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SUMMARY

Water is a very vital needs, in addition to fulfilling daily needs such as cooking, bathing, and washing. Clean water is also used as a means in the world of industry, agriculture, and fisheries. But not all areas have good water resources. Coastal regions and small islands in the middle of the ocean for example, which in places is so destitute of fresh water which is then used for drinking water and the other needs. Especially, the coastal regions that are far from sources of water, will surely be very hard to get the fresh water resources. Not only that, the Earth has been experiencing global warming now, causing the Earth's temperature rise and the abnormal weather. Global warming has caused rising sea water. Water is an important component in life. So as to ensure our survival, good water resources is the absolute thing we need. Desalination or desalinization is the process of removing excess levels of salt in the sea water that can be consumed as fresh water. Often this process also produces salt as a secondary product. Two of the most used methods are Reverse Osmosis and Multi Stage Flash. On the process of distillation, sea water is used as a raw material and as a water cooler in this case. The amount of sea water which required is around 8 to 10 times that of the fresh water produced. The problem that usually comes on all types of these systems was the crust and rust on the equipments so that the production of fresh water will be reduced because they have to be removed for cleaning the equipments. The process of desalination with this method, the sea water that has been heated, then flowed into vessels to pressure small, some of the heated sea water will boil and take the heat vaporization of the remaining sea water, resulting in a decrease of the sea water and called flash evaporation. Sea water flowed with a pump into a condenser through a tube exchanger heat and this causes warming sea water by the water vapor in any flash chamber. Then, the water heated in a heating salt and then streamed in a flash chamber first. After experiencing the heating flow temperature low towards the stage through small openings between each stage called brine orifice, meanwhile the sudden evaporation occurs in each chamber, and then the water pump went out with concentrated salt.

Water vapor that appears at each stage separator flows through a fog and pulled out the latent heat to the heat exchanger tubes and then condense called destilat or products. The basic principle of Reverse Osmosis is if two solutions with the concentration of dilute concentrated and separated by a semi permeable membrane, then the solution is dilute diffused through membranes will be semi permeable entered in thick solution until equilibrium occurs. This event is also called as osmosis. With this process, it is not possible to separate the salt from the sea water because it would require a very high pressure. At this point, the process of desalination is focused on the clean water supply for use in the region which has limited water. In large amount of water, usually this process requires a high technology equipments, so it is very expensive compared to the use of fresh water from rivers or ground water. But look at the potential of expanding. It is not impossible if this will apply especially on an archipelago country like Indonesia, even in Japan has been developed into bottled water now.