A Recursive approach to Floorplanning

by

Renishkumar V. Ladani

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Master of Technology
in Information and Communication Technology to Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology

May, 2005

DA-IICT

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Declaration

This is to certify that (i) the thesis comprises my original work towards the degree of Master of Technology in Information and Communication Technology at DA-IICT and has not been submitted elsewhere for a degree, (ii) due acknowledgement has been made in the text to all other material used.

Renishkumar V. Ladani

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Certificate
This is to certify that the thesis work entitled “A Recursive Approach to Floorplanning” has been carried out by Renishkumar V. Ladani (200311014) for the degree of Master of Technology in Information and Communication Technology at this Institute under my supervision.

Prof. Ashok T. Amin Thesis Supervisor

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Acknowledgements

I am thankful to my guide Prof. Ashok T. Amin for guiding me throughout my thesis work. His suggestions and constant support during this research are motivating factor for me. I consider myself very lucky to get an opportunity to work with him. I am thankful to my co-guide Prof. Amit Bhatt for providing initial insight into field of floorplanning. I am thankful to my evaluation-committee members, Prof. D. Nag Chaudhary and Prof. Hemangi Kapoor for providing useful suggestions for my research work. I am thankful to my colleagues and friends for motivating me for research and providing constant support in difficult times. I am thankful to J. M. Lin and Y. W. Chang (@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw) for making available their floorplanning algorithm implementation and test cases on their home page. I am thankful to Dr. Hirendu P. Vaishnav of Synapps Corp., USA for his suggestion of floorplanning as a research topic. I am thankful to DA-IICT for providing me the resources needed and a favourable environment to carry out my work. I am thankful to my family for supporting me in all the ways.

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Contents
Page No.
DECLARATION...................................................................................................... .........................I CERTIFICATE................................................................................................................................ .II ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................................................................................... .....III CONTENTS......................................................................................................................... ..........IV ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................. ................VII LIST OF PRINCIPAL SYMBOLS AND ACRONYMS............................................................ ......VIII LIST OF TABLES........................................................................................................................ ..IX CHAPTER 1....................................................................................................................... ...........1 CHAPTER 2....................................................................................................................... .............7 FLOORPLANNING CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES TO PROBLEM........................................7 CHAPTER 3..................................................................................................................... .............17 A RECURSIVE APPROACH............................................................................................... ..........17 C............................................................................................................................................. ....19 C............................................................................................................................................. ....19 B.............................................................................................................................................. ......19 A...................................................................................................................................... .............19 B.............................................................................................................................................. ......19 A...................................................................................................................................... .............19 C............................................................................................................................................. ....19 A........................................................................................................................................... .........19 B.............................................................................................................................................. ......19 C............................................................................................................................................. ....19 B.............................................................................................................................................. ......19 A........................................................................................................................................... .........19 B.............................................................................................................................................. ......21 A........................................................................................................................................... .........21 A........................................................................................................................................... .........21

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B.............................................................................................................................................. ......21 D............................................................................................................................................. ....30 C............................................................................................................................................. ....30 D.............................................................................................................................................. ......30 C............................................................................................................................................. ....30 B............................................................................................................................................. ....30 B............................................................................................................................................. ....30 A...................................................................................................................................... ...........30 A...................................................................................................................................... ...........30 D............................................................................................................................................. ....32 C............................................................................................................................................. ....32 B............................................................................................................................................. ....32 A...................................................................................................................................... ...........32 CHAPTER 4..................................................................................................................... .............49 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK ....................................................................................... .49 REFERENCES...................................................................................................................... ........54 APPENDIX..................................................................................................................... ...............56 A.1 CIRCUIT LAYOUT GENERATED BY ALGORITHM-I FOR HARD BLOCKS.......................56 B.1 CIRCUIT LAYOUT GENERATED BY ALGORITHM-I FOR SOFT BLOCKS........................62

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Abstract
Due to increase in number of components on a chip, floorplanning is important step in Very Large Scale Integration physical design to ensure quality of design. Various iterative approaches have been suggested to carryout floorplanning in Electronic Design Automation tools. Iterative approaches can produce good results but they are slower. In this thesis, we have taken bottom-up, recursive approach to floorplanning. We have also suggested efficient exhaustive search procedure for placing two, three or four rectangular blocks in a floorplan. A rectangular block can either be hard or soft and resultant floorplan can either be slicing or non-slicing. Further more exhaustive search procedure can also be extended for five or more rectangular blocks. We have developed two algorithms, which fall in class of constructive approaches rather than class of iterative approaches. These algorithms use exhaustive search procedure, works in bottom-up constructive manner and they are recursive in nature. These algorithms are very fast compared to other search algorithms and also producing promising results. Complexity of these algorithms is O(n). Experiments results with MCNC circuits indicate that area utilization of about 85-99% can be achieved in very less time then iterative algorithms.

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List of Principal Symbols and Acronyms
VLSI EDA SA GA SAGA NPE SP BSG TCG CBL GPE Very Large Scale Integration Electronic Design Automation Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Normalized Polish Expression Sequence Pair Bounded Slicing Grid Transitive Closure Graph Corner Block List Generalized Polish Expression

Other minor symbols are defined at first occurrence; where necessary some symbols are redefined in the text.

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List of Tables

Page No.
TABLE 2.5 PACKING COMPLEXITY FOR NON-SLICING FLOORPLAN, HERE N IS THE NUMBER OF BLOCKS IN THE PLACEMENT.....................................................................................16 TABLE 3.4.1 UNIQUE PLACEMENT STRUCTURE AND ITS TWO COMPOSITIONS FOR TWO BLOCKS PLACEMENT.............................................................................................................................22 TABLE 3.4.1 TWO COMPOSITIONS OF TWO UNIQUE PLACEMENT STRUCTURES FOR THREE BLOCKS.........................................................................................................................................25 TABLE 3.4.1 TWO COMPOSITIONS OF SIX UNIQUE PLACEMENT STRUCTURES FOR FOUR BLOCKS...........................................................................................................................................39 TABLE 3.6.1 AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-I.....................................43 TABLE 3.6.2 AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-II...................................43 TABLE 3.6.3 AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME COMPARISON FOR ALGORITHM-I AND ALGORITHM-II..........................................................................................................................................43 TABLE 3.6.3A AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR SP AND O-TREE.................................44 TABLE 3.6.3B AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR B*-TREE AND ENHANCED O-TREE .........................................................................................................................................................................44 TABLE 3.6.3C AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR CBL AND TCG...................................44 TABLE 3.6.3D AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR TCG-S AND FAST-SP.........................45 TABLE 3.6.3E AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR GPE.......................................................45 TABLE 3.6.4 PATTERN OF HARD AND SOFT BLOCKS IN TEST CASE -I..................................46 TABLE 3.6.5 PATTERN OF HARD AND SOFT BLOCKS IN TEST CASE -II...................................46 TABLE 3.6.6 AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-I APPLIED ON CASE-I .........................................................................................................................................................................46 TABLE 3.6.7 AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-I APPLIED ON CASEII......................................................................................................................................................................47 TABLE 3.6.8 AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-I APPLIED ON CASEIII....................................................................................................................................................................47 TABLE 3.6.9 AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-II APPLIED ON CASEI.......................................................................................................................................................................47 TABLE 3.6.10 AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-II APPLIED ON CASE-II..........................................................................................................................................................47 TABLE 3.6.11 AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-II APPLIED ON CASE-III........................................................................................................................................................48 TABLE 3.6.12 SUMMARY OF AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-I......48

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TABLE 3.6.13 SUMMARY OF AREA UTILIZATION AND RUNTIME FOR ALGORITHM-II.....48

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List of Figures
Page No.

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Chapter 1

Introduction
1.1 Floorplanning in Context of VLSI Physical Design

VLSI physical design layout can be carried out in bottom up fashion. In this methodology designer either uses cells from library or designs her/his cells and subsequently compose the overall layout of the chip by means of placement and routing. But most of time this leads to poor utilization of the chip area and excessive wiring. Only a well-conceived design methodology can result in a final design of high quality; one such methodology is FLOORPLAN-BASED DESIGN METHODOLOGY. It is top-down design methodology. It advocates that layout aspects should be taken into account in all design stages. Three design domains in which design stages are classified are behavioral design domain, structural design domain and physical design domain. The floorplan-based design methodology can be represented on GAJSKI Y-chart in fig. 1.1.

Fig. 1.1 GAJSKI Y-chart [1]

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in Advantage of Floorplan-based methodology: Taking layout into account in all design stages also gives early feed back, thus structural synthesis decision can immediately be evaluated for their layout consequence and corrected if necessary. The presence of layout information allows for an estimation of wire lengths. From these lengths one can derive performance properties of the design such as timing and power consumption. They both increase when the wire lengths grow.

1.2

Floorplanning Definition

It is easy to deal with layout when structural detail at lowest abstraction is available, one knows the exact number of transistors in the circuit and the way they are interconnected. When this type of structural information is not available, one can estimate the area to be occupied by various sub blocks and together with a precise or estimated interconnection pattern, try to allocate distinct regions of the integrated circuit to the specific sub blocks. This process is call floorplanning. It is important to note that functionally equivalent sub blocks have different shapes and terminal positions. This is one of the main characteristics of floorplan-based design, one chooses the shape and terminal positions such that they fit best with the original structure and assumes that there is a way to design the module satisfying the chosen shape and terminal position. Above type of blocks are known as flexible or soft blocks. When the block is flexible one could say that the realization needs an area A. Whichever shape the block will have its height h and its width w have to obey the constraint hw ≥ A. Other type of blocks are hard blocks, it means that their shape and terminal positions (pins) are fixed. It is also important to note that area required for interconnection wiring (Routing) can either provided by incorporating them in the area estimations for the blocks or in the case of N-layer metal with over the block routing (wiring), channel less block layouts are the norm of design. Example of a structural description of some circuit and possible floorplan and Floorplan view of PowerPC 604 and Pentium 4 is provided in fig. 1.2.

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Fig. 1.2 Structural description of some circuit and its floorplan, and Floorplan view of PowerPC 604 and Pentium 4 [2]

1.3

Floorplan Problem Description

Given a set of blocks B = {b1, b2,…, bn}. Each block bi is rectangular and has fixed width and height. The outputs of algorithm are coordinates of blocks (the absolute coordinates of the lower left corner of the block). The objectives of floorplan optimization problem are to minimize the area of B and reduce wire lengths of interconnects subject to the constraints that no pair of blocks overlaps. There may be other objectives such as maximize routability (minimize congestion), delay of critical path, noise, heat dissipation, etc. But either they are not of much interest or in some way they are related to reduction of wire lengths of interconnects [4]. In addition to above problem description, other then rectangular block study of L-shaped and U-shaped blocks has been carried out [14]. Also, Flexible blocks have been not addressed in above problem description. There also exist some representations and

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in algorithms, which addressed floorplan problem with flexible blocks, e.g., Normalized Polish Expression (NPE) [5], SP [10], Fast-SP [13], O-tree [1] and B*-tree [4]. For such type of representations and algorithms following problem formulation would provide more insight. Let B = {b1,b2, …, bn} be a set of n rectangular blocks. Each block bi ∈ B is associated with a three tuple (hi, wi, ai), where hi, wi, and ai denote the width, height, and aspect ratio of Bi, respectively. The area Ai of Bi is given by hi * wi, and the aspect ratio ai of Bi is given by hi/wi, Let ri,min and ri,max be the minimum and maximum aspect ratios, i.e., hi/wi ∈ [ri,min, ri,max]. Here both soft(flexible) and hard blocks are being considered. A hard module is not flexible in its shape, but free to rotate. A soft module is free to rotate and change its shape within range [ri,min, ri,max]. Output of foorplanning is a placement (floorplan) P = {(xi, yi) | bi ∈ B} is an assignment of rectangular blocks with the coordinates of their bottom-left corners being assigned to (xi, yi)’s so that no two blocks overlap (and Hi/wi ∈ [ri,min; ri,max],

∀ i ). As previously describe in problem description, the objective of floorplanning is to
minimize a specified cost metric such as a combination of the area Atot and wire length Wtot induced by the assignment of bi’s, where Atot is measured by the final enclosing rectangle of P and Wtot the summation of half the bounding box of pins for each net. Cost = α*Atot + β*Wtot Where, Atot = Total area of the packing. Wtot = Total wire length of packing.

α and β = User specified constant.
Here wire length estimation is to be done because exact wire length of each net is not known until routing is done and also pin positions are not known yet. Two possible ways of wire length estimation are center-to-center estimation and half-perimeter estimation.

Fig. 1.3. Center-to-center estimation and half-perimeter estimation.

1.3.1 Floorplan Sizing: A optimization problem in Floorplanning

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in The availability of flexible blocks implies the possibility of having different shapes for the same hardware units. It’s therefore possible to choose a suitable shape for each flexible block such that the resulting floorplan is optimal in some sense (e.g. minimal area).

1.3.2 Some Constraints in Floorplanning
In floorplanning, it is important to allow users to specify placement constraints. Three common types of placement constraints are preplaced constraint, boundary constraint, and range constraint. For preplaced constraint, we require a block to be placed exactly at a certain position in the final packing. For boundary constraint, we require a block to be placed along one particular side of the final floorplan: on the left, on the right, at the bottom, or at the top. This is useful when users want to place some specific block along the boundary for input–output connections. For range constraint, we require a module to be placed within a given rectangular region in the final packing. This is indeed a more general formulation of the placement constraint problem and any preplaced constraint can be written as a range constraint by specifying the rectangular region such that it has the same size as the module itself. Some representations and algorithms for floorplan are extended for above given constraints.

1.4

Motivation

Due to the growth in design complexity, circuit sizes are getting larger. To cope with the increasing design complexity, hierarchical design and IP modules are widely used. The trend makes module floorplanning much more critical to the quality of a VLSI design. And with current EDA tools with practice we can create good initial placement by floorplanning hints and a pictorial display. This is one area where the human ability to recognized patterns and spatial relations is currently superior to a computer program’s ability. Thus practically floorplanning is not fully automated till now date.

1.5

Organization of the Thesis

The rest of the report is organized as follows. The second chapter starts with different approaches to floorplanning problem with different representation of floorplan as well as

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Chapter 2 Floorplanning Concepts and Approaches to Problem 2.1 Background

The floorplan problem is known to be NP-complete [11]. Various heuristic approaches have been taken to solve this problem. These approaches can be categorized in Simulated Annealing (SA), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Hybrid approach (SAGA: simulated annealing and genetic algorithm). This type of algorithm searches through the feasible solution space for floorplan. Evaluate each solution at each stage to know its cost or fitness compare it with earlier available results. Keep it or discard it according to strategies. Carry out different moves to obtain different feasible solutions from a available feasible solution. In Genetic algorithms [15] moves are crossover, mutation and inversion. Similar types of moves exist for simulated annealing. Hence these algorithms depend on representation of feasible solution space. Representation for floorplan can be categorized in slicing floorplan representation and non-slicing floorplan representation.

2.1.1 Slicing Structure
A rectangle dissection is a subdivision of a given rectangle by horizontal and vertical line segments into a finite number of non-overlapping rectangles. The non-overlapping rectangles are called basic rectangles. By slicing a rectangle, we mean to divide the rectangle into two rectangles by a vertical or horizontal line. A slicing structure is a rectangle dissection that can be obtained by recursively slicing rectangles into smaller rectangles (see Fig. 2.1.1a). The hierarchical structure of a slicing structure can be described by an oriented rooted binary tree, called a slicing tree (see Fig. 2.1.1b). A Slicing tree is essentially a top down description of a slicing structure. It specifies bow a given rectangle is cut into smaller rectangles by horizontal and vertical slicing lines. Each internal node of the tree is labelled either * or +, corresponding to either a vertical or a horizontal cut, respectively. Each leaf corresponds to a basic rectangle and is labelled by a number between 1 and n when the slicing structure has n basic rectangles. Wong and Liu proposed an algorithm for slicing floorplan designs using a normalized polish expression [5] to represent a slicing structure.

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Fig. 2.1.1a A slicing floorplan 2.1.2 Non-Slicing Structure

Fig. 2.1.1b A slicing tree

Not all floorplans are slicing. If the basic rectangles corresponding to leaf nodes in slicing structures can’t be obtained by recursive cutting rectangles into smaller rectangles then the floorplan has non-slicing structure (See Fig. Fig. 2.1.2) and represented in different ways. The representation are sequence pair [6], bounded slicing grid (BSG) [7], O-tree [1], Transitive Closure Graph (TCG) [2], Corner Block List (CBL) [3] and B* Trees [4].

Fig. 2.1.2 A non-slicing structure

2.1.3 Normalized Polish Expression
A binary sequence b1,b2, …, bm, is a balloting sequence iff for any k, 1 <= k <=m, the number of 0 ‘s in b1, …, bk, is less then the number of the 1 ‘s in b1, …, bk. Let σ be a function σ: {l,2 ,..., n,*,+} -> {0,1} defined by σ (i) = 1, 1<= i <=n, and σ(*) = σ (+) = 0. A sequence α1α2 … α2n-1 of elements from {1, 2, ..., n, *, +} is a Polish expression of length 2n -1 iff (1) Every i appears exactly once in the sequence, 1 <= i <= 2n -1, (2) σ(α1) σ(α2) … σ(α2n-1) is a balloting sequence.

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in A Polish expression α1α2 … α2n-1 is said to be normalized iff there is no consecutive *‘s or +‘s in the sequence. (e.g. 1 2 + 4 3 * + is a normalized Polish expression.) In general, there might be two or more Polish expressions (slicing trees) that correspond to a given slicing structure (see Fig.3.2e). The number of Polish expressions corresponding to a slicing structure can vary from slicing structure to slicing structure. This makes Polish expressions an undesirable choice for representation of solutions in a simulated annealing setting for the following reasons: 1. There is an unnecessary increase in the number of states. 2. The set of slicing structures is unevenly distributed over the set of Polish expressions, which might lead to unintentional and undesirable biases toward some slicing structures. It is observation that given any slicing structure, it can be described by a unique skewed slicing tree by performing the cuts always from right to left and from top to bottom. Hence, the set of normalized Polish expressions as the solution space in our simulated annealing algorithm. The Polish expression in fact is the Polish postfix notation for this “arithmetic expression”.

Fig. 2.1.3 Two different slicing trees for the same slicing structure.

2.1.4 Neighbourhood Structures
We define three types of moves that can be used to modify a given normalized Polish expression. M1. Swap two adjacent operands. M2. Complement some chain of nonzero length. M3. Swap two adjacent operand and operator. Two normalized Polish expressions are said to be neighbours if one can be obtained from the other via one of these three moves. We also want to make sure that the move selected will also produce a normalized Polish expression.

2.1.5 The Cost Function

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α and β = User specified constant.

2.1.6 Comparisons between slicing and non-slicing approach
Slicing representation has some advantages such as smaller encoding cost and solution space bringing faster runtime for packing. Furthermore it is flexible to deal with hard, preplaced, soft and rectilinear blocks. However in real designs optimal solution might not be in the solution space of slicing structure. While with non-slicing representation optimal solution might be achieved but it needs more evaluating runtime for packing then slicing approach.

2.2

Algorithmic Approaches

2.2.1 Simulated annealing
Simulated annealing is a well-known high performance optimization technique for combinatorial problems. The simulated annealing algorithm is presented below:
01 Temperature = Initial Temperature; 02 Current placement = Random initial placement;

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03 Current score = Score (Current placement); 04 While equilibrium at temperature not reached Do 05 Selected component = Select (at random); 06 Trail placement = Move (selected component); 07 Trail score = Score (trail placement); 08 If trail score < current score then 09 Current score = trial score; 10 Current placement = trail placement; 11 else 12 if uniform random(0,1) < e-(trail score – current score)/temperature then 13 Current score = trial score; 14 Current placement = trail placement; 15 temperature = temperature * Alpha; // alpha ~ 0.95

The temperature in initialised to a relatively high value and its slowly decrease until a freezing point is reached. At each temperature, components are selected for possible movement until equilibrium is reached. If movement of the selected components results in an improved placement, the movement is performed. Otherwise the movement is performed with a probability that decrease exponentially with temperature. Components are typically selected randomly for pair wise exchange.

2.2.2 Genetic Algorithm
The original GA and its many variants collectively known as genetic algorithms are computational procedure that mimics the natural process of evolution. Darwin observed that as variations are introduced into a population with each new generation the less fit individuals are tend to die off in the competition for food and this survival of the fittest principle leads to improvement in the species. GAs has also applied to optimisation problems, and the applications like floorplanning in EDA tools falls into this category. The objective of the GA is then to find an optimal solution to a problem. Since Gas are heuristic procedure, they are not guaranteed to find the optimum but experience has shown that they are able to find very good solutions for wide range of problems. GAs work by evolving a population of individual in the population where the fitness computation depend s on the application. For each generation individuals are selected from the population for reproduction, the individuals are crossed to generate new individuals and the new individuals are muted with some low mutation probability. The new individual may completely replace the old individuals in the population with distinct generation

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in evolved; alternatively the new individuals may be combined with old individuals in the population. Since selection is biased towards more highly fit individuals, the average fitness of the population tends to improve from one generation to the next. The fitness of the best individuals is also expected to improve overtime, and the best individual may be chosen as a solution after several generations. Simple GA: Also referred to as total replacement algorithm. Flowchart of this simple genetic algorithm is available in fig. 2.2.2. [15] Stopping Criteria: The GA may be limited to a fixed number of generations or it may be terminated when all individuals in the population coverage to the same string or no improvements in fitness values are found after given number of generation. Since selection is biased towards more highly fit individuals the fitness of the overall population is expected to increase in successive generations. However, the best individual may appear in any generation.

Generate initial population

Evaluate each individual

Select Np individuals with repetition, such that the probability of selection of each individual is proportional to its fitness With a high probability, Pc, perform crossover on the pair s to generate two offspring. If crossover 12 Perform inversion on the the previous is not performed, then the of offspring with Replace all individuals parents are copied probability p1 ifwith thesmall calls for it Mutate theunchangedrandomly to probability, Pm Pair the individualsthe algorithm form parents offspring to a offspring. generation withthe Np offspring

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No

Stoppi ng criteria

Yes

Fig. 2.2.2 Flowchart of the simple genetic algorithm

2.2.3 SAGA
Rather than simply using a GA for floorplanning, its better to use a new stochastic optimization algorithm called SAGA, Which is combination of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm applied to floorplanning. The aim of this idea is to improve the typical convergence rate of the pure GA by combining it with simulated annealing. The typical GA convergence curve is shown in fig Fig. 2.2.3.

Cost

Runtime

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in Fig. 2.2.3. Typical convergence of a GA Initially the solution cost improves very rapidly, however obtaining further improvement soon becomes difficult and the majority of runtime is spent in the later phase of the process in which small improvements are obtained very slowly, while in case of simulated annealing algorithm. The typical convergence curve of SA is very different from that of the GA. Initially SA converges much slower but in the late phase of the process, SA may be able to obtain improvement faster than the GA. The unified algorithm called SAGA (an acronym for simulated annealing and genetic algorithm) is designed in such a way that the initial fast convergence of the GA is combined with the faster convergence of SA in the late phase. The SAGA algorithm is application independent and highly adaptive. When applied to the floorplanning SAGA perform better than a pure GA.

2.2.4 Comparisons between SA and GA
Both simulated annealing and the genetic algorithm are computation intensive. One difference is that simulated annealing operates on only one solution at a time while genetic algorithm maintains a large population of solutions which are optimized simultaneously. Thus the genetic algorithm takes advantages of the experience gained in the past exploration of the solution space. Both simulated annealing and the genetic algorithm have mechanisms for avoiding entrapment at local optima. In simulated annealing this is accomplished by occasionally discarding a superior solution and accepting and inferior one. The genetic algorithm also relies on inferior individuals as a means of avoiding false optima, but, since it has whole population of individuals, the genetic algorithm can keep and process inferior individuals without losing the best one. Simulated annealing is an inherently serial algorithm while genetic algorithm can be parallelized on such loosely coupled distributed computer network with 100% processor utilization.

2.5

State-of-art in floorplan representations

VLSI floorplans are often grouped into two categories, the slicing structure [5] and the non-slicing structure [1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7]. A binary tree whose leaves denote blocks can represent a slicing structure, and internal nodes specify horizontal or vertical cut lines. Wong and Liu proposed an algorithm for slicing floorplan designs [5]. They presented a normalized Polish expression to represent a slicing structure, enabling the speed-up of its search procedure. However, this representation cannot handle non-slicing floorplans. It

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in takes only O(n) time to derive a floorplan from a representation. Recently, proposed several representations such as sequence pair [6], bounded slicing grid (BSG) [7], O-tree [1], Transitive Closure Graph (TCG) [2], Corner Block List (CBL) [3] and B* Trees [4] can handle non-slicing floorplans. Table 2.2.6 shows packing complexity for non-slicing floorplan. GPE Recently, a new representation for VLSI floorplan problem has been published [11]. They proposed a new and easy representation for VLSI floorplan and building block problem. The representation effectively inherits the useful property of normalized polish expression [5] and is able to present non-slicing floorplan. The test using MCNC benchmarks and the experiments give promising results. The time complexity to transform a GPE to a corresponding placement is also O(n). Results of GPE suggest that it achieves better area utilization compared to previous non-slicing representation Fast-SP and Enhance O-tree. Flooplan sizing (shaping) as defined previously can be done optimally and efficiently for slicing floorplans. It can also be done optimally for some non-slicing floorplans, but its very time consuming. “Shape Curve Computation” is used for Shaping in slicing floorplans [14] and the sizing algorithm runs in polynomial time for slicing floorpalns. Langrangian Relaxation method used for shaping in non-slicing floorplan. But it is not efficient and applicable to only non-slicing floorplans, which are using Constraints graphs for packing such as SP [10], Fast-SP [13], O-tree [1] and B*-tree [4].

Representation SP Fast-SP BSG O-tree B*-tree CBL

Runtime for packing O(n2) O(n lg n lg n) O(n2) O(n) O(n) O(n)

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Table 2.5 Packing complexity for non-slicing floorplan, here n is the number of blocks in the placement

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Chapter 3 A Recursive Approach

3.1 Introduction
Algorithms for floorplanning are classified in two classes of approaches, iterative approaches and constructive approaches. Iterative approaches produce floorplan with better areas utilization but they are slower then constructive algorithms. An iterative approach starts with one initial solution, evaluate it and then generate more such solutions from available solution. At each stage, an iterative approach evaluates new solution and compares it with earlier available results and keeps only promising solutions. In these approaches, an algorithm run up to either reaching timeout or based on some criteria such as no more improvement in results. While in case of a constructive approach a feasible solution is generated gradually from available inputs using some techniques and principles. We propose and investigate two constructive algorithms based on the notion that grouping blocks having nearly same area in a floorplan produce better results than placing blocks having wide difference in area. In both algorithms, exhaustive search procedure is carried out at each step to place four or less blocks at a time to get a floorplan having best area utilization. This exhaustive search procedure is repeated in bottom up to construct a floorplan. . Objectives of floorplanning problem is either area optimisation; wire length optimisation or both. Although wire length optimisation is also critical to VLSI physical design but we will focus on only area optimisation.

3.2

Problem Definition

Suppose, we are given a set of n blocks or rectangular objects b1, b2, …, bn. A block can be of a fixed type or a flexible type. A fixed block has fixed height and width. A flexible block has constant area but can have height and width ratio, called aspect ratio, from a given set of possible values. These blocks are to be placed in a rectangular area in non-overlapping manner. A block may be rotated by + 90os. The problem is to arrange n blocks inside a rectangle of minimum possible area.

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in With n blocks b1, b2, …, bn, we are given a list of n quadruplets of numbers (A1, r1, s1, d1), (A2, r2, s2, d2), …, (An, rn, sn, dn). This quadruplet of number (Ai, ri, si, di), with ri ≤ si, specifies the area and the shape constrains for module i. In fact, if we let wi be the width of module i and hi be the height of module i, we must have wi * hi = Ai and ri ≤ hi/wi ≤ si. Thus ri and si are our lower and upper limit of aspect ratio. Block i is a rigid (hard) block if ri = si, otherwise its is a soft (flexible) block. If a block is hard then di has no meaning to it and it’s just don’t care value. But if a block is soft, di specifies all possible shapes for a flexible block, having aspect ratios as ri, ri + di, ri + 2*di, …, si. A solution of the floorplan design problem consist of an enveloping rectangle R which contains blocks b1, b2, …, bn in non overlapping manner and floorplan F = {(x1i, y1i, x2i, y2i) | 1 ≤ i ≤ n}, indicating that placement of block bi with its bottom-left corner being at (x1i, y1i) and top-right corner being at (x2i, y2i).

3.3

Terminology And Concepts

Minimum Area: Minimum Area (MA) is a summation of area of n blocks b1, b2, …, bn. Floorplan Area: Floorplan Area (FA) is area of minimum possible of rectangle which accommodates n blocks b1, b2, …, bn in non-overlapping manner. Clearly, FA ≥ MA. Dead Area: A minimum possible rectangle which can accommodate n blocks in nonoverlapping manner has some area not occupied by any blocks. It is known as Dead Area (DA) and measured in percentage of FA, namely DA = (FA-MA)/FA*100. Area utilization factor is defined to be 100- DA. L-compact: A floorplan L-compact if and only if there is no block that can shift left from its original position with other components fixed. B-compact: A floorplan is B-compact if and only if there is no block that can shift bottom from its original position with other components fixed. LB-compact: A floorplan is LB-Compact if and only if it’s both L-compact and Bcompact.

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in These types of floorplans are illustrated in fig 3.3.1.

C A

B

C A

B

Fig. 3.3.1 (a) A Floorplan

Fig. 3.3.1 (b) B-Compact Floorplan

C A

B

C A B

Fig. 3.3.1 (c) L-Compact Floorplan 3.4

Fig. 3.3.1 (d) LB-Compact Floorplan

Exhaustive Search Procedure

Suppose, we are given a set of 2, 3 or 4 blocks say {A, B}, {A, B, C} and {A, B, C, D}, Where A, B, C and D are hard blocks. Here, (Ah, Aw), (Bh, Bw), (Ch, Cw) are (Dh , Dw) are height and width of A, B, C, and D respectively. Let F is a floorplan generated after placing either {A, B}, {A, B, C} or {A, B, C, D}. Here, (Fh, Fw) is height and width of floorplan and FA = Fh * Fw , represent floorplan area. In this section, we present an efficient way of searching a floorplan which has best area utilization or say minimum dead area from all possible placement of 2, 3 or 4 blocks. For generation of all possible placements of 2, 3 or 4 blocks first we generate the set PO of all possible ordering of blocks. Let say for Set of 2 blocks {A, B}, PO = {AB, BA} represent all possible ordering of two blocks. For three blocks {A, B, C}, PO = {ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, CBA} represent all possible ordering of three blocks. And similarly set PO for 4 blocks is also generated. Since A block can be rotated by + 90os, we have two orientation vertical and horizontal orientation for a block. So count of all possible pattern of placement (PPP) for two blocks is equal to 2! * 22 = 8, Let say PPP = {AB, BA, AB’, B’A, A’B, BA’, A’B’, B’A’} represents possible pattern of placement. Here A’ and B’ represent rotation by + 90os for Block A and B respectively and similarly count of all possible pattern of placement (PPP) for three blocks equal to 3! * 23 = 48 and its equal to 4! * 24 = 384 for four blocks.

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in In the following section we identify unique structure that can hold 2, 3 or 4 blocks in LB compact floorplan. We have removed other redundant structures that always produce a floorplan with same floorplan area, FA when placed with possible pattern of placement (PPP) for two, three or four blocks. When blocks according to possible pattern of placement are placed in unique structures we received set of all possible placement say PP = {F1, F2, …, FK}. Here we have one unique structure for two blocks, two unique structures for three blocks and six unique structures for four blocks. Next three sections describe how we have identified the unique structures. Now for set PP we have, | PP | = k = 2! * 22 * 1 = 8, for two blocks, | PP | = k = 3! * 23 * 2 = 96, for three blocks and | PP | = k = 4! * 24 * 6 = 2304. From set PP we search for floorplan Fi which has smallest area, where, 0 ≤ i ≤ k. if two or more floorplans have equal and minimum area then a floorplan with aspect ratio near to 1.0 is selected. Thus | PP | represent number placement to be considered before selecting one. In case of soft blocks, blocks A, B, C, D can take any one of the shape form its given set of aspect ratios, which increases number of possible placement. Let say AAR is set of aspect ratios for block A, BAR is set of aspect ratios for block B, CAR is set of aspect ratios for block C, DAR is set of aspect ratios for block D then size of possible placement set PP, get scaled proportional to value of | AAR |, | BAR |, | CAR |, | DAR |. Thus size of possible placement set PP, | PP | = k = 2! * 22 * 1 * | AAR | * | BAR |, for two blocks, | PP | = k = 3! * 23 * 2 * | AAR | * | BAR | * | CAR |, for three blocks and | PP | = k = 4! * 24 * 6 * | AAR | * | BAR | * | CAR | * | DAR |. Once a soft block get placed in floorplan of 2, 3 or 4 blocks, its aspect ratio get fixed and it’s no longer a soft blocks now. And floorplan F that we received after placing 2,3 or 4 blocks together has also fixed aspect ratio because we are selecting floorplan F from set PP according to it smallest area value and if two or more floorplans have equal and minimum area then a floorplan with aspect ratio nearer to 1.0 is selected.

3.4.1 Two Block Placements
In this section we have identifies LB-compact unique structure for placing 2 blocks together in a floorplan. While placing two blocks together we can only have slicing structures. Non-slicing structure can not possible for placing two blocks together. For

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in producing all possible slicing structures for blocks, we have used a binary tree with a root node and two children. A root node is operator and its children are two blocks. This suggests placement of two children in a way that placement of right child is with respect to left child and according to operator in LB-compact manner. In slicing structure we have two-operator horizontal placement operator say H and vertical placement operator say V. Let O is set of operator for slicing structure then set O is define as O = {H, V}. Here horizontal placement means two blokes are placed in side-by-side or adjacent in LBcompact manner. And vertical placements mean two blocks are placed one above other in LB-compact manner. In fig. 3.4.1 (a) shows a binary tree of two blocks, while in fig 3.4.1 (b) and fig. 3.4.1 (c) show horizontal and vertical placement respectively derived from binary by placing value of operator as O1 = {H, V}.

O1

A

B

Fig. 3.4.1 (a)

B A B A

Fh = max (Ah, Bh) Fw = Aw + Bw Fig. 3.4.1 (b)

Fh = Ah + Bh Fw = max (Aw, Bw) Fig. 3.4.1 (c)

Under condition of exhaustive search with all possible ordering of blocks A and B with for each block + 90os rotation allowed both of structures from fig 3.4.1 (b) and fig. 3.4.1 (c) produce same minimum floorplan area FA = Fh * Fw. But difference is that one is horizontal

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in composition and other is vertical composition which achieved by floorplan rotation by + 90os and rearranging each block in floorplan once again with 90os. Thus we identified only one unique placement structure and its two compositions for two blocks placement. Table 3.4.1 presents a unique placement structure and its two compositions for two blocks placement. Vertical Composition Horizontal composition

B A
Fh = Ah + Bh Fw = max (Aw, Bw)

A

B

Fh = max (Ah, Bh) Fw = Aw + Bw

Table 3.4.1 unique placement structure and its two compositions for two blocks placement

3.4.2 Three Block Placements
In this section we have identifies LB-compact unique structure for placing 3 blocks together in a floorplan. While placing three blocks together we can only have slicing structures. Non-slicing structure can’t be possible for placing three blocks together. For producing all possible slicing structures for three blocks, we have used two binary trees with leaf nodes represent block and all other internal nodes are operator. These binary trees have two operators to arrange three blocks. Fig. 3.4.2 (a) and fig. 3.4.2 (b) show a binary tree of three blocks, we have two operators O1 = {H, V} and O2 = {H, V} Fig 3.4.2 (c), (d), (e) and (f) show placement derived from a binary tree (in Fig. 3.4.2 (a)) by placing value of operator as O1 O2 = {HH, HV, VH, VV} and similarly Fig 3.4.2 (g), (h), (i) and (j) show placement derived from a binary tree available in Fig. 3.4.2 (b).

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O2

O1

O1

C

A

O2

A

B

B

C

Fig. 3.4.2 (a)

Fig. 3.4.2 (b)

C A B C A B

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch) Fw = Aw + Bw + Cw Fig. 3.4.2 (c)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh) + Ch Fw = max (Aw + Bw, Cw) Fig. 3.4.2 (d)

B A

C

C B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + Ch Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw Fig. 3.4.2 (f)

Fh = max (Ah + Bh, Ch) Fw = max (Aw + Bw) + Cw Fig. 3.4.2 (e)

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A

B C

A

C B

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch) Fw = Aw + Bw + Cw Fig. 3.4.2 (g)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + Ch) Fw = Aw + max (Bw, Cw) Fig. 3.4.2 (h)

B A

C

C B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + Ch Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw) Fig. 3.4.2 (j)

Fh = Ah + max (Bh, Ch) Fw = max (Aw, Bw + Cw) Fig. 3.4.2 (i)

Under condition of exhaustive search with all possible ordering of blocks A, B and C with each block + 90os rotation allowed there are few redundant structures from fig 3.4.2 (c) to fig. 3.4.2 (i) always produce same floorplan area FA = Fh * Fw. Thus we identified two unique placement structures and its two compositions for three blocks placement. Table 3.4.2 presents two compositions of two unique placement structures for three blocks placement. Vertical Composition Horizontal composition

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C B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + Ch Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw) Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch) Fw = Aw + Bw + Cw

A

B C

B A

C

A

C B

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + Ch) Fh = Ah + max (Bh, Ch) Fw = Aw + max (Bw, Cw) Fw = max (Aw, Bw + Cw) Table 3.4.1 two compositions of two unique placement structures for three blocks

3.4.3 Four Block placements
In this section we have identifies LB-compact unique structure for placing 4 blocks together in a floorplan. While placing for blocks together we have slicing structures as well as Non-slicing structure. For producing all possible slicing structures for four blocks, we have used five different binary trees with leaf nodes represent block and all other internal nodes are operator. These binary trees have three operators to arrange four blocks. Fig. 3.4.3 (a), Fig. 3.4.3 (b), Fig. 3.4.3 (c), Fig. 3.4.3 (d) and fig. 3.4.3 (e) show a binary tree of four blocks, we have three operators O1 = {H, V}, O2 = {H, V} and O3 = {H, V}.

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There exist no such procedure for producing all possible for non-slicing structures. But we have one LB-compact unique non-slicing structure possible for placing four blocks. Fig 3.4.3 (a1) to Fig 3.4.3 (a8) show placement derived from a binary tree in Fig. 3.4.3 (a) and similarly Fig 3.4.3 (b1) to Fig 3.4.3 (b8) show placement derived from a binary tree in Fig. 3.4.3 (b) and then so on up to a binary tree in Fig. 3.4.3 (e). These placements are derived after placing value of operator as O1 O2 O3= {HHH, HHV, HVH, HHVV, VHH, VHV, VVH, VVV}.

O2

O1

O3

A

B

C

D

Fig. 3.4.3 (a)

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A

B C

D

A

B

D C

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = Aw + Bw + Cw + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (a1)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch + Dh) Fw = Aw + Bw + max (Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (a2)

C A

D B A

D C B

Fh = max (Ah, Bh) + max (Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw + Bw, Cw + Dw ) Fig. 3.4.3 (a3)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh) + Ch + Dh Fw = max (Aw + Bw, Cw, Dw ) Fig. 3.4.3 (a4)

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C

D B A

D C B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + Ch + Dh Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (a8)

Fh = Ah + Bh + max (Ch + Dh) Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw + Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (a7)

B A

C

D

B A

D C

Fh = max (Ah + Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw + Bw) + Cw + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (a5)

Fh = max (Ah + Bh, Ch + Dh) Fw = max (Aw + Bw) + max (Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (a6)

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O3

O2

D

O1

C

A

B

Fig. 3.4.3 (b)

D A B C D A B C

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = Aw + Bw + Cw + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (b1)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch) + Dh Fw = max (Aw + Bw + Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (b2)

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C A B D A

D C B

Fh = max (max (Ah, Bh) + Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw + Bw, Cw) + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (b3)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh) + Ch + Dh Fw = max (Aw + Bw, Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (b4)

D

B A

C

D

B A

C

Fh = max (Ah + Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw + Bw) + Cw + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (b5)

Fh = max (Ah + Bh, Ch) + Dh Fw = max (Aw + Bw, Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (b6)

C B A

D

D C B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + Ch + Dh Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (b8)

Fh = max (Ah + Bh + Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw + Bw, Cw) + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (b7)

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O1

A

O2

B

O3

C

D

Fig. 3.4.3 (c)

A

B C

D

A

B

D C

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = Aw + Bw + Cw + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (c1)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch + Dh) Fw = Aw + Bw + max (Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (c2)

C A B

D A

D C B

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + max (Ch, Dh)) Fw = Aw + max (Bw, Cw + Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (c3)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + Ch + Dh) Fw = Aw + max (Bw, Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (c4)

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B

C D A

B A

D C

Fh = Ah + max (Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw(c5) + Cw + Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 , Bw Fig. 3.4.3 (c5)

Fh = Ah + max (Bh, Ch + Dh) Fw = max (Aw, Bw + max (Cw, Dw)) Fig. 3.4.3 (c6)

C

D B A

D C B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + Ch + Dh Fw Fig. 3.4.3w(c8) , Cw, Dw) = max (A , Bw Fig. 3.4.3 (c8)

Fh = Ah + Bh + max (Ch, Dh) Fig. 3.4.3 Bw Fw = max (Aw,(c7), Cw + Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (c7)

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O3

D

O1

A

O2

B

C

Fig. 3.4.3 (d)

D A B C D A B C

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = Aw + Bw + Cw + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (d1)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch) + Dh Fw = max (Aw + Bw + Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (d2)

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D A C B D A C B

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + Ch, Dh) Fw =Aw + max (Bw, Cw) + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (d3)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + Ch) + Dh Fw = max (Aw + max (Bw, Cw), Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (d4)

D B C A
Fh = max (Ah + max (Bh, Ch), Dh) Fw = max (Aw + Bw + Cw) + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (d5)

D

B A

C

Fh = Ah + max (Bh, Ch) + Dh Fw = max (Aw, Bw + Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (d6)

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D C B A D C B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + Ch + Dh Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (d8)

Fh = max (Ah + Bh + Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw) + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (d7)

O1

A

O3

O2

D

B

C

Fig. 3.4.3 (e)

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D A B C D A B C

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = Aw + Bw + Cw + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (e1)

Fh = max (Ah, max (Bh, Ch) + Dh) Fw = Aw + max (Bw + Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (e2)

D A C B D A C B

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + Ch, Dh) Fw =Aw + max (Bw, Cw) + Dw Fig. 3.4.3 (e3)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + Ch + Dh) Fw = Aw + max (Bw, Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (e4)

D B C D A
Fh = Ah + max (Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw, Bw + Cw + Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (e5)

B C A
Fh = Ah + max (Bh, Ch) + Dh Fw = max (Aw, Bw + Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (e6)

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C B A

D

D C B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + Ch + Dh Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw, Dw) Fig. 3.4.3 (e8)

Fh = Ah + max (Bh + Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw, max (Bw, Cw) + Dw ) Fig. 3.4.3 (e7)

Under condition of exhaustive search with all possible ordering of blocks A, B, C and D with for each block + 90os rotation allowed there are few redundant structures from fig 3.4.3 (a, a1-a8) to fig. 3.4.3 (e, e1-a8) always produce same floorplan area FA = Fh * Fw. Thus we identified five unique LB-compact placement structures and its two compositions. In addition to this we have one more unique non-slicing LB-compact placement structure its two compositions. Table 3.4.3 presents two compositions of six unique placement structures four blocks placement. Vertical Composition Horizontal composition

D C B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + Ch + Dh Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw, Dw)

A

B C

D

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = Aw + Bw + Cw + Dw

C D B A
Fh = Ah + Bh + max (Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw, Bw, Cw + Dw)

A

B

D C

Fh = max (Ah, Bh, Ch + Dh) Fw = Aw + Bw + max (Cw, Dw)

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B

C D A A

D C B

Fh = Ah + max (Bh, Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw, Bw + Cw + Dw)

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + Ch + Dh) Fw = Aw + max (Bw, Cw, Dw)

C D A B B A D C

Fh = max (Ah, Bh) + max (Ch, Dh) Fw = max (Aw + Bw, Cw + Dw )

Fh = max (Ah + Bh, Ch + Dh) Fw = max (Aw + Bw) + max (Cw, Dw)

B B A

D C

A

C B

D

Fh = Ah + max (Bh, Ch + Dh) Fw = max (Aw, Bw + max (Cw, Dw)) Non-slicing

Fh = max (Ah, Bh + max (Ch, Dh)) Fw = Aw + max (Bw, Cw + Dw)

C D A B D A B C

Fh =max (Bh + Dh, max (Ah, Bh) + Ch ) Fw = max (max (Aw, Cw) + Bw, Cw + Dw )

Fh =max (Ah + Bh, max (Ah, Ch) + Dh ) Fw = max (max (Aw, Bw) + Cw, Bw + Dw )

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Table 3.4.1 two compositions of six unique placement structures for four blocks

3.5

Algorithm

We propose two algorithms for floorplanning. Both having complexity O(n) but first algorithm requires recursive call in order of log4 n while second algorithm required recursive call in order of n. We have taken bottom-up, recursive approach in these algorithms. These algorithms use efficient exhaustive search procedure as explain in last section for placing two, three or four rectangular blocks in a floorplan. Both algorithms fall in class of constructive algorithm rather than class of iterative algorithm and work in bottom-up constructive manner and they are recursive by nature. These algorithms designed with concept that In case of placing few blocks together in non overlapping manner, we can achieve better area utilization if blocks are having their area value in neighbourhood if area values are arrange in order.

3.5.1 Algorithm-I
This algorithm starts with given blocks b1, b2, …, bn, before initiating recursive call, first blocks are arranged in ascending order according to their area. Let say ordered list of blocks as ab1, ab2, …, abn. Then list of composite blocks is generated from ordered list of blocks as ab1, ab2, …, abn.. Here a composite block is a block that which generate after placing 2, 3 or 4 blocks together using exhaustive search procedure. A composite block also generated from placing 2, 3 or 4 composite blocks together. Let say list of composite blocks as cb1, cb2, …, cbk. Here k = n / 4 if n mod 4 = 0 otherwise k = n / 4+1. In list of composite blocks cb1 generated from first four blocks of order list ab1, ab2, …, abn, cb1 generated from next four blocks and so on up to cbk, generated from last four blocks from our order list ab1, ab2, …, abn, if n mod 4 = 0 otherwise cbk generated from {abn-2, abn-1, abn} if n mod 4 = 3, { abn-1, abn} if n mod 4 = 2 or {abn} if n mod 4 = 1. Here for generating composite blocks list, blocks are selected in-group of four from order list of blocks starting from smallest area and then up to end of list. So last the composite block

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in may have 4,3, 2 or 1 blocks or block according to number of blocks in list. Then the selected group of four blocks are place using exhaustive search procedure, which generates a composite block. A composite block has same property as a hard block define previously. Thus this approach once again applies to new list of composite blocks. Before initiating same recursive procedure, composite blocks are ordered according to area in aviable list. This recursive procedure is stooped when only one composite block remains in the list. And this composite block is our floorplan rectangle, which envelops n blocks in non-overlapping manner. This bottom up constructive approach provides us floorplan rectangle but exact coordinates of each blocks has been not assigned. So with each returning from recursive call in top-down way each composite block assign co-ordinated to it’s constitute blocks or composite blocks according to rotation, ordering of blocks and LB-compact unique structure used to generate that composite block. At the end of algorithm we have rectangle R which contains blocks b1, b2, …, bn in non overlapping manner and floorplan F = {(x1i, y1i, x2i, y2i) | 1 ≤ I ≤ n}, means each block has bottom-left corners being assigned to (x1i, y1i) and top-right corners being assigned to (x2i, y2i).
Algorithm: algorithm-I (listOfBlocks) Input: listOfBlocks – blocks with height, width and aspect ratio range in case of soft blocks. Output: listOfBlocks – with each block having fix co-ordinates and aspect ratio. FloorplanH – Floorplan Height. FloorplanW – Floorplan Width. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 ArrangeBlocksInAscOrderOfArea (listOfBlocks); If NumberOfBlocks (listOfBlocks) = 1 then SetCordinateOfSubBlocks (listOfBlocks); FloorplanH = firstBlock (listOfBlocks).Height; FloorplanW = firstBlock (listOfBlocks).Width; Return; End If newListOfCompositeBlocks = CreateCompositeBlocks (listOfBlocks); Call algorithm-I (newListOfCompositeBlocks); SetCordinateOfSubBlocks (newListOfCompositeBlocks);

3.5.2 Algorithm-II
This algorithm starts with given blocks b1, b2, …, bn, before initiating recursive call, first blocks are arranged in ascending order according to their area. Let say ordered list of

40

Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in blocks as ab1, ab2, …, abn. Then from list of blocks first four blocks are selected and a new composite block is generated from it. Let say cb1234 as it is generated from b1, b2, b3, and b4 after exhaustive search procedure. The composite block added to list of order blocks after replacing it’s constituted in order list. The composite block is inserted in order list according to its area so that order is maintained in the list. Since a composite block has property same as a hard block. Thus this approach once again applies to new list available after adding new composite block. Thus with each recursive call 4 blocks are replaced with 1 composite block, hence size of list reduce by 3 at each recursive call. This recursive procedure is stooped when only one composite block remains in the list. And this composite block is our floorplan rectangle, which envelops n blocks in non-overlapping manner. This bottom up constructive approach provides us floorplan rectangle but exact coordinates of each blocks has been not assigned. So with each returning from recursive call in top-down way each composite block assign co-ordinated to it’s constitute blocks or composite blocks according to rotation, ordering of blocks and LB-compact unique structure used to generate that composite block. At the end of algorithm we have rectangle R which contains blocks b1, b2, …, bn in non overlapping manner and floorplan F = {(x1i, y1i, x2i, y2i) | 1 ≤ I ≤ n}, means each block has bottom-left corners being assigned to (x1i, y1i) and top-right corners being assigned to (x2i, y2i).
Algorithm: algorithm-II (listOfBlocks) Input: listOfBlocks – blocks with height, width and aspect ratio range in case of soft blocks. Output: listOfBlocks – with each block having fix co-ordinates and aspect ratio. FloorplanH – Floorplan Height. FloorplanW – Floorplan Width. 01 ArrangeBlocksInAscOrderOfArea (listOfBlocks); 02 If NumberOfBlocks (listOfBlocks) = 1 then 03 SetCordinateOfSubBlocks (listOfBlocks); 04 FloorplanH = firstBlock (listOfBlocks).Height; 05 FloorplanW = firstBlock (listOfBlocks).Width; 06 Return; 07 End If 08 newCompositeBlock = CreateOneCompositeBlock (getFirstFourOrLessBlocks (listOfBlocks)); 09 InsertNewBlockInList (newCompositeBlock, listOfBlocks); 10 Call algorithm-II (listOfBlocks);

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11 SetCordinateOfSubBlocks (listOfBlocks);

3.5.3 Comparisons between Algorithm-I and Algorithm-II
In algorithm-I, numbers of recursive call are in order of log4 n while in algorithm-II, numbers of recursive calls are equal to (n-2)/3 hence in order of n. If both algorithms are evaluated with respect to numbers of exhaustive search procedures required, both are same in this respect. Numbers of exhaustive search procedures required is equal to (n-2)/3 thus it is in order of n (O (n)). In case of algorithm-II, composite block is inserted in order list of blocks according to its area, while in Algorithm-II sorting is used to arrange the list of composite blocks. Algorithm-I can easily implemented on distributed environment for better performance because in this algorithm. We can divide our problem size n in two problems of each size n/2.

3.6

Experimental Results

We have implemented the algorithm-I and algorithm-II in the C++ programming language on a PC with Intel PIV 1.8 GHz CPU and 256 MB memory. We have compared algorithmI and algorithm-II with SP [6], O-tree [1], B*-tree [4], Enhanced O-tree [9], CBL [3], TCG [2], TCG-S, FAST-SP [13] and GPE [11] based on the five MSNC benchmark circuits. All of these algorithms are iterative algorithm. So they are taking much more time then our algorithm and also producing better results in area utilization, while our algorithm producing satisfactory results in area utilization and taking very less time. Here we have compared algorithms only for hard blocks placement. The area and runtime comparisons among SP [6] (on SUN Sparc Ultra-I), O-tree [1] (on a 200 MHz SUN Sparc Ultra-I workstation with 521 MB memory), B*-tree [4] (on a 200 MHz SUN Sparc Ultra-I workstation with 256 MB memory), Enhanced O-tree [9] (on a SUN Sparc Ultra-60), CBL [3] (on a SUN Sparc Ultra-20), TCG [2] (on a 433 MHz SUN Sparc Ultra-60 workstation with 1GB memory), TCG-S [16] (on a 433 MHz SUN Sparc Ultra-60 workstation with 1GB memory), FAST-SP [13] (on ultra1) and GPE [11] (on a PC with Intel PIII 800 MHz CPU and 128 MB memory) is provided from Table 3.6.3a to Table 3.6.3e.

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Area utilization and runtimes for algorithm-I and algorithm-II are shown in Table 3.6.1 and Table 3.6.2 respectively. Their comparisons are available in Table 3.6.3. Appendix A.1 and Appendix A.2 contain circuit layout generated by algorithm-I and algorithm-II respectively. M CNC Circuit ami49 ami33 Hp Xerox Apte Modul e Count 49 33 11 10 9 Total Modules Areas(mm2 ) 10.4720 3.8220 40.0240 35.4454 1.8410 0.7000 1.2887 1.1564 2.2680 4.1160 9.3351 8.8306 2.6670 7.7140 20.5732 19.3503 25.6140 1.8320 46.9248 46.5616 Table 3.6.1 Area utilization and runtime for Algorithm-I Width(mm ) Height(mm ) Floorplan Area(mm2 ) Dead Area(% ) 11.4395 10.2624 5.4044 5.9443 0.7740 Time (s) <1 <1 <1 <1 <1

MCNC Circuit ami49 ami33 Hp Xerox Apte

Modul e Count 49 33 11 10 9

Total Modules Areas(mm2 ) 5.1520 7.8400 40.3917 35.4454 1.9600 0.7560 1.4818 1.1564 3.2200 3.3040 10.6389 8.8306 2.6670 7.7140 20.5732 19.3503 25.6140 1.8320 46.9248 46.5616 Table 3.6.2 Area utilization and runtime for Algorithm-II

Width(mm )

Height(mm )

Floorplan Area(mm2 )

Dead Area(% ) 12.2457 21.9544 16.9971 5.9443 0.7740

Time (s) <1 <1 <1 <1 <1

MCNC Circuit

Floorplan Dead Floorplan Dead Time Area Area Time Area Area (s) (mm2) (%) (s) (mm2) (%) ami49 49 35.4454 40.0240 11.4395 <1 40.3917 12.2457 <1 ami33 33 1.1564 1.2887 10.2624 <1 1.4818 21.9544 <1 hp 11 8.8306 9.3351 5.4044 <1 10.6389 16.9971 <1 xerox 10 19.3503 20.5732 5.9443 <1 20.5732 5.9443 <1 apte 9 46.5616 46.9248 0.7740 <1 46.9248 0.7740 <1 Table 3.6.3 Area utilization and runtime comparison for Algorithm-I and Algorithm-II

Module Minimum Count Area(mm2)

Algo-I

Algo-II

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MCNC Circuit

Module Count

ami49 ami33 hp xerox apte

49 33 11 10 9

Floorplan Dead Floorplan Area Area Time Area (mm2) (%) (s) (mm2) 35.4454 38.842 8.7446 1580 37.6 1.1564 1.22 5.2131 676 1.25 8.8306 9.93 11.071 5 9.21 19.3503 20.69 6.4751 15 20.1 46.5616 48.12 3.2385 13 47.1 Table 3.6.3a Area utilization and runtime for SP and O-tree

Minimum Area(mm2 )

SP

O-tree Dead Area (%) 5.7303 7.488 4.1194 3.7298 1.1430 Time (s) 7428 1430 57 118 38

MCNC Circuit

Floorplan Dead Floorplan Dead Area Area Time Area Area (mm2) (%) (s) (mm2) (%) ami49 49 35.4454 36.80 3.6809 4752 37.73 6.0551 ami33 33 1.1564 1.27 8.9448 3417 1.24 6.7419 hp 11 8.8306 8.947 1.3009 55 9.16 3.5960 xerox 10 19.3503 19.83 2.4190 25 20.16 4.0163 apte 9 46.5616 46.92 0.7638 7 46.92 0.7638 Table 3.6.3b Area utilization and runtime for B*-tree and Enhanced O-tree

Module Count

Minimum Area(mm2 )

B*-tree

Enhanced O-tree Time (s) 406 118 19 38 11

MCNC Circuit

Module Count

ami49 ami33 hp xerox apte

49 33 11 10 9

Floorplan Dead Floorplan Area Area Time Area (mm2) (%) (s) (mm2) 35.4454 38.58 8.1249 65 36.77 1.1564 1.20 3.63333 36 1.20 8.8306 NA NA NA 8.947 19.3503 20.96 7.6798 30 19.83 46.5616 NA NA NA 46.92 Table 3.6.3c Area utilization and runtime for CBL and TCG

Minimum Area(mm2 )

CBL

TCG Dead Area (%) 3.6023 3.6333 1.3009 2.4190 0.7638 T ime (s) 434 306 20 18 1

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ami49 ami33 hp xerox apte

Floorplan Dead Floorplan Dead Area Area Time Area Area (mm2) (%) (s) (mm2) (%) 49 35.4454 36.40 2.6225 369 36.50 2.8893 33 1.1564 1.185 2.4135 84 1.205 4.0331 11 8.8306 8.947 1.3009 7 8.947 1.3009 10 19.3503 19.796 2.2514 5 19.80 2.2712 9 46.5616 46.92 0.7638 1 46.92 0.7638 Table 3.6.3d Area utilization and runtime for TCG-S and FAST-SP

MCNC Circuit

Module Count

Minimum Area(mm2 ) 35.4454 1.1564 8.8306 19.3503 46.5616

GPE Floorplan Area (mm2) 36.45 1.18 9.12 20.14 46.90 Dead Area(% ) 2.7561 2 3.1732 3.9210 0.7215 Time (s) 247 81 2 2 1

ami49 ami33 hp xerox apte

49 33 11 10 9

Table 3.6.3e Area utilization and runtime for GPE

We have also generated three test cases for checking our algorithm for placement of soft blocks. In case-I, half numbers of blocks are soft and they are selected randomly. Range of their aspect ratio is from 1.0 to 2.0 (with + 90os rotation allowed) with 0.1 as increment. Table 3.6.4 shows pattern of hard and soft Blocks in test CASE –I. In Case-II, half numbers of blocks are soft and they are complement of blocks in Case-I. It means those blocks, which are soft in case-I, are hard in case-II and visa versa. Range of their aspect ratio is from 1.0 to 2.0 (with + 90os rotation allowed) with 0.1 as increment. Table 3.6.5 shows pattern of hard and soft Blocks in test CASE –II. In Case-III, all blocks are soft. Range of their aspect ratio is from 1.0 to 2.0 (with + 90os rotation allowed) with 0.1 as increment.

MCNC Circuit

Hard, Soft Blocks

Pattern of Hard and Soft Blocks. Arranged in ascending order of area, 1 and 0 represents hard

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in Count and soft blocks respectively. (25,24) {1000001011010110000110010101101110111010111001000} (17,16) {001101100101010000101111100101001} (6,5) {000001111011} (5,5) {0001111100} (5,4) {1000001111} Table 3.6.4 Pattern of Hard and Soft Blocks in test CASE -I

ami49 ami33 hp xerox apte

MCNC Circuit ami49 ami33 hp xerox apte

Hard, Soft Pattern of Hard and Soft Blocks. Blocks Arranged in ascending order of area, 1 and 0 represents hard Count and soft blocks respectively. (24,25) {0111110100101001111001101010010001000101000110111} (16,17) {110010011010101111010000011010110} (5,6) {111110000100} (5,5) {1110000011} (4,5) {0111110000} Table 3.6.5 Pattern of Hard and Soft Blocks in test CASE -II

Area utilization and runtime of algorithm-I for case-I, case-II and case-III are shown in Table 3.6.6, Table 3.6.7 and Table 3.6.8 respectively. And for algorithm-II its available in Table 3.6.9, Table 3.6.10 and Table 3.6.11. The comparisons between algorithm-I and algorithm II with respect to case-I, case-II and case-III are available in Table 3.6.12 and Table 3.6.13. Appendix B.1 and Appendix B.2 contain circuit layout generated by algorithm-I and algorithm-II respectively for case-I, case-II and case-III. Circuit Modul Width(mm) Height(mm) Floorplan Total Dead e Area(mm) Modules Area (%) Count Areas(mm2) ami49 49 9.7980 4.1190 40.3580 35.4454 12.1724 ami33 33 1.5030 0.9960 1.4970 1.1564 22.7483 hp 11 5.8330 1.6090 9.3853 8.8306 5.9104 xerox 10 9.0030 2.4380 21.9493 19.3503 11.8410 apte 9 5.5230 9.7810 54.0205 46.5616 13.8074 Table 3.6.6 Area utilization and runtime for algorithm-I applied on case-I T ime (s) 9 31 2 31 0

Circuit Modul e Count ami49 49

Width(mm) Height(mm) Floorplan Total Area(mm) Modules Areas(mm2) 10.6370 3.7150 39.5165 35.4454

Dead Area(% ) 10.3021

Time (s) 9

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in ami33 hp xerox apte 33 1.8160 0.7320 1.3293 1.1564 13.0039 11 10.4830 1.0080 10.5669 8.8306 16.4314 10 3.2070 7.6440 24.5143 19.3503 21.0653 9 5.3780 10.4530 56.2162 46.5616 17.1741 Table 3.6.7 Area utilization and runtime for algorithm-I applied on case-II 6 30 3 2

Circuit Modul Width(mm) Height(mm) Floorplan Total Dead e Area(mm) Modules Area(% Count Areas(mm2) ) ami49 49 9.9360 3.9850 39.5950 35.4454 10.4800 ami33 33 1.8590 0.7300 1.3571 1.1564 14.7834 hp 11 3.4400 2.6520 9.1229 8.8306 3.2040 xerox 10 8.8570 2.4380 21.5934 19.3503 10.3878 apte 9 12.2180 3.9850 48.6887 46.5616 4.3688 Table 3.6.8 Area utilization and runtime for algorithm-I applied on case-III Circuit Modul Width(mm) Height(mm) Floorplan Total Dead e Area(mm) Modules Area(% Count Areas(mm2) ) ami49 49 9.4570 4.1160 38.9250 35.4454 8.9392 ami33 33 1.8120 0.7310 1.3246 1.1564 12.6926 hp 11 4.5130 2.0440 9.2246 8.8306 4.2711 xerox 10 8.3230 2.5340 21.0905 19.3503 8.2510 apte 9 5.5230 9.7810 54.0205 46.5616 13.8074 Table 3.6.9 Area utilization and runtime for algorithm-II applied on case-I

Time (s) 367 245 61 62 60

Time (s) 8 3 3 30 1

Circuit Modul Width(mm) Height(mm) Floorplan Total Dead e Area(mm) Modules Area(% Count Areas(mm2) ) ami49 49 5.1320 7.6930 39.4805 35.4454 10.2204 ami33 33 1.5030 0.9780 1.4699 1.1564 21.3265 hp 11 2.3580 4.5300 10.6817 8.8306 17.3301 xerox 10 2.8830 7.6440 22.0377 19.3503 12.1944 apte 9 5.3780 10.4530 56.2162 46.5616 17.1741 Table 3.6.10 Area utilization and runtime for algorithm-II applied on case-II

Time (s) 7 5 31 2 2

Circuit Modul e Count ami49 49 ami33 33 hp 11 xerox 10

Width(mm) Height(mm) Floorplan Total Area(mm) Modules Areas(mm2) 8.9700 4.1840 37.5305 35.4454 1.1930 1.3010 1.5521 1.1564 4.0700 2.2980 9.3529 8.8306 8.1090 2.4470 19.8427 19.3503

Dead Area(% ) 5.5556 25.4910 5.5841 2.4817

Time (s) 312 216 63 61

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in apte 9 12.2180 3.9850 48.6887 46.5616 4.3688 61 Table 3.6.11 Area utilization and runtime for algorithm-II applied on case-III Module Count CASE I CASE II CASE III Time (s) 367 245 61 62 60

MCNC Circuit ami49 ami33 hp xerox apte

Dead Dead Time (s) Dead Area(%) Time (s) Area(%) Area(%) 49 12.1724 9 10.3021 9 10.4800 33 22.7483 31 13.0039 6 14.7834 11 5.9104 2 16.4314 30 3.2040 10 11.8410 31 21.0653 3 10.3878 9 13.8074 0 17.1741 2 4.3688 Table 3.6.12 Summary of area utilization and runtime for algorithm-I Module Count CASE I CASE II CASE III

MCNC Circuit ami49 ami33 hp xerox apte

Dead Dead Time (s) Dead Area(%) Time (s) Area(%) Area(%) 49 8.9392 8 10.2204 7 5.5556 33 12.6926 3 21.3265 5 25.4910 11 4.2711 3 17.3301 31 5.5841 10 8.2510 30 12.1944 2 2.4817 9 13.8074 1 17.1741 2 4.3688 Table 3.6.13 Summary of area utilization and runtime for algorithm-II

Time (s) 312 216 63 61 61

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Chapter 4 Conclusion and Future Work 4.1 Conclusion

In this thesis, we presented a bottom-up recursive approach to floorplanning using an efficient exhaustive search procedure for placing two, three, or four rectangular blocks in a floorplan. Exhaustive search procedure is also applicable to soft block. We considered slicing as well as non-slicing structures. We developed two algorithms, which fall in class of constructive approach rather than class of iterative approach. Algorithm-1 and and algorithm-II are very fast compare to other iterative approach and also producing promising results. Complexity of these algorithms is O(n). Experiments results with MCNC circuits indicate that area utilization of about 85-99% can be achieved in very less time then iterative algorithms. Drawback of these algorithms is that dead area gets accumulated with each recursive call because, once a composite block is created from 2, 3 or 4 blocks we are considering this composite block as hard block and further using it for creating higher order composite blocks. Thus due to above reason in few cases algorithms are not performing with respect to area utilization. These algorithms are also applicable to soft blocks. But in case of wide range of possible aspect ratios for soft blocks and with four soft blocks out of four blocks under Exhaustive search procedure increases search iteration tremendously. Thus under above conditions, algorithms do not perform well with respect to runtime.

4.1

Future Work

Drawback of these algorithms can be eliminated with help of concepts provided in following section.

4.1.1 Initial Arrangement of Soft blocks
Evenly distributing soft blocks among available hard blocks according to area, reduces chance of getting all four consecutive soft blocks under exhaustive search procedure for placements. Because a soft block can have a range of shapes as per the range of its aspect ratio, with availability of some soft blocks in each exhaustive search procedure for placement increases chances of a floorplan with better area utilization.

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4.1.2 Extending Floorplan Sizing
An exhaustive search procedure for placement of 2, 3 or 4 blocks, produces a composite block. We are considering this composite block as a hard block for further placements in both recursive algorithms. But if this composite block is considered as soft block if while creating this floorplan we have more than one floorplan option avialable which are having equal area. Currently, if two or more floorplans have the same minimum area, then a floorplan with aspect ratio nearer to 1.0 is selected. Further more this concept can be extended with acceptable range of values of dead area for placements of 2, 3, 4 blocks. In this case we are considering range for dead area in place of only minimum dead areas as our selection criteria.

4.1.3 Exhaustive Search Procedure Extension
In this thesis, we have identified unique placement structure for at most 4 blocks placement at a time. But this work is further extends for 5 blocks at a time once unique placement structures for 5 blocks are derived. With five blocks a time provide more option of placements and hence less dead area per each composition.

4.1.4 Iterative Algorithm
The complexity of presented algorithms are in order of O(n). So they can update to iterative algorithm using simulated annealing, genetic algorithm or any other approaches. An iterative algorithm with timeout will eliminate chance of not performing well in area utilization.

4.1.5 A New Algorithm: Greedy Approach to Floorplanning
This algorithm generates list of composite blocks from given list of blocks. A composite block is a block composed of two or more then two blocks. In this algorithm only slicing structure has been used. This one is recursive algorithm. In this algorithm, at each pass, according to specified selection criteria two blocks are selected from available list of blocks. A block in list can either be simple block or a composite block. Then a composite block is constructed from selected two blocks according composition rule specified. The composite block further added to same list of blocks and its constituent blocks are removed from list of blocks. Above procedure is repeated until it reaches to a termination condition.

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There are two variety of flows available from this propose algorithm. First flow output is list of composite blocks while second flow ends with only one composite block and that one is our final floorplan. Varity of flow is due to some input criteria, which is defined further in this chapter. This algorithm can be described using following there step: 1. Input Preparation 2. Core Recursive Algorithm 3. Output preparation 1. Input preparation: We are given a set of n blocks or rectangular objects b1, b2, …, bn. and their respective height and width are (h1, w1), (h2, w2), …, (hn , wn). Let A1, A2, …, An is respective areas of blocks. We prepare a list { {E1, { h1, A1, C1}},{E1, { w1, A1, C1}, {E2, { h2, A2, C2}}, {E2, { w2, A2, C2}}, …, {En, { hn, An, Cn}}, {En, { wn, An, Cn}}}. Where {E1, { h1, A1, C1}} is one node of list and these is two such similar nodes in a list for each block. Here in this list E1, E2, …, En are expression which illustrate floorplan composition of that node in form of slicing tree. Since blocks are not composite blocks initially its respective values are b1, b2, …, bn.. In case of Composite blocks, E1 may have values like b1’ b2’+ , b1, b2*, etc. Here mean b1 and b2 are placed vertically one above other but without rotation. Here in this list C1, C2, …, Cn are composition index which specifies at which iteration this composite block is created. These values are initialized to zero. At each pass we add only one composite block in the list so every block has either composition index set to zero value or distinct value on later stage. We define three function size() , area() and composition index(). The function size() is applicable to node and its value is equal to size of edge of block available in that node. E.g. size({E1, { h1, A1, C1}}) = h1 and size({E1, { w1, A1, C1}) = w1. The function area() is b1’

b2’+ means blocks b1 and b2 are rotated and placed horizontally side by side and b1, b2*

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in applicable to node and its value is equal to area of block available in that node. E.g. area({E1, { h1, A1, C1}}) = A1 and area({E1, { w1, A1, C1}) = A1. The function composition_ index() is applicable to node and its value is equal to

composition index of that node. E.g. composition_index ({E1, { h1, A1, C1}}) = C1 and composition_ index ({E1, { w1, A1, C1}) = A1. We prepare an order list having an invariance properties and it is then feed to our algorithm. The invariance properties defined below is maintain by list through out algorithm during any operations on list such as insertion of composite block . . The invariance properties followed by list is that it always maintain order size (node1) ≤ size (node2) ≤ … ≤ size (noden), If size (node1) = size (node2) then it should follow area (node1) ≤ area (node2) and If area (node1) = area (node2) then it should follow composition_ index (node1) ≤ composition_ index (node2). In addition to order list we have more Input to algorithm and it is

Acceptable_Size_Range. It mean we can only create creating composite block from two blocks if edge by which we are going for composition, should have length difference less then Acceptable_Size_Range Acceptable_Size_Range decides the flow of algorithm if its set to maximum of integer then output of our algorithm is only one composite block at end. And if it sets to zero then there may be more then one composite blocks at end of algorithm but dead area accumulation in each composite block would be zero. Then further these types of composites blocks are feed to other algorithm for final flooorplanning. And advantage in this algorithm is that we can achieve as many as possible composite blocks with out any accumulation of dead area. 2. Core Recursive Algorithm:
Input: OL: Order List as defined above Acceptable_Size_Range: as defined above. Composition_Count: Iteration count of this recursive algorithm, it specifies composition_index, initially it’s equal to zero. Output: OL: may be with one composite block or more then one composite block depends on Acceptable_Size_Rang

.
01 minAdjDiff = searchMinimumAdjacentNodeSizeDiffIgnoreSelfNode (OL);

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02 If minAdjDiff <= Acceptable_Size_Range then 03 firstNode = getFirstNodeFromStart(OL, minAdjDiff); 04 secondNode = getSecondNodeFromStart(OL, minAdjDiff); 05 firstNodeSubling = getSubling (OL, firstNode); 06 secondNodeSubling = getSubling (OL, firstNodeSubling); 07 newCompositeBlock = CreateCB(firstNode, firstNodeSubling, secondNode, secondNodeSubling); 08 SetCompositionIndex(newCompositeBlock, Composition_Count); 09 removeNodesfromOL(OL, firstNode, firstNodeSubling, secondNode, secondNodeSubling); 10 insertNewCBinOL(OL, newCompositeBlock); 11 Composition_Count = Composition_Count + 1; 12 Call recursively same algorithm (OL, Acceptable_Size_Range, Composition_Count);

3. Output Preparation: Since two nodes are there in OL for each block or a composite block. In case of only one composite block Floorplan Height and Floorplan Width is calculated from node. FloorplanH = size (node1) FloorplanW = size (node2) And E1 and E2 which are equal because node1 and node2 are from same composite block. Since E1 represent slicing structure and we also have height and width of each block as (h1, w1), (h2, w2), …, (hn , wn) respectively. The co-ordinates of each block are calculated on the base of above thing. If there is more then one composite block at the end of algorithm then their height and width are extracted from OL and a new list of composite blocks is created from it.

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References
[1] P.-N. Guo, C.-K. Cheng, and T. Yoshimura, “Floorplanning Using a Tree Representation,” IEEE TCAD February 2001, pp.281-289. [2] Jai-Ming Lin and Yao-Wen Chang “TCG: A Transitive Closure Graph-Based Representation for Non-Slicing Floorplans,” Proc. DAC, pp. 764–769, June2001. [3] X. Hong, G. Huang, Y. Cai, S. Dong, C.-K. Cheng, and J. Gu, “Corner Block List: An effective and efficient topological representation of non-slicing floorplan,” Proc. ICCAD, pp. 8–12, Nov. 2000. [4] Y.-C. Chang, Y.-W. Chang, G.-M. Wu, and S.-W. Wu, “B*-trees: A new representation for nonslicing floorplans,” Proc. DAC, pp. 458–463, June 2000. [5] D. F. Wong, and C.-L. Liu, “A new algorithm for floorplan design,” Proc. DAC, pp. 101–107, June 1986. [6]H. Murata, K. Fujiyoshi, S. Nakatake, and Y. Kajitani, “Rectangle -packing based module placement,” Proc. ICCAD, pp. 472–479, Nov. 1995. [7] S. Nakatake, K. Fujiyoshi, H. Murata, and Y. Kajitani, “Module placement on BSGstructure and IC layout applications,” Proc. ICCAD, pp. 484–491, Nov. 1996. [8] H. Onodera, Y. Taniquchi, and K. Tamaru, “Branch-and-bound placement for building block layout,” Proc. DAC, pp. 433–439, 1991. [9] Y.-Pang, C.-K. Cheng, and T. Yoshimura, “An enhanced perturbing algorithm for floorplan design using the O-tree representation,” Proc. ISPD, pp. 168-173, April 2000. [10] J. Xu, P.N. Guo, C.K. Cheng, “Sequence Pair Approach for Rectilinear Module Placement,” IEEE TCAD April 1999, pp.484-493 [11] Chang-Tzu Lin, De-Sheng Chen and Yi-Wen Wang, “GPE: A New Representation for VLSI Floorplan Problem,” Proc. ICCD, pp. 42-44, 2002. [12] S Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science, pp.671–680, 1983. [13] X. Tang and D. F. Wong, ”FAST-SP: A Fast Algorithm for Block Placement based on Sequence Pair,” Proc. ASP-DAC, pp. 521-526, 2001. [14] S. H. Gerez, “Algorithms for VLSI Design Automation”, John Wiley & Sons, 2000. [15] Pinaki Mazumdar and Elizabeth M. Rudnick, “Genetic Algorithms for VLSI Design, Layout & Test Automation”, Addison Wesley Longman, 2000. [16] J.-M. Lin and Y.-W. Chang, .TCG-S: Orthogonal Coupling of P*-admissible Representations for General Floorplans,. DAC 2002, pp. 842.847.

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Appendix A.1 Circuit Layout Generated by Algorithm-I for Hard Blocks
Fig. A.1a to A.1e show layout of MCNC benchmark circuits ami49, ami33, hp, xerox and apte respectively. These layouts are output of algorithm-I.

Fig. A.1a ami49 layout (hard blocks, algorithm-I)

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Fig. A.1b ami33 layout (hard blocks, algorithm-I)

Fig. A.1c hp layout (hard blocks, algorithm-I)

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Fig. A.1d xerox layout (hard blocks, algorithm-I)

Fig. A.1e apte layout (hard blocks, algorithm-I)

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A.2 Circuit Layout Generated by Algorithm-II for Hard Blocks
Fig. A.2a to A2e show layout of MCNC benchmark circuits ami49, ami33, hp, xerox and apte respectively. These layouts are output of algorithm-II.

Fig. A.2a ami49 layout (hard blocks, algorithm-II)

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Fig. A.2b ami33 layout (hard blocks, algorithm-II)

Fig. A.2c hp layout (hard blocks, algorithm-II)

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Fig. A.2d xerox layout (hard blocks, algorithm-II)

Fig. A.2e apte layout (hard blocks, algorithm-II)

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B.1 Circuit Layout Generated by Algorithm-I for Soft Blocks
Fig. B.1a to B1e show layout of MCNC benchmark circuits ami49, ami33, hp, xerox and apte respectively for case-I. Similarly fig. B.1f to B1j show layout for case-II and fig. B.1k to B1o show layout for case-III. These layouts are output of algorithm-I.

Fig. B.1a ami49 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-I)

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Fig. B.1b ami33 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-I)

Fig. B.1c hp layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-I)

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Fig. B.1d xerox layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-I)

Fig. B.1e apte layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-I)

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Fig. B.1f ami49 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-I)

Fig. B.1g ami33 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-I)

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Fig. B.1h hp layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-I)

Fig. B.1i xerox layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-I)

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Fig. B.1j apte layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-I)

Fig. B.1k ami49 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-I)

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Fig. B.1l ami33 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-I)

Fig. B.1m hp layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-I)

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Fig. B.1n xerox layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-I)

Fig. B.1o apte layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-I)

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B.2 Circuit Layout Generated by Algorithm-II for Soft Blocks
Fig. B.2a to B2e show layout of MCNC benchmark circuits ami49, ami33, hp, xerox and apte respectively for case-I. Similarly fig. B.2f to B2j show layout for case-II and fig. B.2k to B2o show layout for case-III. These layouts are output of algorithm-II.

Fig. B.2a ami49 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-II)

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Fig. B.2b ami33 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-II)

Fig. B.2c hp layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-II)

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Fig. B.2d xerox layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-II)

Fig. B.2e apte layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-I, algorithm-II)

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Fig. B.2f ami49 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-II)

Fig. B.2g ami33 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-II)

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Fig. B.2h hp layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-II)

Fig. B.2i xerox layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-II)

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Fig. B.2j apte layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-II, algorithm-II)

Fig. B.2k ami49 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-II)

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Fig. B.2l ami33 layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-II)

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Sponsored By: Bonrix Software Systems, Ahmedabad, India. www.bonrix.net, www.bonrix.co.in Fig. B.2m hp layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-II)

Fig. B.2n xerox layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-II)

Fig. B.2o apte layout (soft blocks, hard blocks, case-III, algorithm-II)

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