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E4215

MechanicalBehaviorofMaterials
Lecture10
DislocationsandSlip II
Prof.K.Barmak
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Outline
Singlecrystalsdeformedintension
Slipsystems
Schmid factor
Criticalresolvedshearstress
Rulesforidentifyingslipsystems
PeirlsNabarro stress
Dislocationmotion
Glide,crossslipofscrewdislocations
Climb
Jogsandkinks
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SlipSystems I
5independentslipsystemsareneededforan
arbitraryshapechange
Dislocationsglideonplanesofhighestatomic
density(i.e.,onclosepackedplanes)inclose
packeddirections
fcc Al,Cu,Au,Ag,Ni
bcc oFe,W,Nb
Slipdirectionisintheslipplane,therefore,it
isnormaltothenormaltotheplane
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{111} 110 < >
{110},{112}or{123} 111 < >
SlipSystems II
hcp:dependsonthec/aratio
Basalslipifc/a>idealratio1.633:
Basalsliporprismslipifc/a<idealratio:
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{0001} 1120 < >
{1010} 1120 < >
Moredenselypackedthanbasal
planewhenc/a<idealratio
SlipSystemsinFCCMetals
Notethatsince{}and<>meanfamiliesofplanes
anddirections,thereareanumberofdistinctslip
systemforagiven{hkl}<uvw>
Soforexampleforthefacecenteredcubiccrystal
therearetwelvedistinctslipsystem
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{111} 110 < >
4slipplanes
3slipdirectionsineachplane
( )
( )
( )
( )
111
111
111
111
110 101 011 ( ( (

Notethattheslipdirectionsmustbeintheslipplanes.
Therefore,thenormaltotheslipplane,here,[hkl]must
benormaltotheslipdirection[uww].Thedotproduct
mustbezero,i.e.,musthavehu+kv+lw=0.
e.g.,in(111)
DislocationsinFCCMetals
RelationbetweenslipdirectionandBurgers
vector
slipdirection
Burgersvector
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1
110
2
2
2
a
( =

=
b
b
110 (

Vectorjoiningthe
nearestneighbor
atoms
a isthelatticeparameter
DislocationsinBCCMetals I
Close(st)packedplanes:{110}
Closepackeddirections:<111>
Burgersvector:
b =a/2<111>
MagnitudeofBurgersvector
Glideoccurson{110}planes,in<111>directions
Eachunitcellcontains6{110}typeplanes(not
countingtheplaneswiththenegativeofallindices,
e.g.,count(110)butnot(110))
Each{110}planecontainstwo<111>directions
Thereforethereare12{110}<111>typeslipssystem
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3
b
2
a
=
DislocationsinBCCMetals II
InBCC,slipcanalsooccuron{112}and{123}
planesin<111>directions
Eachunitcellcontains12{112}planes
Each{112}planecontains1<111>direction
Thusthereare12{112}<111>slipsystems
Eachunitcellcontains24{123}planes
Each{123}planecontains1<111>
Thusthereare24{123}<111>slipsystems
Thustherearetotalof48slipsystemsinBCC
metals.
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DislocationsinBCCMetals III
Slipon{110}ismostprevalent
Three{110}planesintersecta<111>direction,
therefore,unitscrewdislocationcaneasily
movefromone{110}toanother{110}orto
{123}and{112}planes,resultinginwavyslip
lines.
ExtendeddislocationsareuncommoninBCC.
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DislocationsinHCPMetals
Relationbetweenslipdirectionand
Burgersvector
Closepackeddirections:
Burgersvector:
MagnitudeofBurgersvector:a
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1120
1120
3
a
http://www.cmmp.ucl.ac.uk
DeformationofaSingleCrystalin
Tension
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Normalto
slipplane
Appliedforce
Appliedforce,F
Slip
direction
Slip
plane
F
A
o =
cos cos
F
A
t | =
(Engineering)stressisforceperunit
(initial)area:
Resolvedshearstress
Slipoccursinaparticularcrystaldirectionona
particularslipwhentheresolvedshearstress
reachesacriticalvalue,t
C
.Slipthereforeoccurs
ontheslipsystemwiththehighestSchmid factor.
Schmid factor
Areanormal
totheload,A
Normalstressintheobliqueplane
2
cos
N
o o | =
Example1
Afacecenteredcubicsinglecrystalisloaded
inthe[100]direction.WhatistheSchmid
factorfortheslipsystemgivenbelow?
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[110](111)
0.408
Example2
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CriticalResolvedShearStress
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TheexperimentalevidenceofSchmidsLawisthatthereis a
criticalresolvedshearstress.Thisisverifiedbymeasuringthe
yieldstressofsinglecrystalsasafunctionoforientation.The
examplebelowisforMgwhichishexagonalandslipsmost
readilyonthebasalplane(allothert
crss
aremuchlarger).
Soft orientation,
with slip plane at
45to tensile axis
Hard orientation,
with slip plane at
~90to tensile axis
o = t/coscos|
SimpleRulesforIdentifyingSlip
Systems
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OILSRule
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OILSRule Example
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DiehlsRule:FCCCrystals I
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DiehlsRule:FCCCrystals II
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DiehlsRule BCCCrystals
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SlipandRotationofCrystal
Beforeandafterdeformation
Notetherotationofcrystalwhenusingfixedgrips
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Dieter
GeometricSofteningandHardening
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ConjugateSlipSystem I
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ConjugateSlipSystem II
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ConjugateSlipSystem III
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CrystalRotationDuringPlasticFlow
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SlipTraces I
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SlipTraces II
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SlipTraces
Sliptracesareobservedwheredislocationglide
planesintersectthepolishedfaceofacrystal
Therefore,asliptracerepresentsadirectioncomment
tothetwocrystalplanes
Incubiccrystals,thesliptracecanbeobtainedviathecross
productofthenormalstothesetwoplanes
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Beforeglide
Afterglide
Sliptraceon
crystalface
h
1
k
1
l
1
h
1
k
1
l
1
h
2
k
2
l
2
h
2
k
2
l
2
| |
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
k l l k l h hl h k k h
PeirlsNabarro Stress I
Thecriticalresolvedshearstressneededto
causedislocationglideisthePeirlsNabarro
stress(orPeirls stress),whichrepresentsthe
inherentlatticeresistancetothemovementof
dislocations
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2 2
exp
1
1
p
edge
screw
G w
b
d
w
w d
t
t
v
v
| |
=
|

\ .
=

=
Poissonsratio
Interplanarspacing
Burgersvector
Peirls Stress II
t
c
(ort
p
)exists
Highestforcovalentsolids
Lowerformetals
Decreasesaswidthofthedislocationcore
increases
Decreaseswithincreasingtemperature
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Outline
Singlecrystalsdeformedintension
Slipsystems
Schmid factor
Criticalresolvedshearstress
Rulesforidentifyingslipsystems
PeirlsNabarro stress
Dislocationmotion
Glide,crossslipofscrewdislocations
Climb
Jogsandkinks
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DislocationMotion
Twotypesofdislocationmotion
Glide:Dislocationmovesinglideplane,i.e.,the
planethatcontainsboththedislocationlineand
theBurgersvector
Climb:Dislocationmovesoutofglideplane
normaltotheBurgersvector
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DislocationGlide I
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Recalltheeffectofdislocationmotioninacrystal:
passagecausesonehalfofthecrystaltobe
displacedrelativetotheother.Thisisashear
displacement,givingrisetoashearstrain.
[Dieter]
StressStrainCurve
Deformationatintermediatetemperatures
mediatedbydislocationglide:
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DislocationGlide II
DislocationGlideundertheapplicationofa
shearstress:
Conservativemotion(volumeconserved)
Glideofmanydislocations=slip
Slip:twoundeformed blocksofthecrystalmoverelativeto
eachother
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Donotconfusehowbwasdefined,withthedirectioninwhich
thedislocationwillmoveunderanappliedshearstress.
DislocationGlide III
Foredgedislocations,glideplaneisuniquely
definedsincedislocationlineandBurgersvector
areperpendiculartoeachother
ScrewdislocationshavetheirlineandBurgers
vectorparallel,therefore,theycaneasilychange
theirglideplane
Thisisknownascrossslip
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PlasticShearStrainandDislocation
Glide
Plasticshearstrainassociatedwithdislocation
glide
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tan
m
D
shear strain b x
h
= = =
MagnitudeofBurgersvector
Mobiledislocation
density
Averagedistance
movedby
dislocation
DislocationClimb
Climbisnonconservative(volumenotconserved)
Vacanciesanddiffusionarerequiredforclimb,and,asa
resulthighertemperaturesarerequiredforthistypeof
motion
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PlasticStrainandDislocationClimb
Plasticdeformationofcrystallinematerialsat
hightemperaturesistermedcreep
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Plastic(engineering)strain
paralleltobresultingfrom
climbofedgedislocation
eng m
h
b x
h
c
A
= =
Averagedistanceclimbed
byadislocation
h
Ah
o
d
JogsandKinks I
Jogsmovethedislocationlinefromoneplaneto
anotherplane
Jogscanformbydislocationclimbsinceclimbdoesnot
occuroverthewholelengthoftheline;itoccursonlyon
certainsegmentsoftheline,resultingintheformationof
jogs
Jogscanalsoformbyintersectionwithotherdislocations
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JogsandKinks II
Thejogshouldbecontrastedwith kinks,which
displacethedislocationlineonthesameplane
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JogsandKinks III
Thejogandkinkonanedgedislocation
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JogsandKinks IV
Jogsandkinkshavethesameb astherestofthedislocation
Kinksdonotimpededislocationmotion,becausetheyareonthesame
slipplane
Jogonedgedoesnotimpededislocationglide
Jogonscrewdoesimpedeglidebecausehasedgecharacter,andrequires
climbformotion
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Shearstress