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RESEARCH TOPIC : A Study On Effectiveness Of 5s In The Manufacturing Sector




The orgin of 5s is founded by Japanese for a very long time. It was only in the early 1980s that good housekeeping became a pertinent issue in Japanese industries, as companies realised its powerful contribution to productivity and quality improvement. The basis for good housekeeping in Japanese companies is a concept popularly known as 5S. Some Japanese words we need to know: Kaizen-(pronounced ki zen) improvement Kaizen Event and 5S Event-Planned improvements to a specific area or process (usually take 3 to 5 days). 5S Events focus on making 5S improvements. Muda-(pronounced moo da) waste Gemba-(pronounced gim ba) workplace Kanban-(pronounced kon bon) - Pull type inventorycontrol system.

Why 5 S is popular in Japan?

Workplace becomes clean and better organised, Shopfloor and office operations becomes safer and easier. Results are visible. Employees are highly motivated.

5s concept is intended to produce the best results in the work environment. The happiness of employees will increase and the organization will thrive in profits. By implementing 5s in a systematic way, there will be lots of improvement in the way the production is handled.


Before launching the 5s in work environment, should have an interaction with workers. In order to create awareness among the employees there should be room for discussions.Should invite suggestions and feedback to improve the work environment. Employees will actively contribute by giving useful feedback. There will be some issues which are common to all and there will be some which are occupation specific or based on physical constraints of a certain set of people. As the system that would like to implement will affect each and every one in your organization, we should make them part and parcel of this new revolution to implement best practices and methods. We should appreciate the efforts put by each and every worker and should honestly agree the fact that the growth of the organization is dependent on the successful contribution of one and all. We should explain the intention behind the implementation of the 5s concept. We should make them realize that it is implemented to improve the process and the overall system. Employees should realize the fact that by implementing the new concept the working conditions will improve and they will be able to perform various jobs easier than before. It is true that bringing change will not be smooth. For this reason, we should adapt to the implementation of the strategy at a slow pace. By conveying the intentions behind the implementation of the new system, the employees will be prepared to undergo changes in a gradual way.


What is 5S?
- Seiri = Sort - Seiton = Stabilize/Set in order

- Seiso = Shine/Sweep - Seiketsu = Standardize - Shitsuke = Sustain. Or we can see in another manner

5S is a methodology that focuses on creating workplace organization and standard work. When implemented the results are a clean, organized visual workplace.

The 5 S methods include 5 steps that are labeled by the word that references the basic elements of the method.

Sort: Means sorting out what items, supplies, equipment that you need in the work area to
perform work. It means you remove all of the items, supplies, equipment that you do not need to perform the work.

Set In Order: Means finding the proper place for all items, supplies, and equipment so that
everyone can easily identify, find, use and put it away when done.

Shine: Means cleaning the work area and making sure that all items, supplies and equipment
are in working order.

Standardize: Is the method that is developed to maintain the first three steps of the process.

Sustain: Is the habit or discipline to maintain the standards and procedures.

The 5 Steps of the process need to be implemented in order as each step builds on the work of the previous step. For example if you start with step 3 Shine but you havent done steps 1 & 2 and your workplace is a chaos how do you know what you need to clean and what not? Or, if you start with step 2 Setting in Order, but skipped step 1 Sorting, you would be wasting time, energy, and space to set in order things that might not even need to be there in the first place.


Method and Implementation Approach

5S is a cyclical methodology: sort, set in order, shine, standardize, sustain the cycle. This results in continuous improvement.

The 5S Pillars Sort, the first S, focuses on eliminating unnecessary items from the workplace that are not
needed for current production operations. An effective visual method to identify these unneeded items is called "red tagging", which involves evaluating the necessity of each item in a work area and dealing with it appropriately. A red tag is placed on al items that are not important for operations o r that are not in the proper location or quantity. Once the red tag items are identified, these items are then moved to a central holding area for subsequent disposal, recycling, or reassignment. Organizations often find that sorting enables them to reclaim valuable floor space and eliminate such things as broken tools, scrap, and excess raw material.

Set In Order focuses on creating efficient and effective storage methods to arrange items so that they are easy to use and to label them so that they are easy to find and put away. Set in Order can only be implemented once the first pillar, Sort, has cleared the work area of unneeded items. Strategies for effective Set In Order include painting floors, affixing labels and placards to designate proper storage locations and methods, outlining work areas and locations, and installing modular shelving and cabinets. Shine. Once the clutter that has been clogging the work areas is eliminated and remaining items
are organized, the next step is to thoroughly clean the work area. Daily follow-up cleaning is necessary to sustain this improvement. Working in a clean environment enables workers to notice malfunctions in equipment such as leaks, vibrations, breakages, and misalignments. These changes, if left unattended, could lead to equipment failure and loss of production. Organizations often establish Shine targets, assignments, methods, and tools before beginning the shine pillar.

Standardize. Once the first three 5S's have been implemented, the next pillar is to standardize
the best practices in the work area. Standardize, the method to maintain the first three pillars, creates a consistent approach with which tasks and procedures are done. The three steps in this process are assigning 5S (Sort, Set in Order, Shine) job responsibilities, integrating 5S duties into regular work duties, and checking on the maintenance of 5S. Some of the tools used in standardizing the 5S procedures are: job cycle charts, visual cues (e.g., signs, placards, display scoreboards), scheduling of "five-minute" 5S periods, and check lists. The second part of Standardize is prevention - preventing accumulation of unneeded items, preventing procedures from breaking down, and preventing equipment and materials from getting dirty.

Sustain. Sustain, making a habit of properly maintaining correct procedures, is often the most
difficult S to implement and achieve. Changing entrenched behaviors can be difficult, and the tendency is often to return to the status quo and the comfort zone of the "old way" of doing things. Sustain focuses on defining a new status quo and standard of work place organization. Without the Sustain pillar the achievements of the other pillars will not last long. Tools for sustaining 5S include signs and posters, newsletters, pocket manuals, team and management check-ins, performance reviews, and department tours. Organizations typically seek to reinforce 5S messages in multiple formats until it becomes "the way things are done." Proper discipline keeps the 5S circle in motion.


SEIRI / SORT / CLEANUP: The first step of the "5S" process, Seiri, refers to the act of throwing away all unwanted, unnecessary, and unrelated materials in the workplace. People involved in Seiri must not feel sorry about having to throw away things. The idea is to ensure that everything left in the workplace is related to work. Even the number of necessary items in the workplace must be kept to its absolute minimum. There are two main objectives of Seiri; first is the simplification of tasks and effective use of space. In performing Seiri, this simple guideline is a must: 1. Separate needed items from unneeded items. 2. Remove unneeded items from working areas. 3. Discard the items never used. 4. Store items not Item not needed now. 5. Remove all excess items from working areas, including work pieces, supplies, personal items, tools, instruments, and equipment. 6. Use red tag to get rid of unneeded items. 7. Store items needed by most people in a common storage area. 8. Store items only needed by each individual in his/her own working area. 9. Organize working / storage area. SEITON / SET IN ORDER / ARRANGING: Seiton, or orderliness, is all about efficiency. This step consists of putting everything in an assigned place so that it can be accessed or retrieved quickly, as well as returned in that same place quickly. If everyone has quick access to an item or materials, work flow becomes efficient, and the worker becomes productive. Every single item must be allocated its own place for safekeeping, and each location must be labeled for easy identification of what it's for. Its objective includes; the needed items can be easily found, stored and retrieved, supports efficiency and productivity, First-in first-out (FIFO), and save space and time. In performing Seiton, follow these guidelines: 1. A place for everything and everything in its place. 2. Place tools and instructional manual close to the point of use. 3. Store similar items together. Different items in separate rows.

4. Don't stack items together. Use rack or shelf if possible. 5. Use small bins to organize small items. 6. Use color for quickly identifying items. 7. Clearly label each item and its storage areas (lead to visibility). 8. Use see-through cover or door for visibility. 9. Use special designed cart to organize tools, jigs, measuring devices, etc., that are needed for each particular machine.

SEISO / SHINE / NEATNESS: Seiso, the third step in "5S", says that 'everyone is a janitor.' Seiso consists of cleaning up the workplace and giving it a 'shine'. Cleaning must be done by everyone in the organization, from operators to managers. It would be a good idea to have every area of the workplace assigned to a person or group of persons for cleaning. Seiso is not just cleaning, but a whole attitude that includes ensuring everything is in perfect condition. Everyone should see the 'workplace' through the eyes of a visitor - always thinking if it is clean enough to make a good impression. Its objective includes; cleanliness ensures a more comfortable and safe working place, cleanliness will lead to visibility so as to reduce search time and cleanliness ensures a higher quality of work and products. Follow these guidelines in performing Seiso: 1. Use dust collecting covers or devices to prevent possible dirt or reduce the amount of dirt. 2. Investigating the causes of dirtiness and implement a plan to eliminate the sources of dirt. 3. Cover around cords, legs of machines and tables such that dirt can be easily and quickly removed. 4. Operators clean their own equipment and working area and perform basic preventive maintenance. 5. Keep everything clean for a constant state of readiness. SEIKETSU / SYSTEMIZE / DISCIPLINE: The fourth step of "5S", or seiketsu, more or less translates to 'standardized clean-up'. It consists of defining the standards by which personnel must measure and maintain 'cleanliness'. Seiketsu encompasses both personal and environmental cleanliness. Personnel must therefore practice 'seiketsu' starting with their personal tidiness. Visual management is an important ingredient of seiketsu. Color-coding and standardized coloration of surroundings are used for easier visual identification of anomalies in the surroundings. Personnel are trained to detect abnormalities using their five senses and to correct such abnormalities immediately. The guidelines include: 1. Removing used, broken, or surplus items from the work area 2. Making safety a prime requirement by paying attention to noise, fumes, lighting, cables, spills,

and other aspects of the workplace environment 3. Checking that items are where they should be 4. Listening to the "voice" of the process and being alert to things such as unusual noises 5. Ensuring that there is a place for everything and that everything is in its place 6. Wearing safe working apparel and using safe equipment 7. Minimizing all waste and the use of valuable resources such as oil, air, steam, water, and electricity SHITSUKE / SUSTAIN / ON-GOING IMPROVEMENT: The last step of "5S", Shitsuke, means 'Discipline.' It denotes commitment to maintain orderliness and to practice the first 4 S as a way of life. The emphasis of shitsuke is elimination of bad habits and constant practice of good ones. Once true shitsuke is achieved, personnel voluntarily observe cleanliness and orderliness at all times, without having to be reminded by management. The characteristic of 5S tends to overlap significantly rather than cover very different subjects. Rather than worry about what fits into Seiri and what fits into Seiton, use them to reinforce each other and implement the whole thing.


5S Training "pillars"
The individual items within 5S are known as the "pillars" and are:

1. 5s Seiri (Sort)
Seiri is the identification of the best physical Organisation of the workplace. It has been variously anglicised as Sort, Systematisation or Simplify by those wishing to retain the S as the initial letter of each element. It is the series of steps by which we identify things which are being held in the workplace when they shouldn't, or are being held in the wrong place. Put simply, we may identify a large area devoted to tools or gauges, some of which are

needed regularly and some used infrequently. This brings all sorts of problems, including: Operators unable to find the item they need, being unable to see wood for trees. The time spent searching is a waste (or in Japanese speak a muda) and if we only held the items needed regularly in a prominent position we would save time. Quality issues when gauges are not calibrated on time because too many are held. Safety issues when people fall over things. Lockers and racking cluttering the workplace making it hard to move around or to see each other and communicate

Some of the standard texts also talk about the elimination of excess materials and WIP. This is a complete restatement of all the JIT goals of releasing capital, reduced movement, shorter cycle times and so on. The question may be asked: should we then see inventory and WIP reduction as part of the implementation of the lean approach or as an element of 5S? The answer, as ever, is that keeping inventory and WIP to a minimum is simple best practice. Whether we view it as JIT, or lean, or 5S or assign any other term is quite frankly irrelevant. The major element of Seiri is simply a critical look at the area. Involving cross-functional teams, or looking at each other's areas, is an obvious first step. People tend to be blind to failings in their own work place and a fresh pair of eyes can be useful. Another element of the standard approach is 'red tagging' where items are given a tag which says what the item is, which location it is in and when it was identified in this location. We then leave the area for a while and anybody using the item notes this. We go back some time later and can readily identify things that haven't moved, or been used. Items which have not been used can then potentially be disposed of. As a first pass we should perhaps create a quarantine area before throwing items away, selling them or reworking them into something else. Other items may be deemed necessary but used infrequently and so an alternative location can be found. If the operator needs a particular tool only once or twice a month then a 20-yard walk is not a problem - especially if the space thus saved on the workbench helps to make the workplace more productive, or helps address quality issues.

2. 5s Seiton (Set)
Seiton is the series of steps by which the optimum organisation identified in the first pillar are put into place. The standard translation is Orderliness but again some wish to keep the initial S and use Sort (yes, that is also one of the translations of Seiri), Set in order, Straighten and

Standardisation. The sorting out process is essentially a continuation of that described in the Seiri phase. Removing items to be discarded or held in an alternative location will create space. This space will be visible and facilitate the alternative layout of the area. In some cases, of course, we are talking about what a fitter will have on his bench, or in racks alongside the bench. In other cases we may be considering where we should locate a piece of plant - for example we may relocate a coin press to enable items to be completed in one work area rather than requiring a significant movement down the shop. This is something which we also undertake when adopting cellular manufacturing. We then look at how we can restructure the work content so that certain operations can be carried out within the cycle of others - for example we may carry out a trimming operation on a steel component while the press which produced it is busy creating the next one. Again, is this a 5S initiative, or part of a kaizen programme, or something else? Again, who cares, as long as we get on and achieve an improvement in business performance? Standardisation includes all the elements of setting out a consistent way of doing things. This includes standard manufacturing methodologies, standard equipment and tooling, component rationalisation, drawing standardisation, consistency in the documentation which accompanies work, design for manufacture (or concurrent engineering) and standardisation in the clerical processes which deliver work to the shop floor and track its progress.

All of this could be said to be part of a basic Total Quality approach. The standard ways of doing things should include poka-yoke or error-proofing. Again it might be asked whether this is part of 5S or one aspect of a broader programme.

3. 5s Seiso (Shine) Anglicised as Cleanliness but again the initial S can be retained in Shine, or Sweeping. The principle here is that we are all happier and hence more productive in clean, bright environments. There is a more practical element in that if everything is clean it is immediately ready for use. We would not want a precision product to be adjusted by a spanner that is covered in grease which may get into some pneumatic or hydraulic fittings. We would not wish to compromise a PCB assembly by metallic dust picked up from an unclean work surface. Other issues are health and safety (perhaps slipping in a puddle of oil, shavings blowing into people's eyes) and machine tools damaged by coolant contaminated by grease and dust.

The task is to establish the maintenance of a clean environment as an ongoing, continuous programme. Some time should be set aside for cleaning each day, or each shift. (We may have cleaners who come in a sweep office floors, and even clean the floor in a production area, but they do not clean the production equipment. Even if they did, this would miss one of the opportunities available - an operator cleaning and lubricating his machine tool will spot worn or damaged components.) Cleaning then begins to impinge upon what we already know as preventive maintenance. Cleaning critical components of a piece of equipment is already one element of the activities carried out under the PM banner. The implementation of Seiso revolves around two main elements.

The first is the assignment map which identifies who is responsible for which areas. The second is the schedule which says who does what at which times and on which days. Some of these happen before a shift begins, some during the shift and some at the end. Again, this is very reminiscent of what we do when adopting PM. The standard texts such as that of Hiroyuki Hirano then go on to talk about establishing the shine method for each item / area. This includes such elements as agreeing an inspection step at the beginning of each shift, establishing exactly how each activity within the programme is to be carried out. A key aspect is very much akin to set-up reduction (or SMED) in that we should be aiming as much as possible to internalise the activities - in other words, to minimise the downtime needed to keep the facilities clean.

4. 5s Seiketsu (Standardisation)
This is best described as Standardised cleanup, but other names adopted include Standardisation (not to be confused with the second pillar), Systematisation and Sanitation. Seiketsu can be the thought of as the means by which we maintain the first three pillars. There is, obviously, a danger in any improvement activity that once the focus is removed and another 'hot button' grabs management attention, things go back to the way they were before. Seiketsu is the set of techniques adopted to prevent this happening. Basically this involves setting a schedule by which all the elements are revisited on a regular basis usually referred to as the '5S Job Cycle.' The first step in the cycle is a periodic review of the area, perhaps involving red tagging but certainly involving people from other areas of the business. This will identify where standards have slipped - for example where pieces of tooling or fixtures which are used infrequently are no longer being put in the remote location agreed

at the outset and consequently a bench is now cluttered with the regular items buried under a pile of irregular. (In other words, the Seiri phase is undertaken periodically usually monthly, perhaps quarterly.) The second step is to undertake Seiton activities as required - that is, as prompted by the first step. Finally within Seiketsu people from other areas visit and cast a critical eye over the state of the area. Again, an external assessor may notice degradation that is not clear to the people who work in the area. Hirano talks of a checklist within Seiketsu whereby the external visitors mark the area on a number of key criteria defined at the outset of the programme. For example, are the storage areas still clearly defined? Does the tool rack still have clear outlines or profiles for each tool to be stored in it? Does the area meet the general standards of cleanliness? 5. 5s Shitsuke (Sustain) The final stage is that of Discipline. For those who wish to retain the use of initial S's in English this is often listed as Sustain or Self-discipline. There is a fundamental difference between Seiketsu and Shitsuke. The fourth pillar is the introduction of a formal, rigorous review programme to ensure that the benefits of the approach are maintained. The fifth pillar is more than this; it is not simply the mechanical means by which we continue to monitor and refine, it is the set of approaches we use to win hearts and minds, to make people want to keep applying best practice in shop organisation and housekeeping. In this sense, discipline is perhaps an unfortunate term as it implies people forced to do something, with consequent penalties if they do not. The way in which management achieves this establishment of ongoing commitment within the workforce depends, of course, on the culture already in place. As with the adoption of kaizen (continuous improvement) or quality circles we have to press the right buttons to stimulate people. If the business has a history of treating people like cattle, giving no credence to their suggestions and simply trying to improve performance by driving the workers ever harder, then enthusiasm for any sort of initiative aimed at building a better environment is going to be hard to generate. There are a number of elements to any ongoing improvement activity in any business. Which take pre-eminence in a particular organisation varies with the history and culture of that organisation. Suffice to say that key points are: Communication. We need people to be aware of what we are trying to achieve, and why. Education. They need to understand the concepts and the individual techniques.

Rewards and Recognition. People need to feel that their efforts are recognised. Whether the reward is a senior manager walking past and saying "that's very good, well done" or some form of award (financial gain, prize or formal presentation of a certificate) depends on the organisation. Time. If we want people to spend five minutes every four hours removing swarf from the floor around their machine we have to make sure that we allow them this time. We cannot give this as an instruction yet at the same time push for more time spent achieving productivity targets. Structure. We need to identify what is to be done, by whom, and ensure that schedules are updated and clearly visible.

Having prepared your employees for the change, you can implement 5s steps in a gradual way. You should sort the items that are required in the work environment. You should dispose unnecessary items which are not part and parcel of the manufacturing process. Thus, you will deal with items that you work-with and you will not waste your time on preservation of unnecessary items. You should arrange workplace items in appropriate ways. They should be arranged in such a way that there will be no room for overlap of activities. There will be no time for wastage of man hours or machine hours. All the machines that perform a particular kind of task should be positioned at one location. In order to implement the shining part of the workplace, preventing and active maintenance should be undertaken. The ambience should be kept clean and green. Standardization part can be best implemented by picking up the best methods of production and ensuring that all the employees will follow the instructions as per the guidelines. 5s concept is best implemented and optimized by ensuring that the procedures laid are implemented on a consistent basis. You should catch up the latest and proven methods as well in this process.

5S-operation model brings a lot of benefits. Some of those are economical and some improves human capital. Results can be seen in staff, environ-ment, quality, production and offices. It can be said that the main benefits are: - Upgrade of productivity and the quality of actions. - Reduce of work in-processes and shorten lead-times.

- Better working circumstances and rising comfort . - Decreasing searching times and costs. - Rising company image.

5S gives a better starting point to notice problematic and deviations before major troubles and every complication should be putted in record.

The objective is to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness. There are five primary 5S phases: Sorting - Eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts, and instructions. Setting in Order - Arranging tools, parts, and instructions in such a way that the most frequently used items are the easiest and quickest to locate. Shine - Clean the workspace and all equipment, and keep it clean, tidy and organized. Standardizing - All work stations for a particular job should be identical. Sustaining - Maintain and review standards. Once the previous 4 S's have been established, they become the new way to operate.


Building and fostering the spirit of cooperation through the involvement of everyone within the organisation. Creating a first class, clean, systematic, safe and conducive environment through the 5S practices. Increasing work productivity and quality with efficiency.

Practical 5S Objectives

Seiri: Objective: the implementation of useful tools for creating an effective work environment without bothersome and useless influences

Seiton: Objective: Eliminating the need to look for objects

Seiso: Objective: To keep things clean

Seiketsu: Objective: To observe proper practices


Objective: To use the best practices and continuously improve them