Mineral Processing

SYMPOSIUM: 02 MINERAL PROCESSING
COD MP01 AUTHOR Lorenzo Reyes TITLE ABSTRACT USE OF BIOSOLIDS AND ITS MAIN COMPONENTS AS FROTH FLOTATION REAGENTS FOR THE CONCENTRATION OFF COPPER SULPHIDE ORE THE EVOLUTION OF MILL RELINING TECHNOLOGY GAS DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL FLOTATION EQUIPMENT EMPIRICAL CORRELATION FOR ESTIMATING GRINDING MEDIA CONSUMPTION CHARACTERIZATION OF COPPER CLAYS AND GEOMETALLURGICAL IMPLICATIONS PROGRESS MADE IN PILOT AND LABORATORY THICKENING STUDY EFFECT OF FINES CONTENT ON YIELD STRESS OF COPPER TAILINGS STUDY ON SEPARATION OF ARSENIC FROM COPPER CONCENTRATE TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE REPLACEMENT OF CONVENTIONAL FLOTATION CELLS BY FLOTATION CELLS PNEUMATIC IN THE BENEFIT OF COPPER ORES NEXT GENERATION PRESSURE FILTERS FOR HARD ROCK TAILINGS SEAWATER USE IN ANTOFAGASTA MINING GROUP ANTAPACCAY - TINTAYA EXPANSION GRINDING CYCLE OPTIMIZATION FOR PROCESSING OF COPPER SLAG AT AURUBIS BULGARIA IMPROVED DEM MODEL FOR PREDICTING CONE CRUSHERS' PERFORMANCE THE EFFECT OF FLOCCULANTS AND THEIR DEGRADATION PRODUCTS ON MOLYBDENITE FLOTATION ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BROWNFIELD PROJECTS FROTHER ROLES CHARACTERIZATION IN A LABORATORY FLOTATION CELL SAG MILL DISCHARGE SECTION OPTIMIZATION STUDIES AND REDESIGN INSTALLATION OF INTERNAL LAUNDERS ON 130 M³ FLOTATION CELLS AT MINERA LOS PELAMBRES CONCENTRATION OF COPPER OXIDE MINERAL WITH HYDROXAMATE GRINDING CHEMISTRY - THE APPLICATION OF GRINDING MEDIA TO IMPROVE METALLURGICAL RESPONSE OF COPPER ORES AMIRA P260 SILVER JUBILEE - 25 YEARS OF BENEFITS TO MINERALS FLOTATION NASH IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF COPPER FLOTATION CONCENTRATOR CUAJONE

MP02 MP03 MP04 MP05 MP07 MP08 MP09 MP11

Winston Rocher Luis Vinnett Carlos Rabanal Ursula Kelm R. Fuentes N. Rojas Shigeto Kuroiwa Sergio Arellano

MP13 MP16 MP17 MP18 MP19 MP22

T. Wisdom Francisco Abbott D. Garcia E.Visariev V. Murariu S. Castro

MP24 MP26 MP28 MP29 MP30 MP31

Fernando Pino C.O. Gomez David Meadows Felipe Henriquez H. Nematollahi Christopher J Greet

MP32 MP33

Zanin Massimiliano Jose Davila

Mineral Processing

MP35

O. Angulo

MP36

Mira Bissengaliyeva

MP38 MP39 MP40 MP41 MP42 MP43 MP44 MP45 MP47

Rene Del Villar Raul Jara Iturre David Gwyther C.O. Gomez G. Debernardi Rodrigo Huenchullán G. Lorin Redden Jorge M. Menacho and Juan Rodríguez S.E. Sánchez-Pino, S.A. SánchezBaquedano, R.M.Imhof, H. Sprenger Jorge M. Menacho

PREVENTING COPPER LOSS PRODUCTION AND FLOW PROBLEMS BY MEASURING THE MATERIALS FLOW PROPERTIES THERMODYNAMIC CONSTANTS OF MINERALS OF THE OXIDATION ZONE OF COPPER - ANTLERITE AND PSEUDOMALACHITE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN FLOTATION COLUMN INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OPTIMIZACIÓN METALÚRGICA DE UN MINERAL DE COBRE CON ALTA DISEMINACIÓN Y DUREZA MARINE TAILINGS PLACEMENT: EXPERIENCES AND LESSONS FROM THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION MODELLING BUBBLE HYDRODYNAMICS IN FLOTATION PRIMARY CRITERIA FOR PRESSURE COPPER LEACHING PROCESS SELECTION STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF RECLAIM TUNNELS … ADDRESSED AS A MINGA IMPROVED COPPER AND GOLD RECOVERY AT KGHM INTERNATIONAL’S ROBINSON MINE MODELLING BUBBLES GOING THROUGH FLOTATION CELLS PNEUMATIC FLOTATION IMHOFLOT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN CHILEAN MINING

MP48

REMOTE SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE PROCESS RESULTS AT CONCENTRATOR PLANTS

Mineral Processing

MP01

USE OF BIOSOLIDS AND ITS MAIN COMPONENTS AS FROTH FLOTATION REAGENTS FOR THE CONCENTRATION OF COPPER SULPHIDE ORE

Lorenzo Reyes-Bozo Departamento de Ciencias de la Ingeniería, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Andres Bello.

Alex Godoy-Faúndez Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.

Jose Luis Salazar, Héctor Valdés-González, Eduardo Vyhmeister Escuela de Industrias, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Andres Bello.

Ronaldo Herrera-Urbina Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Metalurgia, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, México.

ABSTRACT According to achieve a sustainable development, Chilean mining industry needs to embrace the best practices to its sustainable growth as engine developments. Relationships between mining industry and society have been historically complex due to its environmental impacts. Whereas the ore grade has declined continuously, this has involved an intensive energy and water consumption correlated to operational costs at different stages of process. Indeed, the amount of organic chemical reagents used in froth flotation of copper sulphide ores has a big impact on production costs as well as a huge effect on the environment. In this research was evaluated, via standard methodologies at laboratory scale, the use of biosolids and its main components (i.e., humic substances) as froth flotation reagents for sulphide ore concentration. These substances interact through physical and chemical ways due to differential affinities to mineralogical species such as chalcopyrite and pyrite. Aqueous solutions prepared with biosolids show good frothing characteristics whereas humic acid was found to act as collector for the concentration of a copper sulphide ore. Therefore, biosolids and its main components may open an opportunity to be used in copper sulphide flotation plants to partially replace conventional reagents, which are more hazardous and less environment-friendly.

In addition. using tools like chain blocks. increasing their capacity.Mineral Processing MP02 THE EVOLUTION OF MILL RELINING TECHNOLOGY Winston Rocher ABSTRACT Over the past fifty years. on the equipment and at work. the operators are working more strategically. The discharge of many of them had grates and the only way for people. The increased size of mills and the high prices for metals means equipment designers and mining companies need to work constantly to surpass their mechanised technology. rope and chains. more accurate and safer. technology has advanced quicker than in any other time and this has impacted greatly on people’s lives. The result has been a significant decrease of relining time and an increase in operator's safety. the quality of the materials and their components. by making them faster. The small grinding mills had an entry in the mill feed end for the spout feeder that didn't allow the entry of a person. The liners were installed manually with brute force. extending mills shutdown for many hours and increasing the risk of accidents. liners and tools to get into them was via the manhole. .

cell design (self-aerated or forced air) and under different operating conditions (frother dosage. The gas dispersion database is useful to select proper operating conditions and to define control criteria in flotation circuits. the bubble surface area flux. This result implies a dominant effect of the superficial gas rate on the gas dispersion. Also.Mineral Processing MP03 GAS DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL FLOTATION EQUIPMENT Luis Vinnett. SB. D32. Results involved mechanical flotation cells of 10 – 300 m3 from Rougher. impeller speed). . measured in different industrial flotation plants. Juan Yianatos ABSTRACT An extensive database of Sauter mean bubble diameters. From the D32 and JG values. Cleaner and Scavenger circuits and columns from Cleaner circuits. JG. A significant effect of superficial gas rate on bubble diameter was observed in mechanical cells with different bubble generation mechanisms. is presented. higher D32 values were observed in flotation columns because of the bubble sparger system and mainly due to lack of maintenance. was evaluated in order to determine normal operating conditions. and superficial gas rates.

steel grinding balls have proved to be the most effective media for comminution in tumbling mills.pe ABSTRACT The concern regarding grinding media wear is as old as the invention of the tumbling mills. this test is based in the ore properties having an error higher than 60%. this model is based in decoupling the effect of abrasion.com. Lately in 2007. Over the years many materials and grinding media shapes have been tested. through all this. Also In 2007. operational information from concentrators and statistical analysis to determine the more significant variables over the wear. The result of the research let us to build a more robust and confident model to estimate grinding media wear rate. Radziszewski proposed a decouple total grinding media wear model.Mineral Processing MP04 EMPIRICAL CORRELATION FOR ESTIMATING GRINDING MEDIA CONSUMPTION Carlos Rabanal Moly-Cop Adesur S. In the same way. but still shows high degree of error. no accurate technique for estimating the wear of the ball charge has been developed. this new decoupled model gets an error of +/.10% which represent a higher improvement in comparison with other models. crabanal@adesur. The average error of this new model was in order of +/5. This paper present the research developed by Moly-Cop in order to improve the capability of the empiric model developed by Benavente to estimated grinding media wear. The work performed includes extensive determination of Bond Abrasion Index for different kind of ores. Benavente from Moly-Cop Group presented an empiric model based in operational conditions that affect wear mechanism. This new model shows an average error of +/.17% which is an improvement in comparison to Bond model. . The mining industry still utilizes the Bond Abrasion test that was developed in the 60´s. corrosion and impact wear mechanism.A.0% which means a higher improvement over the models previously described.

Observations are contrasted with literature data on (1) the attempts of synthesis of Cuphyllosilicates. (2) the modification of phyllosilicates with Cu bearing molecules for catalysis and (3) larger than clay-size phyllosilicates incorporating Cu phases between individual sheets. Sonia Helle. Marcos Pincheira Instituto de Geología Económica Aplicada. rock texture and acid stability of the phyllosilicate species are of fundamental importance. Universidad de Concepción. Qemscan. discrete copper phases were found to be intercalated between individual phyllosilicate layers on a nanometric scale.Mineral Processing MP05 CHARACTERIZATION OF COPPER CLAYS AND GEOMETALLURGICAL IMPLICATIONS Ursula Kelm. These “copper clays” accompany chrysocolla. Chile ABSTRACT Copper clays are a common mapping term to describe parts of argillic and advanced argillic alterations associated with Andean type copper deposits. Transmission Electron Microscopy and complemented by determination of cation exchange capacity. Oscar Jerez. For the studied copper clays. . Copper clays have been characterized by X-ray diffraction. which may or not expand when humidified. They are very fine grained materials with a bluish hue. For acid extraction of Cu from these combined clay and Cu phase aggregates. atacamite and secondary sulphide mineralization.

A. 1 and 4 meters high respectively. (CdI-JRI) is developing a research line (I+D) oriented to studying thickening processes and whose main objective is focused on design. Both implemented columns allowed Cdl-JRI to develop its own methodology for characterizing the thickening of mining slurries in batch and continuous tests. especially during the first five years. T. . Watt Centro de Investigación JRI S. Garrido. P. concentrations of solids in underflow and overflow. precision in determining the thickener unit area has great impact on the thickener CAPEX. This paper presents the main results obtained: thickener unit area.Mineral Processing MP07 PROGRESS MADE IN PILOT AND LABORATORY THICKENING STUDY R. equipped with a rake and different feedwells. Fuentes. which are unable to comply with the overflow quality or the percentage of solids required in the output. Santiago. the effect of the feedwell on the quality of the overflow. CdI-JRI has designed and built two pilot columns for this purpose. On the other hand. it is necessary to take into account the variety of geological units of different lithologies and alterations that may appear during the useful life of the mine.. Chile ABSTRACT When designing thickeners. and the effect of the rake on the concentration of solids in the discharge.A. Ignoring these aspects leads to different operational problems in industrial thickeners of copper tailings and concentrate. Centro de Investigación JRI S. Standard measuring of geological attribute variability conducted in a laboratory is being contrasted with measuring carried out in batch and continuous pilot tests.

Three sizes known as fines are considered: material under mesh 200 (74 micron). Chile ABSTRACT Thickening calculation and design.size distribution on the rheological characteristics of tailings. which are then rheologically characterized. generating tailings with “a new particle-size distribution”. and final disposition of tailings are some of the areas in which a rheological characterization containing at least viscosity and yield stress is indispensable. On the other hand. especially the 37-micron size (under Tyler mesh 400). Zeta potential. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. shifting the yield stress curves versus the percentage of solids towards the left. Each of these is incorporated into the original tailings at different percentages. transport and disposition of slurries. Rojas. . material under mesh 400 (37 micron).. Centro de Investigación JRI S. generate an increase in yield stress. With these results we are able to conclude that the three sizes of fines that were studied. This may have a decisive impact on the thickening. Medellín. hydraulic transport of mine slurries. P. particle size distribution.A. These rheological parameters depend on a number of variables. Santiago. Among others. and varies throughout the life of a mining operation mainly due to changes in the geological units and/or modifications in operating conditions.Mineral Processing MP08 EFFECT OF FINES CONTENT ON YIELD STRESS OF COPPER TAILINGS N. this rheology is intrinsic to each treated slurry. Garrido. Instituto de Minerales CIMEX. under mesh 500 (25 micron). and the reagents eventually added. concentration of solids. pH. Colombia. This paper studies the influence of particle.

The contact angle of tennantite became smaller than that of the non-arsenical copper minerals when weak oxidization was applied. Niihama Research Laboratories (NRL) has been developing Cu/As separation technology from chemical approach (investigating and optimizing solid-liquid interfaces) and physical approach (studying the effect of flotation equipment). tennantite indicated similar contact angle to non-arsenical copper minerals. Effect of physical parameters of flotation equipment on separability of arsenic was also investigated. Misturu Sawada Metallurgist. chalcopyrite. Tatsuya lto. Faculty of engineering. When the surface was not oxidized. . Kyushu University ABSTRACT Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Department of Earth Resources Engineering. however above mentioned effect was small. bornite and pyrite was investigated. LTD Tsuyoshi Hlrajima Professor.LTD.. Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Results agreed with proposed flotation models. Niihama Research Laboratories.Mineral Processing MP09 STUDY ON SEPARATION OF ARSENIC FROM COPPER CONCENTRATE Shigeto Kuroiwa. lnfluence of oxidization on the contact angle of tennantite. chalcopyrite and bornite. Daisuke Sato.

The general objective of this work. The main conclusion. samplings of workflows to obtain data that will assist in the preparation of comparative balances of technical results and the economic assessment that will affect the final decision of what mineral is that will benefit. Long enough to make the modifications. The methodology of work considered historical results of conventional circuit. . Universidad Católica del Norte ABSTRACT A company of the mining medium.Mineral Processing MP11 TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE REPLACEMENT OF CONVENTIONAL FLOTATION CELLS BY FLOTATION CELLS PNEUMATIC IN THE BENEFIT OF COPPER ORES Sergio Arellano G. is achieved by processing ore from the Sulfurado 2.. type G-Cell in a primary circuit of copper concentration. Two types of sulfide minerals were evaluated: Sulfurado 1 and Sulfurado 2. located in the II Region of our country. both technical and economic. settled into place 2 G-Cell 18 type pneumatic cells that replace 100% to the primary circuit. chemical and mineralogical characterization of minerals to evaluate. Gonzalo Reyes M. The implementation of this type of cells relies mainly to the reduced space that they occupy and almost no structural alteration of what already exists. Víctor Conejeros T. derived from the results.. requires to increase the treatment capacity of the current plant. in addition. update the process to a technology that most recent flotation that could result in improvements mainly metallurgic. a physical. is to evaluate technically and economically the use of pneumatic cells.

that influence equipment selection and optimization of the filter pressing system to produce a satisfactory. However. as well as to reduce the number of people needed to operate them. Wisdom ABSTRACT The use of slurry impoundments have traditionally been the primary method of disposal of waste slurry resulting from the recovery of metals and minerals. or as the existing ones near the end of their projected life. It is becoming more prudent to consider filtration and dry stacking as a reasonable and sustainable alternative. Many tailings slurries are difficult to filter and higher plant throughputs have in the past made filtration operations both costly to buy and to operate.Mineral Processing MP13 NEXT GENERATION PRESSURE FILTERS FOR HARD ROCK TAILINGS T. and capacity to meet the demand. Fresh water resources are becoming more precious. The impact of different minerologies and grain size will be discussed. OPEX and CAPEX. This paper discusses the technical and financial considerations. equipment to process the resulting tailings slurries have increased in size. Multiple tailings samples have been investigated incorporating lab and pilot scale testing. efficiency. and environmental pressures are increasing leading to the elimination of slurry tailings impoundments. But as with the equipment used to mine and move the harder lower grade ores. current difficulties in obtaining permits to build new impoundments for grass-roots plants. transportable and stackable tailings product. . has made it necessary to explore other alternatives for tailings disposal. There are several obstacles to filtration as a way to treat these tailings.

Minera Esperanza commissioned a grinding and flotation plant processing 97 ktpd of sulfide ore. Minera Michilla began successfully the use of sea water in the process of leaching copper oxide and secondary sulfide ore followed by SX-EW. using raw sea water and applied an alternative depressant for pyrite in the cleaning stage.Mineral Processing MP16 SEAWATER USE IN ANTOFAGASTA MINING GROUP Francisco Abbott Minera Esperanza Gustavo Tapia Antofagasta Minerals S. At the end of 2010. In the 90 decade. . ABSTRACT The Antofagasta plc mining group has been pioneer in the use of raw sea water in metallurgical process at big scale.A.

The SAG mill feeds two ball mills each 26 ft.400 kW through gearless drive. The Concentrator is a single line configuration. Plant start-up was accomplished during the last quarter of 2012.5 km with gearless drive. the grinding circuit design and the operations start-up considering focus in safety. This represents the higher power of SAG in the world and the first 40 ft.000 kW gearless drive.000 tonne per day copper concentrator near Cusco. diameter x 22 ft. improvement opportunities. SAG in Peru. Peru ABSTRACT Xstrata recently completed construction of a new 70. main issues. the use of an old pit as tailings dam in big mining and the higher torque of tailings thickener. the higher power of SAG in the world and the first 40 ft. an overland conveyor of 6. Peru. in diameter x 40 ft. This paper reviews the history. SAG in Peru.Mineral Processing MP17 ANTAPACCAY – TINTAYA EXPANSION D. start-up strategies. Xstrata. the background. –1– . SAG milling and pebble crushing followed by ball milling. This represents the first Xstrata’s Standard Concentrator. García and J. long (EGL). long (EGL) SAG mill driven by a 24. Villanueva Concentradora Antapaccay. This paper reviews the project’s technology. Comminution will be accomplished by primary crushing. each driven by a 16. comprising of one 40 ft.

. Stoyanova.071 mm or over 75 t/h with 35-40% content of size -0. Till 2010 the first grinding stage was AG Mill 70х23 worked with classifier and the second stage . In 2010. The scheme of slag processing comprise: crushing. aurubis bulgaria Industrial zone Pirdop. Djurova. E.071 mm.6/5. Stoilov. two stage grinding and flotation. The new AG Mill was designed for throughput of 105 t/h with over 70 % content of size 0. Change of technological parameters with different sands nozzles and its effect on circulating load. The Old AG mill processed 55-60 t/h slag with 75% content of size . a new AG Mill 65x78 with hydrocyclone was commissioned in order to increase the plant throughput. After start-up some problems with the equipment occurred – block-up of AG Mill’s grate and pumps for cyclone feeding. The second stage of grinding cycle was not changed. Bonchev. Kirilov. Different nozzles materials (rubber. I. V.071 mm. This paper presents: Comparison of optimal working parameters of old and new working scheme.ball mill 3. the slag from Flash furnace and Converters is processed by flotation.5 with hydrocyclone.Mineral Processing MP18 GRINDING CYCLE OPTIMIZATION FOR PROCESSING OF COPPER SLAG AT AURUBIS BULGARIA E.0. One of the main problems was a fast wearing of new AG mill hydrocyclone sand nozzles. Bulgaria 2070 ABSTRACT At Copper smelter Aurubis Bulgaria. V.Visariev D. ceramic and metallic) were tested.

and highlights the value of the virtual machine for equipment design and optimization. the principle of machine selection and optimization have evolved from purely empirical methods (capacity tables and product size curves based on best practice) to include newer simulation based approaches. Metso’s crusher simulation employs DEM with a proprietary fast breakage technique using the concept of incremental damage. ABSTRACT Cone crushers have been applied in mineral processing or comminution circuits for more than five decades.Mineral Processing MP19 IMPROVED DEM MODEL FOR PREDICTING CONE CRUSHERS’ PERFORMANCE Dr. In that period of time. V. This paper provides an overview of the Metso cone crusher simulation technology. . Murariu and Dusty Jacobson Metso Minerals Industries. Inc. These simulation techniques combine the strength of theory with traditional population balance techniques.

. shear degraded polyacrylamides.Mineral Processing MP22 THE EFFECT OF FLOCCULANTS AND THEIR DEGRADATION PRODUCTS ON MOLYBDENITE FLOTATION S. In alkaline pH. In this work flotation testing demostrate that conventional flocculants of the polyacrilamide type (PAM) are strong depressants for molybdenite flotation. Flotation of Cu-Mo ores includes two steps: a bulk flotation where molybdenite is recovered together with Cu and Fe sulfides. a simultaneous loss of flocculating and depressing efficiency was observed in alkaline pH. the flocculating and depressing effects of PEO increased. The results show that its ability to flocculate is pH dependent.S. similarly to other naturally hydrophobic minerals. Also polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been studied in this project. University of British Columbia. in spite of loosing flocculation ability. Vancouver. is highly sensitive to the effect of both natural and synthetic polymers. The proper use and selection of flocculants for better molybdenite recovery is discussed. University of Concepcion. In slightly acidic pH PEO and PAM showed similar flocculation efficiencies on molybdenite suspensions. In the case of PAM. Flocculants are usually employed in Cu-Mo concentrate thickeners preceding the selective molybdenite flotation plant.Chile J. However. Castro Department of Metallurgical Enginering. and a subsequent selective flotation step where molybdenite is separated from depressed copper sulfides.Canada ABSTRACT Modern ore processing plants must have closed circuits in which process water is recycled back after removal of fine particles in the solid/liquid separation unit operations. the floatability of molybdenite. Laskowski NB Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering. Additionally. are still able to depress molybdenite flotation.

in this paper. design. some general recommendations are drawn from the analysis of selected typical cases. need to maintain production level during construction. engineering. metallurgical processing. modification and/or optimization of existing operations. Additionally. However. building additional facilities within a running operation under acceptable safety conditions. Chile ABSTRACT Projects are classified as Greenfield or Brownfield. the Owner Project Manager and the Operations Manager. there are serious hurdles to overcome. the latter corresponding to those dealing with expansion. such as: coordination between the EPCM Company. connections or “tie-ins” of new facilities to the existing ones. evidence shows that rather the opposite is true. Advantages of Brownfield Projects are the available improved knowledge of ore characteristics. comprising tie-in identification. and planning the execution of modifications during normal and extraordinary plant detentions. . possible modifications required due to technological evolution or changes in the ore nature. cases are analyzed for which innovations can have important effects on commissioning and start up schedule for both project types. however. unit operations. coordination and implementation. equipment performance and personnel know how. Usual thinking is that Brownfield Projects are easier to define and develop than Greenfield or new Projects.Mineral Processing MP24 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BROWNFIELD PROJECTS Fernando Pino Senior Process and Commissioning Engineer Jacobs Engineering.

. Alvarez Universidad of Concepción Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica Edmundo Larenas Concepción. but also would make possible on-site testing. This communication presents the development results of a batch test to characterize frother roles in a laboratory mechanical cell. The test requires column steady state operation maintaining a constant froth height. using a laboratory flotation column. was developed and successfully used to screen and select a replacement candidate for a particular concentrator.Mineral Processing MP26 FROTHER ROLES CHARACTERIZATION IN A LABORATORY FLOTATION CELL C. and J. A technique based on batch testing around a laboratory mechanical cell not only would demand less water. A technique to characterize these two roles simultaneously. Gomez. Frothers tested follows the same classification sequence previously obtained in the column tests. Many tests have been proposed to characterize one of these two functions and to classify frother strength based on the results obtained. which is done through the determination of the critical coalescence concentration and the water overflow curve.O. P. which entails large volumes of plant water. Chile ABSTRACT Frothers play two major roles in flotation: preservation of the formation bubble size and stabilization of the froth.

Mineral Processing MP28 SAG MILL DISCHARGE SECTION OPTIMIZATION STUDIES AND REDESIGN DG Meadows. very hard ceramic takes care of wear resistance. trunnion section. This paper describes the recent design knowledge and practical experience gained in both the areas of pulp lifters and integrated trommel design. Luis Vergara. discharge trunnion and trommel was modeled in detail using modern techniques such as SPH/CFD and DEM. Thomas McQuillan. Practical data relating to the influence on circuit operating times and availability are also described. offering a more efficient solution for the service required workloads in terms of resistance/weight ratio and endurance. Thus. . The unique and complete discharge process from the mill grates to the pebble collection chute at the end of the trommel was studied in depth. generally made of Cr-Mo steel alloy castings. Redesign starts with the replacement of the original OEM discharge mill linings. trommel and trommel panels to be optimized and then finely tuned for maximum throughput of fresh ore. The flow of pulp through the SAG mill. The final result with an optimized discharge performance allows a more efficient energy usage and or a better ore processing mill capability that enhances its performance and so may pay back significant investment costs. Horacio Marin ABSTRACT The SAG mill is the primary work horse on the majority of comminution circuits throughout the globe. This enabled the integral design of the pulp lifters. With declining head grades the need for higher throughput circuits has become prevalent particularly in Latin America. the rubber matrix underneath helps absorb impact loads and steel gives structural support. The importance of system efficiency in terms of pulp removal is described together with the need for enhanced slurry distribution onto the trommel screen itself. by liners made from a steel-rubber-ceramic composite that acts by using each material property for specific work and application.

Mineral Processing MP29 INSTALLATION OF INTERNAL LAUNDERS ON 130 m³ FLOTATION CELLS AT MINERA LOS PELAMBRES F. This paper describes the metallurgical comparison between two parallel flotation lines. This dramatic increase in size poses new challenges in terms to develop better approaches to optimize the operations.D. The analyzed data demonstrated an improvement in the Cu and Mo recovery of about 0. For this purpose. a six month sampling campaign was developed in order to obtain the metallurgical parameters of concentrate grade and recovery. Maldonado Minera Los Pelambres Santiago. most of the concentrators plants operating in Chile have been fully equipped with 130–250 m³ mechanical cells and the new projects are considering the 300 m³ cell on its flotation circuits. Chile ABSTRACT In the last decades flotation equipment has shown a significant increase in size. Originally.11% due the effects of internal launders on cells stabilization and increase on the available concentrate discharge perimeter. At the present moment. one of them with recently internal launders installed on the three first cells. Henríquez and L. . This result led to extend the installation of these devises on the other three lines remaining on the three firs cells. Minera Los Pelambres rougher Cu – Mo flotation stage was equipped with 130 m³ in volume WEMCO cells with no internal launders on it.

tuff and metamorphic rocks and calcite tuff. cuprite.e. south-east of Iran.2 with 25 g/t of PAX and 500 g/t of octyl-hydroxamate. The main purpose of this study is beneficiation of oxide zone minerals by flotation.8 % of recovery (the highest one) and the silicified sample is concentrated with 35. Kerman Province. The main mineralization zones of Takhate-Gonbad mine include: leached. oxide.Mineral Processing MP30 CONCENTRATION OF COPPER OXIDE MINERAL WITH HYDROXAMATE H. Under this circumstance. Regarding presence of both sulphide (i. malachite) minerals. covellite) and oxide (i. The results show that it is possible to reach concentrate with copper contents15. all 4 boreholes was mixed together and flotation tests were done. silicified rocks. the best results are obtained at pH=10.e. The average grade of these samples are from 0. mixed and hypogene. Nematollahi. The flotation tests are carried out on samples obtained from 4 boreholes. Based on these tests. F. They are: micro-granodiorite. the grano-diorite sample is concentrated with 83. Kiani and M. using different reagents.0 % of recovery (the lowest one).9% copper recovery in rougher stage. Base on obtained results. The host rock of these boreholes are different.86% Total Cu.33 to 0. . ABSTRACT Takhate-Gonbad porphyry copper mine is located at the 80 km northeast of Sirjan. chalcopyrite. flotation tests are carried out in different conditions. Asgari-Mehrabadi kian mine pars co.51% in cleaner stages and 62.

. This paper provides a summary of pulp chemical and flotation response data for a variety of copper ores classified by geological type prepared using forged steel and high chrome grinding media. is driven by the mineralogy of the system under consideration. The results intend to show that the mineralogical character of the ore has a profound impact on the pulp chemistry and this effects the flotation behaviour of the sulphide minerals.Mineral Processing MP31 GRINDING CHEMISTRY – THE APPLICATION OF GRINDING MEDIA TO IMPROVE METALLURGICAL RESPONSE OF COPPER ORES Christopher J Greet and Jessica Kinal ABSTRACT Numerous studies completed by academia and at industrial scale have consistently demonstrated that grinding with an electrochemically inert grinding media has significant benefits when processing copper ores. Further. to better control the chemical environment during grinding. the choice of high chrome grinding media.

The role of these ions is to modify completely the phisycal chemical nature of its surface structure. Dávila. To improve the recovery of copper.Mineral Processing MP33 NASH IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF COPPER FLOTATION CONCENTRATOR CUAJONE J. With no technical background in the industry on the conditions. The average copper recovery improved 2. sulphidation was considered. dosages and addition points of NaSH. it has been determined that the dosage of 15% concentration in the head Rougher flotation at pH 10. Benavides and C. and its subsequent flotation. which involves the addition of reagents to provide ionS2. low stability in the area of foaming Rougher flotation stage. N. This type of mineral affected the low recovery of Cu. and high consumption of sparkling lime. reducing the consumption of frother and milk of lime. And. andesite Intrusive (% IA +% BA) and surface oxide ores. Curo. In our case we use the sodium hydrosulphide (NaSH) as an agent to enable the affected species in the flotation of copper sulphides. . andesites and oxidized surface. consumption of Cal and frother declined by 21% and 28% respectively. the type of rock ore that reached Cuajone Concentrator Plant showed high contents of basaltic andesite. low tonnage of treatment. Cuajone Concentrator Plant started its trial period in 2011. allowing the adsorption of collectors on it. In addition to operating flotation problems.3%. Llerena. Perú ABSTRACT Since early 2011. R. SOUTHERN COPPER – SOUTHERN PERÚ Cuajone Mining Camp Moquegua. is also achievement stabilize flotation. it was experimented in different parts of the flotation. improved copper recovery.and SH-. from September 2011.

In these processes. Due to the huge investments involved in world class projects. ABSTRACT Hundreds of millions of tons of copper-containing products in particulate forms (such as ROM. Angulo and F. segregation. agglomerated or leached ore.Mineral Processing MP35 PREVENTING COPPER LOSS PRODUCTION AND FLOW PROBLEMS BY MEASURING THE MATERIALS FLOW PROPERTIES O. flow blockages in the equipment. cohesive arches and/or “ratholes” in silos. which are the most common causes of flow problems in the copper mining industry. Knowledge of the material flow properties allows designing new installations or modifying existing defective equipment. . uncontrolled discharge and occasionally unexpected plant shutdowns. based on Jenike’s flow of solids technology and laboratory testing [1]. Cabrejos Jenike and Johanson Chile S. mineralogical and lithological composition). having different characteristics (like particle size distribution. chemical. The purpose of this paper is to provide a cost effective solution to flow problems in the mining industry. stored and conveyed in the world through different equipment at the different stages of the copper minerallurgical processes. concentrate. the mining industry is particularly sensitive to them. equipment wear. shape and density. crushed. or tailings). moisture content. operators commonly face problems such as loss of production. are daily handled.A. and preventing production stoppages due to the formation of chute pluggages. by highlighting a well proven and scientific method used to ensure controlled and reliable flow of bulk solids.

Mineral Processing .

atacamite. brochantite. Taimassova The Institute of problems of complex development of mineral resources 5 Ippodromnaya Street Karaganda. chrysocolla.T.Mineral Processing MP36 THERMODYNAMIC CONSTANTS OF MINERALS OF THE OXIDATION ZONE OF COPPER – ANTLERITE AND PSEUDOMALACHITE N. Bekturganov SC «National scientific-technological holding “Parasat”» 18 Republic Ave. This paper generalizes the results of experimental studies of thermodynamic properties of antlerite and pseudomalachite obtained by a number of the calorimetric methods (low-temperature adiabatic calorimetry.R. Kazakhstan 100019 ABSTRACT Minerals of the oxidation zone of copper deposits belong to the most difficult for enrichment. D. entropy. the enthalpy of formation and the Gibbs energy of formation used in simulation of technological processes of processing of the oxidized and mixed copper ores. Astana.B. . Gogol and Sh. Optimization and intensification of the technology process for the purpose of more complete and complex utilization of raw materials require certain knowledge of thermodynamic properties of the oxidized minerals since the thermodynamic analysis and a preliminary simulation of the process are necessary for creation and choice of ore processing schemes.S. To transfer them into the easily floatable sulfide components it is necessary to have new technologies and methods of enrichment associated with solving of a number of theoretical issues to which the chemical enrichment refers. azurite. Bissengaliyeva. A basic sulfate of copper antlerite and a basic phosphate of copper pseudomalachite relate to these minerals along with malachite. This resulted in obtaining such fundamental thermodynamic constants as the heat capacity. Kazakhstan 010000 M. etc. the change of enthalpy. the Tian-Calvet high-temperature melt solution calorimetry).

. a better procedure for evaluating bubble size from images taken by bubble viewers. J. É. a device for estimating the bias rate. On the instrumentation side. the Process Observation and Optimisation Laboratory (LOOP) has been working in developing and/or improving specific sensors for flotation columns and their use for process control. since the last Copper conference held in Chile in 2003. This paper summarizes the latest completed milestones by the group. the discussion will focus on results for bubble size control in a two-phase system. developments encompass a more accurate method for measuring electrical conductivity for flotation column sensors. Desbiens. emphasizing on results presented in North America and Europe since Copper 2010. and a method for on line estimation of frother concentration. Numerous papers have already been published for the Mineral Processing industrial and scientific community in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings.Mineral Processing MP38 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN FLOTATION COLUMN INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL R.g. Canada ABSTRACT For over two decades. In terms of process control advances. Bouchard Department of Mining. e. for the Copper Conference series. Materials and Metallurgical Engineering A. and the application of a 3x3 multivariable predictive control to a pilot flotation column running in parallel to industrial columns in a Québec concentrator. Current investigations on bubble size distribution modeling and control. Poulin Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering LOOP (Laboratoire d’observation et d’optimisation des procédés) Université Laval Québec (QC). as well as matching bubble size to particle size will be discussed. del Villar.

In early 2012. although earlier mineralogical and metallurgical studies indicated that the maximum possible recovery wouldn´t be higher than 80% due to the high value dissemination in the feed ore. the metallurgical laboratory support and the support received from the industrial process analysis.500 DMT/day with higher copper recovery. The plant superintendence and its technical team developed a work plan resulting in systematic enhancements to the flotation process. Cristian Gonzalez Bravo. including the flotation circuit and process variables. 2% higher than the 2011 average. the operational variability decreased and relevant conditions were modified. 12 km south from Ovalle City located in northern Chile’s Fourth Region. this is a low recovery rate. This Concentrator plant processes about 3.000 DMT/year of concentrate with 28% copper content and some silver content.Oficinas 47-48. underlining the virtuous triangle made up by a well-organized operation. the plant’s copper recovery was approximately 77%. Ovalle Luis Tello Muñoz. In 2013 – without any investment in flotation cells – the flotation capacity has been increased from 3. This comes with the bonus alternative of using the “idle” capacity to process other third party minerals adding further profitability to the Altos de Punitaqui site. Ovalle ABSTRACT Minera Altos de Punitaqui owns a concentrator plant near Punitaqui City.Oficinas 47-48.100 DMT/day to 3.Mineral Processing MP39 METALLURGICAL OPTIMIZATION OF A HIGH DISSEMINATION AND HIGH HARDNESS COPPER ORE Raúl Jara Iturre Empresa Minera Altos de Punitaqui Miguel Aguirre 280 . to end up that year with a steady state recovery of 80 – 82% with a quality of more than 27% copper. modelling and simulation.500 DMT/day and produces 43. Hector Guinel Figueroa Empresa Minera Altos de Punitaqui Miguel Aguirre 280 . According to mining standards. This paper describes both the optimization strategy applied and the improvement results. .

substantial research will clearly be required to establish equivalent criteria to achieve the same objectives and environmental safeguards in the Chilean socio-political context. informed by scientific study. just as important for gaining acceptability will be the acknowledgement by governments and all sectors of the community of the existence of the dilemma – now or at some time into the future – that if the currently accepted land storage methods reach their physical or safety limits.co. It is the role of governments. In considering the potential applicability of these experiences to countries such as Chile.com.waworuntu@nnt.id ABSTRACT This presentation looks at some of the advancements in operating and monitoring that have accompanied the implementation of deep sea tailings placement (DSTP) in the Asia Pacific region over the past 20 years. DSTP cannot be a solution without broad community acknowledgement that a dilemma about future mine tailings management needs to be faced.au J. However.Mineral Processing MP40 MARINE TAILINGS PLACEMENT: EXPERIENCES AND LESSONS FROM THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION D. Waworuntu P. Gwyther Picton Group Pty Ltd 30 Malpas Drive Wallington Vic3222. It describes the guidelines and criteria that have been developed to ensure that DSTP systems are properly assessed and located prior to approval and throughout operation and closure. alternative storage methods will need to be considered. Australia dg@pictongroup. Jalan Sriwijaya 258 Mataram. . Newmont Nusa Tenggara. to evaluate the best solution for future tailings management for the country in each case. Indonesia Jorina.T.

ca M. Gomez and J. A reliable model to predict properties of bubble populations would help in the selection and operation of flotation equipment. A model relating these variables. gas holdup and bubble size. Maldonado Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica Universidad de Santiago de Chile Avenida Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins 3363 Santiago. .Mineral Processing MP41 MODELLING BUBBLE HYDRODYNAMICS IN FLOTATION C.gomez@mcgill. including industrial flotation units. Chile ABSTRACT Three parameters are generally used to describe gas dispersion in a flotation machine: superficial gas (air) velocity.A. The results demonstrated that ignoring the effect of frother on bubble terminal and swarm velocities is the reason for the poor model prediction. have been developed. Techniques and sensors to measure local values of these parameters. which was developed based on a drift-flux analysis of bubble hydrodynamics. has been available for many years. Canada H3A 2B2 cesar. The model has been mainly used to predict one variable (typically bubble size) from measurements of the other two. Finch McGill University 3610 University Street Montreal. This work takes laboratory air-water data sets to establish the adequacy of the equations in the drift-flux model. Gas dispersion measurements in laboratory and industrial units have demonstrated that in many cases significant differences between measurement and model prediction exist.O.

Dynatec. Gordon. Sepon. . Chile jorgemenacho@drm. Activox and MT-DEW-SX processes.cl raul.Mineral Processing MP42 PRIMARY CRITERIA FOR PRESSURE COPPER LEACHING PROCESS SELECTION G. Nowadays. CESL. AAC/UBC. Menacho De Re Metallica Ingeniería Av. or well tested at pilot scale level.cl ABSTRACT Several hydrometallurgical processes for high and moderate pressure leaching of copper sulfides have been developed in the past years. del Valle 601. R. and a decision tree is proposed for a simple choice of the best technology for a given application from a process point of view.debernardi@dessau. Chile gianfranco. Piso 10. such as the Total Pressure Oxidation. Providencia Santiago. depending on its sulfide mineralogy and occurrence of impurities such as arsenic and the presence of other valuable metals. with special consideration on their applicability to the leaching of different copper ores. before proceeding to perform feasibility study. Gianetti DESSAU CHILE INGENIERÍA Ricardo Lyon 222. Souyris and M. several are under industrial scale application. Mt.cl J.souyris@dessau. Huechuraba Santiago. The basics and current status of these processes is briefly reviewed. oficina 31. A comparison of the general conditions in the autoclave leaching for each process is presented. Platsol. Debernardi.

This work compiles the ideas contributed from both a number of structural engineers and designers who have addressed the structural design of reclaim tunnels as well as from people related to other engineering disciplines.Mineral Processing MP43 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF RECLAIM TUNNELS … ADDRESSED AS A MINGA Rodrigo Huenchullán G. .. Civil Structural Engineer.. Seismic and mineral-associated loads are specially analyzed as well as important design aspects. an attempt will be done to shed more light on some concepts that in structural practice have been addressed in many different ways. as if it was a minga(*) in order to tackle the topic in a more comprehensive way. Sr. While in the process. mainly as a result of the scarce reference material on criteria and national and international codes to be applied on their design.

Tests were conducted by passing a small continuous sample of final tailings though a single 1. Robinson Nevada Mining Company 4232 West White Pine County Road 44 P. the existing flotation circuit was expanded by installing four (4) 160 m3 FLSmidth XCELL™ flotation machines to treat the final tailings stream. Utah 84098 lorin.redden@flsmidth. Nevada. Inc. 7158 South FLSmidth Drive Midvale. Two phases of testing were conducted on differing ore types. Nevada ABSTRACT In an effort to recover additional copper and gold at KGHM International’s Robinson Mine located near Ruth.com Chase Stevens.5 m3 flotation cell and provides a comparison to the subsequent operational performance of multiple 160 m3 flotation machines..O. an in-plant study was undertaken to quantify potential flotation recoveries from the concentrator’s final tailings stream. Based on these results. Box 382 Ruth. Results indicated that up to 30% of the contained copper was recoverable along with significant quantities of gold. . This paper reviews the results obtained from the in-plant testing with the single 1. Mark O’Brien and Thomas Bender KGHM International Ltd.Mineral Processing MP44 IMPROVED COPPER AND GOLD RECOVERY AT KGHM INTERNATIONAL’S ROBINSON MINE Lorin Redden FLSmidth Salt Lake City.5 m 3 demonstration flotation machine.

(562)-738-4493. Del Valle 601. Santiago. After a time bubbles arrive to a compaction zone where porosity is reduced becoming a continuous bed. Av. going through the slurry phase. Oficina 31. Then the bubble bed enter the froth phase moving upward in plug flow condition and capillary drainage occurs getting bubbles even closer and promoting further coalescence. drm@drm. Menacho and Juan Rodríguez De Re Metallica Consultant. in which bubble dynamics is described from the bubble generator. Equations representing the above-described physical model are presented and several examples of performance are given. Huechuraba.cl ABSTRACT A new phenomenological approach is presented in this paper. where they move within a turbulent circulating field subjected to simultaneous rupture and coalescence phenomena. . Size growth simultaneously occurs due to lower pressure as bubbles move up. such that in the final froth zone bubbles are nearly impervious to washing water. Chile. both controlled by the frother HLB and dosage.Mineral Processing MP45 MODELLING BUBBLES GOING THROUGH FLOTATION CELLS Jorge M.

Mineral Processing MP47 PNEUMATIC FLOTATION IMHOFLOT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN CHILEAN MINING S. using sea water and Minera Tamaya for Copper – Gold mineral. Sánchez-Baquedano1. As result of the industrial experience in Chile. Successful industrial application are already working at Los Pelambres in Molybdenum Plant. low maintenance. Rainer Imhof from Germany through his Company Maelgwyn Mineral Service Limited (MMS). sanchezpinosamuel@gmail. Also it was a positive copper application at Minera Michilla. also Molybdenum Plant. introducing also a very short residence time in the separation vessel. Antofagasta. R.A. Chile. improving performance of flotation circuits and quality of end products. reducing the recycling load in the conventional flotation circuits and this could be consider as a pre rougher cell to produce end concentrate directly. Washington St. Sánchez-Pino1. (IDM) together with the designer Dr. Positive operational changes in flotation circuit designs have been installed in production circuits using G cell and vertical cell. Las Luces Plant in Copper concentrator. reducing dramatically the residence time. self-sucking air. Codelco Andina as pre rougher to end concentrate.E. full automation process and small surface to montage this kind of plants are some of the main the advantages. provide high probability of collision and attachment. 2653 Of.Imhof2. Ingeniería de Minerales S. 501. . S. Sprenger2 1 2 Ingeniería de Minerales S A Maelgwyn Mineral Services L. Rotation phenomenon introduced in the vessel of the G Cell creates radial separation forces which are the main key to separate faster the bubbles with concentrate from the tailing and the high selectivity to get concentrate. as pre rougher to end concentrate using sea water.M.com ABSTRACT Pneumatic flotation technology (Imhoflot) is already in the Chilean Copper Mining Industry since 1992.A. Minera Valle Aconcagua processing a full automatic plant fed pre concentrate from Codelco Andina fresh tailing. H. the pneumatic flotation type G Cell can be regarded as a technology which has to be considered to remove quickly fines and ultra-fines liberated particles to end concentrate. High concentration of bubbles and micro turbulence from aeration unit design.

cl ABSTRACT A new approach to improve operational managing at concentrator plants is described in this paper. optimization and control of critical operational issues. Menacho De Re Metallica Consultant. This approach combines expert knowledge and modern cloud computing technology to produce efficient tools for monitoring. Chile. . Del Valle 601. reducing water and energy consumption and improving communities and environment friendship. (562)-738-4493.Mineral Processing MP48 REMOTE SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE PROCESS RESULTS AT CONCENTRATOR PLANTS Jorge M. Santiago. Huechuraba. It combines robust process models connected to intelligent algorithms specially designed for specific goals. all settled into a powerful communication platform which assure maximum usability through remote applications. Av. drm@drm. directed toward increasing of productivity and efficiency. Specific examples are given showing potentiality of these tools. Oficina 31.