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Your child will bring home a variety of mathematics homework assignments throughout the grades. Below you will find a description of a few of the types of assignments your child may bring home. All of these examples come from the mathematics program Investigations in Number, Data and Space used throughout Columbia Public Schools. Games From kindergarten through grade five your child will bring home games that will be assigned as homework. The games they bring home have been played at school so your child should know how to play the game. Most often the rules and directions for the game may come home as well. Games should not only be motivating and challenging for your child, but they also contain important mathematical ideas and help your child develop math skills. Games also provide an opportunity for students to practice and hone their skills. As you play the games with your child, ask them occasionally about what they notice and about their strategies for playing. Try to relax and have fun when you play the game with your child. You may want to keep a journal of your child's strategy(ies) as they play the game(s). You should find that their skills and knowledge about number should grow throughout the year. Problems to Solve The problems that your child might have as homework generally will be similar to the problems that they have been working on in class. Your child should have an idea about how to solve the problem(s). However, if they seem to have forgotten, the best help you can provide is to ask some of the following questions: "What does the problem ask you to do? What have you been working on in math class today or this week or last week? Can you draw me a picture (illustration) of the problem you are trying to solve?" You also need to listen carefully. You will probably need to listen to the method your child is using several times. The teacher will be expecting your child to record and describe the strategy(s) used to solve the problem. You should find yourself thinking, "wow" I never thought about solving the problem that way, or even changing the numbers around to solve the problem mentally. Tasks to Perform Sometimes your child will be asked to do something such as collect data or take measurements at home. Since we know that children learn best when they are involved in the learning process, we try to use real data, data that they have gathered. Often the next day's class will depend on the data collected. It may, for example, involve making a graph representing everyone's data. Facts to Practice Even though the mathematics your child brings home and the mathematics they are studying may seem different from what you experienced in school, one thing has definitely not changed. That is the need to know their number combinations (facts). So that your child can become competent in estimation and computing both with paper and pencil and mentally, our goal is to help your child learn their addition/subtraction number combinations through 10+10 by the end of second grade and their multiplication/division combinations through 12 X 12 by the end of fourth grade. We will be working on this at school, but most children will also need extra help at home. Your child will be assigned games and given suggestions for learning these facts, your encouragement and assistance are important. Remember, though, that this is a task that takes quite a while for many children; therefore, it will need to be worked on over time.

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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Helpful Things To Say When Your Child Asks For Help With Mathematics Homework When you child asks for help try some of the following questions or prompts: · Does this remind you of other problems? o Have you done something similar in class? o What do you know about the problem? What have you come up with so far? o Can you tell me what the problem is asking you to do? o What information is useful in solving the problem? Where do you think you should start? (Then wait for an answer.) What is the problem asking you to do? o What part of the problem is confusing you? o How can you organize the information in the problem to help you? Would drawing a picture or diagram help? How can I help you (without giving you the solution)? o Do you see any patterns or relationships in the data that can h elp you? Can you (will you) explain your strategy to me? Convince me that your solution makes sense. I really want to learn from you. (Your child strengthens his or her understanding by verbalizing ideas while at the same time strengthens your understan ding of what they are doing and how they are making sense of the mathematics. “How else could we solve this problem? Is your answer reasonable?” Try having your own pencil when you are asked to help - don't let yourself get caught in taking their pencil. . . that let's them know that you will go ahead and do the problem. Really listen to what they are saying. Repeat back to them what you hear. Ask them questions about their strategies. Let them know you really are interested. If you listen carefully, you may find some pretty interesting mathematical ideas being expressed by your child. It's okay to try to use their strategy(ies). Don't be surprised however, that they may not take to your strategy too easily. We are trying to have them do what make s sense. Most importantly if you and your child cannot complete the homework, please just send a note to the teacher indicating that you've tried, but you and your child were not successful in the homework assignment. Please include the things you tried, that helps the teacher know where your child is operating within the mathematics.

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The most difficult task you will have is to listen. You may find that you actually understand more of the math than you think at first. You also may find that you'll lear n more math by working with your child on the games and homework by reviewing your child's work on previous assignments.

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us 555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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**How Can I Help My Child Become Mathematically Powerful?
**

Taken from Schools and Families: Creating a Partnership by Murray, Megan ISBN#0-328-01881-3

Money

Early Years (PreK-2) Use money to help your child: - recognize coins - know the value of coins - count coins

Middle Years (2nd-3rd Help your child: - make change - find coins that make 25 cents - save her/his own allowance

Counting/ Numbers

Math Facts

Time

Measurement

Involve counting and Encourage your child to numbers in everyday count by 2s, 5s, and 10s activities: - count parts of the body - count past 100 - count things around - look for patterns - Count past 1000(say, the house count from 650 by 100, - identify numbers on "650, 750, 850, 950, elevators 1050 . . for example) - identify numbers on street signs Setting the table helps build spatial sense and reinforces 1 to 1 correspondence (I need 4 plates for 4 people) By the end of 4th grade your By the end of 2nd grade Help your child start to child should know their your child should know learn their addition and multiplication and division their addition and subtraction number subtraction combinations to combinations to 12 X 12 combinations (+1, -1, 20 doubles 3 + 3, 5 + 5) playing the games provides excellent opportunities to master their facts) These are some of the time concepts you can help your child learn at home: - Days of the week, months of the year, seasons, minutes in an hour, hours in a day - How to read a standard clock (with an hour hand and minute hand) - How to schedule time (if you need to do four things, how much time will you need?) Involve your child in activities that encourage measurement like: - Cooking (fractions, volume, cups, teaspoons, etc. following step-by-step instructions - Reading a thermometer (measuring body temperature and measuring temperature outside

Older Years (4th -6th) Help your child: - participate in making family budgets - participate in grocery shopping - begin to manage her/his allowance - decide how much allowance can purchase Encourage your child to practice skip counting by 3s and 4s

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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Beginning Math Skills Counting : · · · saying the numbers in order counting objects using the counting sequence (using a number for each item counted) knowing that the last number you count when counting a set of objects tells the amount of objects in the set

Beginning Addition: · double counts o 5 + 3 à counts out 5 and then counts out 3, counts all 8 to find the total o sounds like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; 1, 2, 3; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 counts on o 5 + 3 à counts out (or puts out) 5 and then counts on while adding the next 3 o sounds like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 recognizes a group 5 and 3 as 8 without counting

·

·

*** as numbers get larger or out of a student's comfort level, most children will tend to revert back to counting, often by ones. Typical Progression of Number (facts) Relationships by the end of 2nd grade children should know most of the number relationships à addition and subtraction facts · · · · · · · · doubles ( 1+1, 2+ 2, 3 + 3, 4+ 4, 5 + 5, 6 + 6) ( 7 + 7, 8 + 8, 9 + 9 usually 2nd grade) doubles + 1 ( 2 + 3 à 2 + 2 +1; 3 + 4 à 3 + 3 +1) doubles -1 (3 + 2 à 3 + 3 -1; 4 + 3 à 4 + 4 -1) number +1 or +2 ( 5 + 1, 4 + 2) number + or - 0 (5 + 0, 6 + 0) commutative property (flip flop rule) (3 + 2 = 2 + 3) ten combinations ( 5 + 5, 6 + 4, 7 + 3, 8 + 2, 9 + 1) ten plus a number (10 + 4, 10 + 7)

**Strategies you may see your child use · splitting numbers to make a ten or a double 5+7=
**

5 2 à 5 + 5 + 2 = 12

8+3=

2 Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us 1 à 8 + 2 + 1 = 11

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

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·

**adding tens and then ones
**

10

17

7

+ 17 =

10 7 à 10 + 10 + (7 + 7)

·

**holding one number whole and splitting the second number
**

+10 +7

27 + 17 = 44

27

37

44

·

changing one number to make the problem easier

27 +

17 3 14 à 27 + 3 + 14 = 44

Splitting numbers 317 + 317 =

Adding from left to right 317 +317 600 20 +14 634

Adding from right to left 317 317 14 20 + 600 634

600

20

14

Keeping one number "whole" 57 + 17 =

57 + 10 = 67 67 + 7 = 74

"Adding up" to solve subtraction

**139 +1 =140 + 40= 180 + 7 =187 so, 187-139 = 48
**

+7

187 -139 =

+1 +40

139 140

180

187

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

**Changing the problem to an easier one
**

187-140 = 47, so the answer is 48

187 - 139 =

187+2=189

189 - 139 = 50, so the answer is 48

187 - 139 = Subtracting from left to right 391 - 286 1 - 6 = -5 100 10 - 5 105 Multiplication Things that come in groups (K-3)

· · · · · · number of number of number of number of number of number of number of legs on a cat, dog legs on a chair wheels on a car cans of soda in a carton eggs in a dozen fingers on one hand eyes

Generally students will begin using repeated addition or skip counting when thinking about multiplication as a grouping model.

·

**Arrays (rectangular) (3-5) a formation of objects in a rectangle. This method is also sometimes called
**

an area model of multiplication.

columns The multiplication fact would be 4 X 6 = 24

rows

4X6

Using known facts - one of the ways in which students begin to memorize their multiplicatio n facts is to use what they already know to remember a new fact. The generally apply one of the following properties of multiplication - commutative, associative or distributive.

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Commutative property: Associative property: Distributive property:

4X5=5X4 (3 X 2) X 5 = 3 X (2 X 5) 4 X 7 = 4 ( 5 + 2) = (4 X 5) + (4 X 2)

I know that 4 X 7 = 28 because I know that 4 X 5 = 20 and 4 X 2 = 8

In solving 16 X 25 a student might split the numbers into numbers that are easier to multiply and then use the associative property of multiplication to regroup the factor s16 X 25 4 X 4 X 25 then multiplying (4 X 25) X 4 = 400

Using the distributive property the student might think (10X 25) + (6 X 25) 250 + 150 = 400

from right to left: 16 X 25 30 50 120 +200 400

from left to right: 16 X 25 200 120 50 +30 400

traditional method: 16 X 25 80 32 400

(6 X 5) (5 X10) (20 X 6) (20 X 10)

(20 X 10) (20 X 6) (5 X 10) (5 X 6)

( 5 X 6 + 5 X 10) (2 0X 6 + 2 0X 10)

halving and doubling: 6X8 12 X 4 24 X 2 48 X 1

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Division Students will often begin solving division problems by repeated subtraction or by dealing out to each group until there are none left or aren't enough to distribute or using a multiplication fact. 12 divided by 4 ---dealing out 111 111 111 111

Repeated subtraction: 12 -4 8 -4 4 -4 0 Larger division: 385

I know that 12 divided by 4 = 3 because I know that 4 X 3 = 12 1 1 1 3 fours

How many 15s in 385?

¸15

(10 X 15) (10 X 15) (5 X 15) 10 + 10 + 5 = 25 r 10

385 - 150 235 - 150 85 - 75 10

15 -

25 R10 or 385 150 10 (10 x 15) 235 150 10 (10 x 15) 85 75 5 (5 x 15) 10 25

25

10

/15 or 25 2/3

Linda Coutts K-5 Mathematics Coordinator Columbia Public Schools lcoutts@columbia.k12.mo.us

555 Vandiver Columbia, MO 65202 (573) 214-3920 ext. "0" (573) 214-3911

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

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