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> Title of presentation - Date - References 1 1

Pilot Wire Differential


Protection of Feeders
> Title of presentation - Date - References 2 2
Why Needed
Circulating Current and Balanced Voltage Principles
Electromechanical Pilot Wire Relays and Schemes
Solid State Pilot Wire Relays and Schemes
Polar Diagrams
Summation Transformers and Fault Settings
Line Charging Currents
Pilot Wire : Characteristics
Isolation
Supervision
Overcurrent Check
Intertripping / Destabilising
> Title of presentation - Date - References 3 3
Differential Feeder Protection
Why Needed ? - Overcomes application difficulties of
simple overcurrent relays when applied to
complex networks, i.e. co-ordination problems
and excessive fault clearance times.
Basic Principle
Involves measurement of current at each end of feeder and
Transmission of information between each end of feeder
Protection should operate for faults inside the protected zone (i.e.
the feeder) but must remain stable for faults outside the protected
zone.
Thus can be instantaneous in operation.
> Title of presentation - Date - References 4 4
System Where Directional O/C Cannot Be Used
I
1
10
(v)
1
(v)
2 (i)
3
(iv)
9
(i)
8
(iv)
(i) (v) represents
increasing time
setting
4 (ii)
I
2
5
(iii) 6
(iii)
7
(ii)
I
1
I
1
I
2
10
I
1
+I
2
2
I
2 8
4
I
2
I
1
+I
2
I
1
+I
2
I
2
6
4
I
1
+I
2
I
1
8
I
1
10
4 must operate before 8
4 must operate after 8
> Title of presentation - Date - References 5 5
Use of Pilot Wire Differential Protection
10
(iii)
1
2
9
(i)
8
(ii)
3
4
5
(iii)
6 (i) 7 (ii)
C, C, C, C are pilot wire differential relays
1 is non directional O/C relays
C, , C, are directional O/C relays
Operating times :- {C and 1} > {C and } > { and } > {C, C, C and C}
> Title of presentation - Date - References 6 6
Merz-Price Differential or Unit Protection
R
Protected Circuit
or Plant
Boundaries of protection coverage accurately defined
Protection responds only to faults in protected zone
> Title of presentation - Date - References 7 7
Relay
End A End B
Circulating Current System
Balanced Voltage System
Basic mertz-price principle applies well where CT secondary circuit can be kept short, eg.
protection of transformers, busbars, machines.
For feeder protection where boundaries of protection are a distance apart, a communication channel is
required.
Relay
End A End B
> Title of presentation - Date - References 8 8
Unit Protection Involving Distance
Between Circuit Breakers (1)
A B
Relaying
Point
Trip A
Trip B
R
Simple Local Differential Protection
> Title of presentation - Date - References 9 9
Unit Protection Involving Distance
Between Circuit Breakers (2)
Unit Protection Involving Distance
Between Circuits
A B
R R
Relaying
Point
Trip A Trip B
Communication
Channel
Relaying
Point
> Title of presentation - Date - References 10 10
Early Merz-Price Balanced Voltage Systems for
Feeders
R R
2 Problems :
(1) Maloperation due to unequal open circuit secondary voltages of the two
transformers for thro fault currents.
(2) High output voltages of CTs cause capacitance currents to flow thro relay.
Since capacitive currents are proportional to pilot length, relay insensitive for
all but very short lines.
> Title of presentation - Date - References 11 11
Basic Pilot Wire Schemes with Bias (1)
B B
I
V
OP
OP
V
I
Circulating Current
> Title of presentation - Date - References 12 12
Translay Differential Protection
A
B
C
Summation
Winding
Secondary
Winding
Pilot
Bias Loop
End A
End B
> Title of presentation - Date - References 13 13
MBCI Feeder Protection Circuit Diagram
T
t
T2
T2
T
r
T
r
T1
T1

C
R
PP
R
PP
PILOT
WIRES
T
t
R
S
R
S
RVO
RVO
T
o
T
s T
s
v
v
A
B
C
A
B
C
T
o
R
o
R
o
T1 - Summation Transformer T
s
- Auxiliary Winding
T2 - Auxiliary Transformer RVD - Non Linear Resistor
T
o
- Operating Winding R
o
- Linear Resistor
T
r
- Restraining Winding R
pp
- Pilots Padding Resistor
T
t
- Reference Winding
c
- Phase Comparator
> Title of presentation - Date - References 14 14
Summation Current Transformer Output (1)
a
b
c
l
m
n
output
> Title of presentation - Date - References 15 15
Summation Transformer
Sensitivity for Different Faults (1)
Let output for operation = K
(1) Consider A-E fault
for relay operation : I
A
(1 + 1 + 3) > K
I
A
> 1/5K or 20%K
Output for
operation = K
1
1
3
I
A
I
B
I
C
I
N
> Title of presentation - Date - References 16 16
(2) B-E fault
for relay operation : I
B
(1 + 3) > K
I
B
> 25%K
(3) C-E fault
for relay operation : I
C
x (3) > K
I
C
> 33
1/3
%K
(4) AB fault
for relay operation : I
AB
x (1) > K
I
AB
> 100%K
(5) BC fault
for relay operation : I
BC
x (1) > K
I
BC
> 100%K
(6) AC fault
for relay operation : I
AC
(1 + 1) > K
I
AC
> 50%K
Summation Transformer
Sensitivity for Different Faults (2)
> Title of presentation - Date - References 17 17
Type of Relay Sensitivity of
Fault Sensitivity E/M Pilot Wire
Relay
A - E 20% K 22% In
B - E 25% K 28% In
C - E 33
1/3
% K 22% In
AB 100% K 90% In
BC 100% K 90% In
CA 50% K 45% In
3 Phase 57.7% K 52% In
> Title of presentation - Date - References 18 18
Fault Settings for Plain Feeders
Input transformer summation ratio is 1.25 : 1 : N
where N = 3 for normal use
and N = 6 to give low earth fault settings
Fault Settings
N = 3 N = 6
A-N 0.19 x Ks x In 0.12 x Ks x In
B-N 0.25 x Ks x In 0.14 x Ks x In
C-N 0.33 x Ks x In 0.17 x Ks x In
A-B 0.80 x Ks x In
B-C 1.00 x Ks x In
C-A 0.44 x Ks x In
A-B-C 0.51 x Ks x In
Ks is a setting multiplier, variable from 0.5 to 2.0
In is the relay rated current 1 Amp or 5 Amps
> Title of presentation - Date - References 19 19
Selection of Ks & N
Values of Ks and N are chosen such that I
S
(C - N) < 0.3 x min. E/F current.
For solidly earthed systems :-
I
S
(A - N) > 3.2 x steady state line charging current.
For resistanced earthed systems with one relay per phase :-
I
S
(A - N) > 1.9 x steady state line charging current.
For systems where the steady state charging current is negligible select Ks
setting to give required primary sensitivity.
> Title of presentation - Date - References 20 20
Pilot Wire
Resistance and shunt capacitance of pilots introduce magnitude and phase differences
in pilot terminal currents.
Pilot Resistance
Attenuates the signal and affects effective minimum operating levels.
To maintain constant operating levels for wide range of pilot resistance, padding
resistor used.
Padding resistance R set to (1000 - R
p
) ohms
R
p
/2
R
R
R
p
/2
> Title of presentation - Date - References 21 21
Pilot Capacitance
Circulating current systems :
Pilot capacitance effectively in parallel with relay operating coil.
Capacitance at centre of pilots has zero volts across them.
Balanced voltage systems :
Relay operating coil connected in series with pilot.
Capacitance current therefore tends to cause instability.
> Title of presentation - Date - References 22 22
Pilot Isolation
Electromagnetic Induction
Field of any adjacent conductor may induce a voltage in the pilot circuit.
Induced voltage can be severe when :
(1) Pilot wire laid in parallel to a power circuit.
(2) Pilot wire is long and in close proximity to power circuit.
(3) Fault Current is severe.
Induced voltage may amount to several thousand volts.
Danger to personnel
Danger to equipment
Difference in Station Earth Potentials
Can be a problem for applications above 33kV - even if feeder is short.
> Title of presentation - Date - References 23 23
Formula for Induced Voltage
e = 0.232 I L Log
10
D
e
/S
where I = primary line E/F current
L = length of pilots in miles
D
e
= Equiv. Depth of earth return in metres = 655 . e/f
e = soil resistivity in .m
f = frequency
s = separation between power line and pilot circuit in
metres
Effect of screening is not considered in the formula.
If the pilot is enclosed in lead sheath earthed at each end, screening is provided by
the current flowing in the sheath.
Sheath should be of low resistance.
0.3 V / A / Mile Unscreened Pilots
0.1 V / A / Mile Screened Pilots
> Title of presentation - Date - References 24 24
Pilot circuits and all directly connected equipment should be insulated to
earth and other circuits to an adequate voltage level.
Two levels are recognised as standard : 5kV & 15kV
Relay Case
Relay
Input
5kV
15kV
2kV
5kV
Relay
Circuit
Pilot
Terminal
Pilot
Wire
> Title of presentation - Date - References 25 25
Supervision of Pilot Circuits
Pilot circuits are subject to a number of hazards, such as :
- Manual Interference
- Acts of Nature (storms, subsidence, etc.)
- Mechanical Damage (excavators, impacts)
Therefore supervision of the pilots is felt to be necessary.
Two types exist :
- Signal injection type
- Wheatstone Bridge type
> Title of presentation - Date - References 26 26
Pilot Wire Supervision
Circulating Balanced
Current Voltage
Schemes Schemes
Pilot Wire Maloperate Stable
Open Circuited
Pilot Wire Stable Maloperate
Short Circuited
Pilot Wire Maloperate Maloperate
Crossed
Maloperation occurs even under normal loading conditions if 3-phase
setting < I
LOAD
.
Overcurrent check may be used to prevent maloperation.
Overcurrent element set above maximum load current.
> Title of presentation - Date - References 27 27
Pilot Wire Supervision Relay SJA
PILOT
Cross Pilot
Detector Box
B
Unbalance
Detector
Circuit
A
Supervision
Supply
> Title of presentation - Date - References 28 28
MRTP Features
Detects open circuit, short circuit or crossed pilots.
Gives indication of loss of supervision supply.
> Title of presentation - Date - References 29 29
Connections for Pilot Supervision (5 kV)
PILOTS
A1
A3
A2
LVAC
AC
A1
A3
A2
> Title of presentation - Date - References 30 30
Overcurrent Check Relays (1)
50
G
50
C
50
A
A
B
C
PILOT
WIRE
RELAY
(87PW)
> Title of presentation - Date - References 31 31
Overcurrent Check Relays (2)
+
I
soc
> I
fl
0.9
I
sef
> 1.2 I
Z
I
sef
< 0.8 x I
ef
87PW-1 50A-1
TRIP CIRCUITS
50C-1
50G-1
> Title of presentation - Date - References 32 32
System Requiring Intertripping
Source
Feeder
Protection
Busbar
Protection
> Title of presentation - Date - References 33 33
Destabilising Relay MVTW01
P6
17
P7
PILOTS
MBCI
V x (1) +
V x (2) +
V x (3) +
-
UN-1
17
18
UN-2 18
19
19
UN-3
UN
3
20
I1
I2
I3
I4
S2
S1
MVTW01
> Title of presentation - Date - References 34 34
MiCOM P521
Numerical Current Differential
Protection Relay
November 2002 November 2002
> Title of presentation - Date - References 35 35
End A
Communication Link
End B
A
I
B
I
F
I
I
A
+ I
B
= 0 Healthy
I
A
+ I
B
0 (= I
F
) Fault
Current Differential Principle
> Title of presentation - Date - References 36 36
Digital messages
0 I I I I I I 0 I 0 . . . . . 0 I 0 I I I I I I
0
A/
D
P
Digital communication interface
(electrical or fibre)
End A End B
All Digital/Numerical Design
Comms Channel
> Title of presentation - Date - References 37 37
Current Differential -
Advantages
No voltage transformers needed
Detect very high resistance faults
Uniform trip time
Clearly defined zone of operation
Simple to set with no coordination problems
> Title of presentation - Date - References 38 38
MiCOM P521
Protection Comms
> Title of presentation - Date - References 39 39
Current Differential -
Signalling Options
Electrical communications
EIA485 (direct or via PZ511 interface)
EIA232 / EIA485 Modems (requires single twisted pair)
Direct fibre optic
850 nm multi-mode
1300 nm multi-mode
1300 nm single mode
Multiplexed communications
> Title of presentation - Date - References 40 40
Direct 4 Wire EIA485 Connection
Tx
1.2km max
R
x
MT RS485
MT RS485
2 Screened
Twisted Pairs
T
x
64kbps
Rx
Surge
Protection
> Title of presentation - Date - References 41 41
4 Wire EIA485 Up To 10km
Tx
10km max
R
x
PZ511
Interface
2 Screened
Twisted Pairs
T
x
19.2kbps
Rx
10/ 20kV isolation transformers available if required (4 required per
scheme)
NOTE:
EIA 485
PZ511
Interface
> Title of presentation - Date - References 42 42
Pilot Wire Communications (1)
Tx
T
x
10km max
Rx
R
x
Leased
Line
Modem
Leased
Line
Modem
Twiste
d
Pair
(Pilot
Cable)
19.2kbp
s
10/ 20kV isolation transformers available if required (2 required per
scheme)
NOTE:
EIA 485 or EIA
232
> Title of presentation - Date - References 43 43
Pilot Wire Communications (2)
Tx
T
x
10km max
Rx
EIA 485
R
x MDSL
Modem
MDSL
Modem
Twiste
d
Pair
(Pilot
Cable)
64kbps
10/ 20kV isolation transformers available if required (2 required per
scheme)
NOTE:
Same as
Fibre..!!
> Title of presentation - Date - References 44 44
Condition Line Communications
Tx
T
x
No strict limits
Rx
R
x
Dial-up
Modem
Dial-up
Modem
Conditioned
Telephone
Line
9.6 kbps
EIA 485 or EIA
232
> Title of presentation - Date - References 45 45
OPGW
Direct Optical Fibre Link
> Title of presentation - Date - References 46 46
T
x
R
x
End A
R
x
T
x
End B
CH1
Communications Path for
Fibre Optic Application
> Title of presentation - Date - References 47 47
Short Haul
Medium Haul
Key: * 3dB allowance for joint loss/ageing
Optical Budgets for Direct Optical Connection
Between Relays
850nm Multi
Mode
1300nm Multi
Mode
1300nm Single
Mode
Min. Transmit
Output Level
-19.8dBm -8.2dBm -8.2dBm
Receiver
Sensitivity
-25.4dBm -38.2dBm -38.2dBm
Optical Budget 5.6dB 30.0dB 30.0dB
Less Safety
Margin (3dB)
2.6dB 27.0dB 27.0dB
Typical Cable
Loss
2.6dB/km 0.8dB/km 0.4dB/km
Max
Transmission.
Distance
1km 30km 60km
*
> Title of presentation - Date - References 48 48
Interfacing to Multiplexers
Multiplexer
G.703, X21
or V.35
electrical
P591/2/3
interface
unit
850nm
multimode
optical fibre
> Title of presentation - Date - References 49 49
Multiplexed Optical Link
34 Mbit/s
Multiplexer Multiplexer
64k
bits/s
Earth wire optical fibre
Telephone
Telecontrol
Teleprotection
P521 current
differential protection
End A End B
> Title of presentation - Date - References 50 50
Multiplexed Microwave Link
Multiplexer Multiplexer
64k
bits/s
Telephone
Telecontrol
Teleprotection
End A End B
> Title of presentation - Date - References 51 51
Propagation Delay Compensation
Synchronise sampling in both relays
Direct comparison of samples
IRIG-B a possibility, but not always available
(= protection out of service)
Asynchronous sampling
Continual time difference measurement
Vector transformation in software
> Title of presentation - Date - References 52 52
Current at B
Current received from A
Propagation delay
Relay A Relay B
Propagation Delay Problem
> Title of presentation - Date - References 53 53
tA1
D
a
t
a

m
e
s
s
a
g
e
Relays
B A
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

v
e
c
t
o
r
s
t
A
1
tA2
tA3
tA4
tA5
tB1
tB2
tB3
tB4
tB5
tB
*
tp1
Propagation Delay Time
Measurement - 1
> Title of presentation - Date - References 54 54
Measured sampling time
tB3 = (tA - tp2)
* *
Propagation delay time
tp1 = tp2 = 1/2 (tA - tA1) - td
*
D
a
t
a

m
e
s
s
a
g
e
tB1
tB2
tB3
tB4
tB5
tB
*
tA1
tA2
tA3
tA4
tp1
tA5
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

v
e
c
t
o
r
s
t
A
1
tB3
*
tA
*
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

v
e
c
t
o
r
s
t
B
3
t
A
1
t
d
tp2
Propagation Delay Time
Measurement - 2
td
> Title of presentation - Date - References 55 55
I (tA4)
I (tB3 )
*

=
t
t = (tA4 - tB3 )
*
If I (tB3 ) = Is + j Ic
*
= I cos + j I sin
then I (tA4) = I (tB3 ) . (cos + j sin
)
= I cos ( + ) + j I sin
( + )
*
Time Alignment of
Current Vectors
> Title of presentation - Date - References 56 56
Dual slope bias characteristic
Selectable operating time / characteristic
Allows grading with tapped off fuse protected loads
Allows smaller CTs to be used
Operating times when set to instantaneous:
Current Differential
Baud rate (kbits/s) Max. Time (ms) Typical Time (ms)
9.6
19.2
56
64
100
80
45
45
90
70
30
30
> Title of presentation - Date - References 57 57
Differential
current
I =
I + I
diff
A
B
Bias current
bias A B
I = 1/2 ( I + I )
I
S1
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

b
ia
s

k
1
I
No trip
I
B
I
A
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

b
i
a
s

k
2
S2
Trip
Current Differential Characteristic
> Title of presentation - Date - References 58 58
Underground cables Overhead lines
Line Volts
11kV 400kV
Line Volts
132kV 400kV
30
1.2
A/km
1
0.3
A/km
Line Charging Currents
Capacitive current is only seen at one end of the line
To prevent instability set Is1 setting to 2.5x steady state line charging curr
Capacitive inrush current is rejected by the relay filtering methods
> Title of presentation - Date - References 59 59
End A
End B
Comms Channel
CT Ratio Correction
600/1
500/1
To correct CT ratio mismatch a correction factor can
be applied to End A.
To maintain good sensitivity, correct to 1 pu:-
Correction Factor = = 1.2
Max Load = 500A
0.83A
1.0A
1A
0.83A
> Title of presentation - Date - References 60 60
Protection of Transformer Feeders
Power transformer
Virtual interposing CT
Vectorial
correction
Ratio
correction
Virtual interposing CT
> Title of presentation - Date - References 61 61
MiCOM-P540-61
Stability for Magnetising Inrush Current
Magnetising inrush current flows into the energised winding
at switch on
This current is not represented at the remote end of the line
A method of restraint is required to avoid trips on closure of
the breaker :
Inrush current is rich in harmonics: 2nd, 5th etc..
Increase bias current by adding a multiple of 2nd harmonic
current = RESTRAINT
Inrush restraint facility can be enabled or disabled via a
dedicated setting
> Title of presentation - Date - References 62 62
m

+
Switch on at voltage
zero - No residual flux
m

-
m

2
Steady state
V

m
I
V
m
I

MiCOM-P540-62
Inrush Current - Theory
> Title of presentation - Date - References 63 63
F
I
Differential protection can be IDMT or
DT delayed to discriminate with tapped
feed protection:
Fused spurs
Tee-off transformer in-zone
End
A
End
B
Example MV Application:
Teed Feeder Protection
> Title of presentation - Date - References 64 64
Direct Intertrip (DIT)
Transformer
Protection
DTT=1
Data Message
Relay A
Relay B
+ + - -
> Title of presentation - Date - References 65 65
Example shows interlocked overcurrent protection
Feeder fault seen within busbar zone
Remote end trip after set delay for PIT & current > Is1
Current check can be disabled thus giving a second DIT channel
Permissive Intertrip (PIT)
Busbar
Relay
PIT=1
Data
Message
Relay
A
Relay
B
F
I
B
+ + - -
> Title of presentation - Date - References 66 66