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E.02

DESIGN FOR SEISMIC ACTION
IN CONFINED REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS


U.K. Sharma- Assistant Professor, P. Bhargava- Professor

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India


ABSTRACT: A theoretical study was undertaken to propose the procedure and guidelines for the
design of transverse steel confinement for the potential plastic hinge regions of plain (non-fibre)
and steel fibre reinforced high strength concrete columns. To achieve this, confinement
reinforcement for a few selected square and circular concrete column cross sections were
designed for varying concrete compressive strengths (70-100 Mpa) and axial load levels (0.15
0.5). Theoretical moment curvature relations were found and curvature ductility factors were
computed for all the columns. A new set of refined equations have been proposed in the present
study to design the confining steel of non-fibre and steel fibre reinforced high strength concrete
columns, which take into account the effects of high concrete strengths and axial load levels also.
The confinement reinforcement design has been made performance based by relating the
required quantity of reinforcement with the ductility demand.

KEYWORDS: confined concrete, columns, transverse reinforcement, fibers


1- INTRODUCTION

The utilization of high strength concrete (HSC) in columns has been widely accepted in the design
and construction industry. It is well known now that HSC is more brittle than normal strength
concrete. However, it has been shown in the literature that a considerably higher degree of
confinement is required in columns with higher concrete strength than in columns with lower
concrete strength to achieve a satisfactory deformability. Hence, the design and detailing of critical
hinge regions of HSC columns has been of great concern to engineers and designers in the recent
past. This stalemate has recently been sought to be broken by exploring the possible application of
fibrous concrete in HSC columns [1-3]. It has been shown that the use of fibres in the concrete mix
provides indirect confinement to the core concrete. However, the design equations specifying the
required amount of confinement reinforcement along with fibres for HSC columns are yet to be
formulated.
In view of the preceding discussion, an analytical study was carried out with an aim to work out
the required quantities of steel fibres and the confining reinforcement to achieve a satisfactory
post-peak ductility in HSC columns. The design equations have been proposed for the design of
critical regions of steel fiber reinforced HSC columns based upon an extensive theoretical
moment curvature analysis. Some new refined design recommendations have been made for the
non-fibre HSC columns also.



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2- THEORETICAL MOMENT CURVATURE ANALYSIS

A theoretical study was undertaken, wherein the lateral confining reinforcement for a few
selected reinforced concrete column sections were designed according to the recommendations of
the IS-13920-1993 Code [4] for the various high concrete strengths. These columns were then
assumed to have crimped steel fibres of varying volume fractions and aspect ratios. The
theoretical moment curvature relationships, which provide a measure of the plastic rotation
capacity of critical hinge regions, were obtained for all the designed column sections
corresponding to the different levels of axial load. The curvature ductility factors were
subsequently computed to quantify the ductility of the designed confined columns.

2.1 Procedure

The study was conducted by choosing a tie confined square column section (400 mm x 400 mm)
with cross ties and a hoop confined circular section (400 mm diameter). The details of the two
chosen column cross-sections are given in the Fig. 1. The size of the cross section, concrete cover
(40mm), amount (8 nos 16mm diameter bars) and distribution of longitudinal steel bars, material
properties of longitudinal and lateral steel, and configuration of lateral ties were kept fixed. The
volumetric ratio and spacing lateral ties for square columns and hoops for circular columns were
designed using the recommendations of the IS: 13920 Code for three concrete strengths ranging
from 70 MPa to 100 MPa (Table 1).












Table 1 Details of Lateral Confining Steel Requirement of IS-13920 Code

The three axial load levels selected were 0.15, 0.3 and 0.5 times the ultimate column capacity so
as to account for the low, moderate and high load levels respectively. The yield strength of the
Square Column Circular Column
g c
A f
P
'
= 0.15, 0.3 & 0.5
g c
A f
P
'
= 0.15, 0.3 & 0.5
Concrete
Strength
c
f '
(MPa)
h
d
mm
s
mm
code sh
sh
A
A
,

h
d
mm
s
mm
code sh
sh
A
A
,

70
85
100
16
18
19
76
75
75
1.014
1.070
1.070
15
16
17
78
79
75
1.070
1.070
1.070


400

400

Figure 5.3 Cross Section Details

8 nos 16 mm diameter
longitudinal bars.


400
8 nos16 mm diameter
longitudinal bars
400
Fig. 1 Cross Section Details
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transverse reinforcement was assumed to be 415 MPa. As the design equations of IS-13920 for
confining reinforcement do not account for the influence of axial load levels, the same area of
confining steel was required for all the axial load levels corresponding to any concrete strength.
The crimped steel fibers of two different lengths were assumed to be employed in fibre reinforced
concrete sections. The crimped steel fibres were used at two volume fractions (1% and 1.5 %)
and for each fibre volume fraction two aspect ratios (short fibres of 20 aspect ratio and long fibres
of 40 aspect ratio) were considered. A few recently reported studies have shown that by mixing
fibres of two different lengths in a concrete matrix, changes can be brought both in the strength
and the toughness characteristics of composite [5-6]. Therefore, a blend of short and long fibres
was also used at 50%:50% ratios by weight corresponding to 1.5% volume fraction in order to
study the effect of mixed aspect ratio. The details of all the designed square and circular confined
fibre reinforced HSC column sections are given in the Tables 2 and 3 respectively. The
theoretical moment curvature analysis of the column sections was carried out by developing a
computer program. The data required for deriving the moment curvature relations included cross
sectional dimensions of the column, stress-strain models for confined and unconfined concrete,
position and amount of longitudinal steel including the location of laterally supported
longitudinal bars, properties of longitudinal steel and applied axial load level.

2.2 Definition of Ductility

The moment curvature behavior has been idealized as a bilinear curve in the present study,
constituted of elastic branch and an inclined post-elastic branch (Fig. 2). The elastic branch is
secant to the real curve at 75% of the maximum moment, and reaches the maximum moment to
define the yield curvature for
y
. The failure of the column section is defined at the post peak
curvature
u
, where the remaining flexural capacity of the section drops to 80% of the peak
capacity. The idealized post-elastic branch goes down to this point corresponding to 80% of the
maximum moment in such a way that the areas under the entire idealized diagram and the real
curve are same thus ensuring equal energy criteria.






















y

u
Curvature
Moment
M
max

0.75 M
max

Actual Moment
Curvature Curve
Idealized Curve
0.8 M
max

Fig. 2 Definition of Curvature Ductility
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Table 2. Details of Fibre Reinforced HSC Square Columns

Concrete
Strength

c
f '

(MPa)
Axial Load
g c
A f P ' /

Volume
Fraction of
Fibres, V
f
Aspect Ratio of Fibres
l
f
/d
Maximum
Moment
M
max.
(kN-m)
Curvature
Ductility

u
/
y
0% 0 347.1 24.92
1% 20
40
377.1
379.6
30.23
32.53



0.15
1.5% 20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
384.2
383.2
383.3
31.08
40.47
41.87
0% 0 450.1 17.56
1% 20
40
510.5
506.2
27.59
31.93



0.3
1.5% 20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
524.1
516.2
513.2
33.58
37.16
38.97
0% 0 452.5 6.42
1% 20
40
523.7
525.8
12.32
15.60








70



0.5
1.5% 20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
570.3
559.4
556.6
17.65
21.22
22.73
0% 0 420.9 24.62
1%
20
40
434.7
438.2
28.73
31.46
0.15
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
442.3
440.4
438.3
30.56
33.80
38.16
0% 0 552.8 17.57
1%
20
40
589.2
578.8
27.52
25.19
0.3
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
595.1
580.8
576.4
33.51
35.66
36.86
0% 0 519.1 6.85
1%
20
40
594.8
595.1
11.25
13.60








85

0.5
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
635.7
611.6
601.5
15.83
17.91
19.53
0% 0 471.8 23.22
1%
20
40
496.8
496.0
26.03
27.53
0.15
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
500.2
498.2
495.3
29.22
31.77
31.65
0% 0 613.2 15.54
1%
20
40
692.2
667.5
21.96
20.03
0.3
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
681.5
651.9
639.5
27.19
32.27
32.72
0% 0 548.9 5.78
1%
20
40
694.3
679.6
8.76
11.06
100
0.5
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
718.6
694.0
651.6
12.09
14.11
16.56
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Table 3. Details of Fibre Reinforced HSC Circular Columns

Concrete
Strength

c
f '

(MPa)
Axial Load
g c
A f P ' /

Volume
Fraction of
Fibres, V
f
Aspect Ratio of Fibres
l
f
/d
Maximum
Moment
M
max.
(kN-m)
Curvature
Ductility

u
/
y

0% 0 244.9 19.79
1% 20
40
270.5
270.4
27.46
30.03



0.15 1.5% 20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
274.8
273.8
272.3
28.79
31.75
35.91
0% 0 309.9 14.42
1% 20
40
358.4
358.6
22.60
29.67



0.3
1.5% 20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
368.2
363.6
359.1
27.98
29.89
32.39
0% 0 298.0 6.48
1% 20
40
377.6
376.0
13.70
14.86








70



0.5
1.5% 20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
393.5
389.9
384.1
16.53
19.68
21.88
0% 0 289.5 18.08
1%
20
40
307.8
310.3
19.96
24.56
0.15
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
313.8
312.2
311.0
23.91
26.96
28.96
0% 0 369.6 13.21
1%
20
40
406.8
414.8
15.76
17.90
0.3
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
423.4
420.6
414.2
17.59
21.69
24.17
0% 0 340.1 6.09
1%
20
40
419.0
416.1
8.33
11.54

85

0.5
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
436.7
432.0
426.1
10.67
12.45
14.34
0% 0 323.6 17.80
1%
20
40
346.2
348.8
19.39
20.06
0.15
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
352.4
351.0
347.9
19.33
22.41
25.11
0% 0 401.3 12.36
1%
20
40
467.4
467.3
14.47
15.57
0.3
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
472.7
474.6
472.4
14.88
16.22
18.75
0% 0 352.6 5.42
1%
20
40
471.1
459.0
6.2
8.25






100
0.5
1.5%
20
20(50%) + 40(50%)
40
488.8
466.5
475.0
7.81
10.99
12.93



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2.3 Validation of Procedure

Before a detailed moment curvature study could be carried out, it was necessary to prove that the
established procedure was capable of predicting the true response of reinforced concrete column
sections. This is because if the applicability of the moment curvature analysis procedure as well
as the accuracy of the analytical models for reinforced concrete columns is verified, they could be
confidently used for the proposed investigations. A comparison of moment curvature curves from
previous experimental tests and the proposed theoretical analysis was carried out. In this regard,
four test specimens of three experimental studies reported by [7-8] were chosen for the validation
of the proposed procedure. The specimens were selected in such a way so as to represent varying
concrete strengths and axial load levels.
The analytical moment curvature curves for the selected test specimens were predicted by using
the proposed procedure and the various confinement models. The envelope curves of the
experimental cyclic moment curvature relationships were then compared with the predicted static
analytical curves. It was observed that the proposed procedures using Legeron & Paultre [9]
model, seem to be better than those for the other models. In view of this, it can be said that the
adopted moment curvature analysis procedure and the stress-strain models of confined and
unconfined concretes enabled the moment curvature behavior of the selected columns to be
reasonably well predicted.

3-RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Using the proposed theoretical procedure, the moment curvature relationships were derived for
all the chosen confined plain (non-fibre) and fibre reinforced HSC column sections. These
moment curvature curves then enabled the computation of curvature ductility factors (
u
/
y
) for
all the design cases of the study as per the adopted definition. The computed curvature ductility
factors,
u
/
y,
along with the maximum flexural capacities of column sections are furnished in
Tables 2 and 3.
It has been observed that the inelastic deformability of fibre reinforced concrete columns depends
upon the lateral steel confinement level, properties of steel fibres, concrete strength and axial load
level [10-11]. A multivariable regression analysis was carried out to derive the refined design
equations for the confined square and circular HSC columns. These equations can correlate the
attainable curvature ductility (
u
/
y
) to the confinement index of transverse reinforcement (f
le
/f'
c
),
reinforcing index of steel fibres (R.I.), concrete strength (f'
c
) and the axial load level (P/ f'
c
A
g
).

The following is the proposed equation for the tie confined square HSC columns (Although the
same may be used for the rectilinearly confined HSC columns also):

39 )
'
( 2 . 29 64 . 8
' '
35
79 . 3
74 . 0

(
(

+ =
g c c
f
c
le
y
u
A f
P
f
k
f
f

(1)

where k
f
(MPa) is a parameter related to the reinforcing index (R.I.) of fibres:

l s f
I R I R k .) . ( 95 . 1 .) . ( 7 . 2 5 . 1 + + = (2)

The proposed equation for the hoop or spiral confined circular HSC column is:
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98 . 22 )
'
( 81 . 18 7 . 19
' '
27
68 . 1
13 . 1

(
(

+ =
g c c
f
c
le
y
u
A f
P
f
k
f
f

(3)


The parameter k
f
, in the case of circular columns, can be evaluated as:

l s f
I R I R k .) . ( 27 . 1 .) . ( 47 . 1 78 . 2 + + = (4)

The equations (1) and (3) can be rewritten as:
For Square Columns:

74 . 0
1
79 . 3
) )
'
( 2 . 29 64 . 8 ( 35
39
' '
(
(
(
(

+
=
(

+
g c
y
u
c
f
c
le
A f
P
f
k
f
f

(5)

For Circular Columns:

13 . 1
1
68 . 1
) )
'
( 81 . 18 7 . 19 ( 27
98 . 22
' '
(
(
(
(

+
=
(

+
g c
y
u
c
f
c
le
A f
P
f
k
f
f

(6)

The left hand side of each of the above equations (5) and (6) gives the total combined
confinement index (provided by the transverse reinforcement and steel fibres) required in the
critical regions of HSC columns for a certain ductility demand and axial load level. This indicates
the possibility of a trade-off between the lateral steel confinement index (f
le
/f
c
) and the
reinforcement index of fibres (R.I.). A reduction in the amount of transverse steel confinement
can be compensated by an increase in the volumetric ratio or aspect ratio or both of fibres. It
implies that the requirement of high volumetric ratio of lateral steel in HSC columns may be
relaxed if a suitable proportion of any given type of fibres is used. The equations (5) and (6) can
be used to design the confining reinforcement in the hinge regions of steel fibre reinforced high
strength concrete columns. For example, the design equations for the specific cases of the
symmetrically confined square and circular columns (after substituting the values of effective
lateral confining pressure f
le
) shall be:
For Square Columns:

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(
(
(
(
(
(

+
=
c
f
g c
y
u
e c
yh s
f
k
A f
P
K f
f
'
) )
'
( 2 . 29 64 . 8 ( 35
39
2
'
74 . 0
1
79 . 3

(7)

For Circular Columns:

(
(
(
(
(
(

+
=
c
f
g c
y
u
e c
yh s
f
k
A f
P
K f
f
'
) )
'
( 81 . 18 7 . 19 ( 27
98 . 22
2
'
13 . 1
1
68 . 1

(8)

To design the confinement reinforcement for the critical regions of non-fibre HSC columns, these
equations become:
For Square Columns:

(
(
(
(
(
(

+
=
c
g c
y
u
e c
yh s
f
A f
P
K f
f
'
5 . 1
) )
'
( 2 . 29 64 . 8 ( 35
39
2
'
74 . 0
1
79 . 3

(9)

For Circular Columns:

(
(
(
(
(
(

+
=
c
g c
y
u
e c
yh s
f
A f
P
K f
f
'
78 . 2
) )
'
( 81 . 18 7 . 19 ( 27
98 . 22
2
'
13 . 1
1
68 . 1

(10)

The equations (9) and (10) can be used to determine the required transverse steel confinement
index for the critical hinge regions of non fibre HSC square and circular columns respectively.
The corresponding design equations of the IS-13920:1993 Code are:

For Square Columns:

(

= 1 67 . 0
'
k
g
c
yh s
A
A
f
f
(11)

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For Circular Columns:

(

= 1 45 . 0
'
k
g
c
yh s
A
A
f
f
(12)

It may be noted that the proposed design equations (7) and (8) for fibre reinforced HSC columns
and (9) and (10) for non-fibre HSC columns include the effects of axial load level and ductility
demand which are ignored by the corresponding equations (11) and (12) of the IS: 13920 Code.
The Code does not even recognize the confinement efficiency of different lateral steel
arrangements for the same volumetric ratio, as a design parameter. However, it has been taken
into account by including the confinement effectiveness coefficient, K
e
, in the proposed
equations.


4-CONCLUSIONS

The study reported in this paper provides analytical data pertaining to the seismic behavior of
reinforced concrete columns. An attempt has been made to assess the adequacy of the IS-
13920:1993 Code specifications of confining reinforcement in providing satisfactory ductility to
the non-fibre high strength concrete columns especially under high axial load levels.
A set of new design equations and charts have been proposed for computing the minimum
required confinement for the critical regions of non fibre and fibre reinforced HSC columns. The
proposed procedure takes into account the effects of varying the axial load level, confinement
efficiency of the transverse reinforcement arrangement and the ductility demand and covers the
high strength concrete ranges, which have been ignored in the current design provisions of the IS-
13920 Code.

ACKOWNELDGEMENT

The research reported in this paper is a part of the proposed L3 document of ACMC. Authors
gratefully acknowledge the financial support received from ICCMC in this regard.

NOTATIONS

A
g
= gross area of column cross section
A
sh
= total cross sectional area of the transverse reinforcement in one principal direction with in
spacing, s
A
k =
gross cross sectional area of the confined core within the outer perimeter tie
d
h
=

diameter of lateral steel bar
d = equivalent diameter of steel fibre
f
c
= cylinder compressive strength of concrete
f
yh
= yield strength of tie steel
f
cc
= peak stress of confined concrete
f
c
= any general stress in confined stress-strain curve
f
le
= effective lateral confining pressure acting on the core concrete


K
e
= confinement effectiveness coefficient
l
f
= length of fiber
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R.I. = reinforcing index of fibres
s = spacing of ties
V
f
= volume fraction of fibers
w
f
= weight fraction of fibers

s
= volumetric ratio of ties

l
= volumetric ratio of longitudinal steel

cc
= axial strain at peak confined stress.

c50c
= axial strain at which the stress drops to 50% of peak in confined concrete

u
= ultimate curvature

y
= yield curvature

REFERENCES

1. Sharma, U. K., Bhargava, P. and Kaushik, S.K, Spiral Confined Fiber Reinforced High
Strength Concrete Short Columns, International Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 35, No.2,
April 2005, pp. 571-581.
2. Mansur, M A, Chin, M. S. and Wee, T. H. (1997), Stress-strain relationship of confined
high strength plain and fibre concrete, ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,
Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 171-179.
3. Campione, G., Mindess, S. and Zingone, G. (1999), Compressive stress-strain behavior
of normal and high strength carbon fibre concrete reinforced with spirals, ACI Materials
Journal, Vol. 96, No. 1, pp. 27-34.
4. IS: 13920-1993, (1993), Indian Standard Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of
Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces, Indian Standards
Institution, New Delhi.
5. Pantazopoulou, S. J. and Zanganeh, M. (2001), Triaxial Tests of Fiber Reinforced
Concrete, ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering; September/October, Vol. 13,
No.5, pp. 340-348.
6. Bhargava, P., Sharma, U.K. and Kaushik, S. K. (2006), Compressive Stress-Strain
Behavior of Small Scale Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete Cylinders,
International Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, Japan Concrete Institute , Vol.
4, No. 1, pp. 109-121.
7. Sheikh, S. A. and Khoury, S. S. (1993), Confined concrete columns with stubs, ACI
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earthquake loading, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.94, No.6, pp. 708-722.
9. Legeron, F. and Paultre, P. (2003), Uniaxial confinement model for normal and high
strength concrete columns, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 29, No 2, pp.
241-252.
10. Sharma, U.K. Investigations on the Confinement of Steel Fibre Reinforced High
Strength Concrete Columns Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian
Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India, September 2005.
11. Foster, S. J. and Attard, M. M. (2001), Strength and ductility of fiber reinforced high
strength concrete columns, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 127, No 1, pp.
281-289.