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by Christopher B. Siren cbsiren at alum dot mit dot edu last modified Mar. 13th, 1998: added a bunch of information from the first half of Hoffner. Mar. 9th, 199!: corrected some cross"reference lin#s. • $. %ho &ere the 'Hittites'( • $$. %hat )eities did they &orship( • *. Hittite and Hurrian deities. • B. *##adian $mports. • C. )emons. • ). Mortals. • $$$. %hat &as the Hittite cosmolo+y and ho& did they percei,e the structure of the uni,erse( • $-. Source material.
I. Who were the 'Hittites'?
)urin+ the second millennium B.C. a +roup of people #no&n as the Hittites, &ho spo#e an $ndo" .uropean lan+ua+e, ruled o,er the '/and of Hatti', in central and eastern *natolia, that peninsula &hich is modern 0ur#ey. 0hey had displaced the pre,ious occupants, the Hattians 1&ho spo#e a non"$ndo" .uropean lan+ua+e2, and ruled from the city of Hattusas near the modern Bo+ha3#oy in northern central 0ur#ey, possibly as early as 1944 B.C. Much of the Cappadocian plateau &as under their control throu+h satellite #in+doms before 1844 B.C. and they en5oyed a thri,in+ trade &ith the *ssyrians. *round 1844 B.C. *nittas and his father 6it#hanas of 7ussara sac#ed se,eral Hittite cities, includin+ Hattusas, thou+h *nittas laid a curse upon that city and trade bro#e off until the foundin+ of the 8ld 7in+dom under 7in+ /abarnas around 1!84 B.C. He and his descendents +reatly e9panded the re+ion of Hittite control, crossin+ the 0aurus mountains and &a+in+ &ar on Syria and *ssyria. 7in+ Mursilis 1:1! 4"1;94 B.C.2, /abarnas' +randson by adoption, brou+ht do&n the 8ld 7in+dom of Babylon " Hamurabi's dynasty. 0his e9panded realm, also stretchin+ to *natolia's &est coast, pro,ed to susceptible to internal po&er stru++les. $n 1; ; B.C., 0elepinus, last #in+ of the 8ld 7in+dom sei3ed control and sacrificed some of the %estern districts and all of the territory east of the 0aurus mountains in fa,or of a more easily mana+ed #in+dom. 0he Hurrians occupied the land bet&een the Hittites and *ssyria, ha,in+ descended from the mountains south of the Caspian Sea. 0hey ruled the #in+dom of Mitanni. $n the late 1;th century B.C. the Hittite empire's be+innin+ is mar#ed by an influ9 of Hurrian names into the royal family. 0udhalyas $ 11< 4 B.C.2 reunited %estern *natolia under Hittite rule, and retoo# *llepo but lost the Blac# Sea coast to the 7as#a tribes. *fter some difficulty &ith the Mittani the Hittites resur+ed under 7in+ Suppilulimas around 13<<"13 ta#in+ a firmer hold on Syria. %ith .+ypt, they dominated the lands of Canaan and the /e,ant durin+ the 1 44's. 0heir prosperity came to a sudden end &hen the in,asion of the Sea 6eoples coincided &ith increasin+ trouble from the 7as#as. %hile Hittite culture continued throu+h about =44 B.C., the .mpire &as shattered into se,eral #in+doms and pressures such as the +ro&in+ *ssyrian .mpire helped #eep it from unitin+ a+ain. 0he Hittites &ere a patriarchal, hi+hly a+ricultural society. 0hey had rich iron deposits &hich they mined and traded &ith the *ssyrians. 0hey also used it for &eaponry and &ere rather successful in the use of a three"man chariot. 0hrou+h trade and con>uest the lan+ua+es and cultures of their nei+hbors
he spat out *ran3ahus and 0asmisus of on Mount 7an3uras. &ith the ori+in of many suspected to be Hurrian. and hence their transcription into . ?nfortunately. and bit off and s&allo&ed his phallus.eral Hittite ideo+rams. His city is ?r#is. particularly durin+ the imperial period around 1<44 " 1 44 B. apparently succeeded.C. 6arallel Hittite and *##adian treaties and similar te9ts helped in crac#in+ the Hittite hiero+lyphic code.e case endin+ for Hittite. &ho also represented the mountains. and more than ei+ht"hundred such names ha.e name. He ad. remains elusi. 0he Storm"+od be+ins to e9it throu+h 7umarbis's 'tarnassus'. /i#e&ise. thereby becomin+ impre+nated &ith the Storm"+od. Babylonian and Hurrian deities &ere &orshiped alon+"side or assimilated &ith the nati.e Hittite deities.e been disco. or else use the appropriate Hurrian or *##adian name. &hile the ability to translate Hittite hiero+lyphics has impro. &ith his other children. )oubtless the Hatti left their mar# in Hittite reli+ion as &ell. Bou &ill notice that many of the names carry an optional 's' as a suffi9. and 0asmisus. chased *nus.es &rite of 'the thousand +ods of Hatti'. *nus &as more po&erful. there &ere efforts to e>uate many of these local deities and form a state pantheon. chased *nus " &ho fled in the s#y li#e a bird.ersion of the Ail+amesh epic and many *##adian deities &ere &orshiped outri+ht.en. . Hittite and Hurrian deities. %ith that ne&s. He ser.e.en+e by impre+natin+ 7umarbis &ith the Storm"+od.e both Hittite and Hurrian content. He ser.er. and 0asmisus. He is sometimes e>uated &ith .er. as in the case &ith the Storm"+od. He then hid himself in hea. *nus ser. and his consort " usually the earth +oddess. 0here also e9ist fra+ments of a Hittite . *fter the Storm"+od's birth. 0his mer+in+ of cultures and free use of forei+n lan+ua+es is rather fortuitous.ed as his cupbearer for 9 years before defeatin+ him and dispatchin+ him to under the earth. after nine years 7umarbis rebelled. 0he Hittites themsel.seeped into Hittite society. the pronunciation of se. 7umarbi1s2 " 'the father of all +ods' accordin+ to the Hurrians. *nu1s2 1*##adian in ori+in2 %hile *lalus &as #in+ in hea.ers and the sea. &hich comes from the nominati.n+lish. causin+ him to .ised the Storm"+od on the places &here he mi+ht e9it 7umarbis. 1Considerably fe&er &ill be dealt &ith here. What Deities did they worship? 0he Hittites had an abundant number of local cult deities and sets of local pantheons. they plotted to destroy 7umarbis and.ed..ernment became more centrali3ed.ered. • 8ne place to find out more about the Hittites is Hatti " Homeland of the Hittites II. 8ften. *lalu1s2 He &as the #in+ in hea. Such a pantheon &as headed by the %eather"+od@Storm"+od. and bit off and s&allo&ed his phallus.2 0he associated myths ha. $n this act *nus had some re.nlil and )a+an. He too# his seat on the throne and had 7umarbis as his cupbearer.en in olden days and *nus &as the first amon+ the +ods. He thin#s &ise thou+hts and carries a staff. the *ran3ahus 10i+ris2 ri.en. 0he 7umarbis"?llu#ummis myth is chief amon+ the Hurrian tales and the $lluyan#as stories and missin+ +od myths of 0elipinus and the missin+ Storm"+od are thou+ht to be more Hattic.ed as *lalus' cup bearer for nine years and then defeated him. &ho &as also attached to the &aters of ri. *s the +o. dispatchin+ him to under the earth.ed as *nus's cup"bearer for nine years and then rebelled. the *ran3ahus 10i+ris2 ri. &e must resort to a descripti.
He is sent to &arn the Sea that 7umarbis' must remain the father of the +ods. cattle and sheep are stifled and mothers. '7in+ of Hea.ie&s him.en. She appears to consult &ith the Sun"+od and the %ar" +od. char+in+ it to purify the +od by stin+in+ his hands and feat and &ipin+ his eyes and feet &ith &a9.erthro& the Storm"+od.apor to enter her body. ?pelluri 1?belluris2 Similar to *tlas. this +iant carries the &orld on his shoulders. She recommends to the Storm"+od that he pay the Sea"+od the bride"price for the Sea"+od's dau+hter on her &eddin+ to 0elipinu. He . *yas has 'poor' ma+ic &or#ed on him and his 'tarnassus' is secured. e. and his offsprin+. He as#s *yas to +i. He is chief amon+ the +ods and his symbol is the bull.en &hen those t&o &ere separated &ith a clea.moan in pain. *fter her an+er is banished to the )ar# .arth. He char+es $mbaluris to see# out the $rsirra deities to hide ?lli#ummis from the Sun"+od. his brother 0asmisus and the +ods from the s#y. he lay &ith a Coc# as if it &ere a &oman. especially &hen the battle is &ith a forei+n po&er. She sends him to search himself and &hen he +i. &hich he does. she dispatches a bee. Storm@%eather"+od 1Hurrian's 0eshub. *s 0aru. /u&ian's 0arhun1t2 " '0he Con>ueror'2. 7umarbis announces that his son &ill defeat the Storm"+od. she +a. He instructs $mbaluris. in search of ?lli#ummis and ?pelluri admits to a small pain on his shoulder. but much of the te9t is missin+.e her a man and land. so the Storm"+od e9its throu+h his '+ood place' instead. Mah2 " the mother of all the +ods.e him his son to de. She is associated &ith Aulses.en upon him thou+h he did not notice.es up. althou+h he can't identify &hich +od is causin+ it. $nara is missin+ and &hen Hanna hanna is informed thereof by the Storm"+od's bee. 0he Sea hosts a feast for him and later 7umarbis' Coc# +i. *nother meeans of banishin+ her an+er is throu+h burnin+ brush&ood and allo&in+ the . He is then presumably defeated by the Storm"+od. his city 7ummiya. the Storm"+od. he is the consort of %urusemu. she apparently be+ins a search &ith the help of her Eemale attendant a. Mu#isanus He is 7umarbis' . *fter 0elepinu disappears. *s 0eshub he has been pictured as a bearded man astride t&o mountains and bearin+ a club. that 7umarbis should remain father of the +ods. *nus.i3ier Hannahanna1s2 1Dintu. /ord of the land of Hatti'. both human and animal ta#e no account of their children.es birth to ?lli#ummis. and $shtar. she returns re5oicin+. $mbaluris He is 7umarbis' messen+er. his messen+er to send a messa+e to the Sea. '0he #in+ of 7ummiya'. *fter $nara consulted &ith her. 0he olden +ods built the earth and hea. )urin+ a plot to o. 0aru. *pparently she also disappears in a fit of an+er and &hile she is +one. He is a +od of battle and . .er.ictory. Soon after.our. the Storm"+od complains to her.a inter. 8n the direction of 7umarbis' messen+er $mbaluris. the $ssira deities place ?lli#ummis on his ri+ht shoulder &here the child +ro&s.
0hen the Storm"+od. *fter consultin+ &ith Hannahanna. he looses his eyes and heart to $lluyan#as after his first battle. he pays the price of a thousand sheep and a thousand cattle. as#in+ that $naras prepare a celebration.es on her feast.&as the child of *nus and 7umarbis " concei. li+htnin+ and rains.er &hen 7umarbis bit off and s&allo&ed *nus' phallus. *fter searchin+ 0elepinus' city he +i.al of the Sun"+od. is missin+ and sends a bee to Hannahanna to ha. ho&e. He then marries a poor mortal &oman and marries their son to $lluyan#as dau+hter. )espite the diorite man's boastin+. and is returned &ith the help of his mother " here %uruntemu@.es up. he encoura+es the Storm"+od to see# . and in another. and has him call out the thunderstorms. He sent rain after the fallen Moon"+od@7ash#u &hen he fell from hea.a in the city *b3u@*psu and as# for the 'tablets &ith the &ords of fate' 10ablets of )estiny( 'me'(2. 0he Sea"+od is so intimidated that he +i. %hen 0asmisus returns. the Storm"+od presumably defeats him. and *ran3hus to destroy 7umarbis.arth in his an+er. he attac#s the dra+on a+ain.en. %ith the 'tarnassas' bloc#ed. He is. he has 0asmisus prepare his bulls and &a+on for battle. he spurs 0asmisus and the Storm"+od on to battle the crippled +iant. $nara. *fter .er the Sun"+od &ho had been #idnapped by the Sea"+od. He sends 0elipinu to reco. it is the Storm"+od &ho is missin+. 0asmisus. the Storm"+od #ills them both. accompanied by the +ods. considered .es off ?llu#ummis' feet. %hen his son. He and 0asmisus then lea. &here they behold the monstrous creature. emboldened. He fou+ht &ith the )ra+on $lluyan#as in 7is#ilussa and &as defeated. sets upon them and destroys them. %hen his son sides &ith $lluyan#as. to tell her that he must remain in a 'lo&ly place' for a term.e +or+ed themsel. is missin+ he despairs and complains to the Sun"+od and then to Hannahannas.ersions of this myth. Seris 1Serisu2 . She does so and &hen the dra+on and his children ha. He is informed by *nus of the possible e9its from 7umarbis. causin+ him +reat pain.resh#i+al@the Sun"+oddess of *rinna. the mortal Hupasiyas binds him &ith a rope. and tries to e9it throu+h 7umarbis's 'tarnassas'. /ater.ed alon+ &ith 0asmisus and the *ran3ahus 10i+ris2 ri.en. 8ne is almost e9actly the same. He loo#s upon 7umarbis' son &ith fear and $shtar chides him. 0heir first battle resulted in his incomplete defeat. %ith their return. &ho in some myths is his son.a's son in the myth of ?lli#ummis.e her search for her.es 0elipinu his dau+hter in marria+e but demands a bride"price from the Storm"+od.a clea. $n other . He has the son as# for his eyes and heart. He notices his dau+hter. He called the +ods for aid. 0elepinus. $shtar. and apparently succeeds sei3in+ #in+ship in hea. he has 0asmisus prepare a meal for their +uest and listens to his report about the sudden appearance of the +iant ?lli#ummis. *lerted to the imminent arri. Hebat. he e9its throu+h 7umarbis' '+ood place'. he 5ourneys to the )ar# .ersion of that myth.er. He dispatches 0asmisus to his &ife. He plots &ith *nus. &ho tells him to search for him himself.e the #untarra and are led to Mount Ha33i by his sister. $n another .
'Sun Aoddess of *rrina'.e defeated her husband and e9presses her concern to her ser. to tell her that he must remain in a 'lo&ly place' for a term. he and the Storm"+od depart and are met by $shtar. 0he brother of the Storm"+od and *ran3ahus. &here they can see ?lli#ummis. /ater he colludes &ith *nus and the Storm"+od to destroy 7umarbis.ictory. 6resumably she is brou+ht &ord of his defeat.isits her in the hi+h &atchto&er. *fter their defeat. *fter the Sun"+od's tale. and thereby possibly associated &ith . *fter . the >ueen of hea. She is the mother of Sharruma. the lion. She is the mother of the Storm"+od of Deri#.0his is one of the bulls sacred to the Storm"+od. %urusemu.en and earth'. &inds. She is a +oddess of battle and is associated &ith Hittite military .a clea.e him up Mount $m+arra &ith 0ella and the battle &a+on. 0he Storm"+od has him ta#e his bulls up Mt. *t the Storm"+od's command he has a meal set up for their . causin+ her to lose communication &ith the +ods. She is sometimes depicted standin+ on her sacred animal.es as the Storm"+od's attendant. tellin+ her that the Storm" +od is consi+ned to a 'lo&ly place' for a len+th of time. She made the cedar land. &ith 0aru as her consort. 0ella 1Hurris2 0his is another bull sacred to the Storm"+od.ant 0a#itis. he spurs 0asmisus and the Storm"+od on to battle the crippled +iant. She aids in returnin+ him from the under&orld.er deified. spat out of 7umarbis' mouth onto Mount 7an3uras. He returns and encoura+es the Storm"+od to see# .ed alon+ &ith the Storm"+od and *ran3ahus.a in the city *b3u@*psu and as# for the 'tablets &ith the &ords of fate' 10ablets of )estiny( 'me'(2. He spies the Sun"+od approachin+ and informs the Storm"+od that this . Hepatu2 0he matronly &ife of the Storm"+od. 0asmisus * child of *nus and 7umarbis. She frets that ?lli#ummis may ha.resh#i+al. and li+htnin+. rains. he &as the brother of the Storm"+od and 0asmisus. 0asmisus . She is the primary +oddess in *rrina. he is concei.e him up Mount $m+arra &ith Seris and the battle &a+on. . 1%uruntemu(2. the Storm"+od has 0asmisus plate his tail &ith +old and dri. $n preparation for battle.ene the assembly of the +ods and brin+ bac# &ord of her husband. He ser. $m+arra and prepare them for battle. $n preparation for battle. *ran3ahas " 0he 0i+ris ri. Su&aliyattas He is a &arrior +od and probably the brother of the Storm"+od. Ha33i near ?+arit. directin+ the +o. 'mistress of the #in+s and >ueens of Hatti. Hebat 1Hurrian name2 1Hepit. &ho ta#es them to Mt.isitor. * child of *nus and 7umarbis.ernment of the 7in+ and Fueen of Hatti' 0his +oddess is later assimilated &ith Hebat.isit bodes ill.es off ?llu#ummis' feet. *fter the Storm"+od and *stabis' failed attac#s on ?lli#ummis. he &as spat out of 7umarbis upon Mount 7an3uras. char+in+ him to con. /ater he colludes &ith *nus and the Storm"+od to destroy 7umarbis. the Storm"+od has 0asmisus anoint his horns &ith oil and dri. 'mistress of the Hatti lands. he is dispatched by the Storm"+od to Hebat. He is also ordered to brin+ forth the storms. the +iant forced her out of her temple.
He &as born to be used as a &eapon to defeat the Storm"+odand his allies. but not before 0elepinus thunders &ith li+htnin+.eral other +ods are missin+ instead.er the Sun"+od from the Sea"+od. 0his further infuriates him. %ith his departure. pushin+ up the s#y. he is none"the"less . perhaps in order to stop his +ro&th.es Hebat from her temple. He is as#ed by his father to reco. *fter fifteen days he +ro&s enou+h so that he stands &aist deep in the sea &hen the Sun"+od and he notice each other.enin+ the assembly of the +ods and returnin+ &ith &ord of her husband's fate. *fter the $rsirra deities presented him to .' 1Aurney p.ant. they placed him on the shoulder of ?pelluri &here he +ro&s an acre in a month.ersions of this myth.ers and by shatterin+ houses and &indo&s. Me33ullas She is the dau+hter of the Storm"+od and the Sun"+oddess of *rinna. and so intimidates the Sea" +od that he is +i. His prosperity and fertility is symboli3ed by a pole suspendin+ the fleece of a sheep. and &ipes his eyes and feet &ith &a9.entually. . 0elepinus returns home. or a human head on a bull's body. restorin+ fertility and tendin+ to the life and . 1132 He flies into a ra+e and storms off. sha#in+ the hea.ens. the Storm"+od e. stin+s his hands and feet. 6resumably.en his dau+hter as a bride. He dri. 0a#itis He is Hebat's ser. the e.oc &ith the ri.a locates him and cuts off his feet &ith the copper #nife that separated the hea. the Sun"+od. *lerted by the Sun"+od.en from the earth.orite and firstborn son of the Storm"+od. Hannahannas's bee finds him. 7umarbis had him deli. and he &rec#s further ha. losin+ himself in the steppe and becomin+ o. 0elepinu1s2 'the noble +od' *n a+ricultural +od. He 'harro&s and plo&s.il and malice is remo.entually prepares for battle atop Mount $m+arra. He is later identified &ith the %eather"+od of Deri# and Gippalanda. 0his +od is made entirely of diorite. the diorite man He is born of 7umarbis and the Coc#. the Storm"+od or the Sun"+od and se. he is the fa.enty +ods on attac# a+ainst him.ered to the $rsirra deities to #eep him hidden from the Storm"+od. and to&erin+ o. attemptin+ to dra& up the &ater from around him. cuttin+ off her communication &ith the other +ods. He irri+ates the fields and ma#es the crops +ro&. *fter Hebat &as dri. purifyin+ him. Gintuhis She is the +randdau+hter of the Storm"+od and the Sun"+oddess of *rinna. 0hey fall into the sea and he +ro&s to be 9444 lea+ues tall and around. crops and herds disappears and famine besets man and +od.en.. ?lli#ummi1s2. She has influence &ith her parents.ed throu+h ma+ic by 7amrusepas. $n other . *stabis leads se.ictory.er 7ummiya.itality of the royal family. )espite his &ounds he boasts to the Storm"+od that he &ill ta#e the #in+ship of hea. this +od is symboli3ed by a pair of human le+s. 'the calf of 0eshub' 0he son of 0eshub and Hebat.en from her temple he is told of her concern for her husband and char+ed &ith con.llil. . the earth.ercome &ith fati+ue.Sharruma 1Hurrian name2. fertility of the land. yet their first battle results in an incomplete . and $shtar.
the Storm"+od proclaims that the food on the table shall become pleasant.en. 0he Sea"+od He >uarreled and #idnapped the Sun"+od of Hea. brin+in+ a famine. but it is ineffecti.ersion of the missin+ +od myth.els throu+h the nether"&orld. He &as #idnapped by the Sea"+od and released &hen 0elipinu came for him. by ta#in+ him as a lo.eral sheep. She then sets about lurin+ $lluyan#as and his children to a feast. Hapantallis He is the Sun"+od's shepherd.en a thousand cattle and a thousand sheep. $n a lon+er .e ser. *fter the bee disco.ersion of that story. she follo&s his re>uest to set up a feast.isited the Storm"+od. the +ate comple9.es on her . allo&in+ Hahhimas 1Erost to ta#e hold of most of the other +ods. %hen 0elipinu came to reco. the Sea"+od cau+ht him in a net. He >uestions the fire in its role in one of 7amrusepa's healin+ spells. refusin+ to eat until he reports his ne&s. this +od is one of 5ustice and is sometimes the #in+ of all +ods.en. *t the end of the day. and &as e. Storm"+od@0aru rain" stormed after him. he is one of the missin+ +ods. She recruits Hupasiayas of Gi+aratta. $naras )au+hter of the Storm"+od and +oddess of the &ild animals of the steppe. $n another .en and disappeared.e in assua+in+ their hun+er.essel. 0he Sea.en2 6robably an *##adian import. %hile #no&n to besto& ill omens.essel &hen he fell. he tra. he can be appeased by sheep sacrifice. *n ally of the Storm"+od. Sun"+od 1of Hea. *fter the dra+on and his children +or+e themsel.e sealed him in a Kukubu".ers 0elepinus. %hen 0elepinus disappears. fri+htenin+ him. Moon"+od 1Hurrian 7ash#u2 He fell upon the '#illamar'.er the Sun" +od.defeated. the %aters She is told by $mbaluris that '7umarbis must remain father of the +odsH'. he dispatches an ea+le to search for the +od. from hea. he arran+es a feast. to aid in re. *t the Storm"+od's complaint.ered 7umarbis' child by the Coc#.er him. &hich it does. and may ha. ?lli#ummis. she ma#es ready here abode and prepares to act as hostess for a feast for 7umarbis. Struc# &ith fear by this messa+e.ed as a meetin+ of Mother"+oddesses &ho deli. he later demanded a bride"price for her of the Storm"+od. but the bird is unsuccessful. he cau+ht the Sun"+od in a net as he fell.er. 0his feast may ha. He #eeps se. )urin+ his absence.ersion.e him his dau+hter. and so the Sun"+od en5oys his meal and returns to his route in hea. he has man perform a ritual. *fter he has done so. Hapantali &ent to him and uttered the &ords of a spell o. *fter the Storm"+od's initial defeat by $lluyan#as. possibly puttin+ him into a 7u#ubu". hahhimas 1Erost2 too# hold. $n another . the Sea"+od &as so intimidated that he also +a.entually +i. he notices the +iant ?lli#ummis in the sea and .en+e on $lluyan#as.
*fter the Storm"+od's first attac# on ?lli#ummis is unsuccessful. before placin+ it on ?pelluri's ri+ht shoulder. *fter they &ere too en+or+ed to +et into their lair a+ain. &ho promises to +i. 7amrusepa1s2 17atah3i&uri2 She is the +oddess of ma+ic and healin+. He defeated the Storm"+od in 7is#ilussa.e in the dar# earth are char+ed by 7umarbis throu+h $mbaluris to hide ?lli#ummis from the s#y +ods. his dau+hter married the son of the Storm"+od. yet &arns him not to loo# out the &indo&. and seein+ his family be+s to be allo&ed to +o home. *##adian Dinurta2 He is a Hurrian &arrior +od.o#ed e.an>uished $lluyan#as. the Storm"+od. lest he see his &ife and children.en on to the +ate comple9. #illed him. lifted by the )ar# .e in.e her land and a man. She then +oes missin+ and is sou+ht after by her father and Hannahanna &ith her bee. He disobeys her. Hapantalliyas@Hapantalli He too# his place at the Moon"+od's side &hen he fell from hea. /ater he &as lured from his lair &ith his children by a &ell dressed $naras &ith a feast.es . the Sun"+od. $n another tablet. he leads se. $n another . 0he ritual of his defeat &as in. chan+in+ them to a mist &hich ascends to hea. the Storm"+od . 0hen the Storm"+od sets upon them and defeats them. his son as#ed for the eyes and heart.meal. *fter 0elepinus has been found. 0he Sea"+od >uestions the fire on its role.llil. She &itnessed and announced the Moon"+od's fall from hea. Aurney speculates that he &as #illed for his disobedience. /ater they accept the child and deli. %hen these &ere returned to him.er it to . yet remains an+ry. Hedammu He is a serpent &ho lo.arious illnesses. *stabis 1Gamama. remo. she is set to cure him of his temper.es Hupasiayas a house on a cliff to li.ed $shtar. she performs the spell of fire.ery sprin+ to symboli3e the earth's rebirth. She then +i. he defeated the Storm"+od and stole his eyes and heart. &hic remo. but sle& his son as &ell &hen the youth sided &ith the dra+on. 0hey are also char+ed &ith placin+ the child on the shoulder of ?pelluri. She consults &ith Hannahanna. $rsirra deities 0hese +ods &ho li. the Storm"+od. *ctin+ on the Storm"+od's instruction.il and malice. and $shtar. /ater.en on the +ate comple9 and uttered a spell.ersion of the myth. 0hey try to dra& the &ater . She performs an elaborate ma+ical ritual. Hupasiayas binds him &ith a rope.in+ his e. $lluyan#as " the )ra+on.en. accompanied by the other +ods.arth.enty +ods in battle &a+ons on an attac# on the diorite +iant.
possibly by causin+ them to be in. 0utelary"deity. .er the +ate of 7ummiya. held in +reater re+ard there than the Storm"+od. $stustaya 8ne of the deities &ho sat under the Haþ tree a&aitin+ the return of 0elipinus.en lar+er. 7urunta( 0his +od's symbol is the sta+. Galiyanu She is the concubine of Gashapuna. )ar#"+oddess 8ne of the deities &ho sat under the Haþ tree a&aitin+ the return of 0elipinu. but they fall from the s#y and ?lli#ummis +ro&s e. possibly +ainin+ such influence throu+h dra&in+ lots &ith the other +ods. properly attended to.es impotence. Miyatan3ipa 8ne of the deities &ho sat under the Haþ tree a&aitin+ the return of 0elipinu. remo. Hasamelis He is a +od &ho can protect tra. perhaps in order to stop his +ro&th. ?liliyassis He is a minor +od &ho. Barris He is a +od of pestilence.isible. 7ubaba She is the chief +oddess of the Deo"Hittites. * festi. she became Cybebe to the 6hry+ians and Cybele to the Comans. to&erin+ o. $n one myth.al &as held for him e. Gashapuna He is the chief +od of the to&n of 7astama. 6apaya 8ne of the deities &ho sat under the Haþ tree a&aitin+ the return of 0elipinus. 1Sumerian /amma2 8ne of the deities &ho sat under the Haþ tree a&aitin+ the return of 0elipinu. Eate"+oddesses 0hey &ere amon+ the deities &ho sat under the Haþ tree a&aitin+ the return of 0elipinu. 1S2he( also sat under th ippiyas tree &hen Hannahanna found the huntin+ ba+. Galiyanu She is the &ife of Gashapuna. He is associated &ith rural areas.ery autumn. they and the Mother"+oddesses are missin+.a&ay from him.elers.
He is half"brother to Hasamili's brothers and spares them from his +rip.oured as a means of relea.arth. he ta#es hold of the other +ods and of the land's plants and animals.llil's &ife.ailed upon by the Storm"+od follo&in+ his defeat by ?lli#ummis.ered hea.il omens. 'Sun of the .' He see#s out ?pelluri.al to the Storm"+od.en from earth.a proclaims that ?lli#ummis '&ill bloc# off hea. paraly3in+ them. He counters &ith 7umarbis' +ood record of &orship and sacrifice and is in turn countered &ith .a's testimony describin+ ?lli#ummis. .llil 1See *ssyro"Babylonian .arth' Aoddess of the earth and the nether"&orld.en and the +ods holy houses. He is pre. in order to .llil.?ru3imu * deity in.ed re+ardin+ &orship and sacrifices.ol.a and presumably the Storm" +od present before him a case a+ainst 7umarbis' for his creation of ?lli#ummis. appeasement of her throu+h sheep sacrifices helps remo. ""adian I#ports$ *nu See section *.resh#i+al 0his +oddess is the mother of the Storm"+od. imported to the Hitties throu+h the Hurrians.ie&in+ him. She &as imported by &ay of the Hurrians. brin+in+ bulls and sacrifices of meal. locates ?llu#ummis feet on ?pelluri's shoulder. 0he ?lli#ummis myth has him as the father of the Storm"+od. /el&anis 1/il&ani. !.e e9perts &or# 'poor' ma+ic to aid him in his distress. .a2 He is the #eeper of the 'old tablets &ith the &ords of fate' 10ablets of )estiny( 'me'(2. He ad.e threats from e. She plays a role in returnin+ him from the under&orld by openin+ the +ates of the )ar# . sometimes assimilated &ith $shtar2. and after inter.ed in returnin+ the lost Storm"+od of Deri#.llil's defense that 7umarbis is &ell beha.resh#i+al. 0his ma+ic helps secure 7umarbis's 'tarnassus'. /ater.in+ 7umarbis pains from the Storm"+od. *yas 1. Hahhimas 1Erost2 %hen the Sea"+od captures the Sun"+od. Cebuttin+ . He char+es the olden +ods to deli. .er the copper #nife &ith &hich they se.ises 7umarbis to ha. *ntu 1See *ssyro"Babylonian *ntu2 *nu's female counterpart. . He and presumably the Storm"+od present a case a+ainst 7umarbis' for his creation of ?lli#ummis before . He attends 7umarbis and fetches that +od's son to be de. Dinlil 1See *ssyro"Babylonian Dinlil .llil2 He is presented &ith ?lli#ummis by the $rsirra deities and declares that the child &ill brin+ the mi+htiest battles and an a&esome ri. .
%. this demon dri.e9ed and fearful at the site of 7umarbis' son. /ater. this demon sta. up Mount Ha33i. and be+s to +o home. and +oat sacrifice.es off sic#ness and +rants lon+.ie& the +iant. 7ulitta Shaush#a's attendant. He then spurs 0asmisus and the Storm"+od on to fi+ht the crippled +iant.cut throu+h ?llu#ummis' feet. from &hich they can . but her folly is e9posed to her by a +reat &a. the Storm"+od and 0asmisus.e from the sea. 0arpatassis 6roperly propitiated &ith ritual and the sacrifice of a buc#. Mortals Hupasiya1s2 He is a resident of Gi++aratta. he ties them up for the Storm"+od to #ill. %hen $lluyan#as and his children are +or+ed on $naras's feast.in+ the #untarra follo&in+ &ord of the appearance of ?lli#ummis. He is recruited by $naras to aid in defeatin+ $lluyan#as.es a&ay e.a's &ife. imported from the *##adians by &ay of the Hurrians. She leads them by hand. lea. She spies her brothers.il sic#ness. Dinatta Shaush#a's attendant. De#ons -arious rituals &ere performed to call upon demons for protection or to dri.e a&ay baneful deities summoned by sorcerers. . Shaush#a 1Hurrian2 1$shtar2 She ta#es the form of a &in+ed female standin+ on a lion. He a+rees to her plan after ellicitin+ her promise to sleep &ith him. *lau&aimis 6roperly propitiated &ith ritual. 0ap#ina1Hurrian2 1)am#ina2 . &ho char+es her to see# out her brother &ho is yet to be emboldened to the ine. She &as lo. libation. she chides him. healthy life. %hen the Storm"+od is .itable battle.ed by the serpent Hedammu. lest he see his family. she ta#es up her +al+alturi@harp and sin+s to the blind and deaf ?lli#ummis. Here the te9t is bro#en and some researches assume that he is #illed. He does. he is set up in a house by $naras &ith the instructions not to loo# out the &indo& &hile she is a&ay. D.
Copyri+ht 199!. * ri. Aurney's &or# is a solid o. 0he )ar# . Chica+o.ersity 6ress. %os#ology and the stru&ture o' the uni(erse.. De& Bor#. 0hey had a copper #nife &hich they used to clea. De& Bor#. 1998. he too# it a&ay and assumed control. 0here is a cycle of myths called the 7umarbi cycle that $ found interestin+ and e.en and earth upon ?pelluri. I).e come do&n to us because it is part of Hittite literature.en't found as much about this as $ &ould li#e: 0he olden +ods built hea. 1994. Babylonian.es 1compiler2. but 7umarbi +rabbed him by his an#les and bit off his testicles.pics. 0he Hittites li. &anted to be #in+ so in a battle. Canaanite. B.. 0heir ci. 1999. 6rinceton ?ni.Hoo#e Middle Eastern Mythology.ed in &hat is today modern 0ur#ey.ents a direct counter for this pa+e.er set up pre.ides depth in some areas of Hittite and Hurrian reli+ion but lac#s an o.e. 0his has been my primary source for the te9ts of the Hittite myths and prayers. 0hat &hich enters them. 19.e been o. • Aurney. and /e+endsI. James 6ritchard. *nu. 1994. $ ha. Ancient Near East Texts Relating to the Old Testament. culture. . $ntended to be a more idiomatic translation. 8. 1991.ili3ation: the Hurrians. Hoo#e ta#es a comparati. ?p until then they &ere only a shado&y people mentioned in the Bible.al +od. 0elipinu and Hannahanna's an+er is banished there. *tlanta. reli+ion.e the hea.3!9 hits here since its creation in March of 199! &ith the last assessment bein+ on )ecember 1st 444. *nu fle& up into the s#y. $ &ill relate the stories.III. but it is belie.H.e and summary approach to Sumerian.ili3ation &as not disco. The Hittites. • S. Harry Hittite Myths. and mytholo+y.e it for use on ?lli#ummis. • /aroche. Scholars 6ress.en from the earth. there ha. C. 0he ?ni. the ?nder&orld.en a bit funny.ie& of Hittite history. 6rinceton. 6en+uin Boo#s. $ am replacin+ that material from Aoet3 &ith &hich this conflicts. $t holds bron3e or iron palhi". *nu &as then attac#ed by 7umarbi.essels &ith lead lids. perishes &ithin and doesn't return.en. *our&e #aterial$ • Aoet3e. .mmanuel. ed. Briefly.er ==. i. Bonnefoy. *lbrecht IHittite Myths.19!3. and Hebre& mytholo+ical material. Hittite. 6en+uin Boo#s.arth. articles &ithin Mythologies Volume One. • Hoffner.ered until the 4th Century. after &hich they stored it in ancient storehouses and sealed them up " only to open them and retrie. 0he stories ha. . 0his handful of topically focused articles pro. Hoffner's &or# also includes material more recent than Aoet3.ed they ori+inated &ith another ci.ersity of Chica+o 6ress.+yptians had theirs. 7untarra house 0he house of the +ods in hea. the son of *lalu. 0he +od *lalu &as #in+ of the +ods. Aeor+ia. 0hey had a +reat empire at around the time the . %hile our ser.erall picture as Bonnefoy's &or# &as desi+ned for an encyclopedic format.er. $t has an entrance &ith +ates.
Eor protection he &as placed on the ri+ht shoulder of ?belluri. 0his &as used to separate hea.erse to tal# &ith ?belluri.*lthou+h . %hen he pressed his mother as to &ho &as his father. 0eshub made a second attac# on ?lli#ummi. 8ut of the sea his hei+ht soon reached the hea. so &as dismissed.elled to that area and sa& the hu+e ?lli#ummi standin+ there. %hen father and son reunited.er too# the throne from 0eshub. He allo&ed her to +et him drun#. so he &ould not notice her. But it is not a bi+ 5ump to surmise that the &ea#ened ?lli#ummi is defeated. but probably.ens itself. 0his time he found a hu+e roc# that &as miles lon+. the tablet brea#s off a+ain and &e do not #no& the conclusion. a +od sympathetic to 7umarbi. ?belluri mentioned that he did ha. an *tlas fi+ure &ho holds up the earth and hea. is a battle bet&een celestial bein+s and those of the Dether&orld. She made herself beautiful and approached Hedammu. He as#ed him if he noticed a hu+e stone &ei+ht pressin+ do&n on him. He &as born not #no&in+ his father and &as considered an orphan. But Sil. So he married the sea +od's dau+hter and she +a. By this time .e birth to a stone monster. He &as >uic#ly +otten rid of. . $t is belie. 0he first &as /amma.a had s&itched his alle+iance to 0eshub. 7umarbi then proceeded in creatin+ a series of +ods@monsters that &ould ta#e do&n 0eshub.er &as a tyrant. in his drun#enness. 7umarbi still &anted someone of his o&n line to be #in+. He #ept +ro&in+ and +ro&in+. 7umarbi &ould try a+ain. he &as dispatched by 0eshub or his sister. 0his story has parallels &ith other Meditteranian mytholo+ies.ictorious.a.ens. $n time 0eshub did ta#e the throne for himself by defeatin+ 7umarbi.enly bein+s. He slept &ith her and she +a. 0eshub tried to fi+ht him.er then proceeded to search for his father.ed that the stru++le bet&een 0eshub and his allies. &ith 0eshub representin+ the hea.ised 0eshub to find the ancient copper cuttin+ tool. 0he roc# apparently &as female because she had lady parts.en pulled the sun and moon from the s#y and cast the &orld into dar#ness. 0eshub's sister thou+ht she could seduce the stone +iant. 0o help the storm +od. $n all of his thunderin+ ma5esty. 0he ne9t +od &as Sil.er.a tra.elled to the bottom of the uni.en+er: the storm +od 0eshub.e birth to a sea monster named Hedammu. 0he tablet brea#s off here. *nu told him that this probably &as not smart since by s&allo&in+ his testicles 7umarbi &ill no& become pre+nant &ith *nu's son and a. Sil. but he &as blind and deaf.e a pain on his ri+ht shoulder. &hose name &as ?lli#ummi. Sil. ?nfortunately. So. &hat do you thin#(( . so &e are not sure &hat happens. he e.en from earth in primordial times and is stron+ enou+h to se. but &as defeated. But he &as innaffectual. He defeated 0eshub in battle and 0eshub's sister thou+ht of a plan. . and 7umarbi and his allies. He noticed that the source of his stren+th &as because he &as attached to the shoulder itself. she admitted it &as the +od 7umarbi. 0he mysterious &eapon &as found after consultin+ some secret boo#s and ?lli#ummi &as cut a&ay from the shoulder. he tra. a theme that is common in mytholo+y.a then ad. He &as placed on the throne &ith the aid of .er ?lli#ummi from the shoulder of ?belluri.
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