MANUAL.

^ 5g

*K'u
^K'ung

'To go away/
'Empty/

^K'ung

'To

*to empu// separate/

CHINESE

MANUAL.

367

368

CHINESE

MAM'AL.

^
^

^Tao

*To

turn

upside

down/

to

pour

out.'
^

THao
T'iao

' To II ft,' to carry on the shoulders. * To to provoke.*

"

select/

Wr\ ^T'ifio
^Tiao

'

To harmonise.'
tune.'

'A
*

t%

T'ing

To hear/ * to listen.'
'to comply receive/

^T'ing

'To

with.'

t^

^Tsai
* ^ ^ 2 *
^

Tsai
Ta'ang
T'm)ig

'A year.' ' To contain.'


'

^
|"
iil

granary.'
'

'

x",'aiig Tsnxg

'

Flurried/ startled.* To hide/ To conceal.*


'

storehouse.*
'

r"r?o
7^s'r70

To To

make/
'

to create.' to

reach/

arrive/ to colleci.'

'

}j:/^Tmnig
^

'To take.' 'To lead


'A
'

Tsiang

troops/*a general.
as
'

3E
^

^Wa)ig
^

king.'
a

Wang f^f.i

To rule To

king.'

2
*

be/

to do.'

fFee yfr^ji Wen


Frto

'For/ 'because/'to give/


"

na

2
* 4 ^

To hear.' To state to.' To want.'


an

'

^-

'

PrtO

*To make

agreement.'

CHINESE

MANUAL.

369

Ying Ying many

That which is right,' * proper.* * An answer/ to respond.*

And

others.

^"^

^/"7//J"// sheng, Provinces

The

Eighteen

CAPITAL.

J^^Paoting Fu TsinanFu f^'^

jj^VT'aiyue ^^K'aifengF
}^^ Kiangning Fu }^^ Ngank'ing Fu Nanch'ang Fu jj^^ ^ J^ ITangchou Fu Fuhchou Fu ;j^3 ^^ AYuch'angFu /^3Ch'angsha
^

Fu

}{fKwangchou Fu J^^Kweilin Fu ^ j^ Yunnan Fu J^^Kweiyang Fu

J^^ J^^Lanchou

Jj^s Singan

Ch'engtu Fu

Fu

Fu

370

CHINESE

MANUAL.

^^ J:^ T'singch'ao ta Hicangii* 'W 'k'^ shany, The Emperors of the Pure (the prcseut)
Dynasty.

^"Shunchi j(i^^
^" iE^
K'aiighi J^i .^1 Yungcheng

From

1644
1062

to 1661

1722

1723
1736

1735 1795
1820 1850 1861
1875

-ftMl'K'ienlung ^1 ^^ Kiak'ing
jt* 7^^ Taokwang fvk^W^ Hienfeng Iffl2f^*T'ungchi
'Jt^ 1^^
Note.
"

1796

1821 1851
1802

Kwangsii

1875, reigning

Emperor In accordance with custom an is not considered to begin his reign, and therefore docs not adopt his Nienhao, until the firstday of year after the decease of his predecessor. In the case of T'ungchi it happened that he died before on the 12th of January, 1875, which was
the
new

the Chinese

new

year. ]V(d(jhts.

10 10

10 16 100

^2 ^1 ^2

it,

or

Cash

1 1

^^
m^

Fen,

or

Candarin.

i^e"

^^ Ts'ien,or Mace.
Liang,
or

T's'/Vrt

Tael

(the
(the

Chinese

ounce).
=

^3

Liang

J^^ Kin,

or

Catty

Chinese pound = l^lb.). Jr'^"i = 1 ^' Tan, or Picul=

133ilb8.

CHINESE

MANUAL.

371

Measures. 10
10

^1

Feuy

or

Grains

Ts'un, or ij-*

Inch.

-sj-*

1 J^ C/i'/A, Chinese or cubit, according to the Foreign trade tariff of 1858 is 14"1 English inches.
=

Tn'tin

10

^* Chang = about =1 14-35 feet. The C/iang of the Foreign trade tariff of 1858 is 141 English inches. 6 f^ ChHh ip^Pa, or Pace. =1 jp^Pu (square)
acre
=

fi Ch'lh

240

j^^

j/;,,,^ q^

Chinese
acre.

100

^ H

Hon

about one-sixth of an English = 1 tl^^^'%.

Chinese mile = 1826 English feet, more than a third and is therefore a little of an English mile.
Li,
or

Every

whole is divided into 10

^^

FH.

372

CHINESE

MANUAIta

TaBU-ED

ClIARACTEllS.
among
a

Tabu, which is so common islanders, exists to


China. There, however,
Tabu, and

nesian tho Polyextent

modified and

in
not

names

words,

are objects,

first and

foremost

the

personal names of the sovereigns of the reigning dynasty arc Tabu. So soon as a dynastic change has been effected the Tabu, which has previously
been in force, is removed, time only and thus at the present

the personal names of the reigning Manchu house are With regard, unwritable. however, to the first emperor of the line whose

Nien-Jiao,or

Shun-chi, it was nignly bewas royal title, decreed that as his personal name was }jf^ * Fii-Ihi Happy he would not j^fr commencement,'
own
'

for his

honour
Happy,'

deprive tho whole

the word

and But his should not be Tabu. no isaw such reason why his name

empire of that therefore his name


successor,

K*ang-hi,

'Profound
common
use

of ^ ^^ Iliien-yih and Glorious,' should be profaned by and so ordered that instead of these

characters ^ or firstand j^ Yuh


The
was name

7^ Yuen
*

should be used for the Glorious,' for tho second.

^L 9^

tho next emperor, of Yung-chcng, Yin-chen 'Inherited blessings,'and to

CHINESB

MANUAL.

873 directed

express the
to write

same

ideas his Yun-ching


*

were subjects

jj^ ^^

Permitted felicity.'

stead and decreed that in^ Hung-lih * The vast of the characters i]/, heavenly bodies,'the signs ^ Hung and J^ Lih,
K'ienlung followed next bearing the
meaning, should be adopted. The name Kiak'ing, of K'ienlung's successor, Ytfng-i/cn * A dignified brilliantgem,' was {j^ J;j^
same

uso and for common by contraction into

these characters
and ,2jf|

were

altered

J^
.

characters representing the succeeding sovereign, Taokwang, ^

The

name

of the Min-ning

'Compassionate and tranquil,'were in like manner transformed for popular use into % and ^, Hienfung,
named ^ in this case
more

who next ascended the throne, was Yih-chu 'Abundant knowledge,' and p'j* it was not considered necessary to do
the second character to %'^, T'ungchi, whose name was

than to contract

In

the

same

way
'

V^! Tsai-simn

Beautiful

and

pure,' only

deemed

it advisable to give his

form of the second The reigning Emperor,

a modified subjects character, thus, ^g"


.

Kwangsii,

following

Tsai the traditions of the Imperial family, has Jjijj being of the same as the first part of his name, is still generation as his predecessor, and that

374

CHINESE

MANUAL.

coraraon

*The

property, but the second part \\^ T'ien is forbidden to the gentle flow of

water/

vulgar. The name

of the heir-apparent at the present time is jj^i f^ Yung-Hen 'The eternal sacrificial
and in his
case

vase,'

also it has only been deemed


common

necessary to forbid the

use

of the second

character. But while the to be Tabu so


names soon as

of sovereigns have ceased their dynastic line has


is
one
name

ceased twenty

to reign, there
or
more

which

for

centuries has amid

the overthrow

of thrones and the change of dynasties been held by all to be too sacred for common use, and tliat is the name of Confuciiis. During his lifetime
the sage Kimg
was

known

by his countrymen

as

jfL"f;^

K'iu,

Kung
name.

being
By
an

his

his personal ordered that

and K'iu imperial edict it was


surname

should be Tabu, and

that those

who wished to express tliemeaning of "Mound" belonging to it,should use ^, bearing the same
sound

and meaning.
words

The

expressing

Tabu

in
*

Chinese

are

1^ ^
from

Htcui hi, the first meaning sense u of respect for,'and

To avoid using * To the second

fear, to shun, to avoid anvthing

ill-omened,' and

CHINESE

MANUAL.

375

thus

we

have

indicated the two


names

the Tabu of sacred

Among of evil moment.. of Sages and Ancestors


and

kinds of Tabu, and the Tabu of things these last the deaths

universally classed, all references to unpropitious family events,

are

such as the execution of individuals and violent deaths, are avoided. But besides the Tabu-ed there are, in almost
are

subjects localwords and all districts, whicli subjects

In the great encyclopocdia mentioned. K*ang-hi a compiled by order of the Emperor listof some are there of these is given, and we told that in the Province of Cheh-kiang it is
never

Tabu

for boatmen
*

to pronounce

the words
upset,' and

^
this

Chu

To

stop,' or

Fan

To

interdict refers not only to these particular words, but also to all words bearing the same sound,
much
as

though, supposing it

were

Tabu

in English entail

to utter the word

'Hoarse,* it would

also the necessity of avoiding the word 'Horse.' Thus the Cheh-kiang boatmen are debarred from

^ Chu * Chopsticks,' and cal^ using the word them ^ ^ K'lcaierh * Nimble lads,' and for
tS ^
Tabu
Fanpu
*

A duster,' they say

^ ^

Mopu.

Among

the people of the same province it is To to say ^% j^ Li-mn and so separate/


'

376

CHINESE

MANUAL.

for

^ Li
M

round

A pear,' they say fruit,' and for ^ San


*

^ [gj
'

Yuen hco

The

say
same

^
way

umhrella,' they S/iH-lih'A standard rainhat.' In the they are forbidden to say ^ |^ Lang-

An

Uih

'Violent'

call \% j^ Iling-lio ' My

they so and 'destructive.' And * Lanff-ch'tii An elm (?) cudgel,' ^ ^

flourishing elder brother.' The Nao-tsao 'Vexed and hasty,* is expression f^ l^^ forbidden them, and so the phrase ^ ^ Sie-tsao
'

To

thank by

the

kitchen

'

has (god),

to

be

phrased parathank

^ f^f||j[
of

Sic hivan-hi 'To

glad In

joy.'
a

part

Smchhien

which
to

is
use

subject
the In
some

to

devastating

fires it is Tabu and

words

'Fire,' iX U-ti-'o

Ch'ai 'Fuel.'
to say

districtsalso it is Tabu and so for Si mien 'To

^"' *To }5fc

wash,'

wash

the face,' they say

^
way is
use

"^

Moh

'

mien

To rub his face.'

In

the

same

in the neighbourhood devastating

of Sok'iao sin, which gales, the natives never wind,' lt;stthey should

to subject

the word

J^ Feng

'

invoke their most

feared enemy.

Printed

by GUt"erl Ji Riviigtou.

Ltd.. St. Juliui

lluuae. Clerkenoell.

".C

Text- Books,

Manuals,

"c.,

in

ORIENTAL
HINDU
PLATTS,
Hindustani

LANGUAGES.
ST A N \-co"tinueJ.

J. T., Persian Teacher at the University of Oxford, Dictionakv. Dictionary of Urdu' and Classical Hindi and English, in the Persian and Nagari Characters. Super Royal 8vo.

Urdi" HINDUSTANI OF LANGUAGE. THE OR Hindustani in Persian Character. Demy 8vo. the 12s. words Haital Pachisi, translated into English. Demy 8vo. Bj-. Ikhvvanu-s-Safa, into English. Demy Svo. 10^. 6d. translated ROGERS, E. H. Huw Hindustani TO si'KAK Character. Rov. i.mo. it. ; in the Roman SMALL. BEV. O. nirnoNARV N'avai, Terms, English and Hindustani. OK For the use Nautical India, Men In Roman "c. to Chaiacter. trading the of Fcap. 8\o. 2.y. 6ii. TOLBORT, H. F. W. Ai.ii- Laila ba-Zaban-i-Urdu. (The Arabian Nights in Hindustani, i In the Roman io.f. 6d. C"haractcr. Crown Svo.
"

iRAMMAK

JAPANESE.
H., Emeritus Professor of Japanese BASIL and University of Tokyo. Philology in the In"ix^rial A Handbook Character. Coli.oquiai, 01 Japanese, in the Roman Third Edition, entirely revised. Crown Svo. 151. Study Pkacticai, Introduction to the of Japanese Writing. Kana It teaches the writing of the and most useful Chinese Reader full is a same the lime, at translation. with characters, and Folio. 31J. 6d. net. A.M. CLAY, MacCAULEY. (President of the School for Advanced Learning, Tokyo). Svo. Course An Introductory in Japanese. Crown los. 6d. P^ S. G. (R.E.). CAPT. PIGGOTT, Containing over The EiJ'.Mi-.Nis of SosHo. i,8co Characters reproduced (Quarto, cloth. 125. 6d. net. bv Phoiographv. ROSE-INNES. ARTfiDB. Dictionary. Preceded by a few English-Japanese Conversation Notions of Japanese Grammar. Square i6mo. limp. Elementary
"
"

CHAMBERLAIN,

net. 3.V.

STRONG,
Medium Common
220

GEO.

V., Lieut., 6th U.S. Cav.


Military 16s.
net.

Japanese-English

Dictionary kor Svo, half-bound. 542 pages. 8.f. net.

Translators.
Svo, half-bound.

Chinese-Japanese Characters. MALAY.

Medium

pages.

1 MALAY MARSDEN'S 41,. R. J. WILKINSON, In three parts. Royal 4to, about Dictionary, A Malay-English 63.?. in bound one net. volume, half-leather, 50J. net, or 750 pages. have The third part will be supplied at 7s. 6d. to those who already purchased parts i and 2.

GRAMMAR.

CROSBY

LOCKWOOD

"

SON,

Hall Court, E.G. 7, Stationers'

MODERN

GREEK.
for L^eaming
l-,-;ii.
r?,

TIEN, REV. ANTON, Ph.D., M.R.A.S. MoDKKN Grei-.k Practical Rules Comprising .\[.\nlai.. ih'- Lnnguage, X'ocaLulary, Dialogues. LeU"-rs Ir!i(,in"

.V"

PERSIAN.
CLARKE, LIEUT.COLONEL H. WILBERFORCE (late), B.E. 1 iiK Persian A I'ockci Companion. "Manual. A Concisi- (iranimar of ilie Language, with l-.xercises,a Selection of Useful Plirases. Dialogues, and Subjects for Translation into Persian, and a Vocabulary of Useful Words, PInglish and Persian, "c. i8mo. ys. 6d.
"

f6RBES,
I'KRSIAN
AND,

DUNCAN, GraM.MAK, \'Of ABULAKY. MIRZA.

LL.D. READING LESSONS Roval 8vo. 12S.


Dialogues,

IN

THE

PERSIAN

CHARACTER,

(id.

IBRAHEEM,
Pi.RSiAN

Koval

Gkammar, 8vo. I2_f. bd.

"c.,

in

the

Persian

Character.

KEENE,

REV. H. Or. BotiK THE Anwari OF Soheili ; the Text in the Character. Demy 8vo. 5.^. Akhlaki Mushini. Translated into English. 8vo. bd. 3.5.
llKST

Per^inn

PENMANSHIP: specimens comprising of Persian Handwriting, illustrated with Facsimiles from Originals in the South Kensington Museum, to which are added Illustrations of the Nagari Character. P.y the late Prof. Palmerand F. Pincott. 410. 125. td. OUSELEY, lilEUT.-COIy. Akhlaki-i-Mushini 8vo. ^s. ; the Te.vt in the Persian Character. Demy PLATTS, J. T. (Persian Teacher at the University of O.xford). Gllistan Persian Character. Carefulh collated with the ; in the Svo. MS., fullVocabulary. Royal bd. 12^. a original with GuLiSTAN, Translated Notes. Te.\t, with copious from a Revised Royal Svo. bd. i2j. PLATTS, J. T. (Persian Teacher at the University of Oxford), and ROGERS, A. Civil Bombay (late Service). The Bustan from a Persian MS., Collated S.\'.\di. Photographed of Inipl. Svo. and .Annotated. iSj. A. (late ROGERS, Civil Service). Bombay Pkrsl\n Pl.-\vs, in the Persian Character ; with Literal English Translation and \'ocabularv. Crown Svo, "s. bd. P., Ph.D. STEINGASS, Dictionary A Co.mprehensive ; the .Persian-E.vglish .including Persian in Literature, Phrases Arabic Words be to met and with Persian, Ar.\bic, and English being John.sonand Rich.\rdson's Impl. DiCTiON.\RY, revised, enlarged, and entirely reconstructed,
Svo. ^-^ 3J. net. ifoo pages. H" TOLBORT, T. W. Bengal Civil Senice. THE A TRANSL.VnON ROBINSON CRUSOE INTO OF Roman Crown Svo. Character. ys.

ORiaNTAL

PERSIAN

LANGUAGE.

CROSBY

LOCKWOOD

SON,

7, Stationers' Hall Court, E.G.

ERN

REGIONAL UBHARv

-i

Text

Books,

000 941999

ORIENTAL
cox,
Notes

LANGUAGES.
PUSHTO. Punjabs.

MAJOR
on

A. Flshtu

all the recent the Peshawar


los.

"Sentences"

together with an Appendix containing for Translation" set by and "Passages I3oard of Examiners. 160 pages, crown 4to, cloth.

D., 69th Gkammak,

net.

RAVERTY,

H. ",, Author of the Pus'hto Grammar MAJOR and Dictionary. The Pis'uro Manual. Comprising a Concise Grammar ; Exercise and Dialojjiu*'. Fcap. 8vo. : Phrases, Proverbs, and Vocabiilary. :;j-. ROOS-KEPPEL, MAJOa G. (President of Central Commhtee of Examiners in Pus'htu Language). M.WUAL Pus'htl'. 8vo. Demy OK 12s. 6ii (SecondImpression.) -V
nm.

RUSSIAN.
SCHNURMANN,
J. NESTOR. The Russi.AN M.\nu.\i.. Comprising a Condensed Grammar, Exercises Lessons, Useful Dialogues, Tables Reading with .Analyses, of Coins, Weights Measures, Collection Idioms Proverbs a and of and and Fcap. 8vo. (yd. alphalieticallyarranged. js. Rcssi.\N Co,MFo.siTlON. TO Containing Exercises, Vocabularies, .Am Syntactical Rules, and Fcap. Bvo, y.f. Manuscript. dd. .Specimens of

SANSCRIT.
^,^Tr^xr

GOtraH, Kf.v

. A.

to

the

E, E.xercises

,=.

in

Williams'

Sanscrit

Ma.nl'al.

i8mo.

\s.

HAUQHTON,
S.\NscRrr

AND Diction.ary, in the Bengali Character, with Index, serving as a reversed Dictionary. 4to 30,1-. JOHNSON, F. PROF. HiTOP.XDES.v : the Text in Sanscrit Character, with Grammatical .Analysis V'ocabularv in Sanscrit and Roman Characters. and 15,1-. 410. PINCOTT, M.R.A.S., FREDERIC, "c. HiTOi'.ADESA. literal Translation from the Sanskrit loxi of new .A Prof. F. Johnson. For the use of Students. 6.f. WILLIAMS, MONIER. S.VNSCRIT Character ; with a Vocabulary, XIanl'al, in the Roman English and Sanscrit, in the Sanscrit Character, by A. E. Gough. i8mo; 7 J. (id.

O. C. Bengali

TURKISH.
Ph.D., M.B.A.S. TIEN, REV-. ANTON, Grammar, Turkish also Dialogues and Terms connected containmg .A Navy, Military Drill,Diplomatic and Social Life. 8vo. with the .Army,
420 pai^es. i6f. MACKENZIE, C. F. CAPT. Grammar, Manual. Condensed a luRKisH Comprising with .A Roman Vocabulary. Phrases, Exercises Dialogues, Idiomjitic and and ts. Character. Fcap. 8vo.

CROSBY

LOCKWOOD

SON, 7, Stationers'Hall Court, E.C.