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rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1181

E.02

DESIGN FOR SEISMIC ACTION

IN CONFINED REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS

U.K. Sharma- Assistant Professor, P. Bhargava- Professor

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India

ABSTRACT: A theoretical study was undertaken to propose the procedure and guidelines for the

design of transverse steel confinement for the potential plastic hinge regions of plain (non-fibre)

and steel fibre reinforced high strength concrete columns. To achieve this, confinement

reinforcement for a few selected square and circular concrete column cross sections were

designed for varying concrete compressive strengths (70-100 Mpa) and axial load levels (0.15

0.5). Theoretical moment curvature relations were found and curvature ductility factors were

computed for all the columns. A new set of refined equations have been proposed in the present

study to design the confining steel of non-fibre and steel fibre reinforced high strength concrete

columns, which take into account the effects of high concrete strengths and axial load levels also.

The confinement reinforcement design has been made performance based by relating the

required quantity of reinforcement with the ductility demand.

KEYWORDS: confined concrete, columns, transverse reinforcement, fibers

1- INTRODUCTION

The utilization of high strength concrete (HSC) in columns has been widely accepted in the design

and construction industry. It is well known now that HSC is more brittle than normal strength

concrete. However, it has been shown in the literature that a considerably higher degree of

confinement is required in columns with higher concrete strength than in columns with lower

concrete strength to achieve a satisfactory deformability. Hence, the design and detailing of critical

hinge regions of HSC columns has been of great concern to engineers and designers in the recent

past. This stalemate has recently been sought to be broken by exploring the possible application of

fibrous concrete in HSC columns [1-3]. It has been shown that the use of fibres in the concrete mix

provides indirect confinement to the core concrete. However, the design equations specifying the

required amount of confinement reinforcement along with fibres for HSC columns are yet to be

formulated.

In view of the preceding discussion, an analytical study was carried out with an aim to work out

the required quantities of steel fibres and the confining reinforcement to achieve a satisfactory

post-peak ductility in HSC columns. The design equations have been proposed for the design of

critical regions of steel fiber reinforced HSC columns based upon an extensive theoretical

moment curvature analysis. Some new refined design recommendations have been made for the

non-fibre HSC columns also.

The 3

rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1182

2- THEORETICAL MOMENT CURVATURE ANALYSIS

A theoretical study was undertaken, wherein the lateral confining reinforcement for a few

selected reinforced concrete column sections were designed according to the recommendations of

the IS-13920-1993 Code [4] for the various high concrete strengths. These columns were then

assumed to have crimped steel fibres of varying volume fractions and aspect ratios. The

theoretical moment curvature relationships, which provide a measure of the plastic rotation

capacity of critical hinge regions, were obtained for all the designed column sections

corresponding to the different levels of axial load. The curvature ductility factors were

subsequently computed to quantify the ductility of the designed confined columns.

2.1 Procedure

The study was conducted by choosing a tie confined square column section (400 mm x 400 mm)

with cross ties and a hoop confined circular section (400 mm diameter). The details of the two

chosen column cross-sections are given in the Fig. 1. The size of the cross section, concrete cover

(40mm), amount (8 nos 16mm diameter bars) and distribution of longitudinal steel bars, material

properties of longitudinal and lateral steel, and configuration of lateral ties were kept fixed. The

volumetric ratio and spacing lateral ties for square columns and hoops for circular columns were

designed using the recommendations of the IS: 13920 Code for three concrete strengths ranging

from 70 MPa to 100 MPa (Table 1).

Table 1 Details of Lateral Confining Steel Requirement of IS-13920 Code

The three axial load levels selected were 0.15, 0.3 and 0.5 times the ultimate column capacity so

as to account for the low, moderate and high load levels respectively. The yield strength of the

Square Column Circular Column

g c

A f

P

'

= 0.15, 0.3 & 0.5

g c

A f

P

'

= 0.15, 0.3 & 0.5

Concrete

Strength

c

f '

(MPa)

h

d

mm

s

mm

code sh

sh

A

A

,

h

d

mm

s

mm

code sh

sh

A

A

,

70

85

100

16

18

19

76

75

75

1.014

1.070

1.070

15

16

17

78

79

75

1.070

1.070

1.070

400

400

Figure 5.3 Cross Section Details

8 nos 16 mm diameter

longitudinal bars.

400

8 nos16 mm diameter

longitudinal bars

400

Fig. 1 Cross Section Details

The 3

rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1183

transverse reinforcement was assumed to be 415 MPa. As the design equations of IS-13920 for

confining reinforcement do not account for the influence of axial load levels, the same area of

confining steel was required for all the axial load levels corresponding to any concrete strength.

The crimped steel fibers of two different lengths were assumed to be employed in fibre reinforced

concrete sections. The crimped steel fibres were used at two volume fractions (1% and 1.5 %)

and for each fibre volume fraction two aspect ratios (short fibres of 20 aspect ratio and long fibres

of 40 aspect ratio) were considered. A few recently reported studies have shown that by mixing

fibres of two different lengths in a concrete matrix, changes can be brought both in the strength

and the toughness characteristics of composite [5-6]. Therefore, a blend of short and long fibres

was also used at 50%:50% ratios by weight corresponding to 1.5% volume fraction in order to

study the effect of mixed aspect ratio. The details of all the designed square and circular confined

fibre reinforced HSC column sections are given in the Tables 2 and 3 respectively. The

theoretical moment curvature analysis of the column sections was carried out by developing a

computer program. The data required for deriving the moment curvature relations included cross

sectional dimensions of the column, stress-strain models for confined and unconfined concrete,

position and amount of longitudinal steel including the location of laterally supported

longitudinal bars, properties of longitudinal steel and applied axial load level.

2.2 Definition of Ductility

The moment curvature behavior has been idealized as a bilinear curve in the present study,

constituted of elastic branch and an inclined post-elastic branch (Fig. 2). The elastic branch is

secant to the real curve at 75% of the maximum moment, and reaches the maximum moment to

define the yield curvature for

y

. The failure of the column section is defined at the post peak

curvature

u

, where the remaining flexural capacity of the section drops to 80% of the peak

capacity. The idealized post-elastic branch goes down to this point corresponding to 80% of the

maximum moment in such a way that the areas under the entire idealized diagram and the real

curve are same thus ensuring equal energy criteria.

y

u

Curvature

Moment

M

max

0.75 M

max

Actual Moment

Curvature Curve

Idealized Curve

0.8 M

max

Fig. 2 Definition of Curvature Ductility

The 3

rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1184

Table 2. Details of Fibre Reinforced HSC Square Columns

Concrete

Strength

c

f '

(MPa)

Axial Load

g c

A f P ' /

Volume

Fraction of

Fibres, V

f

Aspect Ratio of Fibres

l

f

/d

Maximum

Moment

M

max.

(kN-m)

Curvature

Ductility

u

/

y

0% 0 347.1 24.92

1% 20

40

377.1

379.6

30.23

32.53

0.15

1.5% 20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

384.2

383.2

383.3

31.08

40.47

41.87

0% 0 450.1 17.56

1% 20

40

510.5

506.2

27.59

31.93

0.3

1.5% 20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

524.1

516.2

513.2

33.58

37.16

38.97

0% 0 452.5 6.42

1% 20

40

523.7

525.8

12.32

15.60

70

0.5

1.5% 20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

570.3

559.4

556.6

17.65

21.22

22.73

0% 0 420.9 24.62

1%

20

40

434.7

438.2

28.73

31.46

0.15

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

442.3

440.4

438.3

30.56

33.80

38.16

0% 0 552.8 17.57

1%

20

40

589.2

578.8

27.52

25.19

0.3

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

595.1

580.8

576.4

33.51

35.66

36.86

0% 0 519.1 6.85

1%

20

40

594.8

595.1

11.25

13.60

85

0.5

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

635.7

611.6

601.5

15.83

17.91

19.53

0% 0 471.8 23.22

1%

20

40

496.8

496.0

26.03

27.53

0.15

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

500.2

498.2

495.3

29.22

31.77

31.65

0% 0 613.2 15.54

1%

20

40

692.2

667.5

21.96

20.03

0.3

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

681.5

651.9

639.5

27.19

32.27

32.72

0% 0 548.9 5.78

1%

20

40

694.3

679.6

8.76

11.06

100

0.5

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

718.6

694.0

651.6

12.09

14.11

16.56

The 3

rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1185

Table 3. Details of Fibre Reinforced HSC Circular Columns

Concrete

Strength

c

f '

(MPa)

Axial Load

g c

A f P ' /

Volume

Fraction of

Fibres, V

f

Aspect Ratio of Fibres

l

f

/d

Maximum

Moment

M

max.

(kN-m)

Curvature

Ductility

u

/

y

0% 0 244.9 19.79

1% 20

40

270.5

270.4

27.46

30.03

0.15 1.5% 20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

274.8

273.8

272.3

28.79

31.75

35.91

0% 0 309.9 14.42

1% 20

40

358.4

358.6

22.60

29.67

0.3

1.5% 20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

368.2

363.6

359.1

27.98

29.89

32.39

0% 0 298.0 6.48

1% 20

40

377.6

376.0

13.70

14.86

70

0.5

1.5% 20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

393.5

389.9

384.1

16.53

19.68

21.88

0% 0 289.5 18.08

1%

20

40

307.8

310.3

19.96

24.56

0.15

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

313.8

312.2

311.0

23.91

26.96

28.96

0% 0 369.6 13.21

1%

20

40

406.8

414.8

15.76

17.90

0.3

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

423.4

420.6

414.2

17.59

21.69

24.17

0% 0 340.1 6.09

1%

20

40

419.0

416.1

8.33

11.54

85

0.5

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

436.7

432.0

426.1

10.67

12.45

14.34

0% 0 323.6 17.80

1%

20

40

346.2

348.8

19.39

20.06

0.15

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

352.4

351.0

347.9

19.33

22.41

25.11

0% 0 401.3 12.36

1%

20

40

467.4

467.3

14.47

15.57

0.3

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

472.7

474.6

472.4

14.88

16.22

18.75

0% 0 352.6 5.42

1%

20

40

471.1

459.0

6.2

8.25

100

0.5

1.5%

20

20(50%) + 40(50%)

40

488.8

466.5

475.0

7.81

10.99

12.93

The 3

rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1186

2.3 Validation of Procedure

Before a detailed moment curvature study could be carried out, it was necessary to prove that the

established procedure was capable of predicting the true response of reinforced concrete column

sections. This is because if the applicability of the moment curvature analysis procedure as well

as the accuracy of the analytical models for reinforced concrete columns is verified, they could be

confidently used for the proposed investigations. A comparison of moment curvature curves from

previous experimental tests and the proposed theoretical analysis was carried out. In this regard,

four test specimens of three experimental studies reported by [7-8] were chosen for the validation

of the proposed procedure. The specimens were selected in such a way so as to represent varying

concrete strengths and axial load levels.

The analytical moment curvature curves for the selected test specimens were predicted by using

the proposed procedure and the various confinement models. The envelope curves of the

experimental cyclic moment curvature relationships were then compared with the predicted static

analytical curves. It was observed that the proposed procedures using Legeron & Paultre [9]

model, seem to be better than those for the other models. In view of this, it can be said that the

adopted moment curvature analysis procedure and the stress-strain models of confined and

unconfined concretes enabled the moment curvature behavior of the selected columns to be

reasonably well predicted.

3-RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Using the proposed theoretical procedure, the moment curvature relationships were derived for

all the chosen confined plain (non-fibre) and fibre reinforced HSC column sections. These

moment curvature curves then enabled the computation of curvature ductility factors (

u

/

y

) for

all the design cases of the study as per the adopted definition. The computed curvature ductility

factors,

u

/

y,

along with the maximum flexural capacities of column sections are furnished in

Tables 2 and 3.

It has been observed that the inelastic deformability of fibre reinforced concrete columns depends

upon the lateral steel confinement level, properties of steel fibres, concrete strength and axial load

level [10-11]. A multivariable regression analysis was carried out to derive the refined design

equations for the confined square and circular HSC columns. These equations can correlate the

attainable curvature ductility (

u

/

y

) to the confinement index of transverse reinforcement (f

le

/f'

c

),

reinforcing index of steel fibres (R.I.), concrete strength (f'

c

) and the axial load level (P/ f'

c

A

g

).

The following is the proposed equation for the tie confined square HSC columns (Although the

same may be used for the rectilinearly confined HSC columns also):

39 )

'

( 2 . 29 64 . 8

' '

35

79 . 3

74 . 0

(

(

+ =

g c c

f

c

le

y

u

A f

P

f

k

f

f

(1)

where k

f

(MPa) is a parameter related to the reinforcing index (R.I.) of fibres:

l s f

I R I R k .) . ( 95 . 1 .) . ( 7 . 2 5 . 1 + + = (2)

The proposed equation for the hoop or spiral confined circular HSC column is:

The 3

rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1187

98 . 22 )

'

( 81 . 18 7 . 19

' '

27

68 . 1

13 . 1

(

(

+ =

g c c

f

c

le

y

u

A f

P

f

k

f

f

(3)

The parameter k

f

, in the case of circular columns, can be evaluated as:

l s f

I R I R k .) . ( 27 . 1 .) . ( 47 . 1 78 . 2 + + = (4)

The equations (1) and (3) can be rewritten as:

For Square Columns:

74 . 0

1

79 . 3

) )

'

( 2 . 29 64 . 8 ( 35

39

' '

(

(

(

(

+

=

(

+

g c

y

u

c

f

c

le

A f

P

f

k

f

f

(5)

For Circular Columns:

13 . 1

1

68 . 1

) )

'

( 81 . 18 7 . 19 ( 27

98 . 22

' '

(

(

(

(

+

=

(

+

g c

y

u

c

f

c

le

A f

P

f

k

f

f

(6)

The left hand side of each of the above equations (5) and (6) gives the total combined

confinement index (provided by the transverse reinforcement and steel fibres) required in the

critical regions of HSC columns for a certain ductility demand and axial load level. This indicates

the possibility of a trade-off between the lateral steel confinement index (f

le

/f

c

) and the

reinforcement index of fibres (R.I.). A reduction in the amount of transverse steel confinement

can be compensated by an increase in the volumetric ratio or aspect ratio or both of fibres. It

implies that the requirement of high volumetric ratio of lateral steel in HSC columns may be

relaxed if a suitable proportion of any given type of fibres is used. The equations (5) and (6) can

be used to design the confining reinforcement in the hinge regions of steel fibre reinforced high

strength concrete columns. For example, the design equations for the specific cases of the

symmetrically confined square and circular columns (after substituting the values of effective

lateral confining pressure f

le

) shall be:

For Square Columns:

The 3

rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1188

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

=

c

f

g c

y

u

e c

yh s

f

k

A f

P

K f

f

'

) )

'

( 2 . 29 64 . 8 ( 35

39

2

'

74 . 0

1

79 . 3

(7)

For Circular Columns:

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

=

c

f

g c

y

u

e c

yh s

f

k

A f

P

K f

f

'

) )

'

( 81 . 18 7 . 19 ( 27

98 . 22

2

'

13 . 1

1

68 . 1

(8)

To design the confinement reinforcement for the critical regions of non-fibre HSC columns, these

equations become:

For Square Columns:

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

=

c

g c

y

u

e c

yh s

f

A f

P

K f

f

'

5 . 1

) )

'

( 2 . 29 64 . 8 ( 35

39

2

'

74 . 0

1

79 . 3

(9)

For Circular Columns:

(

(

(

(

(

(

+

=

c

g c

y

u

e c

yh s

f

A f

P

K f

f

'

78 . 2

) )

'

( 81 . 18 7 . 19 ( 27

98 . 22

2

'

13 . 1

1

68 . 1

(10)

The equations (9) and (10) can be used to determine the required transverse steel confinement

index for the critical hinge regions of non fibre HSC square and circular columns respectively.

The corresponding design equations of the IS-13920:1993 Code are:

For Square Columns:

(

= 1 67 . 0

'

k

g

c

yh s

A

A

f

f

(11)

The 3

rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1189

For Circular Columns:

(

= 1 45 . 0

'

k

g

c

yh s

A

A

f

f

(12)

It may be noted that the proposed design equations (7) and (8) for fibre reinforced HSC columns

and (9) and (10) for non-fibre HSC columns include the effects of axial load level and ductility

demand which are ignored by the corresponding equations (11) and (12) of the IS: 13920 Code.

The Code does not even recognize the confinement efficiency of different lateral steel

arrangements for the same volumetric ratio, as a design parameter. However, it has been taken

into account by including the confinement effectiveness coefficient, K

e

, in the proposed

equations.

4-CONCLUSIONS

The study reported in this paper provides analytical data pertaining to the seismic behavior of

reinforced concrete columns. An attempt has been made to assess the adequacy of the IS-

13920:1993 Code specifications of confining reinforcement in providing satisfactory ductility to

the non-fibre high strength concrete columns especially under high axial load levels.

A set of new design equations and charts have been proposed for computing the minimum

required confinement for the critical regions of non fibre and fibre reinforced HSC columns. The

proposed procedure takes into account the effects of varying the axial load level, confinement

efficiency of the transverse reinforcement arrangement and the ductility demand and covers the

high strength concrete ranges, which have been ignored in the current design provisions of the IS-

13920 Code.

ACKOWNELDGEMENT

The research reported in this paper is a part of the proposed L3 document of ACMC. Authors

gratefully acknowledge the financial support received from ICCMC in this regard.

NOTATIONS

A

g

= gross area of column cross section

A

sh

= total cross sectional area of the transverse reinforcement in one principal direction with in

spacing, s

A

k =

gross cross sectional area of the confined core within the outer perimeter tie

d

h

=

diameter of lateral steel bar

d = equivalent diameter of steel fibre

f

c

= cylinder compressive strength of concrete

f

yh

= yield strength of tie steel

f

cc

= peak stress of confined concrete

f

c

= any general stress in confined stress-strain curve

f

le

= effective lateral confining pressure acting on the core concrete

K

e

= confinement effectiveness coefficient

l

f

= length of fiber

The 3

rd

ACF International Conference- ACF/VCA 2008

1190

R.I. = reinforcing index of fibres

s = spacing of ties

V

f

= volume fraction of fibers

w

f

= weight fraction of fibers

s

= volumetric ratio of ties

l

= volumetric ratio of longitudinal steel

cc

= axial strain at peak confined stress.

c50c

= axial strain at which the stress drops to 50% of peak in confined concrete

u

= ultimate curvature

y

= yield curvature

REFERENCES

1. Sharma, U. K., Bhargava, P. and Kaushik, S.K, Spiral Confined Fiber Reinforced High

Strength Concrete Short Columns, International Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 35, No.2,

April 2005, pp. 571-581.

2. Mansur, M A, Chin, M. S. and Wee, T. H. (1997), Stress-strain relationship of confined

high strength plain and fibre concrete, ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,

Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 171-179.

3. Campione, G., Mindess, S. and Zingone, G. (1999), Compressive stress-strain behavior

of normal and high strength carbon fibre concrete reinforced with spirals, ACI Materials

Journal, Vol. 96, No. 1, pp. 27-34.

4. IS: 13920-1993, (1993), Indian Standard Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of

Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces, Indian Standards

Institution, New Delhi.

5. Pantazopoulou, S. J. and Zanganeh, M. (2001), Triaxial Tests of Fiber Reinforced

Concrete, ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering; September/October, Vol. 13,

No.5, pp. 340-348.

6. Bhargava, P., Sharma, U.K. and Kaushik, S. K. (2006), Compressive Stress-Strain

Behavior of Small Scale Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete Cylinders,

International Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, Japan Concrete Institute , Vol.

4, No. 1, pp. 109-121.

7. Sheikh, S. A. and Khoury, S. S. (1993), Confined concrete columns with stubs, ACI

Structural Journal, Vol.90, No.4, pp. 414-431.

8. Bayrak, O. and Sheikh, S. A. (1997), High strength concrete columns under simulated

earthquake loading, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.94, No.6, pp. 708-722.

9. Legeron, F. and Paultre, P. (2003), Uniaxial confinement model for normal and high

strength concrete columns, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 29, No 2, pp.

241-252.

10. Sharma, U.K. Investigations on the Confinement of Steel Fibre Reinforced High

Strength Concrete Columns Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian

Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India, September 2005.

11. Foster, S. J. and Attard, M. M. (2001), Strength and ductility of fiber reinforced high

strength concrete columns, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 127, No 1, pp.

281-289.

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