Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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The most difficult task you will have is to listen. You may find that you actually understand more of the math than you think at first. You also may find that you'll lear n more math by working with your child on the games and homework by reviewing your child's work on previous assignments.
Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us 555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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How Can I Help My Child Become Mathematically Powerful?
Taken from Schools and Families: Creating a Partnership by Murray, Megan ISBN#0-328-01881-3

Money

Early Years (PreK-2) Use money to help your child: - recognize coins - know the value of coins - count coins

Middle Years (2nd-3rd Help your child: - make change - find coins that make 25 cents - save her/his own allowance

Counting/ Numbers

Math Facts

Time

Measurement

Older Years (4th -6th) Help your child: - participate in making family budgets - participate in grocery shopping - begin to manage her/his allowance - decide how much allowance can purchase Encourage your child to practice skip counting by 3s and 4s

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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Beginning Math Skills Counting : · · · saying the numbers in order counting objects using the counting sequence (using a number for each item counted) knowing that the last number you count when counting a set of objects tells the amount of objects in the set

Beginning Addition: · double counts o 5 + 3 à counts out 5 and then counts out 3, counts all 8 to find the total o sounds like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; 1, 2, 3; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 counts on o 5 + 3 à counts out (or puts out) 5 and then counts on while adding the next 3 o sounds like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 recognizes a group 5 and 3 as 8 without counting

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*** as numbers get larger or out of a student's comfort level, most children will tend to revert back to counting, often by ones. Typical Progression of Number (facts) Relationships by the end of 2nd grade children should know most of the number relationships à addition and subtraction facts · · · · · · · · doubles ( 1+1, 2+ 2, 3 + 3, 4+ 4, 5 + 5, 6 + 6) ( 7 + 7, 8 + 8, 9 + 9 usually 2nd grade) doubles + 1 ( 2 + 3 à 2 + 2 +1; 3 + 4 à 3 + 3 +1) doubles -1 (3 + 2 à 3 + 3 -1; 4 + 3 à 4 + 4 -1) number +1 or +2 ( 5 + 1, 4 + 2) number + or - 0 (5 + 0, 6 + 0) commutative property (flip flop rule) (3 + 2 = 2 + 3) ten combinations ( 5 + 5, 6 + 4, 7 + 3, 8 + 2, 9 + 1) ten plus a number (10 + 4, 10 + 7)

Strategies you may see your child use · splitting numbers to make a ten or a double 5+7=
5 2 à 5 + 5 + 2 = 12

8+3=
2 Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us 1 à 8 + 2 + 1 = 11

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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10

17
7

+ 17 =
10 7 à 10 + 10 + (7 + 7)

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holding one number whole and splitting the second number
+10 +7

27 + 17 = 44

27

37

44

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changing one number to make the problem easier

27 +

17 3 14 à 27 + 3 + 14 = 44

Splitting numbers 317 + 317 =

Adding from left to right 317 +317 600 20 +14 634

Adding from right to left 317 317 14 20 + 600 634

600

20

14

Keeping one number "whole" 57 + 17 =

57 + 10 = 67 67 + 7 = 74

139 +1 =140 + 40= 180 + 7 =187 so, 187-139 = 48
+7

187 -139 =
+1 +40

139 140

180

187

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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Changing the problem to an easier one
187-140 = 47, so the answer is 48

187 - 139 =
187+2=189

189 - 139 = 50, so the answer is 48

187 - 139 = Subtracting from left to right 391 - 286 1 - 6 = -5 100 10 - 5 105 Multiplication Things that come in groups (K-3)
· · · · · · number of number of number of number of number of number of number of legs on a cat, dog legs on a chair wheels on a car cans of soda in a carton eggs in a dozen fingers on one hand eyes
Generally students will begin using repeated addition or skip counting when thinking about multiplication as a grouping model.

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Arrays (rectangular) (3-5) a formation of objects in a rectangle. This method is also sometimes called
an area model of multiplication.
columns The multiplication fact would be 4 X 6 = 24

rows

4X6

Using known facts - one of the ways in which students begin to memorize their multiplicatio n facts is to use what they already know to remember a new fact. The generally apply one of the following properties of multiplication - commutative, associative or distributive.

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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Commutative property: Associative property: Distributive property:

4X5=5X4 (3 X 2) X 5 = 3 X (2 X 5) 4 X 7 = 4 ( 5 + 2) = (4 X 5) + (4 X 2)

I know that 4 X 7 = 28 because I know that 4 X 5 = 20 and 4 X 2 = 8

In solving 16 X 25 a student might split the numbers into numbers that are easier to multiply and then use the associative property of multiplication to regroup the factor s16 X 25 4 X 4 X 25 then multiplying (4 X 25) X 4 = 400

Using the distributive property the student might think (10X 25) + (6 X 25) 250 + 150 = 400

from right to left: 16 X 25 30 50 120 +200 400

from left to right: 16 X 25 200 120 50 +30 400

traditional method: 16 X 25 80 32 400

(6 X 5) (5 X10) (20 X 6) (20 X 10)

(20 X 10) (20 X 6) (5 X 10) (5 X 6)

( 5 X 6 + 5 X 10) (2 0X 6 + 2 0X 10)

halving and doubling: 6X8 12 X 4 24 X 2 48 X 1

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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Division Students will often begin solving division problems by repeated subtraction or by dealing out to each group until there are none left or aren't enough to distribute or using a multiplication fact. 12 divided by 4 ---dealing out 111 111 111 111

Repeated subtraction: 12 -4 8 -4 4 -4 0 Larger division: 385

I know that 12 divided by 4 = 3 because I know that 4 X 3 = 12 1 1 1 3 fours

How many 15s in 385?

¸15
(10 X 15) (10 X 15) (5 X 15) 10 + 10 + 5 = 25 r 10

385 - 150 235 - 150 85 - 75 10

15 -

25 R10 or 385 150 10 (10 x 15) 235 150 10 (10 x 15) 85 75 5 (5 x 15) 10 25

25

10

/15 or 25 2/3

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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