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Basketball History. In contrast to other sports, basketball has a clear origin. It is not the evolution from an ancient game or another sport and the inventor is well known: Dr. James Naismith. Naismith was born in 1861 in Ramsa township, !ntario, "anada. #e graduated as a ph sician at $c%ill &niversit in $ontreal and was primaril interested in sports ph siolog . In 18'1, while working as a ph sical education teacher at the ($") International *raining +chool ,toda , +pringfield "ollege- in the &nited +tates, Naismith was faced with the problem of finding in 1. da s an indoor game to provide /athletic distraction/ for the students at the +chool for "hristian 0orkers ,Naismith was also a 1resb terian minister-. )fter discarding the idea of adapting outdoor games like soccer and lacrosse, Naismith recalled the concept of a game of his school da s known as duck2on2a2rock that involved accurac attempting to knock a /duck/ off the top of a large rock b tossing another rock at it. +tarting from there, Naismith developed a set of 13 rules that gave origin to the game of basketball. !f course it was not e4actl as we know it toda . *he first game was pla ed with a soccer ball and two peach baskets nailed 152 feet high used as goals, on a court 6ust half the si7e of a present2da court. *he baskets retained their bottoms so balls scored into the basket had to be poked out with a long dowel each time and dribbling ,bouncing of the ball up and down while moving- was not part of the original game. *he sport was an instant success and thanks to the initial impulse received b the ($") movement, basketball8s popularit 9uickl grew nationwide and was introduced in man nations. )lthough Naismith never saw the game develop into the spectacular game we know these da s, he had the honor to witness basketball become an !l mpic sport at the 1'36 %ames held in :erlin.

These are James Naismith original thirteen rules of basketball: 1. *he ball ma be thrown in an direction with one or both hands. ;. *he ball ma be batted in an direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist. 3. ) pla er cannot run with the ball. *he pla er must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man running at good speed. .. *he ball must be held in or between the hands. *he arms or bod must not be used for holding it. <. No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking or tripping in an wa of an opponent. *he first infringement of this rule b an person shall count as a foul= the second shall dis9ualif him until the ne4t goal is made or, if there was evident intent to in6ure the person, for the whole of the game. No substitution shall be allowed. 6. ) foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violations of Rules 3 and . and such as described in Rule <. >. If either side make three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents ,consecutive means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul-. 8. %oal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the ground into the basket and sta s there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edge and the opponents move the basket, it shall count as a goal. '. 0hen the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and pla ed b the first person touching it. In case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. *he thrower2in is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If an side persists in dela ing the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them. 15. *he umpire shall be 6udge of the men and shall note the fouls and notif the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. #e shall have the power to dis9ualif men according to Rule <. 11. *he referee shall be the 6udge of the ball and decide when it is in pla in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. #e shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals with an other duties that are usuall performed b a referee. 1;. *he time shall be two 1<2minute halves with five minutes8 rest between. 13. *he side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners.


The E olution of the !ame

*he first official game of basketball was pla ed on ?anuar ;5, 18'; in the same ($") g m where it was invented. *he contest featured two teams of nine pla ers and ended in a score of 125@ needless to sa , NaismithAs game was far from the current version of basketball pla ed worldwide toda . *he e9uipment used in earl basketball was also vastl different from the modern game. Bor e4ample, basketball was originall pla ed with a soccer ball with closed bottom peach bushel baskets as goals, which meant that someone had to climb on a ladder to get the ball after each made basket. *o alleviate the effort re9uired to retrieve the ball, a hole was eventuall drilled into the bottom of the basket. *his innovation soon gave wa to the elimination of the peach basket and the development of the modern goal composed of an iron rim and cloth net. NaismithAs original creation was a fairl simplistic game that was governed b thirteen rules. )nd although the sport has evolved@some notable additions to the modern game include the dribble, the three point line, and a greater tolerance of ph sical contact and fouls@modern basketball is still firml rooted in man of the original rules.

"omen in Basketball
0omen began pla ing basketball as earl as 18';, thanks in large part to the efforts of a woman named +enda :erenson )bbott. :erenson )bbott@a ph sical education professor at +mith "ollege in Northampton, $assachusetts@ was immediatel enamored with NaismithAs invention and planned to introduce the game to her students at +mith, but there were concerns that the sport was too ph sicall demanding for women. In response, :erenson )bbott made the following changes to the game:

*he court was divided into three e9ual sections, with pla ers re9uired to sta in an assigned area.

1la ers were prohibited from snatching or batting the ball from the hands of another pla er.

1la ers were prohibited from holding the ball longer than three seconds.

1la ers were prohibited from dribbling more than three times. !ver the ne4t few decades, womenAs basketball spread to high schools and colleges throughout the &nited +tates. : 1';<, 3> states offered high school varsit basketball teams for women, and in 1';6 the )mateur )thletic &nion ,))&- created a national tournament for womenAs teams. *hese t pes of tournaments were important to the development of women in the sport, because the afforded women the opportunit to continue to pla basketball after the were done with school. Cespite the numerous changes that were taking place in the menAs game at the time, the womenAs game remained unchanged until the late 1'35s. *he first ma6or change came in 1'38 when the three2court sections were reduced to two, and the number of pla ers per team was set at si4 ,3 on offense and 3 on defense-. *he ne4t ma6or changes didnAt occur until the late 1'65s. In 1'66 unlimited dribbling became legal, and in 1'6', the first five pla er full court game was pla ed. *he five2pla er format became standard in 1'>1.

To#ay$ %omen&s basketball is go erne# by irtually the same set of rules as the men&s game.


) historic basketball.

In earl Cecember 18'1, the chairman of the ph sical education department at the +chool for "hristian 0orkers ,now +pringfield "ollege- in +pringfield, $assachusetts, instructed ph sical education teacher ?ames Naismith, known to man as the inventor of basketball, to invent a new game to entertain the school8s athletes in the winter season. Naismith assembled his class of 18 oung men, appointed captains of two nine2pla er teams, and set in motion the first ever basketball game, pla ed with a soccer ball and two peach baskets tacked to either end of the g mnasium. *he first purpose2built basketballs were made from panels of leather stitched together with a rubber bladder inside. ) cloth lining was added to the leather for support and uniformit ,identit -. ) molded version of the earl basketball was invented in 1'.;. Brom 1'6> through 1'>6, the )merican :asketball )ssociation ,):)- used a distinctive red, white and blue basketball that is still seen from time to time. Bor man ears, leather was the material of choice for basketball coverings, however in the late 1''5s, composite materials were put forth and have rapidl gained acceptance in most leagues due to their superior performance in harsh outdoor game conditions. ) surve in ;55> showed that there were appro4imatel 355 million basketballs in the &nited +tates.

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) basketball is a sphere shaped inflated ball used in the game of basketball. :asketballs t picall range in si7e from ver small promotional items onl a few inches in diameter to e4tra large balls nearl a foot in diameter used in training e4ercises to increase the skill of pla ers. *he standard si7e of a basketball in the N:) is ;'.< inches ,>< cm- in circumference. Nearl all basketballs have an inflatable inner rubber bladder, generall wrapped in la ers of fiber and then covered with a tack surface made either from leather ,traditional-, rubber, or a s nthetic composite. )s in most inflatable balls, there is a small opening to allow the pressure to be increased or decreased. *he surface of the ball is nearl alwa s divided b /ribs/ that are recessed below the surface of the ball in a variet of configurations and are generall a contrasting color. )n orange surface with blackribs and a possible logo is the traditional color scheme of basketballs but the are sold in various colors. :alls are generall designated for indoor ,generall made of leather or absorbent composites-, or all2 surface use ,generall made of rubber or durable composites, also known as IndoorF!utdoor balls-. Indoor balls tend to be considerabl more e4pensive than all2surface balls due to cost of materials. In addition, brand new all2leather indoor balls must be /broken in/ first to achieve optimal grip before use in competition. *he abrasiveness of asphalt and the dirt and moisture present in an outdoor setting will usuall ruin an indoor ball within a ver short period of time, which is wh an indoorFoutdoor ball is recommended for recreational pla ers. )side from the court and the baskets, the basketball is the onl piece of e9uipment necessar to pla the game of basketball. Curing the game, the ball must be bounced continuousl ,dribbling-, thrown through

the air to other pla ers ,passing- and towards the basket ,shooting-. *herefore, the ball must be ver durable and eas to hold on to. *he basketball is also used to perform tricks ,sometimes called freest ling-, the most common of which are spinning the ball on the tip of one8s inde4 finger, dribbling in comple4 patterns, rolling the ball over one8s shoulder, or performing aerobatic maneuvers with the ball while e4ecuting a slam dunk, most notabl in the conte4t of a slam dunk contest.

Notable basketball manufa'turers


) +palding basketball

+palding was the first compan to produce a basketball for official use. "ompan founder ).%. +palding made the first dedicated basketball in the last ears of the 1'th centur at the behest of ?ames Naismith. It has produced basketballs since that time and has produced the N:)As official game ball since 1'83. *he compan also produces a wide variet of balls for the consumer market, most notabl its INB&+I!N ball which has a built2in pump to maintain proper inflation. In ?une ;556 the N:) announced that +palding would be introducing a new official game ball for pla beginning in the ;556 season. It was made from a microfiber composite with moisture management that was supposed to provide better grip and feel. #owever, there were several complaints about the new basketball. $an pla ers complained that the new ball was slipper , hard to hold and that the increased friction caused cuts on pla er8s hands. $an elite pla ers called for the N:) to bring back the old ball, even bringing a grievance to the National Eabor Relations :oard to revert to the original leather ball. !n Cecember 11, ;556, N:) commissionerCavid +tern announced that the N:) would switch back to the old leather model starting at the beginning of ;55>. In ;55>, +palding became the !fficial :asketball 1rovider of the :all.Real 0orld *our.G>H +palding will be the new supplier for N:E ,)ustralia- in ;515.G8H


$olten %E> basketball

$olten, a ?apanese sporting goods manufacturer, has the current contract to provide game balls for: )ll BI:) world championships and continental 9ualif ing events. )ll BI:) )sia events. $an domestic leagues, including )rgentina, &rugua , Dngland, %reece, Indonesia, Ital , Eithuania, the 1hilippines, 1oland ,women8s-, and 1ortugal. *hrough the ;55625> season, it had the contract to provide balls for both Durope2wide competitions organised b &ED:, the Duroleague and &ED: "up ,now the Durocup-. #owever, &ED: has now signed Nike as its ball provider.G'H $olten8s top2of2the line product is the %E>F%E6, a leather ball with a distinctive 1;2panel design, a high2densit cushioning foam below the surface and special soft rubber seams, a flatter pebbled finish providing increased contact area and a flattened seam between the panels ,called a /Bull2Blat +eam/-. $olten also produces a wide variet of balls at all price points for the consumer market.


0ilson +olution basketball

0ilson8s top2of2the2line product is the +!E&*I!N ball, named for its abilit to absorb moisture over the course of a game and retain its grip. *he ball is the official ball of all N")) postseason tournaments, most notabl themen8s and women8s Civision I tournaments, and is used b man N")) teams during the season as well b man high school leagues. Eike +palding, 0ilson produces a variet of balls for the consumer market as well.


Rawlings *DN basketball

Rawlings has manufactured basketballs since 1'5;. *he compan is known for producing a 152panel ball ,known as the *DN-, along with traditional 82panel balls. *he *DN basketball is the official ball of the )mateur )thletic &nion and the /%us $acker/, the largest 32on23 basketball tournament in the &nited +tates.G15H


Nike .55< basketball

Nike, as noted earlier, now has the contract to produce balls for &ED: ,including the Duroleague-. In the 1hilippines it is used in the N")) and &))1 as the official ball of the tournament. )ll these competitions use the Nike .55< !fficial *ournament :alls.

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The first basketball game

!n Cecember ;', 18'1, ?ames Naismith defined a new game using five base ideas and thirteen rules. *hat da , he asked his class to pla a match in the )rmor +treet court: ' versus ', using a soccer ball

and two peach baskets. Brank $ahan, one of his students, wasnAt so happ . #e 6ust said: /#uh. )nother new game/.G>H #owever, Naismith was the inventor of the new game. +omeone proposed to call it KNaismith %ameL, but he suggested /0e have a ball and a basket: wh donAt we call it basket ball/M G8H *he eighteen pla ers were: ?ohn ?. *hompson, Dugene +. Eibb , Ddwin 1. Ruggles, 0illiam R. "hase, *. Cuncan 1atton, Brank $ahan, Binla %. $acConald, 0illiam #. Cavis and E man )rchibald, who defeated %eorge 0eller, 0ilbert "are , Drnest #ildner, Ra mond Iaighn, %en7abaro Ishikawa, :en6amin +. Brench, Branklin :arnes, %eorge Ca and #enr %elan 1N5. G'H *he goal was scored b "hase.G15H *here were other differences between NaismithAs first idea and the game pla ed toda . *he peach baskets were closed, and balls had to be retrieved manuall b cutting a small hole in the bottom of the peach basket and poking the ball out using a stick. !nl in 1'56 were metal hoops, nets and boards introduced. $oreover, earlier the soccer ball was replaced b a +palding ball, similar to the one used toda . G11H


In India, the game of basketball started its 6ourne in 1'35 when it was pla ed for the first time. *he first Indian National "hampionship for men was conducted in 1'3. in New Celhi. *he :asketball Bederation of India ,:BI-, which controls the game in India was formed in 1'<5. *hroughout histor , Indians learned to appreciate the game because of its fast scoring and intense activit from the beginning until the end. Nowada s, it is considered as one of the widel pla ed sports in India. India is one those first few countries in the histor of basketball that adopted the game within a few ears of its inception and its teams actuall consisted of five pla ers on the court.

Basketball in +n#ia To#ay

:asketball in India is pla ed in most of the high schools, colleges and universities and especiall the ounger generation like to pla this game. *he game of basketball in India is pla ed b both men and women of all ages and abilit . $an government institutions have professional basketball teams, who work for the institution and pla for them: !N%" in &ttranchal, Indian !veraseas :ank in *amilnadu, Indian :ank inIarnatka, $ahanagar *elephone Nigam Eimited in New Celhi, Indian Railwa s, and Ierala Dlectricit :oard pla for their respective institution and state. *here are man championships for senior, 6unior, and outh levels for bo s and gals. Invitational all2India tournaments like $aster 1rithvinath $emorial ,New Celhi-, Con :osco Invitational *ournament ,$umbai-, Ramu $emorial ,$umbai-, and man other tournaments in the southern part of India are being organi7ed ever ear. &nlike man other countries like )merica, Russia, "hina, and ?apan, basketball in India does not follow seasons. Indian basketball has championships throughout the ear for different age groups.

*he main purpose of doing that is availabilit of outh. "hampionship for outh are mainl organi7ed between $a to ?ul when children are having summer break from school.