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Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Table of Contents

Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light.............................................................................1 Preface.................................................................................................................................................. 2 Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................................. 3 ditor!s "ntroduction..........................................................................................................................# Science And Dream Phenomena................................................................................................7 Dreams And Depth Psychology.................................................................................................8 Dreamwork In Traditional Cultures.........................................................................................1 De!eloping Dream Awareness.................................................................................................1" #otes To The Introduction.......................................................................................................1$ 1. T$ NAT%& AND 'LA(( ( O) D& A*(..........................................................................1+ #otes To Chapter %ne..............................................................................................................& 2. T$ P&A'T"' O) T$ N",$T.............................................................................................22 #otes To Chapter Two............................................................................................................."" 3 T$ P"L,&"*A, TO *A&AT"-A........................................................................................3+ #otes To Chapter Three...........................................................................................................'" # AN "NT &." / /"T$ NO&0% &"NPO'$ ..........................................................................#1 #otes To Chapter (our.............................................................................................................$8 2 T$ 0%DD$A NO )%&T$ & T$AN ON (!( PAL*............................................................34 The )uintessential Instructions o* +ind, The -uddha #o (urther Than %ne.s Palm............/ #otes To Chapter (i!e............................................................................................................./1 3 0&" ) 0"O,&AP$Y O) NA*-$A" NO&0%..........................................................................33 0"0L"O,&AP$Y.............................................................................................................................32
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light i

Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light

-y #amkhai #or0u 1dited and introduced 0y +ichael 2at3 Snow 4ion Pu0lications Ithaca5 #ew 6ork 7SA 4i0rary o* Congress Cataloging in Pu0lication Data #amkhai #or0u5 18"89 Dream yoga and the practice o* natural light -y #amkhai #or0u, edited 0y +ichael 2at3. : 1st ed. Includes 0i0liographical re*erences. IS-# 19$$8"89 797 1. ;d3ogs9chen <;nih9ma9pa= &. Dreams:;eligious aspects99-uddhism. I. 2at35 +ichael5 18$19 -)7/&&.'.#""$ 188& &8'.".'''/9dc& This edition: converted to PDF by Alex Sumner, 2003 >e would like to dedicate this 0ook to the memory o* master teachers 2hyentse ;inpoche5 Dud?om ;inpoche and 4ama @ompo Tseden. +ay their work and aspirations 0e *ul*illed.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light 1


2nowing the importance and the necessity o* the APractice o* the #ightB I ha!e eCplained many aspects o* dreams in this 0ook edited 0y my student +ichael 2at3. It is my hope that those indi!iduals who already ha!e an interest in dreams or who are acti!ely working with their dreams will 0ecause o* reading this 0ecome deeper in their knowledge. (or those people who as yet do not ha!e real eCperience with their dreams5 I hope that this 0ook will pro!ide the cause *or their knowing the importance o* dreams and dreamwork.
Merigar, March 10, 1991 Iron Sheep Year, 1st month, 25th day Chogyal Namkhai Norbu Preface 2


>e would especially like to thank the *ollowing indi!iduals *or their assistance in completing this pro?ect. The Denera0le 2henpo Palden ;inpoche5 *or his assistance in translating the +ipham teCt AThe -uddha #o (urther Than %ne.s Palm.B 2yen ;inpoche is a meditation master and renowned scholar within the #yingmapa order o* Ti0etan -uddhism. Ee o**ered in!alua0le insights into the meaning o* the teCt and on many occasions took time *rom his 0usy schedule in order to complete the translation. 2henpo Tsewong Dongyal *or his assistance in translating the +ipham teCt. 2henpo Tsewong5 a scholar5 poet5 and *riend5 has *or many years shared his eCtensi!e knowledge and insights on dreams with the editor. 4opon Ten3in #amdak *or his ad!ice and commentary pertaining to in*ormation contained in the introduction. A meditation master and head o* the -on sect o* Ti0etan Dharma5 4opon Ten3in #amdak has worked ceaselessly to preser!e the cultural and spiritual treasures o* the -onpo Ti0etans. The editors at Snow 4ion5 Christi CoC and Fe** CoC5 *or their in!alua0le editorial assistance and ad!ice. Fohn +yrdhin ;eynolds *or his thought*ul contri0utions to the *ootnotes and *or his research on #or0u ;inpoche.s 0iography. Fohn is the editor and translator o* #or0u ;inpoche.s teCt The Cycle of D y nd !i"ht5 as well as the authoritati!e re9translation o* The Tibet n #oo$ of the %re t &iber tion. De0orah 4ockwood *or her central assistance in translating the a*orementioned +ipham teCt. Susanna @reen *or her !alua0le research assistance. 1ster 4okos *or her un*ailing energy in manuscript preparation. ;epresentati!es o* the D3ogchen community 4aurie +arder and Fo Shane *or their !alua0le ad!ice. In addition5 we would also like to thank the *ollowing *riends *or their helpG Tsultrim Allione5 Fill -aro**5 4aura -aum5 +ykl Castro5 Cyril Christo5 Stephanie (orest5 Fan @reen5 Sherri Eandlin5 Sarah 2. Eu0er5 %li!er 4eick5 Sandy 4iteh*ield5 +aureen %.-rien5 4eeana Pedron5 Fohn Shane5 Ferry Stein0erg5 +arianna Swolo5 Fim Dal0y5 and mem0ers o* the D3ogchen community who originally helped with translation and preparation o* manuscripts.
Acknowledgements 3

Editors ntroduction
%n a dark night in the 18$ s I raced *rom my 0ed and huddled at the door to my parents. room5 *rightened and still hal* asleep. I was perhaps *i!e years old5 and the !i!id imagery o* a nightmare was still *resh. It seemed real enoughG a snake coiled in my 0ed:and my parents. reassurances that it was ?ust a dream were little consolation. This is one o* my earliest dream memories. It was a dream that repeated again and again throughout childhood5 adolescence and e!en occasionally now as I mo!e to middle age. >hat is a dreamH Is

there a special signi*icance to a dream a0out snakes that repeats itsel*H +ight snakes 0e messengers o* the unconscious5 or possi0ly the early seCual stirrings o* a child5 or then again a communication *rom another class o* 0eings called n " s <snake kings= 0y the Ti0etansH Perhaps the dream can only 0e understood within the conteCt o* the li*e o* the dreamer5 and thus ha!e a speci*ic personal meaning. Archetypal material5 personal anCieties and concerns5 *oretelling o* the *uture5 communication with other dimensions o* 0eings are all possi0ilities within dream5 according to the masters o* dreamwork. #e!ertheless5 this statement should 0e Iuali*ied 0y saying that *ew encounter this range o* dream eCperience. (or most5 dreaming is simply a rehashing o* the impressions o* the day5 within the conteCt o* the dreamer.s wishes5 *ears and personality. In the 18$ s5 despite the presence o* a *ew philosophers and contemporary thinkers *or whom dreaming held renewed interest5 most Americans5 mysel* included5 !iewed dreams as ha!ing little signi*icance. This 0lithe state o* a**airs was soon changed 0y the uphea!al o* the siCties. (rom the cruci0le o* collecti!e and personal crises resulting *rom the dramas o* the decade5 and concurrent with the popularity o* yoga and !arious meditation *orms5 the awareness o* dreams 0egan to reassert itsel* in the general culture5 and in mysel*. +y memories o* dreams *rom early childhood to college are little more than a 0lur. The !i!id imagery and sharp recollections o* childhood *aded into *leeting images or no memory at all. -ut in 18785 my eCperience and understanding o* the dream condition was radically trans*ormed. I tra!eled to (rance to study with a renowned Ti0etan lama5 Dud?om ;inpoche. Among the topics he taught was dream yoga. ;inpoche spoke clearly a0out the need to stri!e *or awareness e!en within the sleeping state. Ee compared the current sleeping state o* mankind with the unconscious sleep o* an animal. Ee lamented the waste o* such a precious opportunity *or de!eloping onesel*. I le*t the tent where the teachings were conducted in a strange state. All that I saw or heard seemed dreamlike5 no dou0t due to the great lama.s power*ul transmission. This un*amiliar perception lasted the entire day and into the e!ening5 when I prepared to go to sleep. I resol!ed to *ollow ;inpoche.s instructions *or de!eloping awareness and prayed *or his assistance. That night was unusual also. I *ell asleep5 0ut soon 0ecame aware that I was sleeping. I lay in a conscious luminous state. It was my *irst conscious eCperience o* yogic sleep and the natural light o* the mind. Due to my own mind.s o0scurations5 I did not make great progress in the practice o* dream yoga and the practice o* natural light. In *act5 were it not *or the one eCperience I had had5 I pro0a0ly would ha!e relegated the whole topic to the realm o* yogic *eats5 0eyond the capacity o* ordinary people. It was some years later5 during a twenty9one day solitary retreat5 that I had another eCperience with yogic dreaming that was eCciting and trans*ormati!e. A*ter two weeks had elapsed5 my retreat had deepened considera0ly. 1ach night I *ollowed Dud?om ;inpoche.s instructions *or de!eloping the capacity *or dream yoga. The intensi!e meditation practice eCtended to ten hours a day5 and my mind
Editor s !ntroduction "

0ecame stronger. I was *ascinated to 0e a0le to remem0er as many as eight dreams a night. %n this particular night5 I suddenly had the reali3ation that I was 0oth asleep and aware that I was dreaming. At the instant o* the reali3ation5 the colors o* the dreamscape 0ecame startlingly !i!id and intense. I *ound mysel* standing on a cli** and looking out o!er a !ast and 0eauti*ul !alley. I *elt relaCed and thrilled5 and I reminded mysel* it was only a dream. I looked out o!er the lo!ely !ista *or a short time and then resol!ed to go a step *urther5 literally and *igurati!ely. I* it was truly a dream

then there would 0e no reason why I couldn.t *ly. I leapt into space 0ut5 instead o* *lying5 I *ound the dream trans*orming once again. Still lucid5 my awareness appeared to 0e on a stairway. +y 0ody was no longer in the dream 0ut I was mo!ing up the stairs. I had gone up one step and was making my way up another when the dream changed again. This time it was ?ust 0lack with no imagery whatsoe!er. I resisted the impulse to open my eyes. In truth5 I was uncertain what to do5 0ut I wished and willed the imagery to return and then suddenly I was 0ack on the stairway. This recurrence o* the stairway imagery lasted only momentarily and then I awoke. The whole eCperience had 0een *ascinating. I still consider it one o* the most meaning*ul eCperiences o* my li*e. The lama who super!ised the retreat likened my eCperience to ha!ing passed a dri!ing test. Su0seIuently5 I ha!e had many lucid eCperiences during dream. I can.t say that they occur each night5 0ut they do occur regularly. Their *reIuency increases during times when I practice meditation intensi!ely5 such as when in retreat. Also5 i* I awaken and practice meditation during the night I *ind that I *reIuently ha!e lucid dreams upon returning to sleep. %!er the course o* time5 I ha!e also had dreams that were psychic in nature. (or eCample5 while on retreat5 I dreamt o* my lo!er. Although I was not lucid during the dream5 my recollection was clear. Eer image appeared. She was luminous5 radiant5 and yet she was so00ing. I had made plans to pick her up at a train station in upstate #ew 6ork the neCt day. To test my dream eCperience5 I told her that I was !ery sorry she had 0een distraught the pre!ious night. Eer look o* surprise told me instantly that the dream was accurate. She told me that she had 0een ill and had indeed cried 0itterly. As I mentioned5 it seemed clear that these eCperiences increased when I had the opportunity to practice meditation or the dream yoga instructions intensi!ely. It was during such a period that I ?oined #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche *or a seminar in >ashington5 D.C. Ee had 0een tra!eling with one o* his oldest students and she had 0ecome seriously ill. In my dream5 I *ound mysel* with #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche. Ee was !ery preoccupied with the student.s health crisis. I said5 A;inpoche5 she.s dying.B ;inpoche replied5 A#o5 I.!e treated her5 and she.s getting 0etter.B The neCt day the good news was that she was indeed reco!ering5 0ut e!en more startling was #or0u.s awareness o* our dream con!ersation 0e*ore I told him a0out it. 4ater I had other dreams where #or0u was talking with me5 and occasionally I would also say something intelligent in return. #or0u would take great interest in these eCperiences5 and sometimes the neCt day would ask me i* I had had an interesting dream the pre!ious night. %ccasionally he would ask me5 and i* I only !aguely remem0ered5 he would say5 A6ou must5 you must try to remem0er.B #ot long ago I !isited my parents. house. They ha!e li!ed there *or my entire li*e. I slept in the same room where I slept as a child. As I slept5 I had a dream that there was a snake in the 0ed with me. ;ather than threatening me it seemed to want to cuddle like a pet. Although I was not completely lucid5 I recall wondering what to do with this *riendly though clearly unin!ited snake. 7pon awakening5 I thought a0out this dream and its meaning at some length. Perhaps I had 0ecome more com*orta0le with that which was once *ear*ul. Then again5 I remem0ered #or0u.s comment that with increased clarity5 dreams might come to 0e something like a 7nited #ations con*erence. +ight the dream snake ha!e 0een a AdelegateBH (or it is #or0u.s contention that there are many classes o*
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Editor s !ntroduction #

0eings with whom it is possi0le to communicate within the dream state. Countless theories ha!e 0een de!eloped to account *or the uni!ersally shared set o* eCperiences we call dreaming. Although these theories may di**er radically regarding the origin and signi*icance o* dreams5 there is widespread agreement that many dreams are mysterious5 power*ul5 and creati!e. Dreams ha!e held a central place in many societies. In many cultures the importance o* dreaming

was taken *or granted5 and the a0ility to remem0er or e!en consciously alter a dream was nurtured. Dreams ha!e *igured prominently:sometimes centrally:in religions5 assisted on the hunt5 inspired sacred patterns *or arts and cra*ts5 and pro!ided guidance in times o* war5 crisis5 or illness. The dreamer o* a A0ig dreamB was *reIuently re*erred to as a priest or priestess5 a title earned 0y !irtue o* their ha!ing 0een 0lessed 0y the gods. Ancient 1gyptians and other traditional peoples systematically interpreted dreams *or the purpose o* deciphering messages *rom the gods. 1gyptian priests called Amasters o* the secret thingsB were considered intermediaries. >ith the ad!ent o* writing5 the knowledge o* dream interpretation was recorded. An early 0ook on dream interpretation5 written in 1gypt some two thousand years 0e*ore the common era5 is contained in what is now called the Chester -eatty papyrus. In many cultures5 dreamers preparing to recei!e an important or healing dream participate in ela0orate rituals. These rituals5 widespread in early history5 are especially well documented in #ati!e American societies as well as in Asia5 and in ancient -a0ylon5 @reece5 and ;ome. In!ocational or Aincu0ationB ceremonies would *eature rituals guided 0y trained initiates5 and *reIuently took place in special temples 0uilt on important and 0eauti*ul sacred sites. A*ter making o**erings to the gods or a sacri*ice *or puri*ication5 the dream seeker would sometimes drink potions to enhance the eCperience. Depending on the culture5 the ingredients *or these potions might include a !ariety o* psychotropic drugs.1 The sacred places were o*ten selected through the esoteric science o* geomancy or through a priest.s psychic re!elation. The site o* these temples was particularly important to the ancient @reeks5 *or eCample5 0ecause their chthonic deities & were 0elie!ed to reside in special locations. All aspects o* the temples themsel!es were designed to mo0ili3e and heighten the workings o* the unconscious mind as well as spirits. (or eCample5 in @reece the cult o* the oracle god Aesclepius " was sym0oli3ed 0y the snake5 and dream seekers would o*ten sleep in a place where snakes mo!ed a0out *reely. A*ter the ela0orate rituals5 Aesclepius *reIuently appeared to the dreamer as a 0earded man or as an animal5 and in many instances the indi!idual would awaken cured. At the height o* their popularity5 these Aesclepian centers *or dream incu0ation num0ered in the hundreds. Instances o* healing through rituals such as this are also widespread in contemporary shamanic cultures.' (or eCample5 ;ichard @rossinger5 author o* numerous 0ooks on dream ethnography5 cites #ati!e American sources *rom among the Crow5 -lack*oot5 2wakiutl and >inne0ago tri0es recounting dreams in which an animal or 0ird5 such as a snake or loon5 appeared and taught cures which when applied in waking li*e were *ound to ha!e healing power. Dreams ha!e also inspired important scienti*ic ad!ances. Perhaps the most cele0rated o* these is the disco!ery o* the molecular structure o* 0en3ene 0y 2ekule. Eis accountG 'y mind ( s else(here)) )* turned the ch ir to the fire+l ce, nd fell h lf slee+) A" in the toms " mboled in front of my eyes) Sm ller "rou+s this time $e+t mostly in the b c$"round) 'y mind,s eye, tr ined by re+e ted visions of the s me sort, no( distin"uished l r"er form tions of v rious sh +es) &on" ch ins)) )everythin" in
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Editor s !ntroduction $

movement, t(istin" nd turnin" li$e sn $es) And loo$ (h t ( s th t- .ne sn $e "r bbed its o(n t il, nd moc$in"ly the sh +e (hirled before my eyes) * (o$e s if struc$ by li"htnin"/ this time " in * s+ent the rest of the ni"ht (or$in" out its conse0uences) The ;ussian chemist +endele! disco!ered the periodic ta0le method o* classi*ying elements according to atomic weight while dreaming. 1lias Eowe completed his in!ention o* the sewing machine while dreaming. Al0ert 1instein.s theory o* relati!ity came to him partly in a dream. %ther dream9inspired creations include literary masterpieces such as Dante.s Di!ine Comedy5 Doltaire.s Candide5 AThe ;a!enB 0y Poe and 7lysses 0y Fames Foyce. ;o0ert 4ouis Ste!enson was a0le to *ormulate stories while dreaming5 which he later wrote down and pu0lished. 1!en some popular

music compositions 0y -illy Foel and Paul +cCartney ha!e come in dreams. Such unusual dreams notwithstanding5 our society as a whole has lost touch with the art o* dreaming. ;ecently5 howe!er5 a widespread interest in the creati!e power o* dreams has sur9*aced5 emerging *rom se!eral di!ergent disciplines5 including science5 western depth psychology5 the increasing awareness o* nati!e cultures5 and religion.

!cience And Dream Phenomena

The modern scienti*ic description o* dream phenomena has *ollowed upon the disco!eries in 18$& o* 2leitman and his students that dreaming is accompanied 0y rapid eye mo!ements. %ther *acts a0out dreaming ha!e emerged through more recent eCperimentation. (or eCample5 we know that all people dream and that approCimately twenty9*i!e percent o* sleep is dream time. Dreams are crucial *or mental health5 dreaming is a right90rain acti!ity5 and !irtually all dreams are accompanied 0y rapid eye mo!ements. Sleep has *our stages5 or depths5 0ut dreaming occurs only in the *irst stage. >e also know that we mo!e through the *our stages o* sleep se!eral times in a typical night5 and conseIuently we normally dream many times each night. It has 0een o0ser!ed that a person who is depri!ed o* dream time will make up *or it in su0seIuent nights. A greater percentage o* sleeping time is spent dreaming as we approach dawn. 4et us *ocus on the phenomenon o* lucid dreams5 those unusual dreams in which the dreamer *inds him9 or hersel* suddenly sel*9consciously aware or AlucidB while dreaming. %nce *reIuently dismissed 0ut now scienti*ically !eri*ied5 reports o* lucid dreaming ha!e eCisted in literature *or thousands o* years. (or eCample5 Aristotle made the *ollowing statementG A.. .*or o*ten when one is asleep there is something in consciousness which declares that what presents itsel* is 0ut a dream.B$ In the early 18 s a Dutch psychiatrist 0y the name o* Dan 1eden studied this phenomenon in a systematic *ashion and coined the term Alucid dreamingB to descri0e it. -e*ore him5 the +arIuis d.Eer!ey de Saint Denys had in!estigated dream phenomena and pu0lished his *indings in 18/7 in the 0ook Dre ms nd 1o( to %uide Them) In this 0ook Saint Denys descri0ed his a0ility to awaken within his dreams as well as to direct them. Ste!en 4a0erge5 a modern researcher o* dream phenomena5 de!eloped a methodology that utili3es the rapid eye mo!ements <;.1.+.= that accompany dreaming5 in order to train lucidity./ In one study su0?ects listened to a recording that repeated the phrase Athis is a dreamB e!ery *ew seconds. This was played a*ter the 0eginning o* each ;.1.+. period. Ee then asked his sleeping su0?ects to signal their lucidity 0y mo!ing their eyes in a prearranged pattern. ApproCimately twenty percent o* his su0?ects were a0le to achie!e lucidity in their dream state through this techniIue. +ore recently 4a0erge has in!ented a Adream lightB de!ice which is worn on the *ace like a mask and detects the rapid eye mo!ements that are associated with dreaming. The rapid eye mo!ements trigger a
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light %cience And Dream Phenomena &

low9intensity pulsing red light which can cue the dreamer that he or she is dreaming. The *ollowing account5 0y a participant in a dream awareness seminar5 ser!es to illustrate the phenomenon o* 0eing awake or lucid within a drea +G %n >ednesday morning5 Fanuary 1"5 18885 I 0ecame aware that I was dreaming, and I decided that the 0est thing to do would 0e to *ly in the sky. I hitched mysel* to a ?et and we went !ery high into the stratosphere. I then had the ?et re!erse course so I could hang *rom it and see the world. I looked down and saw the earth as a great sphere. Then I dropped my hold and stretched my arms out wide to glide 0etter. I stayed Iuite high <literally and *igurati!ely= in the sky5 in order to reali3e the immensity and 0eauty o* this !ast ocean as seen *rom a0o!e. A*ter a short period I glided down lower5 !ery slowly5 *inding mysel* o!er a 0eauti*ul

island. This island !iew was pleasing to me. It was early morning, Iuiet and e!en light allowed *or clear sight o* the still masts o* the many yachts docked at the har0or. -eyond their tall poles and white decks5 there stood hillside mountains with homes 0uilt right into them. It was a splendid and ma?estic sight5 the yachts and mountains in clear5 e!en morning light. It was reminiscent o* a com0ination o* two places I had 0een 0e*ore. In PaCos5 @reece there are har0ored many yachts5 and +artin City5 Cali*ornia there are homes 0uilt into the hills. I continued to !iew this sight 0e*ore I *ell into a more general type o* dreaming in which I didn.t control the !iew or determine what I would like to do. The preceding account is typical inso*ar as lucid dreams *reIuently include *lying. %n some occasions the dreamer is *irst aware that he or she is *lying5 and then suddenly 0ecomes lucid. %n other occasions the dreamer 0ecomes lucid and su0seIuently tries to *ly. Another common *eature that this dreamer shares with other lucid dreamers is the sense o* heightened color and emotion5 the sense o* participating in an awe some and magni*icent eCperience. #ot all lucid dreams are so eCpansi!e5 howe!er. 2enneth 2el3er5 an author and lucid dreamer5 comments upon the persistent theme o* 0eing within a ?ail which characteri3es one series o* lucid dreams he had. AThe sym0ol o* the ?ail cell in these three dreams pro!ided me with an essential reminder that I am still a prisoner5 still working to attain that *ullness o* mental *reedom to which I aspire.B7

Dreams And De"th Ps#cholog#

In the past century5 the *ren3ied eCpansion o* industrial technology occurred at a great price. (or compleC reasons it helped to spawn the great world wars. The wide scale destruction and loss o* li*e resulted in a Iuestioning o* !alues:especially those o* a religious and moral nature. Against the specter o* apocalypse5 the despair o* meaninglessness5 and the percei!ed ruins o* western religious ceremony5 contemporary thinkers sought to understand the workings o* the psyche 0y studying less conscious phenomena such as *antasy and dream:thus de!eloping the approach o* depth psychology. 1!oking and de!eloping awareness o* unconscious processes was percei!ed as !alua0le *or healing the weary5 con*used soul.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Dreams And De'th Ps(cholog( )

Sigmund (reud5 the *ounder o* modern western psychology5 called dream work the Aroyal road to the unconscious5B and helped reawaken interest in dreaming. (reud.s seminal work5 The *nter+ret tion of Dre ms, represented a radical departure *rom pre!ious contemporary >estern psychiatric theory. (reud asserted that dreams are sym0olic representations o* repressed wishes5 most o* which are seCual. Through the process o* Awish *ul*illmentB the dreamer released the AeCcitementB o* the impulse. Ee thought the dream would typically 0e organi3ed in a disguised or sym0olic way 0ecause these wishes or impulses were unaccepta0le. #oting that a single dream might represent an enormous amount o* personal material5 (reud postulated that each character or element o* the dream was a condensed sym0ol. The la0yrinth o* meaning might 0e unra!eled through the process o* *ree association. TechniIues o* listing all associations to a dream continue to 0e widely used among contemporary analysts. 4ess well recogni3ed is (reud.s acknowledgement o* the eCistence o* telepathy within the dream state. This was pu0lished in his lectures on psychoanalysis in 181/.8 Carl Fung was perhaps the *irst >estern psychologist to 0e interested in -uddhism 8 and 1astern religion. Fung5 once a close student o* (reud5 later 0roke away *rom his mentor. Fung eCplained that he could not accept (reud.s o!erwhelming emphasis on a seCual root *or all repressions5 nor his narrow5 anti9religious !iews. Fung considered li0ido to 0e a uni!ersal psychic energy whereas *or (reud it was simply seCual energy.1 Fung also postulated the eCistence o* a deep5 encompassing cultural memory accessi0le through power*ul dreams. Ee la0eled this memory the Acollecti!e unconsciousB and considered it to 0e a rich

and power*ul repository o* the collecti!e memory o* the human race. Fung postulated that dreams generally compensate *or the dreamer.s im0alance in his waking li*e and 0ring that which is unconscious to consciousness. Ee noted that indi!iduals *unction with certain characteristic styles5 *or eCample with *eeling or intellect5 and in an intro!erted or eCtro!erted manner. I* a person were primarily intellectual and his *eeling side largely suppressed or unconscious5 strong *eelings might then mani*est more *reIuently in his dream li*e. A *eeling type5 con!ersely5 might ha!e intellectual dreams in order to compensate *or the dominant conscious attitude. (rit3 Perls5 *ounder o* the @estalt school o* psychology5 proclaimed dreams to 0e the Aroyal road to integration.B (or Perls5 dreaming and the awareness o* dreaming were essential *or coming into 0alance and owning all the parts o* one.s personality. Ee 0ased his dreamwork on the supposition that *acets o* a dream might all 0e percei!ed as pro?ections o* parts or personas o* the dreamer. Perls. contri0ution to dream work and therapy was his keen awareness that neurotic *unctioning is caused 0y disowning parts o* onesel*. Ee suggests that we disown or alienate oursel!es 0y pro?ection andJor repression. >e may reclaim these unacknowledged aspects o* our personalities 0y enacting or dramati3ing parts o* a dream. Through this process we recogni3e more *ully our own attitudes5 *ears and wishes5 thus allowing our indi!iduali3ation and maturation process to proceed unimpeded. The *ollowing dramatic eCample o* one woman.s enactment o* a dream part in the style o* @estalt therapy will illustrate Perls. techniIue o* dream work. The woman recounted a dream in which a small aerosol spray can was one o* many items on a dresser 0ureau5 and she dramati3ed the di**erent items in turn. >hen she reached the spray can5 she announced5 AI.m under enormous pressure. I *eel as i* I.m a0out to eCplode.B The enactment o* this dream pro!ided swi*t and clear *eed0ack regarding an unresol!ed issue in her li*e.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Dreams And De'th Ps(cholog( *

Another school o* contemporary psychology which respects the dream eCperience is that represented 0y +edard -oss. -oss considers the dream to 0e a reality which should 0e under9stood as an auto0iographical episode. In the process o* understanding one.s dreams5 -oss would encourage the dreamer to actually eCperience and dwell within that uniIue moment. #ot all psychologists acknowledge the great potential *or ad!anced dreamwork. (or eCample5 in the phenomenological school as articulated 0y -ross and 2eny5 dreams are considered to constitute a Adimmed and restricted world !iew5B and are Apri!ati!e5 de*icient5 and constricted in comparison with waking.B The o0?ect relations school as typi*ied 0y (air0airin considers dreams to 0e schi3oid phenomena5 cauldrons o* anCieties5 wishes5 and attitudes. Certain current scienti*ic theories ha!e also gone *urther in denying a 0asic meaning*ul organi3ing principle within the state o* dreaming. F. Allen Eo0son o* Ear!ard +edical School pro9poses in his 0ook The Dre min" #r in a Adream state generatorB located within the 0rain stem. The generator when engaged *ires neurons randomly and the 0rain attempts to make sense o* these weak signals 0y organi3ing them into the dream story. %thers ha!e proposed similarly mechanistic eCplanations o* dream phenomena. Crick and +itehison suggest that dreams occur to unlearn useless in*ormation. Connections which are unimportant and temporarily stored are thus discharged and *orgotten. Alternate theories 0y Carl Sagan and others that attempt to account *or the most *amous creati!e acts which ha!e arisen within the dream state ha!e proposed that such dreams result *rom uninhi0ited right90rain acti!ity. According to this theory the le*t90rain5 which is usually dominant during the day5 is suppressed during dreams. ConseIuently5 the right90rain is less inhi0ited and can 0ecome spectacularly intuiti!e and creati!e. This theory would account5 *or eCample5 *or 2ekule.s disco!ery o* the 0en3ene molecule as an eCample o* the right90rain.s skill at pattern recognition in contrast to

the more analytic acti!ity o* the le*t90rain. This theory5 although interesting5 does not account *or all types o* telepathic and creati!e dreams. Fohn @rant5 a specialist in dream research5 recently spent considera0le e**ort in pro!iding eCplanations *or dream telepathy. Eis conclusion a*ter much e**ort in de0unking sensational claims was that only ninety9*i!e percent o* dream telepathy and dreams which predict *uture e!ents might 0e eCplica0le according to known laws and science. Eis su0?ecti!e statistic and ina0ility to account *or the other *i!e percent o* unusual dreams which anticipate the *uture *its in well with #or0u ;inpoche.s theory o* dream phenomena. This theory acknowledges 0oth common dreams whose origin are our wishes and anCieties5 as well as creati!e clarity type dreams which arise out o* awareness. +any analytic and scienti*ic approaches still contend that the content o* all dreams is merely chaotic or sym0olic and comprised o* a cauldron o* anCieties5 wishes and attitudes. Con9seIuently5 contemporary >estern dream workers do not generally recogni3e or understand the possi0ilities *or dream work assumed in traditional societies. >hile >estern depth psychology works with dreams as an approach to indi!idual mental health5 its understanding o* the possi0ilities *or dream work5 though impro!ing5 is still limited. The range o* these other possi0ilities and the need *or determining priorities appears when we eCplore dream work systems e!ol!ed in other cultures.

Dreamwork n Traditional Cultures

Systems *or dreamwork and dream awareness ha!e 0een *ound *or millennia within -uddhism5 Taoism5 Einduism5 Su*ism5 and traditional cultures throughout the world.11 These dreamwork systems were and are o*ten still cloaked in secrecy and reser!ed *or the initiate. The recorded dream eCperiences o* traditional peoples whose cultures are still relati!ely intact may help eCpand our understanding o* the possi0ilities o* dream work and dream awareness5 including the phenomena o* lucidity5 telepathy5 and precogniti!e dreams.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Dreamwork !n Traditional +ultures 1,

The Australian A0origines 0elie!e in the eCistence o* ancestral 0eings who are more power*ul than most humans5 and are considered to ha!e other9than9human physical counterparts such as rocks5 trees5 or land *ormations. According to the authors o* a comprehensi!e 0ook on A0original culture5 Dre min", the Art of Abori"in l Austr li edited 0y Peter Sutton5 the spiritual dimension in which these 0eings ha!e their eCistence is descri0ed as the ADreamtime.B The ancestors5 known as ADreamings5B may 0e contacted through dreams5 though they are not considered to 0e a product o* dreams. This underscores the A0original 0elie* in multiple classes o* 0eings and alternate dimensions within which other classes o* 0eings reside. #oteworthy are the A0original 0elie*s regarding teCts5 art5 and songs that come in dreams. A new song5 story5 design5 or other creati!e product recei!ed in a dream is percei!ed 0y the A0original peoples as a reproduction o* an original creation rendered 0y an ancestor. These artistic gi*ts are considered to 0e channeled rather than seen as original creations. >ithin the tri0e the dreamer is re!ered as a conduit through which the wisdom o* the ancestors is recei!ed5 not as the originator o* this wisdom. According to the myths and dream records o* contemporary A0original peoples5 artistic products ha!e come in dreams since time immemorial and continue to enrich A0original culture today. The Senoi people o* what is today called +alaysia ostensi0ly pro!ided a documented instance o* a traditional people who placed an unusually high !alue on creati!e dream work. Patricia @ar*ield in her 0ook Cre tive Dre min" presents dream techniIues attri0uted to the Senoi 0y anthropologist 2ilton Stewart. According to Stewart5 the Senoi *ocused an unusual amount o* attention on dream work and de!eloped sophisticated methods *or in*luencing and deri!ing creati!e inspiration *rom dreams:through rein*orcement5 sel* suggestion5 and daily discussion o* their dreams. Dr. @ar*ield

summari3ed the key Senoi dream work goals as *ollowsG con*ronting and o!ercoming danger within a dream5 accepting and mo!ing towards pleasura0le eCperiences within the dream5 and making the dream ha!e a positi!e or creati!e outcome. The integrati!e e**ects o* this work may !ery well 0e a cause *or a lowered *reIuency o* mental disorder. Eowe!er5 later researchers did not su0stantiate Stewart.s claim that Senoi society approached a 7topian ideal.1& Presuma0ly the Senoi had strong moti!ation *or de!eloping control o* their dreams 0ecause o* the great premium their tri0e placed on these a0ilities. Contemporary researchers report that the a0ility to in*luence dreams towards positi!e outcomes seems to ha!e e**ects such as increased sel*9con*idence and creati!ity. The creati!e potential o* dreams is unIuestiona0ly !alued in traditional Ti0etan culture. >ithin Ti0etan -uddhism there is a class o* dreams la0eled +ilam Ter or Adream treasure.B These treasures are teachings that are considered to 0e the creations o* enlightened 0eings. The teachings were purpose*ully hidden or stored in order to 0ene*it *uture generations. As a demonstration o* their wisdom the originators o* these treasures o*ten prophesied the name o* their disco!erer and the time o* disco!ery. -uddhist and -onpo 1" systems *or dream awareness training appear to 0e thousands o* years old5 according to #or0u ;inpoche and 4opon Ten3in #amdak.1' In the inter!iew presented in this 0ook #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche comments that dream awareness training was discussed eCtensi!ely in the teCt o* the inconcei!a0ly ancient ' h m y T ntr , whose author is unknown. 2henpo Palden Shera05 a renowned -uddhist scholar5 agrees that the tantras are inconcei!a0ly ancient. According to 2henpo5 many millennia 0e*ore the historical -uddha Shakyamuni li!ed5 the tantras were taught 0y the 0uddhas o* past eras to 0oth human and nonhuman 0eings.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Dreamwork !n Traditional +ultures 11

Consider5 *or eCample5 the eCtraordinary dream eCperience #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche had while on retreat in +assachusetts in the summer o* 188 . %n night a*ter night a woman whom ;inpoche considered to 0e a d $ini 1$ appeared in his dream and taught him a compleC series o* dances with intricate steps *or up to thirty9siC dancers. Day a*ter day ;inpoche transcri0ed the lessons *rom the dreams o* the night 0e*ore. Ee also taught a group o* his students parts o* this dance5 which accompany a special song *or deepening meditation. The tune itsel* had 0een recei!ed in another dream years earlier. Ea!ing heard *irsthand accounts o* these dreams5 and ha!ing participated in this eCIuisite dance5 I can only say that ;inpoche.s eCperience is pro*ound 0eyond words. Shortly a*ter ;inpoche.s retreat he was !isited 0y a #ati!e American teacher who goes 0y the name o* Thunder. Thunder is the descendent o* a long lineage o* #ati!e American medicine men and healers. A*ter hearing accounts o* ;inpoche.s dance and eCamining photos o* our attempts to learn it5 she noted its similarity to the #ati!e American @host Dance. The *ollowing series o* dreams related 0y #or0u ;inpoche may ser!e to illustrate the human potential within the dream state as awareness de!elops. In 18$8 I had already *led Ti0et to the country o* Sik9kim. The situation within Ti0et was deteriorating rapidly. As the news o* killings and destruction reached us I 0ecame increasingly worried a0out the mem0ers o* my *amily who remained in Ti0et. +any o* us prayed to Tara asking *or her help. It was during this period that I had the *ollowing drea +G I was walking through a mountainous area. I remem0er the 0eauti*ul trees and *lowers. #ear the road on which I was tra!eling there were wild animals5 0ut they were peace*ul and gentle to me. I was aware that I was enroute to Tara.s temple located on a mountain ahead. I arri!ed at a place near the temple5 where there was a small *ield with many trees and red *lowers. There was also a young girl approCimately ele!en or twel!e years old.

>hen the young girl saw me she immediately ga!e me a red *lower5 and inIuired where I was going. I replied5 AI am going to the temple o* Tara in order to pray *or Ti0et.B In response she said5 AThere is no need *or you to go to the temple, ?ust say this prayer.B She then repeated a prayer to me many times that 0egan5 A%m Fet9summa....B I 0egan to say this prayer5 repeating it as I was holding the *lower. I repeated the prayer again and again. I actually woke mysel* up 0y saying this prayer so loudly. Some years later I had a related dream. In this dream5 I again *ound mysel* in the *ield that marked the approach to the temple o* Tara. It was the same as the pre!ious dream5 0ut there was no young girl. I looked ahead o* me5 and there was the temple at the top o* a mountain. I con9tinued my ?ourney until I arri!ed. It was a simple temple5 not elegantly designed or decorated. It was open to the 1ast. I entered and noticed that upon the wall was a painting o* the Shitro mandala o* the one hundred peace*ul and wrath*ul deities. %n 0ookshel!es there were many Ti0etan 0ooks5 including the Tan?ur and 2an?ur. I was looking o!er the collection when I noticed a Ti0etan man at the door. Ee was dressed somewhat like a lama5 0ut not completely. Ee asked me5 ADid you see the speaking TaraHB
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Dreamwork !n Traditional +ultures 12

I replied that I had not yet seen the speaking Tara5 0ut that I would like to. The man then led me to a room with statues. As he turned towards the door to lea!e5 he said5 AThere is the speaking Tara.B I didn.t see anything at *irst5 0ut then I noticed that the man was looking upwards to the top o* a column. I *ollowed his ga3e5 and there at the top o* the column was a statue o* @reen Tara. She was represented as a child o* perhaps se!en or eight years. It was a nice statue5 0ut I didn.t hear it speak5 and su0seIuently I awakened. The neCt chapter in this story was not a dream at all. In 188' I was tra!eling in northern #epal heading towards Tolu +onastery5 when I recogni3ed the *ield where in my dream the girl had gi!en me the *lower and prayer. I looked ahead and there was the temple. >hen I arri!ed5 e!erything was eCactly the same as in my dream. I walked o!er to the column5 and looked *or the Aspeaking Tara.B It wasn.t there. That was the only detail that di**ered. #ot too long ago5 I heard that one o* my students had presented the temple with a statue o* @reen Tara which they placed on top o* the column as a sort o* commemoration. I* you tra!el to that temple today you can see it there.

De$elo"ing Dream Awareness

The possi0ility o* de!eloping awareness within the dream state and o* su0seIuently ha!ing intensely inspiring eCperiences as well as the a0ility to control dreams is well documented. It is the pathway to higher order dreaming made possi0le 0y the practices outlined later in this 0ook. 1/ Cross9cultural parallels point !ery strongly to the eCistence o* a class o* dream eCperiences which ha!e *ueled the ad!ance o* mankind.s cultural and religious progress. These dreams5 which #or0u ;inpoche re*ers to as clarity dreams5 seem to arise out o* intense mental concentration upon a particular pro0lem or su0?ect5 as well as through meditation and ritual. Startling5 creati!e or transcendent outcomes o*ten emerge *rom these special dreams5 some o* which may 0e channeled. In a dream awareness seminar I conducted in 18885 a participant recounted the *ollowing drea +G A>hen I was a young child I used to ha!e a recurring dream o* 0eing threatened 0y an old ugly dwar* who was terri*ying to me. 1ach time he would appear I would either run away in that nightmarish manner o* not seeming to get anywhere5 or pretend to *aint ?ust to get away *rom him. (inally during one dream I 0ecame !ery annoyed and decided I was tired o* 0eing threatened. I turned on him and told him he was ?ust part o* my dream. >hen I did that I wasn.t *rightened o* him

anymore. The dream ne!er recurred a*ter that.B 1!en my own relati!ely minor dream eCperiences ha!e occasionally seemed to support the possi0ility o* dreams that predict the *uture. (or eCample5 last year I attended a sporting e!ent with two *riends. I was impressed 0y the color*ul stadium. That night I dreamt o* a 0ase0all player. Eis picture was on the *ront page o* a newspaper. I tried to read and remem0er the print. -y the neCt morning I only recalled the name Clark. 7pon awakening I purchased the #ew 6ork Times5 as is my ha0it5 and disco!ered a photograph o* >ill Clark5 a 0ase0all player5 on the *ront page. Perhaps you might argue that this was coincidental. I* so5 you would 0e making the same argument that Aristotle used in order to counter Eeraclitus who 0elie!ed in precogniti!e dreaming <?ust to illustrate how long the contro!ersy has raged=. ;egardless o* whether my dream a0out >ill Clark was truly prophetic5 I personally ha!e come to 0elie!e that within the higher order creati!e class o* dreams5 there is a category predicti!e o* the *uture. I* this is actually the case it would suggest that the *uture is somehow a!aila0le in the present. >ithin Ti0etan -uddhist5 -onpo5 and other traditions5 enlightened
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light De-elo'ing Dream Awareness 13

0eings are considered to ha!e the capacity to see the past5 present5 and *uture. I* there is indeed signi*icant e!idence o* a class o* higher order dreams5 Iuestions arise concerning how one may de!elop the capacity *or them and whether or not there are reasons <0eyond their a0ility to increase creati!ity= to culti!ate this capacity. According to the Ti0etan D3ogchen tradition5 the key to working with dreams is the de!elopment o* greater awareness within the dream state. It is this degree o* awareness that di**erentiates ordinary dreaming *rom the ultimate *ruit o* total reali3ation with the dream state. #or0u ;inpoche discusses this di**erence in his chapter on the practice o* the natural light. %!er the course o* a typical night5 as much as eight hours may 0e spent sleeping5 o* which two or more hours might 0e spent dreaming. Are we a0le to remem0er dreams *rom each o* these sessionsH Eow precisely do we remem0er detailsH An indi!idual with no awareness o* her or his dreams5 who is largely una0le to remem0er5 has sacri*iced awareness o* a large portion o* her or his li*e. This person is missing the opportunity 0oth to eCplore the rich and *ertile depths o* the psyche as well as to grow spiritually. Consider the message o* this -uddhist prayerG 2hen the st te of dre min" h s d (ned, Do not lie in i"nor nce li$e cor+se) 3nter the n tur l s+here of un( verin" ttentiveness) 4eco"ni5e your dre ms nd tr nsform illusion into luminosity) Do not slee+ li$e n nim l) Do the +r ctice (hich mixes slee+ nd re lity) There is no dou0t that lucid dreams and clarity eCperiences are *ascinating occurrences which seemingly ha!e positi!e 0ene*its *or sel*9esteem5 integration o* personality5 and o!ercoming o* *ear. It is also critical to place their occurrence within the conteCt o* the Iuest *or spiritual trans*ormation or enlightenment. Inso*ar as a culture such as ours tends to !alue eCperience *or eCperience.s sake5 there is the danger o* missing the *orest *or the trees. %ne lama *rom the Ti0etan -uddhist tradition likened the pursuit o* lucid dream eCperience to mere play and games eCcept when it arises as the 0y9product o* an indi!idual.s de!elopment o* meditati!e clarity through the D3ogchen night practice o* the white light or Tantric dream yoga. Although there does seem to 0e relati!e !alue in lucid dream eCperience5 *rom the -uddhist perspecti!e its use*ulness is limited unless the indi!idual knows how to apply the lucid awareness in the a*ter9death states o* the Chonyid and Sipa -ardos. In the D3ogchen school5 which *or millennia has 0een *amiliar with lucid dream eCperiences as well as such parapsychological phenomena as telepathy and precognition5 there is the constant ad!ice *rom teacher to student that one must not 0e attached to eCperience. This counters the >estern trend

to !alue eCperience *or its own sake. >estern approaches also encourage a systematic analysis o* the content o* dreams5 whereas D3ogchen teachers encourage practitioners not to dwell upon dream phenomena. Although there seem to 0e clear relati!e 0ene*its *rom the eCtensi!e eCamination o* dream material5 it is Iuite possi0le that these 0ene*its are only *or the 0eginner. (or the ad!anced practitioner5 awareness itsel* may ultimately 0e *ar more !alua0le than the eCperience and content5 no matter how creati!e. @reat teachers ha!e reported that dreams cease completely when awareness 0ecomes a0solute5 to 0e replaced 0y luminous clarity o* an indescri0a0le nature. The presentation o* techniIues *or dreamwork *rom these ancient traditions is important 0ecause these traditions are in danger o* eCtinction. Although there ha!e 0een many 0ooks written on the general topic o* dreams5 there has still 0een relati!ely little that would ser!e to 0ring dream work into the spiritual conteCt.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light De-elo'ing Dream Awareness 1"

-uddhist5 -onpo and Taoist teachers ha!e acknowledged to me that this situation has in*luenced their decisions to teach more openly. In a personal way5 this pro?ect ser!ed to *ocus my attention on the power and richness o* maintaining awareness during the o*ten9neglected sleep time. ;egardless o* our material cir9cumstances5 i* we culti!ate this capacity we possess a wish9*ul*illing ?ewel. In the >est the scienti*ic eCploration o* sleep and dreams is Iuite new5 0ut within the larger community o* humankind the arcane science o* dream awareness and eCploration has 0een cherished *or millennia. Pioneer psychologists o* the twentieth century ha!e commented upon dream phenomena. Sigmund (reud called dreams Athe royal road to the unconscious5B and (rit3 Perls called them the Aroyal road to integration.B In their way these assertions may 0e true5 0ut they are o!ershadowed 0y the possi0ility that the awareness o* dreams is a path to enlightenment. I am grate*ul *or the opportunity to help chronicle the eCtraordinary dream eCperiences and teachings on the dream state o* D3ogchen master #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche.
Michael Katz New York City April 23, 1991

Notes To The ntroduction

Psychotropic drugs a**ect the mind5 sometimes inducing !isions or hallucinations. 7sed 0y shamans in nati!e cultures to make contact with the spirit world5 the drugs are *reIuently employed to assist in rituals *or healing. 1Camples o* such drugs are peyote and certain types o* mushroom and cactus. 1. Chthonic deities were considered to li!e 0elow the earth and were associated with agriculture and the *ertility o* the land. They were worshipped 0y the pre9@reek speaking people who were o* a matriarchal culture. These deities may 0e related to the local guardians whom the Ti0etans 0elie!e reside in speci*ic locations. &. Aesclepius <called Aesculapius 0y the ;omans= was considered to 0e a son o* Apollo and was raised 0y the immortal centaur Chiron in his ca!e. Aesclepius 0ecame a great physician and le*t Chiron.s ca!e to help the people o* @reece. As he was a remarka0le healer5 the @reeks ultimately worshipped him as a god and 0uilt temples to honor him. Inside these temples Aesclepius ostensi0ly put 0eds *or the sick5 thus esta0lishing the *irst hospitals. Ee walked a0out with a stick entwined with sacred serpents <the modern sym0ol *or medicine=5 who were said to know the causes and cures o* disease. Sometimes he put his patients to sleep with a Amagic draughtB and listened to what they said in their dreams. %*ten their words eCplained what was causing the ailment5 and *rom this in*ormation he could o**er a cure. Priests continued to in!oke him a*ter his death5 and he continued to appear in dreams o* those who were ill5 o**ering them healing ad!ice.

". The word sh m n is a Si0erian term deri!ing *rom the classical *orm o* shamanism in #orth Asia. Through rituals5 chanting5 drumming and psychotropic drugs5 shamans go into trance *or the purposes o* healing and o* di!ination. '. (rom The 2or$s of Aristotle Tr nsl ted into 3n"lish, ed. >.D. ;oss <%C*ordG Clarendon Press5 18"1=5 Dol. 15 Chapter 15 ADe Di!inatione Per Somnum5B p.'/&a. $. The descriptions o* lucid dream eCperience as awesome and li0erating or5 alternati!ely5 2el3er.s lucid dream eCperience o* 0eing in prison5 which ser!ed to remind him o* the need to work to attain Athat *ullness o* mental eCpression to which I aspire5B seem to echo themes within Plato.s AAllegory o* the Ca!e.B In this classic o* philosophy5 Plato descri0ed ca!e dwellers who ha!e 0ecome accustomed to /.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To The !ntroduction 1#

the shadowy muted reality o* li*e within a ca!e. The inha0itants are unaware o* the possi0ility o* a more !i0rant5 spectacular reality5 and dou0t the pro0a0ility o* the sun. Descriptions o* lucid dreams that include an unusual intensity5 richness o* color5 and other sense impressions may suggest a Ataste o* enlightenment.B Perhaps the dreamer has momentarily 0roken the ha0itual conditioned modes which typically go!ern perception5 re*erred to within the allegory as li!ing within a ca!e. In addition5 there is support *or the contention that (reud knew a0out lucid dreaming and made re*erence to types o* lucid dream eCperience. See AIntroductory 4ectures on PsychoanalysisB in The Com+lete Psycholo"ic l 2or$s of Si"mund Freud5 standard edition <#ew 6orkG Eogarth Press5 181/=5 Dol.1$5 p.&&&. This e!idence is summari3ed 0y -ol ;ooks0y and Sy0e Tenwee in their historical article pu0lished in &ucidity &etter, 6 <&= 188 5 1dmonton5 Al0erta. 7. Fung.s interest in -uddhism and eastern philosophy was great enough *or him to ha!e written the *oreword *or the *irst translation o* the classic Ti0etan -uddhist 0ook o* the dead5 the # rdo Thodol. 7n*ortunately5 due to mistranslations within the original pu0lication o* the Ti0etan -ook o* @reat 4i0eration 0y 1!ans >ent35 Fung ne!er had a clear understanding o* the D3ogchen great per*ection teaching with which the teCt was concerned. 1!ans >ent3.s *aulty understanding o* the D3ogchen su0?ect matter led to his improper translations5 such as that o* the Aprimordially pure nature o* mindB as the Aone mind.B Fung su0seIuently misinterpreted Athe one mindB as re*erring to the unconscious5 which it does not. The pure nature o* mind was a re*erence to the pinnacle teaching o* -uddhism5 D3ogchen. The *la!or o* D3ogchen practice is later descri0ed in this 0ook 0y #amkhai #or0u5 and also within an original teCt 0y the Ti0etan meditation master +ipham <18'/9181'=. (or a thorough discussion o* the a*orementioned misunderstanding5 the reader is re*erred to the recent retranslation o* the Tibet n #oo$ of the %re t &iber tion 0y Fohn ;eynolds. 8. It is unclear to what eCtent Fung was in*luenced in his conception o* uni!ersal psychic energy 0y Tantric -uddhist and Taoist theories o* internal energy5 called AlungB5 ApranaB and AchiB in Ti0etan -uddhism5 Einduism and Taoism5 respecti!ely. >ithin the Tantric system o* Anu 6oga5 AlungB or internal airs are said to circulate through internal channels or meridians called AtsaB. According to #or0u ;inpoche and other lamas within the D3ogchen tradition5 AlungB may 0e puri*ied and caused to circulate along speci*ic internal paths. The methods *or achie!ing these ends are ela0orate 0reathing eCercises and physical eCercises. Collecti!ely5 these eCercises are called 6antra 6oga5 or Tsa 4ung. 8. It is now clear that there are many so9called primiti!e peoples with sophisticated ways o* interpreting and manipulating dreams. >hat seems likely is that *or thousands o* years a *ew

initiates in widely di!erse cultures ha!e practiced dream manipulation5 lucid dreaming and more5 while most o* the population:then as now:slept unconsciously. 1 . 11. 2rippner5 S.5 Dre mtime nd Dre m(or$5 Pre*ace to Chapter $5 pages 171917'. -onpoJ6ung9drung -onG The teachings *ound in the -onpo school deri!ed *rom the -uddha Tenpa Shenra05 who appeared in prehistoric times in central Asia. #on means teaching or dharma5 and 7un"8drun" means the eternal or the indestructi0le. 6ung9drung is o*ten sym0oli3ed 0y a le*tward spinning swastika. The le*tward direction is representati!e o* the matriarchal roots o* Ti0et <the le*t 0eing related to *eminine energy5 the right to masculine=. The 6ung9drung is a sym0ol o* the indestructi0ility o* the -on teachings ?ust as the dor9e:v 9r :di mond scepter is the sym0ol o* the Tantric -uddhist teachings. It is important to note that the 6ung9drung 0ears no ideological relation or similarity to the #a3i swastika sym0ol. 6ung9drung -on is also known as A#ew -on.B 4opon Ten3in #amdak distinguishes two stages o* the de!elopment o* -on. The *irst stage is the most ancient A%ld -on5B or 1&.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To The !ntroduction 1$

APrimiti!e -on5B which is similar to #orth Asian shamanism. The second stage is 6ung9drung -on with its roots in the teachings o* -uddha Tenpa Shenra0. Ten3in #amdak was 0orn in 1astern Ti0et and educated at +enri5 the leading -onpo +onastery in Central Ti0et. In 18$8 he 0ecame a 4opon5 head o* academic studies5 and led an eCodus o* -onpo monks *rom Ti0et to India to escape the Communist Chinese. In the early 18/ s he organi3ed the -onpo community in Dolangi5 Eimachal Pradesh5 and 0uilt a monastery and a lama college there. Ee currently resides there as the head teacher and is the *oremost nati!e -onpo scholar amongst Ti0etans in eCile. 4opon Ten3in #amdak was the in*ormant *or Da!id Snellgro!e.s !ine 2 ys of #on. 4opon li!ed in 1ngland *or three years in the 18/ s and speaks *luent 1nglish. 4opon Ten3in #amdak5 a meditation master who heads the 6ung9drung -on sect o* the -onpo religion5 claims that the -onpo spiritual tradition:including its dream awareness practices:may 0e traced 0ack 185 years to an area that includes western Iran and western Ti0et. According to the -onpo history5 a superhuman 0eing5 Tenpa Shenra05 who incarnated at that time5 was the originator o* their religious system. (or comparison5 archeologists cite e!idence o* religious acti!ity:0urying the dead with o0?ects: *rom " 5 -.C. (urther perspecti!e may 0e gained 0y noting that the archeological remains o* Cro +agnon man5 which ha!e 0een *ound throughout A*rica5 1urope5 and *rom Iran to Asia5 date *rom 1 5 -.C. 1". DakiniG Ti0etan5 ;h dro. 2ha means space5 sky, dm means to go. Thus the term indicates a skyJspace goer. The dakini is understood to 0e the em0odiment o* wisdom5 and is ultimately 0eyond seCual distinction 0ut is percei!ed in *emale *orm. There are many classes o* dakinis including wisdom dakinis5 who are enlightened. 1Camples o* these are +an9dara!a5 6eshe Tsogel and Da?ra 6ogini. There are also *lesh9eating dakinis5 as well as worldly dakinis5 who em0ody worldly *emale energy. Dakinis represent the energy that allows teachings to 0e taught. 1'. Included later within this 0ook are a series o* dreams 0y #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche which he recorded while making pilgrimage to +aratika Ca!e in #epal. %n the pilgrimage5 #or0u ;inpoche dreamed o* a teCt more than 1 pages long5 which included instructions *or ad!anced meditation practices. Spectacularly creati!e dreams such as these are su0seIuently re*erred to as dreams o* clarity. 1$.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To The !ntroduction 1&

%& T'E NAT()E AND CLA!!E! O* D)EA+!

In a sutra -uddha Shakyamuni1 descri0es the phenomenal world that we generally consider to 0e real through the use o* multiple metaphors. These metaphoric descriptions liken our reality to a shooting star5 an optical illusion5 a *lickering 0utter lamp5 dewdrops at dawn5 0u00les in water5 lightning5 a dream5 and clouds. According to the -uddha5 all aggregated eCistence5 all dharmas5& and in *act all phenomena are actually unreal and instantly changing like these eCamples. Another sutra employs additional poetic metaphors *or showing the essential nature o* our unreal condition. These include the re*lection o* the moon in water5 a mirage5 a city comprised o* sounds5 a rain0ow5 a re*lection in a mirror and also a dream. The eCample o* a dream is included in these sutras 0ecause we all know that i* we eCamine a dream we will not *ind anything concrete. 1!en though the primary and the secondary causes *or its arisal may 0e disco!ered5 still there is nothing actually concrete or real a0out the dream itsel*. Although there are many di**erent conditions that may lead to dreaming5 the product o* the conditions5 our dreams5 may in general 0e grouped into two main categoriesG the more common types o* dreams appearing *rom karmic traces" and other types o* dreams appearing *rom the clarity o* mind. >ithin the category o* dreams that are caused 0y karma5 there are dreams that are mainly related to the three states o* eCistence5 i.e.5 the 0ody5 energy or speech5 and the tensions o* the mind o* the indi!idual, and there is another class which is related to karmic traces. The latter has three causes5 namely5 traces o* karma originating in a past li*e5 in youth5 and in the recent past o* the indi!idual. In the tradition o* Ti0etan medicine5 a physician who is conducting an in!estigation as to the origin o* an illness will also consider to which o* the three eCistences the sick person.s dreams relate. >ith this in*ormation5 he or she can disco!er the real condition and situation o* the 0ody5 energy5 and the mind o* the sick person. Sometimes an indi!idual who has a serious illness which is di**icult to cure may 0e in that condition due to karmic causes originating in youth or e!en in a past li*e. It may also happen that the illness is the result o* a karmic cause which has mani*ested *rom recent actions. Thus5 the method o* eCamining dreams 0ecomes one o* the most important means *or analy3ing and disco!ering the principal and secondary causes o* the pro0lem. >hat is meant 0y dreams related to the indi!idual.s three eCistencesH These dreams arise due to any kind o* eCperience o* the 0ody5 speech or mind. Thus5 eCperiences directly related to the indi!idual.s elements5 energy5 and emotions may 0ecome instantaneous causes *or mani*esting some dream eCperience5 either good5 0ad5 or neutral. (or eCample5 a person who is sleeping on a 0ed in an awkward position may 0e uncom*orta0le or in pain. The distur0ance may 0ecome the instant cause *or a negati!e dream. %r5 i* a person is not sleeping well due to o0structed 0reathing5 dreams o* su**ocating or o* 0eing strangled may arise. (urther5 it is not di**icult to understand that *eelings such as ?oy or sadness associated with the mind may also 0e the instant secondary cause *or ha!ing dreams. These are eCamples o* dreams related to conditions o* the indi!idual.s three eCistences. >ith regard to dreams related to traces o* karma5 one type o* dream encompasses those whose cause originates in a pre!ious li*e. In this kind o* dream5 un*amiliar things may appear which the person has not eCperienced in this li*e5 such as !isions o* another country or strange peoples who ha!e un*amiliar
1. T/E NAT01E AND +LA%%E% O2 D1EA3% 1)

customs or language. These dreams may repeat so o*ten that the dreamer 0ecomes knowledgea0le o* the un*amiliar world. Such eCperiences suggest the eCistence o* a !ery strong ha0it *rom a past li*e which has le*t a karmic trace in the indi!idual. %r a dream may appear o* an unusual country with a strange person who wants to trou0le or kill the dreamer, as a result the dreamer has a !ery strong *eeling o* *ear. This sometimes means that a similar situation occurred in a pre!ious li*e:the person.s conditions were strongly a**ected and le*t a karmic trace. This trace reappears when the secondary conditions are ripe. This *irst type o* karmic dream does occur5 e!en though it is not eCperienced *reIuently 0y all people.

2armic dreams o* the second type are those whose causes de!eloped in the dreamer.s youth. I* the youth*ul person was suddenly *rightened or in!ol!ed in an accident5 that eCperience may lea!e a trace5 and thus dreams may recur later in li*e that relate to the e!ent either literally or thematically. %r i*5 *or eCample5 as a child someone eCperienced an earthIuake which created great *ear5 then later in li*e there is the potential that the trace might 0ecome acti!ated with the proper secondary causes such as the eCperience o* another earthIuake. The third type o* karmic dream includes dreams originating *rom recent actions that touched the person deeply. The person might ha!e 0een eCtremely angry some time recently and5 as a conseIuence5 may ha!e *ought with someone. That intense anger lea!es a trace, 0ecause o* this a dream arises similar in situation or theme. The causes o* all these three types o* dreams are principally karmic5 that is5 related to an e!ent that touched the person deeply and le*t traces o* the tension5 *ear or other strong emotion. >hen traces are le*t5 it is logical that dreams with a corresponding theme arise more *reIuently. There are similar !arieties o* dreams which are related to the clarity o* an indi!idual5 that is5 those related to the three eCistences and those related to the karmic traces o* the indi!idual. ;egarding the type o* clarity dream related to the three eCistences5 all human 0eings ha!e in their real nature in*inite potential and unmani*est Iualities. Although the sun shines constantly5 sometimes we cannot see it due to cloud co!ering5 while at other times we can see 0etween the clouds *or a *ew moments. Similarly5 sometimes the indi!idual.s clarity spontaneously appears, one result o* this is the appearance o* dreams o* clarity. People who are practicing Dharma try to relaC. Through relaCing the 0ody5 energy5 and mind5 the elements and energies 0ecome 0alanced and through this secondary or instant cause di**erent kinds o* clarity dreams arise. This is particularly true *or the practitioner who is doing practices related to the chakras' and the channels$ which control the prana/ and energy. >ith some indi!iduals5 these types o* clarity dreams arise through the clarity o* their minds5 e!en without the necessity o* their applying secondary methods to relaC the 0ody or control the energy. >hen a practitioner has matured or de!eloped5 there is a diminution o* the o0stacles that usually *unction to o0scure the natural clarity o* mind. (ollowing the analogy o* the sun5 the clouds ha!e now largely disappeared and the in*inite rays o* sunshine are a0le to mani*est directly. >hen all conditions are correct and the 0ody5 speech and mind are relaCed due to a de!eloped practice5 then there appear many kinds o* clarity dreams5 some o* which may anticipate a *uture e!ent. Also5 like ordinary dreams that ha!e karmic causes *rom past li!es5 clarity dreams o* pre!ious karma can reawaken. Depending on the dreamer.s capacity5 it might 0e possi0le to remem0er a past li*e in its entirety. %ne hundred or e!en a hundred thousand li!es can 0e remem0ered in a dream. >e
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light 1. T/E NAT01E AND +LA%%E% O2 D1EA3% 1*

can read a0out these eCtraordinary dreams appearing through uno0structed clarity in accounts o* the li!es o* 0odhisatt!as and arhats. An eCample o* the dreams o* clarity that a practitioner might ha!e as a result o* the karmic traces accumulated during youth would 0e as *ollows. 1arlier in his or her li*e5 a person may ha!e met many eCtraordinary teachers5 or recei!ed teachings and empowerments5 or learned methods o* practice. 4ater that person can ha!e dreams a0out these things in which he or she goes deeper into this knowledge. The person may e!en acIuire knowledge or methods *or practice within dream that he or she has ne!er heard 0e*ore. %ne can ha!e many interesting dreams o* this type. Clarity dreams related to recent eCperiences may arise as *ollowsG A person reads something5 perhaps a !ery important Dharma teCt5 or has a deep con!ersation a0out practicing Dharma. This may 0ecome the cause *or ha!ing dreams ha!ing to do with the past5 the present5 or e!en the *uture. These are the types o* clarity dreams. They are a continuation and de!elopment o* the ordinary type o* dream and arise primarily *or practitioners who already ha!e some eCperience working with their dreams or who ha!e eCperience o* maintaining lucidity and awareness within the dream. They are

the type o* dreams that mani*ests through the clarity o* one.s state o* mind5 or ri"+ .7 +any o* the methods o* practicing Dharma that are learned during waking can5 upon de!elopment o* dream awareness5 0e applied in the dream condition. In *act5 one may de!elop these practices more easily and speedily within the dream i* one has the capacity to 0e lucid. There are e!en some 0ooks that say that i* a person applies a practice within a dream5 the practice is nine times more e**ecti!e than when it is applied during the waking hours. The dream condition is unreal. >hen we disco!er this *or oursel!es within the dream5 the immense power o* this reali3ation can eliminate o0stacles related to conditioned !ision. (or this reason5 the practice o* the dream is !ery important *or li0erating us *rom ha0its. >e particularly need this power*ul assistance5 0ecause the emotional attachments5 conditioning5 and ego enhancement which compose our normal li*e ha!e 0een strengthened o!er our many5 many years. In a real sense5 all the !isions that we see in our li*etime are like a 0ig dream. I* we eCamine them well5 the 0ig dream o* li*e and the smaller dreams o* one night are not !ery di**erent. I* we truly see the essential nature o* 0oth5 we will see that there really is no di**erence 0etween them. I* we can *inally li0erate oursel!es *rom the chains o* emotions5 attachments5 and ego 0y this reali3ation5 we ha!e the possi0ility o* ultimately 0ecoming enlightened.

Notes To Cha"ter One

Shakyamuni is the historical -uddha who5 0orn as Prince Siddhartha5 renounced his royal 0irthright upon percei!ing the su**ering o* the world5 and attained *inal enlightenment. 1. DharmasG The truth5 laws5 and 0asic realities. This term is used in the singular to descri0e the path towards enlightenment. &. 2armic tracesG According to the doctrine o* karma5 all actions are *ollowed 0y ine!ita0le5 0ut not necessarily immediate5 conseIuences. The term Akarmic tracesB re*ers to the AseedsB which eCist as unmani*est potentials and which ripen when the necessary secondary conditions are present. ". ChakrasG #on9material psychic centers located within the 0ody at speci*ic locations. According to -uddhist metaphysics5 ma?or chakras are *ound at the crown o* the head5 the '.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter One 2,

throat5 the heart5 the na!el5 and the genitals. ChannelsG #on9material meridians through which the internal airs called prana *low through the 0ody. $. PranaG Internal airs which5 according to #or0u ;inpoche5 *low within the 0ody and may 0e directed so as to increase energy5 circulation and concentration 0y ad!anced practitioners o* 6antra 6oga. /. ;igpaG Awareness or pure presence o* natural sel*9per*ected mind. (or additional commentary5 see The Cycle of D y nd !i"ht 0y #amkhai #or0u. 7.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter One 21

,& T'E P)ACT CE O* T'E N -'T

The night is !ery important *or people 0ecause hal* our li!es pass during it, 0ut o*ten we Iuietly sleep away all that time without any e**ort or commitment. There has to 0e real awareness that practice can occur at all times5 e!en during sleep or eating5 *or eCample. I* this does not happen5 progress on the path is di**icult to make. There*ore5 the practice o* the night is !ery important5 and I will eCplain its theory and practice. >hen someone says Apractice o* the nightB we usually think o* the practice o* lucid dreaming.

There are many eCplanations o* lucid dreaming. -ut in the D3ogchen teaching5 the practice o* dream work5 and de!elopment o* lucidity5 is not *undamental. It is a secondary practice. In the case o* dream practice5 second ry means that this practice can arise spontaneously or automatically *rom doing the principal practice5 which is called the Apractice o* natural light.B This practice5 the practice o* the natural light5 actually has to do with the state prior to dream. (or eCample5 a person *alls asleep, f ll slee+ means that all o* his senses !anish into him5 and thus he is sleeping. (rom that point on there is a passage5 a period o* transition5 until dreams 0egin. That period may 0e long or it may 0e short. (or some people5 the state o* dreams 0egins almost immediately a*ter *alling asleep. -ut what does it mean5 that the state o* dream 0eginsH It means that the mind 0egins to *unction again. In contrast5 that which is called the state o* natural light is not a moment or a state in which the mind is *unctioning. It is the period 0eginning when you *ell asleep and ending when the mind 0egins to *unction again. >hat eCists a*ter thisH A*ter this eCists what we call the mil m b rdo.1 There is a correspondence 0etween the states o* sleep and dream and our eCperiences when we die. >hen a person dies5 *irst o* all the senses !anish. In speaking o* 0ardos5 we speak o* the moment when the senses !anish into oursel!es as the 0ardo o* the moment o* dying5 chokyi 0ardo. At this moment the person has many sensations o* the disappearing or withdrawal o* the senses. A*ter that comes a state like unconsciousness, it is similar to a *aint. There then 0egins what is called the arising o* *our lights. Darious tantras& eCplain this with some slight di**erences. Some di!ide it into *our lights, some re*er to *i!e lights. The truth is that it is as i* you had *ainted and:with the arising o* lights:slowly5 slowly consciousness is 0eginning to reawaken. (or eCample5 the mind must 0egin working in order *or reasoning to occur. (irst we must ha!e an awareness o* the senses. The mind 0egins to recei!e these perceptions5 0ut there are no reasoning and thinking yet. Slowly5 step90y9step5 thinking actually arises. There is the presence o* the state o* awareness5 and yet mind has not 0egun to enter into operations such as thinking. This is the passage through which one mo!es in that state which is called the state o* natural light. It has always 0een considered that it is during this period that the practitioner o* Tantra reali3es him9 or hersel*. In Tantrism this period is also descri0ed as the moment in which one meets the mother light." It is eCactly this moment a*ter the *aint5 in which awareness de!elops again5 or reawakens. In Tantric initiation5 there are *our su09initiations5 and the last o* them is called the initiation o* the word. I* you ha!e understood5 at that time the master gi!es a kind o* introduction to natural mind.'
2. T/E P1A+T!+E O2 T/E N!4/T 22

1!en i* you ha!e not reali3ed natural mind 0ut you ha!e a lot o* participation5 commitment5 and *aith5 and you practice with de!otion5 it is sometimes possi0le that in the moment o* the last awakening o* consciousness there will come a *lash o* recognition o* natural mind or rigpa. It is not easy5 0ut i* you ha!e really had knowledge5 it is possi0le. As you are passing or mo!ing through5 there is a series o* the de!elopment o* lights5 *or which there are many eCplanations. In the D3ogchen teaching5 the last o* these phases5 the *i*th light5 is spoken o* as lhundrub5$ the state o* sel*9per*ectedness. In that moment you ha!e a reawakening o* consciousness. It is possi0le *or you to recogni3e that which has 0een transmitted to you through direct introduction 0y the teacher. The eCperience o* that transmission is what we call the eCperience o* wisdom. 4et us use the analogy o* the sun. Imagine that the sky is co!ered with clouds5 and among these clouds you catch a glimpse o* the sun. 1!en i* the clouds ha!e not allowed *ull sunlight5 you ha!e had an eCperience o* what is meant 0y sun and sunlight. This eCperience is analogous to that o* wisdom.

This knowledge is spoken o* as the AsonB knowledge5 in comparison to the AmotherB knowledge or *ull eCperience. >hen we practice5 we try to de!elop this son knowledge. This knowledge is the son o* the mother. Some people succeed in practicing and *ully de!eloping this knowledge5 and thus reali3e themsel!es totally in this li*e. It is said that such a person can reali3e the -ody o* 4ight./ -ut e!en i* you ha!e not reali3ed yoursel* totally and yet ha!e had eCperience o* practice5 then in the moment a*ter death5 in this state o* lhundru0 when you encounter the mother light5 you will recogni3e the *ull presence o* wisdom 0e*ore you return into the workings o* mind. The analogy that is used is that o* a son uniting with his mother. The 0ooks speak o* the meeting 0etween the son light and the mother light5 0ut what is really meant is that what we had only an eCample o*5 we now encounter in its *ullness. This state:as we proceed through the lights to the ultimate light5 the Ihundru05 or light o* sel*9per*ectedness:is the state in which any and e!ery practitioner o* Tantrism reali3es himsel* or hersel*. It is only a*ter that eCperience that the state o* si+ b rdo 0egins. 7p to that point5 we eCperience the chonyid b rdo5 the 0ardo o* the Dh rm t . >hy do we call it the Dh rm t H -ecause it represents our actual underlying state5 or underlying consciousness. %nly a*ter that 0egins the sipa 0ardo5 the 0ardo as one normally knows it5 the 0ardo o* eCistence. In other words5 it is where the workings o* the mind 0egin again. It is as i* we.d now gone into the state o* dream. As in dream you can dream anything and then at a certain moment you wake up and another day 0egins5 so it is considered that you come out o* the 0ardo5 and another eCistence 0egins. This eCistence is determined 0y its karmic !ision5 and that is how you transmigrate. This is how we continue day in5 night out. So we see that the state o* the 0ardos is not something to 0e read a0out or understood a0stractly. It is rele!ant to practice. The way to practice *or death and the sipa 0ardo is to do this practice o* the natural light. I* you ha!e 0ecome knowledgea0le o*5 or ha!e awareness o*5 the state o* natural light5 you will also ha!e that awareness and presence in the moment o* dying. I* you are capa0le o* dying with presence and awareness5 it means you are knowledgea0le a0out the mani*estations o* light. In this case you will ha!e no di**iculty recogni3ing the mother light. To repeatG >ith the 0eginning o* the 0ardo o* eCistence5 the *unctioning or working o* the mind5 what is called the mental 0ody5 also 0egins. This is eIual to the arising o* the state o* dreams. In the
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practice we do5 there has to 0e an awareness o*5 or mastery o*5 the state o* natural light. >hen one has an awareness o* the presence o* this state o* natural light5 then e!en i* a*terwards the state o* dreams arises5 one spontaneously 0ecomes lucidly aware that one is dreaming while dreaming5 and automatically one achie!es mastery o* one.s dreams. This means that the dream does not condition the person5 0ut the person go!erns his or her dream. (or this reason5 the practice o* dreams is secondary5 and I cannot o!eremphasi3e how eCtremely important it is to do the practice o* the natural light. >hen we start to dream we may ha!e one o* two general types o* dreams. %ne type is karmic dreams and the other is dreams o* clarity. In addition to those dreams re*lecting karma *rom our current li*e5 karmic dreams can also 0e linked to our past li!es. (or instance5 i* someone murdered me in a past li*e5 I may still in this li*e ha!e dreams o* 0eing murdered. It is not true that what we dream is always a0out our eCperiences *rom this li*e. I* an e!ent is !ery weighty5 then you may *eel it li*e a*ter li*e. >hen you sleep !ery deeply5 you may create a per*ect potential *or past karma to mani*est within your dreams. I* you merely ha!e hea!y tension5 it may repeat in your dreams. (or eCample5 when you are a child

and someone makes a pro0lem *or you it could repeat in your dreams. %r5 i* today I ha!e a pro0lem with someone5 it may repeat tonight in my dream. The principle is that i* you ha!e hea!y tension5 and you sleep deeply5 the tension tends to repeat. This is one kind o* dream5 a karmic dream o* bh $sh s. -hakshas means traces o* something le*t. (or eCample5 i* there is an empty 0ottle which once contained per*ume5 you can still smell the trace o* per*ume. That is 0hakshas. The other type o* dream is a dream o* clarity. >hy do we ha!e dreams o* clarityH -ecause e!ery0ody since the 0eginning has in*inite potentiality, that is a Iuali*ication o* the natural mind that we all possess. Sometimes5 e!en i* we are not doing a particular practice5 a dream o* clarity will mani*est 0ecause we ha!e that nature. I* you are doing practice o* the night and 0ecoming more *amiliar with it5 then not only occasionally5 0ut on a regular 0asis5 you will 0ecome *amiliar with mani*estations o* dreams o* clarity. >hat is a dream o* clarityH A dream o* clarity mani*ests when there are secondary causes, through the secondary causes it mani*ests as clarity. >e can e!en o0tain ad!ice and predictions *or the *uture 0ecause there are secondary causes *or *uture e!ents. A dream o* clarity generally mani*ests in the early morning. >hyH It is 0ecause when we *irst *ell asleep5 we sleep !ery deeply. Slowly we consume this hea!iness and our sleep 0ecomes lighter. As it 0ecomes lighter5 clarity can mani*est more easily. I* your practice o* continuous presence succeeds5 then karmic dreams diminish. This is 0ecause they are linked with tensions. The state o* contemplation or presence represents total relaCation. ConseIuently there will 0e no mani*estation o* tension. In the place o* karmic dreams5 you can ha!e more dreams o* clarity. 6ou may now understand what the theory is and what is its importance. #ow I will eCplain how you practice it. I* you are an agitated person5 then 0e*ore you go to sleep5 you can do a little deep 0reathing to regulate the *low o* air and calm yoursel*. Then concentrate on a white Ti0etan sylla0le AAB at the center o* your 0ody. I* you pre*er an 1nglish AAB it is accepta0le. The important thing is that it correspond in your mind to the sound Ahhh. It is important that when you see that letter you automatically know what its sound is.
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I* you do not succeed in concentrating and seeing this at *irst5 it may 0e that you do not know how to !isuali3e. Try writing an AAB on a piece o* paper5 put it in *ront o* you5 and stare at it *or a while. Close your eyes and this AAB will appear 0e*ore your mind immediately. In this way you will get a more precise image. So5 you try to concentrate on this white AAB. %r you *iC on the presence o* this white AAB5 and you stay with it as long as you can. 6ou can also do a kind o* training to ha!e greater precision in *eeling this presenceG Imagine that *rom the central AAB a second arises5 and *rom the second5 a third arises5 until you can see a chain o* AABs going up to the crown o* the head. Then you !isuali3e these AABs coming 0ack down. 6ou can repeat this a num0er o* times i* you do not *all asleep immediately. >hene!er you ha!e di**iculty in *eeling the presence o* the AAB5 it is !ery use*ul and important to do this chain. This is a way o* charging your clarity. The most important point is that when you *all asleep5 you try to ha!e this AAB present. Initially5 it should 0e accurate and sharp, a*terwards you relaC. ;elaCing does not mean you drop the AAB or that you gi!e it up. 6ou retain a sense o* its presence5 and you relaC5 and thus you *all asleep. (or those who ha!e not practiced this 0e*ore5 the *irst5 second5 or third time you attempt it you may not succeed at all. In *act5 you may *ind you try it a little and then suddenly you are asleep. 4ike anything5 until you ha!e learned it5 it is di**icult5 0ut i* you eCert your willpower5 it 0ecomes *amiliar to you. I* one is capa0le o* *alling asleep like this5 one would *ind the *ull presence o* the state o* natural

light. %ne *alls asleep5 and one is asleep with !irtually *ull awareness. I* one has this presence o* mind when one enters into the state o* dreams5 it is easy to recogni3e that one is dreaming. It may not happen right away, some may arri!e slowly at this result. 1!en i* this natural light does not occur directly5 the *irst results will 0egin to show themsel!es in the state o* dreams. 6ou may *ind yoursel* dreaming strange dreams. >hat do I mean 0y strange dreamsH As mentioned a0o!e5 we normally ha!e two types o* dreams. The karmic type comes *rom the traces o* our di**iculties5 pro0lems5 memories5 and preoccupations. Then there is the type o* dream in which our natural clarity mani*ests. (or eCample5 towards morning5 interesting dreams o* things you ha!e ne!er thought a0out may occur5 things that ha!e no relationship to the traces o* your thought and past 0ut are more linked to your clarity. I* you ha!e practiced the natural light5 dreams o* natural clarity will mani*est more *reIuently. I* you perse!ere in the practice o* recognition o* the state o* natural light5 it will progressi!ely 0ecome easier to repeat the lucid recognition that you are dreaming. There will arise a steady awareness within the dream5 and you will know that you are dreaming. >hen you look in a mirror you see a re*lection. ;egardless o* whether it is 0eauti*ul or ugly you know that it is a re*lection. This is similar to knowing that a dream is a dream5 to 0eing lucid. >hether the dream 0e tragic or ecstatic5 you are aware that it is merely a dream. Awareness within the dream state 0ecomes a way to de!elop onesel* and to 0reak one.s hea!y conditioning. >ith this awareness5 one can manipulate the dream material. (or eCample5 one can dream whate!er one wishes or one can pick up a desired theme. %ne can continue *rom where one le*t o** dreaming on a pre!ious occasion.
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>ithin the tantric system5 the speci*ic dream yoga practice is oriented towards preparing the practitioner *or the 0ardo a*ter the time o* death. This is not the case in the D3ogchen system. In the D3ogchen system5 it is not necessary that one commit onesel* to working on dreams. That will arise naturally out o* the practice o* the natural light. The most important thing *or this practice5 as I ha!e descri0ed5 is to do the particular !isuali3ation o* the white AAB 0e*ore sleeping. In doing this !isuali3ation we use the working o* the mind in order e!entually to go 0eyond the mind. >hat position you use while practicing this !isuali3ation is not ultimately important. +any people do this !isuali3ation practice a*ter they are lying in 0ed. 6ou must see what kind o* person you are. %ne person may *all asleep merely 0y shutting his or her eyes5 while another person might need to take a sleeping pill. 4et us take the eCample o* the person who lies down and immediately *ells asleep. I* this person 0ecomes distracted *rom his or her practice *or a moment5 he or she is already asleep. This is the type o* person *or whom a particular physical position might 0e use*ul. I* the practitioner is a male it may 0e 0ene*icial *or him to lie on his right side. Assuming he does not ha!e a cold which has 0locked his 0reathing5 it might also 0e use*ul *or him to close the right nostril with his hand. (or women5 the position is re!ersed. A woman should lie on her le*t side and try to 0lock her le*t nostril. I am not saying to stop 0reathing5 i* you ha!e a cold. This o* course would not 0e a good thing. -ut what usually happens is that when you lie down on your side and the unclosed nostril is congested5 within a *ew minutes that nostril will open. The reason that the positions are re!ersed *or men and women has to do with the solar and lunar channels.7 The reason we take these positions is to make it easier to enter the state o* contemplation5 or presence o* the natural light. I* they make your sleep more di**icult5 then they are not recommended. That is why I said that these positions are primarily *or a person who tends to *all asleep easily. 4et us consider *or a moment the opposite situation5 that o* a person who has real pro0lems *alling asleep. In such a case it would not 0e ad!isa0le to do this kind o* !isuali3ation practice or to take

this position. It is likely that this type o* person would merely 0ecome more ner!ous and perhaps not sleep at all. An alternati!e *or people o* this type would 0e to o0ser!e their thoughts. >hate!er thoughts arise should 0e merely o0ser!ed. Then5 in this state o* o0ser!ing the thoughts without 0ecoming in!ol!ed or conditioned 0y them5 one sleeps. As long as one is not distracted5 this is something that anyone can do without creating o0stacles to *alling asleep. I* you ha!e di**iculty sleeping at night5 there are other practices you may employ to assist you. (or eCample5 ha!ing this di**iculty o*ten means that you need to coordinate the energy and *unction o* the di**erent elements within your 0ody. I* your energy is disordered5 it pre!ents you *rom sleeping. In this case5 a deep 0reathing practice done repeatedly can 0e 0ene*icial. 6ou might do the nine9*old puri*ication 0reathing8 0e*ore going to sleep. There are also physical eCercises such as a series o* eight mo!ements8 *ound in 6antra 6oga that can help de!elop your capacity *or correct 0reathing and also 0alance your energies as an aid to sleeping. In addition5 there are Ti0etan medicines to assist a person who has di**iculty sleeping. 7nlike sleeping pills they do not cause dependence or other side e**ects. These medicines5 such as Agar "$ and Dimala51 can 0e used *or one or two months:as long as you need5 really:and will not cause any negati!e side e**ects. ;ather5 they will help your health and
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coordinate your energy. >hen you do not need the medicine anymore5 you can stop without withdrawal symptoms or negati!e e**ects. That is the 0ene*it o* these Ti0etan medicines. I* you ha!e 0ecome ha0ituated to >estern sleeping pills5 you can initially alternate them withTi0etan pills in order to lessen the dependency. %ne night you use >estern medicine5 and the neCt night you use Agar "$. A*ter one or two weeks o* alternating5 you will 0e a0le to stop taking the >estern medicine without a pro0lem. 6ou must not think only o* Ti0etan medicine when it comes to assuring a good night.s sleep. 6ou should also work with 0reathing in the manner pre!iously mentioned5 as this is !ery related to sleep. Sometimes you cannot sleep 0ecause one o* your three humors11 is distur0ed. >hen the wind humor is distur0ed one has particular trou0le sleeping. >ind is linked with +r n or energy. >hen prana is distur0ed it is di**icult to sleep. (or more in*ormation on this you can consult 0ooks on Ti0etan medicine. In a 0ook I wrote 1& on the topic there is an eCplanation o* the three humors and o* how to o!ercome pro0lems. (or eCample5 to o!ercome pro0lems related to wind disease5 it is help*ul to go to 0ed earlier in the e!ening5 to sleep with warm clothes5 and to ha!e something like soup to eat ?ust 0e*ore going to 0ed. I* you are not sleeping at night5 and instead o* relaCing you work hard until late hours5 or you eat raw !egeta0les5 this may *urther aggra!ate the condition. There are many things to learn in Ti0etan medical 0ooks. 1!erything is related. (irst try these preparations so you can *all asleep. I* you ha!e succeeded5 then you can do the practice o* the night. I* your situation is 0etween *alling asleep immediately5 and not 0eing a0le to *all asleep5 then !isuali3e a white or AAB5 0ut one that is not !ery 0right. I* you ha!e a pro0lem *alling asleep5 you must not !isuali3e the white AAB as too 0right5 and you could also !isuali3e it in a sphere o* *i!e colors. This makes it easier to *all asleep. There are many kinds o* people and many situations, we should know a0out all o* them. I* one does this practice with commitment5 one slowly may 0ecome a master o* one.s dreams. As one has more awareness and more dreams o* clarity5 dreaming 0ecomes a practice. (or eCample5 as I mentioned5 i* one has achie!ed su**icient mastery o* dreams5 one can trans*orm them. I* I am dreaming something ugly5 I could trans*orm it into something 0eauti*ul5 I could cause the dream to deal with some theme or argument that I ha!e chosen5 or I could play out some *antasy o* my imagination. %ne could !isit a paradise or contact a certain teacher. There are many things one can do, one can o*tentimes work out the dream as one wishes. This can 0ecome a test o* one.s actual

progress. 4et us discuss this in greater detail. As pre!iously mentioned5 there are preparations *or dreamwork as well as the actual practice. In regards to preparation5 it would 0e ad!isa0le *or one to conduct a retreat to *irst practice concentration on the siC sylla0les 1" and their puri*ication. A*ter doing this practice *or some time5 many disordered dreams may appear. The arising o* numerous disordered dreams is a sign that preparation is complete and then one can proceed to the practice.
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In regards to practice there are three essential points. The *irst is to eCamine the dream, the second to control it, and the third to distinguish and recogni3e the b "8ch " or karmic traces. Prior to sleep each night it is ad!isa0le to relaC the 0ody5 through 0aths and massage5 *or eCample. %ne must then resol!e with *ull intention to progress on the path towards *ull awareness and lucidity within dreams. #eCt5 one may initially make use o* the e**icacious positions mentioned a0o!e that assist in the practice. %ne thus lays onesel* down on one.s side:the right side ha!ing to do with the !oid5 the le*t with clarity:and closes the corresponding nostril with a *inger o* the corresponding hand5 which lies under one.s cheek. The right side actually go!erns or allows the !oid to operate5 and the le*t side helps with the operation o* clarity. It may 0e pre*era0le5 initially5 to lie on the le*t side5 thus promoting clarity:the work o* the unimpeded right. 4ater as one.s practice 0ecomes sta0le5 position will not 0e important. I* it seems that you ha!e not dreamed5 or there is only a *aint memory o* a dream5 it is indicati!e that sleep was too deep. In this case5 place the pillows higher5 using lighter or *ewer co!ers5 let more air andJor light into the sleeping place or mo!e to a more open spot. I* dreams do not come regularly5 you may eCperiment 0y sleeping in whiche!er way you *ind com*orta0le5 on either the right or the le*t side. I* dreams still do not come5 concentrate on the throat chakra5 and !isuali3e a red <AAB=, i* this is di**icult5 a red 0all will su**ice. I* you still do not remem0er dreams5 !isuali3e the red letter or 0ead as increasingly more luminous each successi!e night. I* di**iculty persists5 think o* a white 0ead on your *orehead5 at the location o* the third eye. I* there is still nothing5 !isuali3e the white 0ead with increasing radiance each successi!e night. These concentrations are per*ormed only i* dreams are not remem0ered. I* you ha!e not mastered the lucidity:awareness that one is dreaming while doing so:then during the day you should continually remind yoursel* that all that you see and all that is done is not other than a dream. -y seeing e!erything throughout the day as i* it were a dream5 dream and awareness are thoroughly miCed. Su0seIuently5 0e*ore sleeping5 continue to *ocus well on the red AAB in the throat. Thus5 you will *all asleep while *iCing on the AAB. (ocusing in this way 0e*ore *alling asleep unites the lun" or prana there with concentration. %n occasion5 a *ear*ul nightmare may arise. I* due to shock you instantly 0ecome lucid5 this is called Adistinguishing the dream 0y !iolent meansB. Achie!ing lucidity in this manner is relati!ely common, su0seIuently you must continue to practice concentration on the red AAB5 and gradually there will also de!elop the capacity *or lucid awareness within dreams with peace*ul themes. Continued progress in dreamwork5 e!en a*ter lucid awareness is commonly achie!ed5 depends !ery much on the acti!ities o* the day. Intense concentration on a theme or on any su0?ect will lead to its arising. I* you wish to cause yoursel* to dream o* a Ti0etan deity5 *or eCample5 think o* trans*orming yoursel* into that deity 0y concentrating on the deity intensely. Similarly5 imagining that you are tra!eling or making imaginary !oyages to unknown or e!en

known places will in*luence your dreams. 4ater5 you can eCtend the !oyages to paradise5 *or eCample5 causing it to actually appear in the dream.
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I* you concentrate a great deal during the day5 imagining that you are li!ing a dream5 then during the night the dream itsel* will also seem less real. The su0?ect5 that which eCperiences the dream5 is the mind. -y holding the thought that all is a dream5 you 0egin to dissol!e this Asu0?ectB. That is5 the mind 0egins to dissol!e itsel*5 automatically. %r5 to put it another way5 when the o0?ect or !ision is dissol!ed5 the action rums 0ack towards the su0?ect5 causing complete dissolution. Thus5 neither !ision nor dream eCists any longer. %ne *inds that the su0?ect is not concrete and that !ision is only Are*lectionsB. %ne thus 0ecomes aware o* the true nature o* 0oth. Dision created 0y karma and the psychic AtailB or 0ackground imprint is the origin o* all illusions, i* authentic awareness o* the illusory reality arises5 one arri!es at the disappearance o* Asolid reality.B ;eali3ation means true understanding o* the waking state and the dream state. 2nowing the true nature o* the dream5 you may su0seIuently trans*orm it. I* you dream o* a snake5 *or eCample5 upon recogni3ing that you are dreaming5 you should trans*orm the snake into whate!er you like5 perhaps a man. Thus5 it is not the dream which commands the dreamer5 0ut the dreamer who commands the dream. >hen you ha!e 0ecome a0le to change the dream5 de!elop your skill 0y *urther scram0ling the dream elements:*or eCample5 putting what is in the east in the west5 multiplying or condensing the elements5 turning things upside down5 putting high things low5 or making what is 0ig5 small. This process applies not only to *orms5 0ut also to sensations. I* you dream o* something pleasing5 trans*orm it into something unpleasant. Systematically re!erse e!erything. I* you ha!e di**iculty trans*orming dream !ision5 it may 0e that in your dreams there arise too many images o* the past5 o* childhood5 *or eCample5 or e!en o* other li!es. In this case one could say that the dreams are in*luenced 0y the psychic AtailB or 0ackground. %ne *inds considera0le di**iculty in trans*orming such a dream5 whereas i* one dreams o* items or e!ents linked to present or recent situations and happenings5 trans*ormation is much easier. I* one dreams o* e!ents which ne!er happened:*or eCample5 o* unknown countries and people:it may also 0e Iuite hard to put an end to dreaming or to eChaust the dream state. I* all three phenomena arise5 intermingled and con*used <b "8ch " sum = it is an indication that the process o* transcending the dream state will 0e long and eCtremely di**icult. I* we ha!e o0stacles that hinder us *rom the *inal o!ercoming o* dreams <9 8lu8+ho8( 8chen8mo=5 we must make a deeper commitment and pray *or progress. Amid intentional trans*ormation5 spontaneous images may arise. (or eCample5 i* you dream that you are in a *orest5 and choose to change the situation and place yoursel* in a desert5 some items that appear may 0e di**erent than what was intended to 0e pro?ected. As one progresses and manages to maintain meditati!e awareness5 eCperiences o* clarity arise spontaneously. As one continues towards mastery o* the dream state5 the principal techniIue neCt 0ecomes the miCing o* daytime !ision and dreams. %ne must constantly carry one.s awareness into the dreams. As soon as the dream arises5 instantly 0e aware that it is AunrealB <sh 8dro=. %ne must also 0ring this same recognition o* unreality to one.s daily !ision. As we de!elop our awareness o* the dream nature we may use dreams to deepen our meditati!e awareness. (or eCample5 a meditator who penetrates to the nature o* A!isionB <o* phenomenal eCistence= *inds it !oid. This perception o* the emptiness o* !ision can then 0e trans*erred into the
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dream. I*5 while dreaming5 you are not only aware o* dreaming5 0ut also conscious that all !ision is an illusion5 you penetrate to the Doid at its heart. Thus a dream can 0e trans*ormed into knowledge

o* emptiness5 shuny t . Although awareness o* the true nature o* the dream may enhance one.s meditati!e awareness5 there is also the danger that 0y 0ecoming skilled at trans*ormation o* the dream images one may 0ecome attached. The attachment must 0e o!ercome. The principal means o* cutting the attachment through the dream eCperiences are three. (irst5 during the day5 do not dwell upon the dreams you ha!e had. Second5 while actually dreaming5 watch without ?udging5 without pleasure or *ear5 regardless o* whether the !isions seem positi!e or negati!e and thus might pro!oke ?oy or unhappiness:that is5 attachment. Third5 while dreaming and then a*terwards5 do not Aclari*yB what is Asu0?ectB *rom what is Ao0?ectB:that is5 do not consider which o* the images that appear are real. -y proceeding in these ways5 you will *ind that compleC dreams gradually simpli*y5 lighten and e!entually may !anish completely. Thus5 all that was conditioned will 0e li0erated. At this point5 dreams end. 6ou should try to do the practice o* natural light each night5 ?ust as you should try to 0e in the state o* contemplation continually. (or e!ery moment and e!ery acti!ity there are ways to do D3ogchen practice. I*5 howe!er5 D3ogchen practice o* the night is di**icult *or you5 and you ha!e more eCperience doing tantric style dream practice and you ha!e had an initiation on a particular deity5 then perhaps it would 0e use*ul *or you to continue with your tantric practice. (or eCample5 i* you do the practice o* Da?rayogini1' 5 then upon sleeping you should try to !isuali3e a !ery tiny Da?rayogini at the center o* your 0ody. >e call this tiny 0eing ?nanasatt!a which means wisdom mani*estation. 6ou keep this presence and continue your sleep. There are other !isuali3ation practices similar to guru yoga1$ in tantric dream practices. (or eCample5 you might !isuali3e Da?radhara1/ as the uni*ication o* all your gurus and mani*est that !isuali3ation in the center o* your 0ody. 6ou would keep the presence o* this !isuali3ation5 relaC5 and slowly5 slowly go to sleep. -ecause these are tantric eCercises5 you should practice only the special instructions you recei!e *rom your master. -y contrast5 in D3ogchen we generally do the !isuali3ation o* a white AAB5 as mentioned a0o!e5 *or the purpose o* coordinating the energy. >e !isuali3e the white AAB at the center o* the 0ody. A*ter ha!ing mani*ested this white5 luminous AAB5 we slowly relaC. >e relaC slowly 0ut completely when we do this !isuali3ation5 so as not to ha!e tension. I* we do not relaC completely5 we will 0e una0le to sleep. >e must spontaneously mani*est the white AAB without thinking5 without creating5 and then relaC all e**ort and go to sleep. In order to remind yoursel* to !isuali3e the white AAB and to do the D3ogchen practice o* the night5 it is !ery use*ul to put a picture or sign o* a white AAB near your 0ed. #o one will know what it is, perhaps they will think it is a piece o* artwork. 6ou5 howe!er5 will know its precise *unction. It is also !ery important to remem0er the practice o* the white AAB when you awaken in the morning. I* possi0le you may sound AAhB immediately. I* you cannot sound loudly 0ecause there is someone else sleeping5 it is enough that you eChale with AAh5B as long as you can hear yoursel* and *eel the presence o* that white AAB. This is a method o* guru yoga. It is not necessary to say many words or
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prayers, simply ha!ing the presence o* the white AAB and recogni3ing that the AAB is the uni*ication o* the mind o* all your gurus is su**icient. Then you integrate in a state o* contemplation or rigpa. Starting your morning yoga in this way is wonder*ul and will help !ery much with all your practices and particularly your practice o* the night. There is a kind o* connection you make 0y remem0ering the white AAB in the morning and again when you are going to sleep. I* you maintain the presence o* the white AAB in your sleep5 you will ha!e clearer dreams. 6our dreams will 0ecome more associated with clarity5 and slowly5 slowly you de!elop greater awareness. I* you are aware in the dream5 you can eCperience many things within the dream state. It is easier to

de!elop your practices in a dream than in the daytime. In the daytime we are limited 0y our material 0ody5 0ut in a dream our *unction o* mind and our consciousness o* the senses are unhindered. >e can ha!e more clarity. Thus there are more possi0ilities. (or eCample5 it is possi0le to practice ad!anced D3ogchen practices o* togel and the D3ogchen lon"de17 . I* you practice these in the daytime you can certainly ha!e meditati!e eCperiences5 0ut in a dream you can ha!e eCperiences 0eyond the limitation o* the material 0ody. That is why the practice is !ery important. In the daytime all eCperiences we ha!e are !ery much conditioned 0y our attachment and tension. >e *eel that e!erything is concrete. In a dream we may initially *eel that e!erything is concrete5 0ut then suddenly remem0er that it is a dream. >hen you are aware in a dream5 you know you are dreaming and that it is unreal. 6ou know you are in a state o* unreality. %nce you ha!e this eCperience5 you can also make disco!eries a0out your daily li*e such as a0out your ma?or attachments. The ultimate result is to diminish your tension. (or those people who *ind it di**icult to ha!e the kind o* presence I.!e descri0ed5 the practice o* the dark retreat18 is !ery use*ul. A*ter two days or three days in the dark5 you lose your sense o* day and night. 6our sleep 0ecomes lighter and lighter. 6ou sleep and wake up5 sleep and wake up. Such a retreat o**ers a good opportunity to de!elop your presence and clarity. In this en!ironment you can more easily disco!er what it means to ha!e presence when you are sleeping. 6our waking and sleeping states thus 0ecome integrated. #ormally5 *or a practitioner5 one o* the principal ways that signs o* progress mani*est is in dreams. Sometimes there occurs5 in dream5 an inter!ention on 0ehal* o* the practitioner. (or eCample5 i* I am doing something wrong5 I may ha!e a communication through a dream. This may come 0y way o* transmission o* the teaching. It may also come through the protectors o* the teaching5 or the dakinis. +any pro0lems can 0e resol!ed through the transmission that comes in dream. 6ou can.t eCpect that you are going to ha!e the master at your 0eck and call in the *lesh all your li*e. >hen I5 *or eCample5 had 0een in Italy *or a0out three years5 I had a dream o* my master Changchu0 Dor?e.18 In the dream I actually *elt that I had returned to Ti0et. It seemed so real5 and I was in *act a 0it *rightened a0out the Chinese. I was worried5 and I said to mysel*5 A>ho knows i* the Chinese will let me out again.B Then I met my teacher. I *elt em0arrassed5 as my intention was to greet him Iuickly and then get out o* there5 and go 0ack to Italy. +y master said to me5 AIt has 0een many years that we ha!en.t seen each other. Eow is your practice goingHB I said5 A>ell5 like this and like that.B And he asked5 A>hat practice ha!e you 0een doingHB I eCplained that I had 0een doing my 0est to take into daily li*e the practice o* trechod& .
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light 2. T/E P1A+T!+E O2 T/E N!4/T 31

A6ou ha!en.t 0een doing any o* the practice o* to"el&1 .HB he continued. And I said5 A>ell5 no5 I ha!en.t 0een doing the togel.B Ee asked5 A>ell5 why notHB A>ell5B I answered5 A0ecause you told me that I had to per*ect the trechod *irst. I had to get it !ery sta0le. So I.m working to per*ect and make !ery sta0le my trechod.B Ee said5 A>ell5 do you ha!e any dou0ts a0out your knowledge o* togelHB I said5 A#o5 no5 I don.t ha!e any dou0ts. I ?ust ha!en.t 0een doing that practice.B Ee said5 A>ell you 0etter get to it. Do the practice o* togel. That is !ery important.B I said5 A%kay5 that.s what I.ll 0e doing *rom now on.B Ee said5 A#ow listen5 i* you do ha!e any dou0ts a0out togel5 or anything you don.t understand clearly5 go ask Figme 4ingpa.&& I said5 A>here is Figme 4ingpaHB A7p the mountain there5 in the ca!e5B he answered.

A>here upHB I said5 0ecause right 0ehind the !illage where my master is5 there is a sheer cli**. >hen I was li!ing with my master5 I went up that mountain many times to collect medicines. I knew per*ectly well there is no ca!e up there. At least in those times there was no ca!e. I thought to mysel*5 A>ell5 why is he telling me there.s a ca!e up thereHB The master 0ecame wrath*ul. Ee said5 AI* you really want to understand something5 you.ll get up there and *ind Figme 4ingpa in that ca!e.B So I didn.t argue anymore. I was !ery curious a0out it. I went out and started clim0ing up the mountain to see where the ca!e was. A certain part o* the rock *ace is white5 0ut in this dream I *ound it a little 0it di**erent *rom how it had 0een. It was all car!ed with innumera0le letters which I could read in Ti0etan. It seemed like a tantra. I thought5 AThis is !ery strange. It wasn.t like that 0e*ore.B And I thought to mysel*5 A>ell5 *rom walking5 clim0ing5 o!er this tantra5 I.m going to accumulate some 0ad actions.B This is a Ti0etan way o* thinking a0out things. So with this preoccupation5 I started reciting the one9hundred sylla0le mantra.&" Then slowly5 slowly I continued to clim0 up. At a certain point there was a sort o* cur!ed rock that I had to clim0 on, this rock appeared to 0e a title page5 with the title o* the tantra which I.d ?ust 0een clim0ing o!er. It was called the Todr l dons l nin"+o "urd. Trodr l means 0eyond concept, dons l means to clari*y the meaning, nin"8+o means the essence. 4ater I disco!ered that there actually is a tantra o* that name. So then I clim0ed up and slowly5 slowly approached the !ery peak o* the mountain and there was a ca!e. Coming close5 I looked inside this rather large ca!e. At the !ery center5 there was a stone:a white 0oulder5 hard and like granite. It was not a tiny stone, it was a 0ig 0oulder. Sitting on this rock
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light 2. T/E P1A+T!+E O2 T/E N!4/T 32

was a little 0oy. I.m sure that he wasn.t more than se!en or eight years old. I looked around. There was no0ody else in there. I said to mysel*5 AThis is pretty strange. Figme 4ingpa li!ed a long time ago. Ee couldn.t 0e a little 0oy like that.B +eanwhile this little 0oy was looking at me. I thought to mysel*5 A>ell5 since my master told me to come up here and meet Figme 4ingpa5 who knows5 may0e this is some kind o* emanation o* Figme 4ingpa.B I thought that I had 0etter 0eha!e well towards him. So I directly approached the child. Ee was wearing a garment that was like a transparent 0lue shirt. Ee had nothing else on. Ee had long hair5 0ut not tied up like that o* a yogi. Ee ?ust looked like a normal little 0oy. I *ound this pretty strange. So I came up right in *ront o* him. I said5 A+aster Changchu0 Dor?e sent me to you.B The little 0oy looked at me. Ee looked almost as i* he were surprised to hear this. 4ooking at the 0oy I 0egan to dou0t him5 0ut I watched what he was doing. (inally he gestured me to sit down. >hen I sat down5 he reached and touched the 0ack o* his head5 and 0rought *orth a roll o* paper5 a scroll. Ee opened the scroll and 0egan to read *rom it. >hen he read5 it was in the !oice o* a little 0oy5 0ut he was not gi!ing a teaching or an eCplanation. Ee was reading. Ee read *our or *i!e sentences. Immediately upon hearing his !oice5 I reali3ed that the scroll was a tantra. At that moment it struck me5 A%h it.s true5 it is Figme 4ingpa. -ecause it could hardly 0e some ordinary little 0oy who can produce a scroll and then read in this *ashion.B And with this emotion5 this startling thought5 I awoke *rom the dream. A*terwards I did ela0orate research to *ind those teCts5 and I *ound speci*ic teCts on the D3ogchen togel practice. This is an eCample o* the *act that a relationship 0etween master and disciple always eCists regardless o* Iuestions o* time and distance. +y master was *ar5 *ar away in Ti0et, I was li!ing in 1urope. These are some o* the possi0ilities that can occur within dreams as one.s practice progresses. I* you *all asleep with the presence o* the AAB you may *ind yoursel* waking in the morning with it still present. 6ou can then assume that you ha!e spent the entire night in practice. As the night is rather long5 and you ha!e nothing else to do 0ut sleep5 it is !ery important to utili3e the time. #ight can 0ecome5 *or a practitioner5 e!en more important than the practice o* the day. The *inal goal o* dream practice is that dreams 0ecome awareness and at that ultimate point dreams

actually cease. 6ou use your practice so that your dreams in*luence daily li*e. This is the principal practice o* the nighttime.

Notes To Cha"ter Two

. -ardoG literally5 Aintermediate stateB. There are siC 0ardosG The first is the 0ardo o* the ordinary waking state <Ti0etan5 $ye ne b rdo=. It is the eCperience o* the awake and conscious reality as we know it. The second is the 0ardo o* the dream state <Ti0etan5 mil m b rdo=. It is the eCperience o* dream time while sleeping. The third5 the meditation 0ardo <Ti0etan5 s mten b rdoK5 includes all eCperience o* meditation5 *rom no!ice meditation to total reali3ation. The fourth5 the 0ardo o* the dying process <Ti0etan5 chil$ i b rdo=5 is the process during which the *i!e elements o* which our 0ody is constituted <space5 air5 water5 *ire5 earth= dissol!e into one another. According to the Tibet n #oo$ of the De d5 *irst the element o* earth5 which is yellow in color5 dissol!es into the water element. The dying person simultaneously sees yellow and *eels weak and una0le to stand5 as though all o* his or her surroundings were *alling apart. 1.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter Two 33

Secondly the element o* water dissol!es into the element *ire. Inwardly the dying person sees white and outwardly *eels as though his or her surroundings were *looded with water. At this point the *ace and throat *eel dry and great thirst arises. Thirdly5 the element o* *ire dissol!es into the air element. Inwardly the dying person sees red while outwardly his or her surroundings *eel hot. The person may *eel a 0urning sensation as the 0ody.s heat dissol!es. (ourthly5 the element o* air dissol!es into the element o* space or ether. The dying person inwardly sees green and outwardly eCperiences the surroundings as though they were 0eing destroyed 0y a *erocious wind and loud thunder. At the *i*th stage5 the ether dissol!es into consciousness5 phenomena 0ecome dark5 and momentarily consciousness is lost5 as in a *aint. The fifth 0ardo5 <Ti0etan5 chonyid b rdo=5 the 0ardo o* reality5 entails the arising o* apparitions and hallucination9like eCperience as a conseIuence o* one.s karmic propensities. 7sing meditati!e awareness the indi!idual has an opportunity to recogni3e these images in their illusory5 true nature. These hallucinatory !isions are similar in nature to the images in dreams. Eence the capacity *or lucid dreaming may 0e use*ul *or understanding them as illusion. According to the Ti0etan -ook o* the Dead5 an enlightenment eCperience is possi0le i* one can maintain the !iew that the *rightening eCperiences are nothing more than mani*estations o* one.s mind. The si5th 6ardo5 <Ti0etan5 si+ b rdo=5 the 0ardo o* the search *or re0irth in samsara5 corresponds to the Ti0etan -uddhist !iew o* reincarnation. The sipa 0ardo details the process where0y an indi!idual will 0e re0orn in one o* siC realms <the god realm5 demi9god realm5 human realm5 animal realm5 hungry9ghost realm5 and the hell realm=5 depending on karma. In an interesting parallel to psychoanalytic theory5 the Ti0etan -uddhist tradition asserts that the indi!idual5 while still in a mental 0ody5 will 0e seCually attracted to the parent o* the opposite seC5 and ha!e an a!ersion to the parent o* the same seC. In *act5 according to Ti0etan -uddhist philosophy5 all that the disincarnate 0eing sees are the seCual organs o* the parents9to90e. This is perhaps the most 0asic *oundation o* what we call the %edipus compleC. . TantraG literally5 AcontinuationB5 in the sense that although all phenomena are !oid5 ne!ertheless phenomena continue to mani*est. All tantric methods work with the principle o* trans*orming deluded thought to pure perception. See Cryst l nd the 2 y of &i"ht5 p. " . The word t ntr also re*ers to the teCts within which these methods are descri0ed. &. . +other 4ightG In D3ogchen5 one practices dream yoga or the practice o* the Clear 4ight at the moment o* *alling asleep and 0e*ore the arising o* the dream state. The eCperience o*

Clear 4ight is known as the AsonB eCperience. I*5 through correct meditati!e practice or contemplation5 the Clear 4ight has 0een clearly recogni3ed during li*e5 then at death the practitioner once more recogni3es and integrates with the AmotherB Clear 4ight. This is known as the ?oining o* the AsonB and the AmotherB. The mother Clear 4ight is the natural5 innate luminosity as it appears in its *ullest eCpression in the a*ter9death state. See Fohn ;eynolds5 Self8&iber tion Throu"h Seein" (ith ! $ed A( reness <-arrytown5 #.6.G Station Eill Press5 1888=5 p. 1$"5 note /". ". . Introduction to natural mindG In the !arious methods o* introducing one.s natural mind5 the master is assisting the student in de!eloping awareness5 also called rigpa or the intrinsic awareness o* one.s natural state5 re*erring to pure presence. '. . 4hundrupG literally5 Asel*9per*ection.B This re*ers to one.s state or eCistence which is per*ect *rom the 0eginning5 and all that mani*ests. These mani*estations or re*lections arise spontaneously5 and are complete within themsel!es. &hundru+ speci*ically re*ers to the innate clarity o* the sel*9per*ected state. $. . -ody o* 4ightG Ti0etan5 9 8lus. Also known as the Arain0ow 0ody.B Certain reali3ed 0eings <practitioners o* 4ongde and +anagede le!els o* D3ogchen= achie!e the trans*ormation o* /.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter Two 3"

their ordinary 0odies into a -ody o* 4ight at the time o* death. In this process the physical 0ody dissol!es into its natural state5 which is that o* Clear 4ight. As the elements o* the 0ody are puri*ied5 they trans*orm *rom their gross mani*estation <0ody5 *lesh5 0one5 etc.= into their pure essence as the *i!e colorsG 0lue5 green5 white5 red5 and golden yellow. As the 0ody dissol!es into these *i!e colors a rain0ow is *ormed and all that remains o* the physical 0ody are *ingernails and hair. Twentieth9century practitioners o* D3ogchen who ha!e attained the -ody o* 4ight include the teachers and *amily mem0ers o* #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche:*or eCample5 his uncle 7rgyen Dan3in <Togden=5 his two teachers Changchu0 Dor?e and Ayu 2handro5 and Changchu0 Dor?e.s master5 #yala Pema Dendul. Solar and lunar channelsG >ithin the esoteric tsa9lung treatises *ound in Anu96oga teCts o* Ti0etan -uddhism5 there are ela0orate eCplanations o* the channels <Ti0etan ts = in which internal winds tra!el. The solar and lunar channels are considered to 0e located on either side o* the central channel <um =5 which parallels the spinal cord. These solar and lunar channels represent masculine and *eminine energy. Their colors9red and white:as well as their placement on the right and le*t side di**er amongst !arious Tantras. 7. #ine9*old puri*ication 0reathingG Ti0etan5 lun"ro s l( G A 0reath eCercise per*ormed 0e*ore a session o* meditation <tun=5 or 0e*ore practicing 6antra 6oga. In these eCercises one !isuali3es onesel* inhaling puri*ied air and eChaling negati!ities and impurities. It is used as a practice preliminary to meditation to 0alance the energy and settle the mind. 8. The eight mo!ementsG Ti0etan5 lun" s n"G 6ogic eCercises to puri*y the prana or 0reath. The eight mo!ements are descri0ed within the 6antra 6oga teCt5 AThe 7ni*ication o* the Solar and 4unarB <Ti0etan5 Trul$or !yid ;h 9or=5 written in the eighth century 0y the master Dairocana. See #amkhai #or0u5 7 ntr 7o" 5 edited 0y %li!er 4eick <@leisdor*G 1dition Tsaparang5 1888=5 p."". 8. Agar "$ and DimalaG Ti0etan her0al medicines. Agar "$ is made o* thirty9*i!e natural ingredients, 0oth Agar "$ and Dimala are taken *or insomnia and to 0alance AlungB5 a disordered wind condition. These preparations can 0e purchased through the Ti0etan +edical and Astrological Institute5 2hara Danda ;oad5 Dharamsala5 Dist. 2angra5 E.P. 17/&1$5 India. 1 . Three humorsG lun" <air or wind=5 dri+ <0ile=5 and b d8$ n <phlegm=. The correct 0alance o*

these three humors is considered essential *or health. An im0alance will lead to one o* the myriad diseases to which humans are prone. 11. #amkhai #or0u5 .n #irth nd &ife: A Tre tise on Tibet n 'edicine <ArcidossoG Shang9Shung 1dit3ioni5 188"=. 1&. Concentration on the siC sylla0les and their puri*icationG The siC sylla0les:A5 Aaah5 Ea5 Sha5 Sa5 +a:are each sym0olic o* a realm o* eCistence5 including those o* the gods5 demigods5 humans5 animals5 hungry ghosts5 and hell 0eings. 2armic tendencies to 0e re0orn in one o* these samsaric realms5 which originate through improper actions5 must 0e puri*ied. +editation on the siC sylla0les unites lun" <prana= and mind concentration in order to puri*y these tendencies. The speci*ic practice o* concentration on the sylla0les employs !isuali3ation and mantra directed at speci*ic points o* the 0ody where these propensities are 0elie!ed to concentrate. 1". Da?rayoginiG A meditational deity in sam0hogakaya *orm5 representing the *eminine aspect o* primordial wisdom. 1'. @uru yogaG 7ni*ication with the mind o* the guru <one.s master teacher=5 who is seen as a mani*estation o* the minds o* all enlightened 0eings. The mind o* the guru is considered the same as one.s intrinsic awareness. Through the practice o* guru yoga one recei!es 0lessings *rom the guru5 thus ena0ling one to rest in the primordial state. There are ela0orate and simple *orms o* guru yoga. In Tantra5 one *inds a more ela0orate style5 whereas in D3ogchen a simpler !ersion may 0e practiced. %ne o* the *orms o* guru yoga taught most *reIuently 0y #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche employs 1$.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter Two 3#

a white a Ti0etan AAB The AAB is !isuali3ed in the center o* one.s 0ody as the union o* all one.s masters. -y sounding AAaa.. .hB and *eeling the 0lessings o* the teachers5 one may enter into a state o* union with their enlightened awareness. Da?radharaG A male meditational deity5 the *orm through which Shakyamuni -uddha re!eals the teachings o* secret mantra. 1/. 4ongdeG %ne o* the three series o* D3ogchen teachings. The three series areG A+anagedeB5 or essential series5 the A4ongdeB5 or the series o* space5 and the ASemdeB5 the series o* mind. These series o* D3ogchen instruction ultimately ha!e the same goal5 that o* 0ringing the practitioner into a0solute contemplation. The 4ongde series works speci*ically with sym0olic introduction and is widely known *or practices that 0ring one to contemplation through assuming specialpositions o* the 0ody and holding pressure points. See #or0u5 The Cryst l nd the 2 y of &i"ht5 p. 8 . 17. Dark ;etreat5 also called 7 n"ti$. A highly ad!anced D3ogchen meditation techniIue practiced in complete darkness. Through the 6angtik practice5 an initiate who is already capa0le o* maintaining contemplation may proceed swi*tly to total reali3ation. 18. Changchu0 Dor?eG The principal master o* #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche. Changchu0 Dor?e was a terton and master o* D3ogchen. Ee was the master whom #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche credits as ha!ing truly introduced him to the state o* D3ogchen. Ee also ga!e #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche transmission on Semde5 4ongde5 and +anagede. Though an eCtraordinary master5 Changchu0 Dor?e had a simple li*estyle5 dressing in the gar0 o* an ordinary country person. At #yalagar5 in Derge5 1astern Ti0et5 he directed a small community o* D3ogchen practitioners. In addition to 0eing a lama5 he was an adept physician. People would come *rom distant places to recei!e 0oth Dharma teachings and medical consultations. #amkhai

#or0u ;inpoche acted as a scri0e and secretary *or this master and assisted him in his medical consultations. At the end o* his li*e Changchu0 Dor?e attained the ;ain0ow -ody o* 4ight. See The Cryst l nd the 2 y of &i"ht5 p. 1 8. 18. TrechodG 4iterally Acutting throughB5 this term re*ers to the eCperience o* total relaCation. Trechod is the method o* maintaining one.s state o* rigpa throughout all situations. Trechod is the a0ility to cut through discursi!e and dualistic thought at any moment5 0ringing onesel* to pure presence. & . TogelG ASurpassing the uppermostB or Aleaping o!er.B A*ter per*ectly succeeding with one.s practice o* trechod5 one practices togel. Togel is useless without a per*ected practice o* trechod and is hence secret until that time. Togel is considered the *astest o* methods *or achie!ing total reali3ation. Togel practice 0rings a0out the union o* !ision and emptiness. %ne continues to de!elop meditati!e contemplation through !ision until the -ody o* 4ight is mani*est. See Cryst l nd the 2 y of &i"ht5 p. 1 1 and Fohn ;eynolds5 Self8&iber tion Throu"h Seein" 2ith ! $ed A( reness5 p. 1"/5 note "". &1. Figme 4ingpa <17&891788=G A reincarnation o* Dimalamitra5 Figme 4ingpa was a great #yingmapa D3ogchen +aster *rom 1ast Ti0et. Ee was a great scholar and compiled and edited the &on"chen !yin"thi"5 the compiled teachings o* 4ongchenpa. Figme 4ingpa also wrote eCtensi!ely on Ti0etan medicine and Ti0etan history5 and worked *or the de!elopment o* the non9sectarian A;imedB school o* Ti0etan -uddhism 0e*ore achie!ing the -ody o* 4ight. &&. The one9hundred9sylla0le mantra o* Da?rasatt!aG %ne puri*ies negati!e karma and o0scurations through recitation o* this mantra5 one o* the most renowned within Ti0etan &".
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter Two 3$


Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter Two 3&

. T'E P L-) +A-E TO +A)AT /A

*n <6=>, !orbu 4in+oche tr veled to northern !e+ l on +il"rim "e to the mon stery of Tolu, nd to the c ve of ' r ti$ < (here the "re t ' h siddh 2 P dm s mbh v 3 did retre t (ith his consort ' nd r v )> The follo(in" is n ccount of series of rem r$ ble dre ms he h d on this tri+, be"innin" (ith dre m he h d t(o d ys fter re chin" the mon stery) The location o* the dream was Tolu +onastery itsel*. I* you dream a0out a place or a thing where you ha!e 0een in the past5 this usually re*lects a repetition through karmic trace, i* you dream o* a place or a situation where you are not5 this re*lects a desire or a wish. %n the other hand5 i* you dream o* the place you actually are5 this is o*ten signi*icant. Thus I was clued that this might 0e an important dream. In this dream I was at the ca!e o* Tolu5 and e!en the people who had actually accompanied me on the trip were there. As I was teaching my students5 we were ?oined 0y my uncle. I should tell you that this man who ?oined us was not only my uncle5 he was also one o* my principal teachers5 and an eCtraordinary practitioner and terton.$ I will tell you a short story which will illustrate the remarka0le Iuality o* my uncle.s li*e. >hen I was a child I was li!ing near a monastery. At the time I am recalling5 a young horse haddied. Dultures had eaten the horse5 0ut e!en a*ter they had *inished5 one o* the !ultures remained. +y uncle asked two o* the monks to go and *etch this !ulture. 7pon their return to the monastery with the !ulture5 the monks announced that the 0ird had 0een wounded. There was a piece o* iron lodged in its shoulder. %ne o* the monks attempted to pull it

out5 0ut the !ulture 0ecame Iuite agitated5 and my uncle instructed him to stop and to put the !ulture in an enclosed garden area. I remem0er thinking how strange it was that the !ulture would remain so silent and passi!e while this was occurring. In *act the whole situation was 0ecoming more and more unusual. The neCt day my uncle instructed me to *eed the !ulture some milk. >hen I arri!ed at the garden5 which was semicircular in shape5 with a wooden *loor and a co!ering o!er it5 the !ulture was sitting immo0ile. I placed the milk 0e*ore it. +o!ing its head slightly it 0egan to drink. It drank up all o* the milk I had o**ered5 and when it had *inished 0egan to run5 and as it did so it mo!ed its wings slightly. Inso*ar as the area was Iuite long it was a0le to run a long distance. It ran clear to the end o* the garden5 and then hal* way 0ack, then it stopped and the metal piece5 an iron rod5 dropped *rom its wing. The !ery moment the iron piece *ell out5 the !ulture *lew away5 heading due 1ast in the direction o* a large mountain called Sitang. The *amous D3ogchen +onastery/ is 0ehind that mountain. It was also on that mountain that my uncle normally li!ed in a ca!e. >e eCamined the iron that had +en *rom the !ulture.s wing. It was Iuite long. The top that had 0een em0edded in the wing was triangular. I can still remem0er the 0eauti*ul sound that the iron piece made when it *ell *rom the wing. This e!ent was merely one o* the oddities that *reIuently occurred around my uncle. So5 on that occasion at Tolu5 my uncle mani*ested within my dream. In the dream he was no older than *ourteen or *i*teen years old. Ee said to me that he was !ery pleased that I was gi!ing such a
3 T/E P!L41!3A4E TO 3A1AT!5A 3)

0eauti*ul teaching5 and that it was use*ul to e!eryone. I asked him i* he had really 0een listening. Ee replied that he had heard e!ery word. In the dream I had 0een teaching the Thik Sum #edek57 the *amous three *inal statements o* @ara0 Dor?e.8 Then my uncle asked me to eCplain my "omter8 a0out the #amkha.1 I replied to him that my dream a0out the #amkha hadn.t 0een a gomter. Allow me to eCplain what I was re*erring to. A *ew years ago5 I was in #ew 6ork City. I was gi!ing a seminar there a0out the *unction o* elements and energy5 as well as a0out Ti0etan history. At this seminar I ga!e an eCplanation o* the elements and their *unctioning according to the ancient -onpo1& I was a 0it ner!ous a0out sleeping. >ith a concern as to what would happen now5 I went to 0ed5 0ut *or Iuite awhile I couldn.t sleep. (inally5 when I did sleep5 I *ound mysel* in a kind o* dream5 in which I was speaking with someone. I actually don.t know i* I was speaking with someone else5 or carrying on a con!ersation with mysel*. The !oice instructed me to relaC5 *irst the 0reathing5 and then the 0ody5 until I *ound mysel* in the relaCed state o* Samaya.1" I thought to mysel* that I had ne!er heard o* this relaCed state o* Samaya. #e!ertheless5 I tried again and again to relaC5 and to put mysel* into that state. 1ach time5 largely due to my discom*ort with the sleeping conditions at Tolu5 I would wake up. Indeed5 I awoke at least two or three times in the course o* trying to get into the state o* relaCation. %n one o* these occasions I recei!ed instructions within the dream to loosen the mountaineering leggings that5 due to eChaustion5 I had *ailed to remo!e 0e*ore *alling asleep. >hen I awoke remem0ering the instructions5 I untied them5 and *ell asleep once again5 slowly relaCing into the state o* Samaya. AIt.s not per*ect yet5B the !oice said5 Awe ha!e to ha!e *resher5 easier 0reathing.B In order to comply I opened the tent to let in some *resh air5 e!en though it was !ery cold and a *ierce wind was 0lowing. %nce again I returned to sleep and entered Samaya. I was again thinking that this Samaya wasn.t that terri*ic5 not really a state o* contemplation.1' The !oice returned5 and said A#ow that you.!e done that5 you ha!e to get to the state o*

Dharmadhatu.1$ As instructed5 I relaCed5 and directed mysel* towards this state o* Dharmadhatu. +eanwhile5 I was awakened 0y a cough *rom a near0y tent. I went 0ack to sleep yet another time5 and directed mysel* to go through the successi!e le!els o* relaCation. Again and again I awoke *or one reason or another5 and had to start *rom the 0eginning. Then suddenly the !oice was saying5 A> here5 this is the state o* Dharmadhatu5B which seemed to me to 0e the state o* contemplation. The !oice now instructed me to direct mysel* to another state. As I did this5 there 0egan to appear a kind o* tigle1/ similar to one which had appeared in a pre!ious dream at Tolu ca!e. I also saw some writing5 and then I woke up once again... I had to start at the 0eginning5 relaCing through the di**erent stages until the tigle reappeared. >hat I had seen in the tigle was the title o* a teCt. This time a*ter the title there appeared a teCt itsel*5 ?ust as i* I were looking at a mo!ie screen. %ne a*ter another5 an entire series o* meditation practices appeared. I was reading page a*ter page5 0ut i* at any point I couldn.t read one5 I would only need to think to mysel* that this wasn.t clear5 and the unclear portion would return. It would repeat itsel* as i* I had some sort o* telecommand. In this manner I read the whole teCt *rom 0eginning to end at least three or *our times. Due to interruptions I awoke *reIuently. -ut each time I would go 0ack to sleep5 and 0egin with Samaya and all the rest5 and then the teCt would go on.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light 3 T/E P!L41!3A4E TO 3A1AT!5A 3*

Suddenly the !oice said5 A6ou are now in the neCt state.B >hat distinguished this state *rom the pre!ious one was that now the *ew words which had not 0een completely clear appeared to occupy all o* space. >ithout any *ocusing or staring on my part5 they ?ust appeared. Thus I went on reading5 and it continued without interruption until almost morning. At this point I coughed intensely and awoke. The words were still there e!en with my eyes open. It wasn.t a dream. I saw them *or a short time5 and then they disappeared. I thought that perhaps this was ?ust the in*luence o* the dream. Curious5 I continued to look into the sky. The sky was !ery clear5 and there was no more !ision. I remem0ered one time when I was doing a retreat in #orway. I was in the middle o* a practice when the same thing happened. I told some people a0out my eCperience at that time. Pre!iously I had read a0out Sn n"8b 8yi8"er8sh r17 in the 0iographies o* some accomplished teachers. In #orway I recall ha!ing thought that I had not pre!iously understood what the phrase ASnang90a9yi9ger9sharB meant. Anyway5 I *ell asleep once again5 and relaCed through the successi!e stages. In the dream5 while 0eing instructed to enter the !arious states o* relaCation I suddenly had a thought a0out an e!en *urther state:something entitled A-ya9gru09yeshe5B the *urthest state o* wisdom. The !oice answered my thought saying5 AIt will come when all is completed.B Then morning came. I was truly eChausted. 1!eryone else was still pleasantly asleep. That is the story o* the twenty9*i*th day. The neCt day we had a long clim0. That e!ening5 when I *ell asleep5 it all happened again. Again I read the teCt through se!eral times5 and particularly the areas where the letters hadn.t 0een sharp. At a certain point I suddenly woke up. I *ound my head co!ered with a 0lanket. There had 0een so much wind that I must ha!e 0een protecting mysel*. 7nco!ering my head5 I opened my eyes5 and immediately looked into the sky. There5 !ery 0rie*ly5 were the letters again. I.d like to tell you now a0out a dream I had on the *irst night that we arri!ed at +aratika ca!e. -e*ore going to 0ed I thought to mysel* that tomorrow would 0e a good day to 0egin a long li*e meditation practice that I had 0rought along. I still hadn.t entirely de!eloped a particular method *or doing this practice5 0ut I had carried the practice teCt along with me 0ecause I had had the idea that +aratika would 0e a nice place to practice it. That night I dreamed that I was preparing to do the practice in a 0ig ca!e. I was eCplaining how the practice would 0e done5 and was gi!ing an initiation which would ena0le the students to do the

practice themsel!es. #ormally5 in our tradition5 in order to do a long li*e practice5 one needs a long li*e initiation. Those o* you who know me know that I am not the type who typically does ela0orate *ormal initiations518 0ut I ha!e always said that it is necessary to do some kind o* initiation *or empowering. In my dream I had the idea that I would *irst gi!e a care*ul eCplanation o* the meaning o* the initiation. >hen the people had understood it well5 I would gi!e empowerment with the mantra. A*ter that5 we would do the practice together, that would constitute the !oice transmission. So5 in my dream I was eCplaining each point o* what the initiation was5 starting with the initiation o* the 0ody. At that moment I noticed that there was a person near to me gi!ing me something. I turned to him5 and saw that he was not a normal human 0eing. %* this I was certain5 0ecause the *irst thing I o0ser!ed while looking at him was that the lower part o* his 0ody was that o* a serpent. I thought that perhaps this was ;ahula518 one o* the guardians5 0ut when I looked at his *ace this seemed
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light 3 T/E P!L41!3A4E TO 3A1AT!5A ",

unlikely. I then thought that perhaps it was5 or represented5 someone that I knew. I looked again: his *ace was dragon9like in appearance. Eis 0ody was white. Suddenly he placed something into my hand. I* you ha!e taken an initiation5 you know that there is usually someone assisting the teacher 0y gi!ing him things. At the appropriate point in the ceremony5 the assistant o**ers the correct o0?ect. In my dream the dragon9like 0eing was gi!ing me a round o0?ect with which I was a0out to authenticate the initiation o* the 0ody that I had ?ust gi!en. I took the round o0?ect into my hand. It was a mirror5 0ut on the rim surrounding the mirror were what seemed to 0e twel!e smaller mirrors. Around them all was a kind o* rain0ow. And around this perimeter were peacock *eathers. It was !ery 0eauti*ul. As I took it into my hand I knew that this was the o0?ect with which I could gi!e the initiation o* the 0ody. #ormally in an initiation5 the mirror represents the mind5 the aspect o* understanding. Immediately in the dream an eCplanation came to meG AThe 0ody seems to 0e su0stantial5 0ut inherently it is !oid. The sym0ol o* this is the re*lection that appears to 0e our *orm in the mirror.B Con!eying this eCplanation5 I used the mirror in my dream to gi!e the initiation o* the 0ody. In my dream I touched the mirror to the heads o* each o* the people recei!ing initiation. As each went past I also said a mantra.& I neCt 0egan to eCplain the initiation o* the !oice. At this !ery moment I sensed the presence o* another 0eing on my le*t. This 0eing also o**ered an o0?ect *or authentication. The o0?ect was a mala&1 made o* deeply colored red ru0ies shaped into a *igure eight. I looked care*ully at the 0eing who was o**ering the mala. It had a dark red 0ody5 and only one eye. I thought again that this was no ordinary human 0eing5 perhaps it was 1ka?ati.&& %n the other hand it didn.t seem Iuite like 1ka?ati5 and in her hands were these strange o0?ects. In any case5 ?ust a*ter she ga!e me the mala5 I *ound that I was again gi!ing an eCplanation. AThis mala represents the continual utterance o* the mantra.B #ot only did I eCplain the *unction o* mantra5 0ut I also ga!e a !ery unusual eCplanation a0out this *orm o* mantra which is presented in the *orm o* a *igure eight. It was all Iuite strange 0ecause the eCplanation had nothing to do with the particular long li*e practice <Cedrub %ondus= o* #yala Pema Dendul&" with which I had arri!ed. The neCt day5 a*ter dreaming a0out another long li*e practice *eaturing the dakini +andara!a5 I disco!ered that there is really a 6antik practice5 which in *act includes this !isuali3ation. +eanwhile the 1ka?ati *igure had placed another o0?ect in my hand5 this one a sym0ol *or

empowering the initiation o* mind. The o0?ect resem0led a swastika5 0ut at the top there were tridents. It was the center which was the swastika. It was constructed o* a transparent5 precious 0lue stone. I then eCplained the meaning o* the transmission o* mind. A*terwards5 I put this o0?ect at the heart o* each person in turn. At the same time I was pronouncing the mantra related to initiation o* mind. A*ter I placed the o0?ect at the *irst person.s heart5 I saw that it le*t an impression5 and that the impression o* the o0?ect was turning5 with a small sound. It seemed !ery ali!e. >hen I initiated the neCt person5 the same thing happened. >hen I was *inally *inished I saw that all the swastika impressions were still turning. That was how I conducted the initiation5 and then I awoke. The neCt day I decided to do a retreat inside the ca!e. +any o* the students who accompanied me on this
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light 3 T/E P!L41!3A4E TO 3A1AT!5A "1

pilgrimage ?oined me to do the practice o* Pema Dendul in the ca!e o* +andara!a. The neCt day I had yet another special dream. Although many o* our people had not actually arri!ed yet5 I dreamed that we were all together in the ca!ern. >e had already done a practice together5 and I was gi!ing teachings. In the dream it seemed as i* the dream o* the pre!ious night had 0een recreated eCactly. At my le*t there was the *igure that was reddish90rown with one eye. %nce again she was holding many o0?ects in her hand, this time she ga!e me a 0ead o* crystal. It was now clear that this 0eing was assisting me as I ga!e instruction. I took the crystal into my hand5 and looked at it. At the center o* the crystal I saw a word. As soon as I saw that special word5 I knew that this 0eing was indeed 1ka?ati. I also had a !ery clear dream !ision o* the guardian 1ka?ati who ad!ised me5 sayingG AThis is the time to open your mind treasure o* li*e.s circle o* Da?ra5 the dakini practice *or o0taining long li*e.B 4ooking inside the small crystal 0all5 I could see light rays radiating in all directions *rom the word5 0ut they did not radiate outside the 0all. As I took the 0all5 I asked5 A>hat is this thingHB She said5 AThis is LTa9te.. 6ou ha!e to do Ta9te..B AI don.t understand5B I replied. The moment I said that5 it seemed as i* the crystal disappeared inside me. I looked around to see 1ka?ati5 0ut she too had disappeared. 7pon awakening5 my *irst thought was ATa9te5B and what it could mean. It was still *ar *rom dawn5 I had a lot o* time5 so I continued to concentrate on the word ATa9teB. This is not a *amiliar word. ATaB means pure5 AteB means to con*ront5 or sometimes it means to list. In my hal*9awake state I was thinking o* this word5 when it came to me that what was reIuired was that I write down the teCt5 and later write it again without re*erring to the *irst !ersion in order to test its authenticity. It was now per*ectly clear what must 0e done. A*ter washing mysel*5 I took a paper and pen5 and went out onto a rock. Then5 without a plan5 I wrote whate!er came to my mind. I wrote se!eral pages5 and what emerged was a ceremony o* 1ka?ati. This was the 0eginning. A*terwards I went to ha!e 0reak*ast. During 0reak*ast I asked one o* my students to *etch me a note0ook. >hen I had *inished 0reak*ast she still had not returned5 so I took another note0ook to a speci*ic place where I had 0een on the *irst day5 a power location o* +aratika5 and sat down. I had almost 0egun when the student arri!ed with a 0lack note0ook and a red pen. >ith these I started writing. It was as i* I was starting o** a letter. I headed it +aratika5 along with the hour and the day. It was 8G1$ in the morning. >hile I was writing5 !arious people *rom my group came o!er. Some o* them didn.t know what I was doing. As they came o!er to greet me I tried to get rid o* them. Despite interruptions5 I *inished writing at 1&G1$. >hen I had *inished I had used up the last page5 right up to the last line o* the note0ook. It almost seemed as i* it had 0een deli0erately planned. I re*lected to mysel* that this was a good sign.

;eturning to our campsite5 I ga!e the teCt to two students to hold *or se!eral days. I was thinking that a*ter a *ew days I would write it out again. That would 0e the ATa9te5B the second !ersion to 0e compared with the *irst in order to con*irm its authenticity. This would 0e proo* that the teCt was genuine5 and not merely my intellect at play.
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Two days passed. %n the third day5 I had a dream indicating that the time had come to write and make some clari*ications. A*ter completing morning practice I again sat down to write5 and continued until lunchtime. The second time I wrote it out !ery calmly in an easy script. This time it took me two and one9hal* hours. I then asked that the original 0e returned5 and that my older sister compare the two !ersions. There was !irtually no di**erence5 only two or three grammatical corrections. This is the story o* the origin o* that practice teCt5 a practice *or de!eloping a long and *irm li*e. The teCt includes mantras5 eCercises *or 0reathing and control o* one.s energy5 as well as !isuali3ation. There are also instructions pertaining to chakras and channels. In the Ti0etan tradition this type o* practice is o*ten sealed5 meaning that it has to 0e kept secret *or many5 many years. >hen you are keeping such a thing secret you are not permitted e!en to say that you are keeping something secret. In this case it has not 0een necessary. There has 0een no indication that this should 0e sealed. I ha!e no secret to keep, there*ore5 I ha!e talked a0out it. I also talked a0out it at +aratika5 and ha!e done transmission o* the mantras.

Notes To Cha"ter Three

+andara!a.s Ca!e at +aratikaG In #orthern #epal5 where #or0u ;inpoche did a retreat in 188'5 there are two sacred ca!es. The larger one is associated with Padmasam0ha!a5 and the smaller one with +andara!a. In the se!enth century5 +andara!a:together with @uru Padmasam0ha!a:practiced and attained immortality in this ca!e5 which has conseIuently 0ecome known as the Ca!e o* 4ong 4i*e. 1. +ahasiddhaG Sanskrit5 literally A@reat AdeptB. ' h means great5 while siddh is one who has attained siddhi: psychic and spiritual powers. In Ti0etan -uddhism there is the eCample o* the 1ighty9*our +ahasiddhas who were men and women with supernatural powers. These tantric practitioners li!ed in India and #epal during the eighth century. &. @uru Padmasam0ha!aG Sanskrit5 *rom + dm <lotus= and s mbh v <0orn=. An Indian -uddhist master o* Tantra and D3ogchen *rom %ddiyana. Ee is known as the Alotus 0ornB 0ecause o* his miraculous 0irth. @uru Padmasam0ha!a is said to ha!e spontaneously mani*ested as an eight9year9old 0oy sitting on a lotus *lower in the middle o* a lake at %ddiyana. Ee 0rought -uddhism to Ti0et *rom India in the eighth century. >ith his eCtraordinary powers5 @uru Padmasam0ha!a o!ercame o0stacles that had pre!ented -uddhism *rom taking root in Ti0etan soil. ". +andara!aG This Indian princess *rom +andi was one o* the principal consorts o* Padmasam0ha!a. She le*t the royal li*e in order to practice the Dharma. She is most renowned *or mastering the long li*e practice with Padmasam0ha!a. She is in!oked in certain Tantric rituals which aim to eCtend li*e. '. TertonG %ne who disco!ers terma5 or Dharma teCts that were hidden with the purpose o* 0eing disco!ered at a later date. Termas are 0elie!ed to 0e hidden in trees5 lakes5 the earth5 and e!en the sky. $. D3ogchen +onasteryG In the se!enteenth century5 in 2ham <1ast Ti0et= the D3ogchen +onastery was *ounded 0y the *irst D3ogchen ;inpoche5 Pema ;ig3in. This 0ecame the largest #yingma monastery. The monastery was considered one o* the twenty9*i!e great pilgrimage places in 1ast Ti0et. Close 0y the monastery is a sacred ca!e o* Padmasam0ha!a

and three sacred lakes. +any *amous scholars o* all *our schools o* Ti0etan -uddhism and *rom the -on tradition studied at D3ogchen +onastery. These include Patrul ;inpoche and +ipham. In 18$8 D3ogchen +onastery was destroyed 0y the Chinese. The monastery is currently 0eing re0uilt in +ysore5 South India. /.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter Three "3

Thik Sum #edekG The Three Statements o* @ara0 Dor?e. This teCt summari3es D3ogchen teachings in three essential pointsG i. The direct introduction o* the primordial state *rom teacher to student. ii. The practitioner does not rem in in doubt in re*erence to what the primordial state is. iii. The practitioner continues in the st te o* primordial awareness until total reali3ation. 7. @ara0 Dor?eG According to traditional #yingmapa sources5 @ara0 Dor?e li!ed 1// years a*ter the + rinirv n o* the -uddha5 dated in Ti0etan sources as 881 -.C. >estern scholars say it occurred & years later. It is said that @ara0 Dor?e was immaculately concei!ed 0y the nun9princess daughter o* a minor king o* %ddiyana. This nun had 0een practicing on an island in the middle o* a lake when she had a dream. She dreamt o* a handsome5 white man holding a crystal !ase with mantras engra!ed on it. This man 0estowed initiation on the nun5 and then dissol!ing into light he entered her 0ody and impregnated her. Sometime a*ter this dream she ga!e 0irth to @ara0 Dor?e. According to #yingmapa sources5 @ara0 Dor?e was the *irst human D3ogchen master. In his pre!ious li*e in another dimension5 @ara0 Dor?e had recei!ed D3ogchen transmission directly *rom the sam0hogakaya mani*estation o* Da?rasatt!a. A*ter 0eing 0orn in the human realm5 @ara0 Dor?e immediately remem0ered these D3ogchen teachings and instructed a class o* 0eings known as dakinis in the sacred land o* %ddiyana. Ee also had human disciples5 one o* whom was +an?ushrimita5 who organi3ed his @ara0 Dor?e teachings on Semde5 4ongde5 and +anagede. (or *urther in*ormation on @ara0 Dor?e see Fohn ;eynold.s The %olden &etters5 Station Eill Press5 *orthcoming. 8. @omterG Amind termaB5 a terma disco!ered in the mind stream o* a terton <one who disco!ers terma=. 8. #amkhaG A method o* practice to 0alance one.s 0odily elements. A namkha is made in accordance with one.s astrological 0irth chart. It is *ormed 0y two pieces o* wood and *i!e colors o* string5 each representing a di**erent elementG white5 metal, green5 woodJair, red5 *ire, yellow5 earth, and 0lue5 water. The colored string is wrapped around the wood in a pattern that *unctions to harmoni3e one.s elements. The namkhas are empowered 0y a master5 and the practitioner is gi!en meditation instruction on a ceremony5 which5 i* practiced together with the namkha5 can 0alance one.s elements. 1 . -onpoG A practitioner o* the -on religion. -on is the ancient and indigenous religion o* Ti0et5 whose origins *ar predate the ad!ent o* -uddhism in Ti0et. According to 4opon Ten3in #amdak5 the -on religion in Ti0et dates as *ar 0ack as 185 -.C.1. -on is di!ided into two categoriesG %ld -on and #ew or A6ung9drungB -on. %ld -on was characteri3ed 0y animistic and shamanistic practices5 whereas 6ung9drung -on shares many similarities with -uddhism5 which came to Ti0et in the eighth century A.D. *rom India. According to #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche and 4opon Ten3in #amdak5 D3ogchen is part o* the ancient tradition o* -on5 and was practiced in Ti0et long 0e*ore the arri!al o* -uddhism. 11. Twenty9*i*th dayG The twenty9*i*th day o* the lunar month <Ti0etan calendar=5 when the moon is waning5 is known as Dakini Day. Dakini Day is associated with enlightened *eminine energy. There*ore5 many Ti0etan lamas do practices associated with *eminine energy at this time. Dakini Day is an auspicious time to do @hana Pu?a <Tantric (east %**ering=. 1&.

SamayaG Although the term samaya is o*ten translated as AcommitmentB5 and *reIuently pertains to the commitment to maintain a meditation practice or !ow in a pure way5 the dreams. meaning o* this term is idiosyncratic. In #or0u ;inpoche.s dream5 the terms S m y and Dh rm dh tu re*er to successi!ely deepening le!els o* relaCation. 1". ContemplationG The primary practice o* D3ogchen in which one remains continually in a state o* sel*9li0eration. In this state one is 0eyond all concepts o* the ordinary dualistic mind5 yet one is *ully capa0le o* using the intellect and rational mind. Contemplation does not in!ol!e trying to *ind eCperiences o* calmness or clarity5 nor does it in!ol!e a!oiding 1'.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter Three ""

distractions. In contemplation5 when a thought arises it is neither suppressed nor *ollowed5 0ut is spontaneously sel*9li0erated and dissol!es. It is this practice o* li0erating all that arises which a D3ogchen master introduces when he gi!es eCplanations on the nature o* mind. DharmadhatuG This term normally re*ers to the ultimate ground o* 0eing5 and the dimension o* reality as it is. Eowe!er5 in this dream it re*ers speci*ically to the deepest le!el o* relaCation. 1$. TigleG There are di**erent de*initions o* tigle. %n one le!el it is de*ined as something without any corners or angles5 a circle or per*ect sphere5 like the Sanskrit bindu <drop=5 *or eCample. Tigle is also de*ined as the dimension inside a sphere. Ti"le Chenbo <@reat Sphere=5 meaning Athat which em0races e!erythingB5 is another term *or D3ogchen. Tigle is also known as Athe essence5B as in nying thik5 Aessence o* mind.B In another de*inition5 tigle is semen in men5 and !aginal *luid in women5 which are physical !ehicles *or carrying energy. In terms o* 6antra 6oga5 tigle is de*ined as the most essential *orm o* the 0ody.s su0tle energy5 also known as 2undalini in Sanskrit. Tigles are also tiny spheres o* rain0ow light that may arise with the 0eginnings o* !ision in togel practice. 1/. 17. Snang90a9gi9ger9sharG The spontaneous arising o* letters. InitiationG Initiation5 transmission5 and empowerment o* 0ody5 speech5 and mind. Euman eCistence is made up o* 0ody5 speech and mind. (irst5 there is the dimension o* A0ody5B which is the dynamic interrelationship 0etween one.s 0ody and the physical en!ironment. There are two di**erent Ti0etan terms *or A0ody.B &u re*ers to the gross 0ody o* an ordinary human 0eing5 whereas ku re*ers to the su0lime 0ody o* an enlightened 0eing. Secondly5 there is the dimension o* our energy known as AspeechB5 which is represented 0y speech5 0reath5 and psychic energy. %rdinary speech is known as n" "5 whereas enlightened speech is sun". In the dimension o* mind or mental acti!ity there is yid5 ordinary mind5 and thuk5 enlightened mind. Through transmission <"yud+d= *rom the master to the disciple5 there occurs a potentiation which is communicated on the three le!elsG material5 energetic5 and mental. D3ogchen transmission 0y the master is *or the purpose o* re!ealing the true nature o* the indi!idual. 1mpowerment or wang is a ritual ceremony in which this transmission takes place. 1mpowerment5 especially within Tantric -uddhism5 may 0e eCtremely ela0orate5 utili3ing sym0olic instruments and ceremonies. In D3ogchen5 the method o* direct introduction5 which may 0e ela0orate or non9ela0orate5 is used to introduce one to the nature o* one.s mind. (or in*ormation on direct introduction see Fohn ;eynolds5 The %olden &etters5 Station Eill Press5 *orthcoming. 18. ;ahulaG A principal guardian o* the D3ogchen teachings. ;ahula mani*ests in a terri*ying and *erocious *orm. Ee has eCtreme power and5 according to #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche5 i* not respected can cause considera0le harm. 18. +antraG 4iterally5 Amind protector.B +antra is the sounding o* sacred sylla0les. Di**erent mantras ha!e di**erent *unctionsG some are used to stir up and acti!ate one.s energy while others create a calming and paci*ying e**ect. 7ltimately the goal o* mantra is to help the

practitioner to transcend dualistic thought. +any mantras are associated with particular deities5 and within Tantric ceremony they are repeated until one has attained the same enlightened Iualities as the deity. & . +alaG In the -uddhist tradition a mala or rosary is a string o* 1 8 0eads used *or counting mantra. &1. 1ka?atiG 1ka?ati is the principal guardian o* the D3ogchen teachings. 1nlightened *rom the !ery 0eginning5 1ka?ati is a direct emanation <trul+ = o* primordial wisdom5 Samanta0hadri5 who is the *eminine aspect o* the primordial -uddha Samanta0hadra. As the primordially enlightened one5 Samanta0hadri 1ka?ati has all9knowing wisdom regarding the 8' million teachings o* D3ogchen. 1ka?ati !isi0ly mani*ests in a particularly wrath*ul *orm in order to su0?ugate the !ery power*ul and potentially destructi!e class o* 0eings called +amos. &&.
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A1ka?atiB means Aone9eyeB5 which is sym0olic o* wisdom. >hat is uniIue a0out her physical *orm is that it is one9eyed5 one9toothed5 and one90reasted. These *eatures sym0oli3e non9dual awareness. As chie* protectress o* the D3ogchen teachings5 she may make contact with a terton or D3ogchen master when the time is ripe to re!eal a certain teaching or terma. #or0u ;inpoche recei!ed a sadhana *rom 1ka?ati as part o* this gomter o* the +andara!a practice. The sadhana is an in!ocation5 within which the practitioner asks that +andara!a clear all o0stacles to total reali3ation and pro!ide protection on the path. Cedrub %ondusG AThe 7nion o* Primordial 1ssencesB5 the long li*e practice #or0u ;inpoche 0rought to +aratika. This long li*e practice was a terma o* the root master o* Chang9chu0 Dor?e5 #yala Pema Dendul <181/9187&=. The practice was originally transmitted directly *rom -uddha Amitayus to @uru Padmasam0ha!a. Together as consorts5 in the sacred ca!e o* +aratika in #orth #epal5 Dakini +andara!a and @uru Padmasam0ha!a practiced and mastered the 7nion o* Primordial 1ssences5 thus attaining immortality. In the eighth century5 *or the 0ene*it o* *uture generations5 @uru Padmasam0ha!a wrote out the practice and placed it as a hidden treasure within a rock in 1ast Ti0et. ApproCimately one thousand years later5 in the nineteenth century5 #yala Pema Dendul redisco!ered this Ahidden treasureB or terma. (or se!eral years he practiced this long li*e terma intensi!ely. At his li*e.s end he attained the rain0ow 0ody o* light. #yala Pema Dendul transmitted the practice to Changchu0 Dor?e and Ayu 2handro5 who 0oth practiced it and su0seIuently li!ed unusually long li!es:1"7 years and 11/ years respecti!ely. They also attained the 0ody o* light. #amkhai #or0u ;inpoche recei!ed transmission o* this terma *rom 0oth Changchu0 Dor?e and Ayu 2handro5 and presently gi!es transmission on the practice *or the 0ene*it o* his students. &".
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0 AN NTE)1 E2 2 T' NO)3( ) NPOC'E

+ichaelG I would like to ask you a *ew Iuestions a0out dreams. (irst o* all5 what is the history o* the dream practice that you doH #or0uG >hat do you mean AhistoryBH +G >hen and 0y whom was the *irst dream practice taughtH >ho was *amous *or teaching itH #G It is not easy to answer this5 0ecause dream teachings come *rom di**erent kinds o* tantra teachings5 particularly the +ahamaya Tantra5 0ut also *rom D3ogchen teachings. +G >hen was the +ahamaya Tantra writtenH #G -eyond time, you cannot say when it was written. +G >as there any particular authorH #G <laughing= There is no author o* tantric teachings. +ay0e a mahasiddha transmitted this teaching and introduced it *rom %diyanna1 in India. A*ter all5 Saraha introduced the @uyasama?a Tantra5 and

Tilopa introduced the Chakrasam0ha!a Tantra. It is possi0le that something like that can 0e said to 0e the history o* the transmission o* a tantra5 0ut there is no original history o* the tantras. +G ;inpoche5 sometimes you ha!e taught dream practices where one !isuali3es a white sylla0le AAB& at the heart5 0ut at other times you ha!e taught that one should !isuali3e an AAB at the throat. >hat are the di**erent conditions in which one should !isuali3e the AAB at one.s heart or throatH #G The !isuali3ation o* AAB at throat is particularly *or remem0ering dreams. The !isuali3ation o* AAB at the throat has the *unction o* controlling energy and clarity. >hen you !isuali3e a white AAB at the heart5 you are working with the principle o* natural light, that is another method. +G >hy do we dreamH #G >ell5 sometimes dreaming is due to 0hakshas5 the impressions o* the day. These include our anCieties5 attitudes5 and preoccupations. There is also another type o* dream which arises *rom our clarity. This type o* dream is dependent on the dreamer.s circumstances and clarity. +G Eow do we distinguish 0etween dreams that arise *rom our clarity and dreams that arise *rom our daily impressions and 0hakshasH #G I* we ha!e had an eChausting day5 and all we can do is eat and *ell into a hea!y sleep5 it is not likely that we will ha!e a dream o* clarity. +ore o*ten5 in such circumstances we ha!e dreams a0out something with which we are preoccupied. It may e!en 0e somewhat di**icult to remem0er this dream due to the hea!iness o* sleep. %n the other hand5 as we approach the early morning and are almost at the point o* awakening5 our dreams may 0ecome Iuite clear. It is more likely that they will 0e associated with our clarity during this period. I* a dream is associated with clarity5 it may ha!e special meaning *or our li!es. It may indicate many things. +G Is this true also *or someone who practices dream yogaH
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#G I* you are a practitioner o* dream yoga5 dreams arising out o* clarity will de!elop and increase. #e!ertheless5 dreams linked with clarity do eCist *or e!eryone. 1!eryone has innate clarity. +G >hen do 0a0ies 0egin dreamingH Does their dream content re*lect pre!ious li!es as well as 0hakshasH #G 6es5 we say 0a0ies do ha!e more dreams that arise *rom the impressions o* a pre!ious li*e. Small children can more easily remem0er e!ents *rom a pre!ious li*e, their clarity is less o0structed. Slowly this changes as the child grows up and the tensions and attachments o* ordinary li*e are created. +G >ould you suggest that parents who are practitioners teach their children dream yoga at an early age and encourage them to de!elop their dreamsH #G I don.t think so. It.s not so easy *or children. +G Is there a particular age when 0a0ies start to dreamH Or is it something which starts immediately *rom 0irthH #G I think they dream almost immediately. +G There are occasions when we ha!e a dream in which we are recei!ing ad!ice that seems logical. Are we really getting ad!iceH #G 6es5 there are again two possi0ilities. I* your dream is linked with clarity you can really recei!e ad!ice and truly use*ul in*ormation. %n the other hand5 i* you ha!e !ery strong tensions or attachments you might also recei!e ad!ice in a dream5 0ut you wouldn.t say that this is per*ect ad!ice. +G Can you gi!e us an eCample o* a speci*ic dream you had that was linked with clarityH #G 6es. +any years ago I had a *riend in Italy. She was a good *riend5 a talented singer5 and she was also interested in practice. This was not true o* her *amily. Anyway5 one night I dreamed that I was dri!ing a car to #aples. Then I saw a red car heading towards me. >hen I looked closely5 I recogni3ed the dri!er:it was my *riend and she seemed angry. I turned my car around and headed 0ack to ;ome and a*ter a short time arri!ed in *ront o* my 0uilding. +y *riend arri!ed a short time

later. She no longer seemed angry5 0ut instead said5 AI want to thank you *or your help.B In my dream I ga!e her a watch *rom Swit3erland. Then I looked at her again and she had no head. I was !ery surprised. I awoke *eeling !ery strange. I tried to call her home 0ut her mother answered5 and said she had gone to 4ugano5 Swit3erland. I asked her mother to gi!e her the message to call me5 0ut I didn.t hear anything so I called again. Eer mother told me that she had returned 0rie*ly *rom 4ugano and then had gone o** to 6ugosla!ia on a singing engagement. Eer mother hadn.t gi!en her the message 0ecause she didn.t appro!e o* our *riendship. >hen she returned *rom 6ugosla!ia she le*t again5 this time *or #aples. %n the road she had a *atal car accident. This is an eCample. +G ;inpoche5 you had dreams in which you remem0ered a particular 0ook o* teaching. Eow does this workH #G Such a dream is also a type o* dream linked with clarity. In this type o* dream one can do many things5 such as study5 read5 or learn.
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+G Can you gi!e us some eCamples o* dream sym0ols that Ti0etans 0elie!e are importantH #G I will gi!e you two possi0le interpretations o* the same dream. I* you are doing some puri*ication practice5 to dream that you are washing or taking a 0ath would 0e positi!e. It would indicate that your puri*ication is succeeding and that you are de!eloping your clarity. I* you are not practicing meditation and you ha!e a dream like this5 we would say watch out5 *or it might indicate that you are in danger o* losing your money or wealth. +G 6ou ha!e implied that when clarity de!elops in dreams5 sometimes one can predict the *uture. Do you ha!e any eCamples in your eCperience with your own dreams or those o* your teachersH #G I* you de!elop your clarity you can certainly ha!e these types o* mani*estations within dreams. Through these you may sometimes disco!er something a0out the *uture. Dreams o* clarity are linked with our innate wisdom and the karmic seeds which we ha!e created through our eCperience with meditation practice and the positi!e actions we per*orm within our li*e. In regards to the karmic seeds which we ha!e accumulated5 there is also the possi0ility that these potentials may 0ecome mani*est. These potentials may 0ecome mani*est when there are secondary conditions" to ripen them. >ith the proper secondary conditions5 mani*estations such as dreams o* the *uture may occur. >e may *ind many eCamples o* these mani*estations in the 0iographies o* meditation masters. >e oursel!es can also ha!e dreams like this5 dreams that ena0le us to see or understand something. That is an aspect o* a dream o* clarity. (or eCample5 many years ago5 in 18/ 5 when I had 0een in Italy *or only a0out one year5 I had a dream where I was talking to someone5 0ut I did not know who it was. This someone eCplained to me how the political situation would 0e a*ter some time. I was told that China and ;ussia would ha!e concrete pro0lems. I replied in the dream that this was impossi0le5 0ecause I knew that these two countries had a deep relationship:they 0oth shared the same communist point o* !iew. >hen I had 0een in China there was a So!iet Association that colla0orated with the Chinese in pu0licity and communist education. Thus I thought it was impossi0le that China and ;ussia would ha!e pro0lems. Still5 the !oice told me that there would 0e con*lict 0etween the two countries. It went on to say that not only will the So!iet 7nion and China ha!e pro0lems5 0ut there will 0e *riendship 0etween the 7nited States and China. I responded that this was impossi0le. The !oice said ne!ertheless it would happen 0ecause the situation 0etween China and the 7nited States is o* a di**erent nature than the relationship 0etween the So!iet 7nion and China. The 7nited States and China are 0oth interested in 0usiness and commercial eCchange. They ha!e

no pro0lems arising *rom sharing a 0order5 unlike China and the So!iet 7nion5 0ecause the 7nited States and China are !ery *ar *rom one another. This was one o* my dreams. The neCt day I recounted this dream to my colla0orator5 @eshe Fampa Sangye. Ee thought that this dream sounded !ery unlikely. A*ter a *ew months5 we saw newspapers stating that China and the So!iet 7nion had serious pro0lems. +y *riend @eshe was !ery surprised. 4ater he was e!en more surprised when the 7nited States and China de!eloped a 0etter relationship. This dream is an eCample o* a dream through clarity, the dream pro!es out in a real situation. A principal way *or practitioners to de!elop clarity in dreams is to succeed in doing the practice o*
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the natural light. Through this5 dream awareness comes. -ut not only awareness. -y doing this practice we continue to de!elop dreams o* clarity and diminish our ordinary dreams o* 0hakshas. Through de!eloping dreams o* clarity5 awareness o* dreams de!elops. Thus one may use many methods o* practice within the dream state. There are many techniIues o* practice we cannot easily employ during the daytime5 0ecause we ha!e limitations on a physical le!el. 1!en i* we ha!e a good idea o* how to do these techniIues5 they are still not so easy to apply. In dreamtime5 howe!er5 we ha!e no *unctioning o* our sense organs5 so we are not limited 0y the material 0ody and thus can more easily apply many methods. Through the eCperience o* practice in the dream state5 we can ha!e a !ery strong eCperience and understanding o* the dream9like nature o* daily li*e. In this way we diminish our attachments and our tensions5 and can truly understand what -uddha Shakyamuni meant when he said that e!erything is unreal and like an illusion or a dream. The result that attachment diminishes is due to the *act that attachment is 0ased on a strong 0elie* that the phenomena o* this li*e are important and real. +G %ne time I had a dream in which I recei!ed a ticket *rom the police *or parking in the wrong place. I remem0ered the dream the neCt day and decided to 0e !ery care*ul. I made a point o* putting money in the meter so that I would not get a ticket. As I walked around I kept aware o* the time so that I knew when to return to my car. Eowe!er5 when I got 0ack to my car it was one minute a*ter the meter had eCpired and I *ound a ticket eCactly as I had seen in my dream. I had tried !ery hard to a!oid this conseIuence. Is it possi0le to change the outcome o* a seIuence o* e!ents a*ter ha!ing dreamed them a certain wayH #G Sometimes you can colla0orate with your dream o* clarity. It can 0ecome !ery use*ul *or you in o!ercoming many pro0lems. -ut changing e!ents is not so easy 0ecause e!erything is linked with secondary causes. Sometimes they are !ery complicated secondary causes5 and you cannot do !ery much. I told you the story o* one o* my *riends in Italy. I had a !ery complicated dream a0out her5 0ut I could not do anything. That is an eCample. #e!ertheless5 sometimes when we know that a dream says something a0out the *uture5 we can modi*y our plans to a!ert a potential pro0lem. %nce5 when I was preparing to go to China on my second !isit I had many 0ad dreams night a*ter night. I was distur0ed 0y these dreams and 0ecame concerned a0out tra!eling to China. Then my wi*e ;osa and son 6eshe went to the north o* Italy *or the holidays. +y own plan was to lea!e *or China. Eowe!er5 the day they le*t to go to the north o* Italy they had a car accident. That early morning I had had a 0ad dream that I was dri!ing a car !ery *ast. I was approaching a place where the road ends and tried to stop the car5 0ut I couldn.t5 0ecause I was going so *ast. I* I were to go ahead5 I would *all o** o* a cli**. I did not know what to do and was !ery *rightened. At that moment I recogni3ed that I was dreaming and that the situation was unreal. Immediately I thought5 AI must trans*orm.B Instantly I trans*ormed the car into a horse. I was then riding on the 0ack o* a horse5 a !ery 0ig stone horse. I did not *all o** the cli**. A*ter I woke up5 at 0reak*ast5 a student o* mine came *rom ;ome to dri!e me to the airport. I told him a0out my strange dream the night 0e*ore5 and that o!er the past *ew nights I had had 0ad dreams. 4ater5 0e*ore I was to lea!e5 I recei!ed a telephone call *rom #orthern Italy. I heard that my wi*e

;osa and 6eshe had 0een in the accident. I thought the dream corresponded to only their negati!e situation5 which was not !ery dangerous. They were in the hospital5 0ut it was not serious. I still intended to go to China and the neCt day I was to go to ;ome. -ut that morning I had another negati!e dream. I hal* woke up. In this state
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0etween dream and wake*ulness someone told me !ery clearly5 A6ou must not tra!el.B It was !ery clear. Then I woke up. I had thought someone was really talking5 0ut I disco!ered the !oice was a dream. I changed my plans5 and did not tra!el to China. I don.t know what would ha!e happened to me i* I had gone that time. It is not easy to know what eCactly was the pro0lem. The only thing I could say is that one month later I heard news that in China and 4hasa they had put many people in prison5 and some were killed 0ecause they were regarded as threats to communism. I don.t know i* this was the pro0lem5 or i* it was perhaps related to the airplane. Sometimes it is possi0le to o!ercome ill *ate 0y clarity in dreams, this is !ery use*ul. +G ;inpoche5 you ha!e said that at the time o* death one can use the awareness de!eloped in the practice o* natural light and in tantric dream practice. I ha!e also heard it said that one.s awareness 0ecomes se!en times as strong a*ter death. >ould you talk a0out how to li0erate onesel* at the time o* death and how much eCperience a >esterner must ha!e with lucid dreams to make it likely that he or she can accomplish this li0erationH >hat are your ideas on thisH #G I* you ha!e had some dreams o* clarity5 you can ha!e 0ene*its and possi0ilities related to the teaching and the path. Eowe!er5 i* you are interested in using the practice *or li0eration a*ter death5 then you must ha!e transmission o* the method5 and teachings on this su0?ect in your li*etime. As an eCample5 let us discuss shitro5' what is called in the >est The Tibet n #oo$ of the De d. It is a practice related to the peace*ul and wrath*ul mani*estations. >hen you recei!e a transmission:a teacher.s empowerment o* a student to practice a speci*ic method:then5 through the power o* that transmission5 something is connected with your potential which5 until then5 is latent as an unmani*est karmic seed. Su0seIuently5 you use your eCperience o* practice in your li*etime. It means you are de!eloping the possi0ility o* the mani*estation o* your potentials. A simple eCample o* potential is a mirror. I* you look in a mirror you disco!er it has in*inite potential5 0eyond limitation. It could 0e a small mirror5 yet e!en a small mirror can re*lect a whole !iew o* a countryside. The re*lection is 0eyond the si3e o* the mirror. Through the re*lections you *ind in the mirror5 you can disco!er its in*inite potential, the re*lection is !ery important *or disco!ering that nature. I* in our li*etime we recei!e a transmission and then uni*y the power o* that transmission through the power o* mantra5 and su0seIuently practice and prepare *or the series o* wrath*ul and peace*ul mani*estations o* the shitro method which occur in the 0ardo o* the nature o* eCistence5 0e*ore the ordinary 0ardo5 then we ha!e that possi0ility o* that mani*estation. -ecause we already ha!e done preparation5 we ha!e the potential *or this speci*ic mani*estation5 and at the same time we recogni3e it is ?ust our potential5 nothing else. >hen we recogni3e this through the transmission and through the method5 then we can ha!e real li0eration. &iber tion means entering into our real nature. #o longer are we dependent on thoughts and ?udgments and conditioned karmic !ision.$ >hen practitioners o* the night die5 they will ha!e the possi0ility o* li0eration. (or those who do not ha!e the capacity to reali3e at the moment o* death in this way5 there is a return to the 0ardo o* eCistence. Such a return means that once again we will 0e re0orn and ha!e the *unction o* the mind and the consciousness o* the senses5 0oth !ery similar to their counterparts within the dream state.
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The di**erence is that within the dream state our *unctions o* consciousness are not dependent on the material 0ody and its sense organs. (or this reason we ha!e se!en times the amount o* clarity in the 0ardo than we ha!e during our li!es5 as eCplained in Tantrism. +G I ha!e read many accounts o* people in the >est who ha!e had lucid dream eCperiences. They can trans*orm a nightmare into a peace*ul situation or can o!ercome their *ear in a dream. I* they ha!e ne!er heard o* the practices o* Tantra and D3ogchen 0ut ha!e had eCperiences o* lucidity and know enough to trans*orm their negati!e dreams into positi!e circumstances5 could they in the 0ardo o* eCistence trans*orm a wrath*ul mani*estation into a positi!e one and achie!e at least a *a!ora0le re0irth5 i* not complete li0erationH #G I* one has the eCperience o* trans*orming a 0ad situation into a peace*ul situation in a dream5 it only means that one has this eCperience in the dream. >hen one has the capacity o* trans*orming 0ad into good or peace*ul within a dream5 it doesn.t mean one also has that capacity in the 0ardo5 a*ter death. I* you want to 0e li0erated you must ha!e the power to connect with the awareness o* your real nature. 6our real nature is not a dualistic !ision. Ideas o* good and 0ad are linked with perception which is itsel* the result o* our karma. Ea!ing knowledge o* the 0ardo is another situation. (irst you need a method to disco!er your potential5 then you disco!er how your potential is 0eyond li*e and death5 and 0eyond the limitations o* your ordinary !ision o* good and 0ad. I* you don.t ha!e this understanding o* your real nature I don.t think there is a possi0ility o* li0erating yoursel* in the 0ardo. +G This 0rings us to the methods o* D3ogchen5 knowing one.s true nature through direct transmission and the practice o* dream and natural light. Can you say something a0out the practices o* D3ogchen and how one recei!es transmissionH Eow do D3ogchen practices lead to the capacity to li0erate onesel* at the time o* death5 or e!en to ha!e eCperiences o* clarity in the time o* li*eH >hat is the relationship 0etween all o* the dream practices and all that we ha!e talked a0out in terms o* D3ogchen5 that is5 0etween the practices o* the night and the awareness o* ;igpa during the dayH #G The principle in D3ogchen teachings is knowledge. >e need to understand our real condition. >e can know this only through knowledge o* our eCistence. (or eCample5 we say mind is one o* our three eCistences:0ody5 speech5 and mind. It is also the root o* the three eCistences. >hen we speak o* mind5 we mean mind as a relati!e condition5 with which we think and ?udge. >e are going deeper when we say n ture of mind. -ut there is no way to disco!er nature o* mind i* we don.t know what is the mind. The mind is part o* our relati!e condition5 our eCistence o* 0ody5 speech5 and mind. >hen we disco!er the knowledge o* our real condition in the D3ogchen teachings5 we call it the state o* ;igpa5 or 0eing in our real nature. This knowledge is the root o* the practice o* dreams also. Dreams are a part o* our li*e. In our li*e we ha!e daytime and nighttime. In the nighttime we ha!e con*usion in our dreams, in daytime we ha!e con*usion with our mind:?udging5 thinking5 creating many things. This is how we pass our li*e. -eing aware or continuing our awareness in dreamtime means maintaining the same awareness we ha!e during the daytime. I* we ha!e no capacity to 0e in the state o* ;igpa5 the state o* real knowledge5 in the daytime with practice o* contemplation5 we cannot ha!e it in the nighttime either. It is the same principle. I* we ha!e at least this knowledge o* ;igpa in the daytime with many eCperiences5 then when we use this knowledge in the nighttime it will 0e easier to 0e in this state. >e can ha!e more eCperiences in dreamtime than daytime. So this is the relationship o* practice to night eCperience.

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+G Is it the same *or TantraH #G 6es5 in Tantra it is more or less the same as in D3ogchen. +G I ha!e heard it is essential to ha!e transmission *rom a master to recei!e these practices5 to understand them5 to de!elop them. +ust you also ha!e a transmission *rom a master in order to de!elop the practices o* dream awarenessH It seems many people in the >est ha!e had eCperiences with lucid dreaming. >hat is the relationship 0etween transmission and de!eloping lucidity within the dream stateH Eow essential is itH #G I* you want to ha!e only a limited eCperience o* dreams5 to ha!e awareness in dreamtime or e!en some clarity eCperiences5 you can do so e!en i* you recei!e no transmission. Eowe!er5 i* you want to consider the dream eCperience as your path5 to see how it a**ects you 0eyond your li*e5 a*ter death5 and to use your dream practice to prepare *or the 0ardo5 then you must get transmission. %therwise you cannot go 0eyond5 and ha!e the possi0ility o* using di**erent methods o* practice. People can e!entually disco!er the meaning o* a teaching5 e!en i* at the moment o* transmission they do not understand. 6ou need transmission *or awareness. Awareness is related to our clarity and our energy. I* you ha!e a transmission there is a continuity5 a possi0ility o* repetition. (or eCample5 i* you ha!e had the transmission *or Shitro practice during your li*etime5 you ha!e the possi0ility o* its mani*estation in the 0ardo. +G I* you read a0out these dream practices in a 0ook could you practice e!en without transmissionH #G It depends. %ne person can ha!e some results while someone else has none. There is no guarantee. -ut i* you *ollow the transmission the precise way you can ha!e many eCperiences. +G So transmission itsel* does not lessen one.s karma or create meritH #G 1!erything is relati!e. +G ;inpoche5 there is a D3ogchen teCt 0y +ipham MChapter $ o* this 0ookN that eCplains the practice o* awareness and contemplation. Eow can one deeply understand this teCt and apply it day and nightH #G >hen you read a 0ook you can understand all concepts in an intellectual way. I* you recei!e a transmission *rom a teacher5 you can ha!e a di**erent taste. +G ;inpoche5 you seem to ha!e a more in*ormal method o* transmission than many other lamas. #G That is not my in!ention. This is the tradition o* D3ogchen teachings. In D3ogchen there is a way to transmit. Analogously5 a philosophy teacher5 through the language o* philosophy5 transmits understanding and knowledge. This method works *or people who are conditioned *or it. People who are conditioned 0y the method o* Tantra can recei!e transmission through ceremony. Simple people can recei!e a transmission through talking5 like two people5 two *riends5 together. This too is a way o* transmission and understanding. The point is that one must eCperience real knowledge. >ithout that5 one may recei!e hundreds o* initiations and eCplanations5 0ut they don.t account *or !ery much in the D3ogchen !iew. +G Is it important to 0e aware that you are recei!ing a transmissionH
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#G It depends on who it is that recei!es the transmission. I* someone is really prepared and has the capacity to recei!e transmission5 then any way a teacher transmits could 0e !ery use*ul5 and the person would 0ene*it. I* one is not prepared and has no capacity5 then it is not easy to recei!e the transmission. +G I* someone recei!es transmission5 0ut does not immediately understand5 is there still a great !alue in recei!ing it5 or is the !alue only in the understandingH

#G I* someone recei!es a transmission 0ut does not understand5 then at the moment there is not !ery much 0ene*it. >hen you recei!e a transmission and you wake up5 really getting into a state o* knowledge5 then there will 0e 0ene*its. +G In the >est there is at least one tradition which 0elie!es that all elements o* a dream represent aspects or pro?ections o* the dreamer. They might ask a person to dramati3e each element in order to gain in*ormation a0out the dreamer. >hat do you think a0out thisH #G >e must distinguish 0etween the dreams that originate *rom 0hakshas and those that arise *rom clarity. I* they are dreams originating *rom daily impressions5 you can certainly learn a0out the dreamer.s condition in the manner you descri0e. I* the dreams originate in clarity5 it is a di**erent case, they are not only a pro?ection. +G >hat is the signi*icance o* walking or talking in one.s sleepH #G I* people are sleeping !ery deeply and they ha!e a dream associated with 0hakshas5 their preoccupations5 they *eel it is real and !ery concrete. They are !ery integrated with this condition. That.s why they not only dream 0ut also talk and walk. I* you are really angry in a dream5 you might also ?ump. +G Sometimes it seems as i* dreams are occurring in *ast motion. >hy does this occurH #G There are two reasons. %ne is that in general our minds ha!e no limitation. The mind *unctions !ery Iuickly. Sometimes in a !ery short time we can dream the actions o* an entire day. Another is that dreams may 0e associated with agitation5 and when we are agitated the dream 0ecomes *ast. +G Is there any link 0etween dreams and putting in*ormation into our memoryH #G It is possi0le to learn and e!en train yoursel* within the dream i* you are aware. +G >hen one sleeps in the Clear 4ight is there still dreamingH #G I* you sleep in the Clear 4ight then your dreams 0ecome more linked with clarity and much less linked with 0hakshas. 6our dreams 0ecome more clear and meaning*ul. +G >hat is the di**erence 0etween our dreaming state and our ordinary waking eCperienceH #G >aking eCperience is more concrete and linked with our attachment5 whereas dreaming is slightly detached. >e use the word unre l 0ecause in dreams we already ha!e an idea or knowledge o* the su0?ect. +G (or a lama or a strong practitioner5 is there any di**erence 0etween dreaming and waking
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eCperience in an a0solute senseH #G +ay0e i* one can integrate one.s eCperience completely5 one can *ind the same principle and the same condition in 0oth states. Then li*e really is a dream. +G >hat relationship does the m yic/ 0ody5 which is discussed in the Six 7o" s of ! ro+ 57 ha!e to do with dreamingH #G Dreaming is the principal path *or reali3ing the mayic 0ody. I* you ha!e eCperience o* the mayic 0ody you will easily understand how dreams *unction. +G >hat is the !alue o* de!eloping your mayic 0odyH #G >ith a de!eloped mayic 0ody you ha!e total reali3ation o* the unreal. +G >hen one de!elops the capacity o* the mayic 0ody5 is one a0le to pro?ect this 0ody during the time one is awake as well as during sleepH #G It is possi0le 0ecause one integrates e!erything. +G I* one recei!es a teaching or transmission in a dream5 is this as !alid as i* one were awake and recei!ing a transmissionH #G I* you are really aware in the dream state then it has the same !alue. +G >ould you say that in general i* you are not lucid in your dream state when you recei!e a transmission5 then this transmission is not o* great !alueH #G Sometimes a dream o* transmission may indicate a distur0ance o* 9 bo58 *or eCample. +G ;ecently I had a dream that I was with a lama and he was eCplaining what another dream I had meant. Is this a dream o* clarityH #G It depends on what was eCplained and who was eCplaining. Such a dream is not always one o*

clarity. It could also 0e demons creating pro0lems. +G Eow can one distinguish 0etween a dream o* real transmission and one that is a distur0anceH #G It depends on your understanding and how you *eel. As your clarity de!elops you will distinguish. I* it is a distur0ance you may *eel upset the neCt day. +G Can a teacher enter into his or her disciple.s dreamsH #G 6es. +G Are there other unusual things that can occur in dreams or through themH #G ?nusu l is a relati!e term5 0ut I will relate se!eral stories that may 0e illustrati!e. %nce upon a time many5 many years ago in east Ti0et there was:and still is today:a pro!ince. There were two *amilies who li!ed there5 and they were related. %ne o* the *amilies had a daughter. 1!ery day she
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went to a mountain called @undron. @undron is the home o* an important guardian o* this area. There is a particular rock on this mountain known to 0e the support o* this local guardian. The young daughter went near the rock e!ery day5 0ringing animals there to roam. >hen she arri!ed she would rest under an o!erhang o* the rock while the animals5 the dogs5 and the sheep would gra3e. %ne day when it was raining5 she went under the rock and *ell asleep *or a long time. In her dream she was near the rock with a young5 !ery strong man. (or her it seemed !ery real e!en though it was only a dream. They talked together and had seCual contact. 4ater she woke up and *ound her eCperience to 0e a dream5 0ut then a*ter a *ew months she disco!ered that she was pregnant. Eer parents were !ery surprised 0ecause there were no other men around where they li!ed. They were !ery remote *rom any other *amilies. A*ter nine months she ga!e 0irth to a !ery strong 0a0y. Ee grew up to 0e a special man. Ee was not nice9looking5 0ut physically he was !ery strong. Ee 0uilt a house constructed o* many 0ig trees5 and 0ecame !ery *amous 0ecause he was so strong. There was a king o* Derge5 in east Ti0et5 during this time5 who had a pro0lem with +ongolian in!asions. The lord asked all the men o* the region to come as soldiers to de*end Ti0et. The strong man 0ecame !ery *amous 0ecause he conIuered many +ongolian soldiers5 and later 0ecame chie* o* the pro!ince. This story was written in a 0ook that I read5 a0out the history and origins o* my mother.s *amily. 6ou would like to know i* I 0elie!e this storyH %h yes. There are many similar *amily histories in Ti0et. Such stories are not so !ery uncommon in the ancient history o* Ti0et. >ithin the ancient -onpo tradition there is *reIuently re*erence to the Tirang. The Tirang is a type o* 0eing5 close to a human 0eing5 0ut not Iuite human. Tirang 0elongs to the class o* #yen.8 +ost local guardians are considered to 0e *rom the class o* #yen. >ithin the class o* #yen there are 0eings called +asang or Tirang. These 0eings are considered close to human. As mentioned5 there has 0een seCual contact 0etween humans and Tirang5 and generations ha!e 0een *ormed. In *act there is another 0ook a0out the history o* the *irst Ti0etan 2ing. Ee came *rom 1ast Ti0et5 *rom a region called Puel. According to this account5 written 0y an ele!enth9century D3ogchen master5 there was a woman who had contact with a Tirang 0eing and had children. %ne o* these children was called %uer. >hen the child was growing up5 some -onpo priests did di!ination and astrological calculations *or disco!ering what kind o* a child he was5 0ecause he had eCtraordinary powers. They were a little a*raid o* these powers. So they said that this could 0e a Tirang child5 and that he must 0e taken out o* their region or they could ha!e pro0lems. Su0seIuently5 they did rites to draw away the Tirang and then they sent him outside o* (uel. 1!entually he arri!ed in Central Ti0et. At this time in Central

Ti0et there was no king. >hen the people disco!ered that the 0oy had eCtraordinary power5 he was soon appointed the Ti0etan 2ing. Ee was called Pu9@el. %el means king and Pu means *rom the region o* Pu9el. Eis name is widely known as the name o* the *irst Ti0etan king5 0ut most people do not know the source o* the name. The history 0ook that I mentioned gi!es this story and other eCamples o* contact 0etween human 0eings and Tirang 0eings. The neCt eCample occurred Iuite recently. I decided to go !isit the place o* the ancient Shang9Shung kings in Ti0et. >e had 0een tra!eling 0y cars5 0ut ?ust 0e*ore arri!ing5 we le*t our cars and arranged
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to go on 0y horse and yak. At the place where we stopped were some ancient ruins5 *or older than the ones destroyed during the Cultural ;e!olution. >e put up our tents amidst these ruins. +any ruined structures surrounded us. #ear0y was an intriguing heap o* earth5 and I asked the local people what this place was. They said that in ancient times it was a -onpo monastery called Shang9Shung +onastery. Since this was a !ery ancient monastery5 no more in*ormation was a!aila0le. That night I had an interesting dream. In it there was a !ery nice temple with *our doors *acing the *our directions. I entered through the eastern door. Inside was a gigantic statue o* a yogi with three eyes. In his right hand was a gyan9sen5 a !ictory *lag. In his le*t hand was a $ + l 51 a skull cup. I went !ery close to the statue and noticed Ti0etan writing under the yogi, it read ATempa #amkaB. Tempa #amka was a *amous -onpo master o* Shang9Shung. This was not the Tempa #amka o* Ti0et5 who was one o* @uru Padmasam0ha!a.s twenty9*i!e disciples.11 This was Tempa #amka o* Shang9Shung5 who is *rom a more ancient time than the other Tempa #amka. In my dream5 I le*t the temple through the western door. %utside were many chortens51& all around me. Suddenly my !ision trans*ormed 0ack to my present !ision, again there were only heaps o* earth and no chortens. I wondered what happened. I then turned 0ack to see the temple5 only to disco!er that it had !anished. All that remained were heaps o* earth. I was surprised. I thought to mysel*G AThere was once in the past a temple and many chortens here5 which only eCist as heaps o* earth today.B In my dream I was aware that this was an eCperience o* clarity. Then I looked west at a heap o* earth5 the ruin o* a chorten. There was a light coming *rom this chorten5 similar to sunlight that re*lects o** a crystal or piece o* glass. As I walked towards the light5 it 0egan to diminish. >hen I reached the chorten5 the light had totally !anished5 and there was a hole in the chorten. I thought5 AThere must 0e something interesting inside this hole5B and put my hand inside. It was a !ery deep hole and I was a0le to put my whole arm inside up to my shoulder. (eeling an o0?ect inside the hole5 I took it out. It was a garuda1" statue o* the ancient time o* Tempa #amka, I was !ery happy with my *ind. Eowe!er5 I was aware that I was dreaming throughout this whole e!ent. Then I woke up. It was time to pack our tents and I *orgot my dream. As people were packing up their horses and yaks I was *ilming the ruins. At a certain point5 I *ound mysel* near the same heap o* earth that had 0een the chorten where I *ound the garuda in my dream. At that moment I remem0ered my dream5 and looked towards the chorten to see i* there was any light. Although there was no light5 I did see the hole. I put my hand in, it was not as deep as in my dream. I had to dig out the earth5 0reaking my *ingernails in the process. >hen I had reached in almost up to my shoulder I *elt something. I pulled out this o0?ect. It was a metal garuda5 ?ust as in my dream. It was !ery old. 6ou can see a photo o* it in the *ilm we made o* our ?ourney in Ti0et. This e!ent occurred near +ount 2ailash1' in Ti0et during the summer o* 1888. It is an eCample o* how a dream relates to something concrete. +G >hat are the ultimate results o* doing the dream workH #G I* one is highly ad!anced one may cease to dream. I* one is moderately ad!anced one will come to recogni3e that one is dreaming. At the least5 i* one practices5 one.s dreams will 0ecome more clear

and positi!e. +G ;inpoche5 are you always lucid in your dreamsH

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#G #ot always. It depends on the circumstances.

Notes To Cha"ter *our

%ddiyanaG The location and eCistence o* this country has long 0een de0ated 0y scholars. It has 0een !ariously placed in the Swat !alley o* Pakistan5 A*ghanistan5 and western Ti0et. %ddiyana is the reputed origin o* 0oth the Anuttara Tantras and the Tantras o* D3ogchen5 and is considered to 0e the 0irthplace o* Padmasam0ha!a. 1. AAB #or0u ;inpoche descri0es practices that utili3e the Ti0etan sylla0le in Chapter two o* this 0ook. &. Secondary conditionsG The way in which primary conditions5 or karmic seeds5 might interact with secondary conditions to mani*est a dream which seems to predict the *uture is eCplained 0elow in a *ictional eCample. Due to misdeeds either within this li*e or within pre!ious li!es5 most indi!iduals ha!e de0ts. These de0ts are karmic potentials that could result in the indi!idual.s in?ury or death when they are repaid. In our eCample5 an indi!idual who is a strong practitioner o* meditation and who has led a !irtuous li*e takes his car to a mechanic to ha!e the 0rakes repaired. #either he nor the mechanic remem0ers that in a pre!ious li*e he caused the mechanic personal in?ury. Due to the *orce o* the karmic seed5 the mechanic unintentionally *ails to *ully repair the 0rakes. As the practitioner is dri!ing5 he su0consciously registers a su0tle sIueaking o* the 0rakes. Due to his meditation practice5 he generally remem0ers his dreams !i!idly5 and that e!ening he dreams that he is in a car accident due to 0rake +ure. The neCt day he returns his car to the auto shop5 and upon *urther inspection the 0rake de*ect is disco!ered 0e*ore there is an accident. In our story5 0oth the su0tle cue o* the sIueaking and the indi!idual.s eCperience in remem0ering his dreams are secondary conditions that help mani*est the dream o* what might ha!e occurred. In the case o* a !ery ad!anced practitioner o* meditation5 the secondary conditions may *all into the realm o* what is ordinarily considered miraculous. ". Shitro or 2ar9gling93hi9tro5 a terma o* 2arma 4ingpa. The practice o* the $8 wrath*ul and the '& peace*ul deities which may arise as !isions during the chonyid 0ardo. Shitro5 which is associated with the dying process5 0rings clarity to those who practice it and prepares them to o!ercome o0stacles at death. It is also practiced 0y the li!ing *or the 0ene*it o* those who ha!e recently died. The teCts o* this terma ha!e 0ecome incorrectly known in the >est as the Tibet n #oo$ of the De d5 due to the mistranslations 0y 1!ans >ent3. <See Fohn ;eynolds. Self8&iber tion Throu"h Seein" (ith ! $ed A( reness5 p. 1"&5 note &.= The correct name o* the two main teCts is The # rdo Thodrol and &iber tion Throu"h 1e rin" in the *ntermedi te St te) 7ltimately there are siC 0ardos or Aintermediate statesB corresponding to eCperiences *rom death to re0irth5 including the a*ter9death eCperience5 all o* which are descri0ed within the Shitro Terma. '. 2armic !isionG According to the -uddhist theory o* karma5 our !ery perception is the result o* pre!ious actions which lead to incarnation in a realm where there is a shared ArealityB. Indeed5 the same en!ironment may 0e percei!ed di**erently depending on one.s A!isionB. According to a classic -uddhist eCample5 a ri!er which to a human 0eing is seen as re*reshing might 0e !iewed as a ri!er o* molten la!a 0y a hell dweller5 while to a *ish it is seen as its !ery atmosphere. $. +ayic 0odyG The illusory 0ody5 de!eloped through practicing one o* the SiC 6ogas o*

#aropa. /.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter 2our #)

The SiC 6ogas o* #aropaG These yogas were compiled 0y #aropa5 a +ahasiddha o* the 2agyud tradition5 and include the *ollowingG The 6oga o* Dumo <heat=5 the 6oga o* the +ayic or illusory 0ody5 the 6oga o* +ilam <dreams=5 the 6oga o* 4ight5 the 6oga o* the -ardo5 and the 6oga o* Phowa <trans*erence o* consciousness=. 7. #yenG A class o* Dharma Protectors5 o*ten associated with a particular location such as a particular mountain or lake. 8. 2apalaG ;itual container o*ten made *rom a human skull. The kapala is a ritual o0?ect *rom the Anuttaratantra. It represents compassion5 as the 0lood o* all sentient 0eings is sym0olically carried inside o* it. 8. @uru Padmasam0ha!a.s twenty9*i!e disciplesG The chie* Ti0etan disciples o* the great +aster Padmasam0ha!a during the time he taught the Dharma in Ti0et. 1ach o* the twenty9*i!e disciples took a !ow to take *uture re0irths in human *orm in order to disco!er Terma *or the 0ene*it o* *uture practitioners. It is important to note that not all Termas come *rom @uru Padmasam0ha!a, some also come *rom Dimalamitra5 *or eCample. 1 . Chorten5 also called stupaG A monument whose design re*lects the stages o* the path to enlightenment. The interior o* the chorten is o*ten *illed with religious relics. 11. @aruda <Sanskrit= or khyung in Ti0etanG A mythical 0ird resem0ling an eagle. In Ti0et the garuda represents the *ire element. It is also a mani*estation o* lightning. The garuda su0dues the class o* n " s <snake 0eings=. The garuda or khyung is especially in!oked to heal disease pro!oked 0y the nagas5 such as skin diseases and di**erent types o* cancer. In the Eindu tradition the garuda is hal* human and hal* 0ird and is also the !ehicle o* the deity Dishnu. The garuda is related to the Thunder -ird or (ire -ird in other mythologies. 1&. +t. 2ailashG 4ocated in >est Ti0et5 +ount 2ailash is the mountain most sacred to Ti0etan -uddhists. It is considered an archetypal mani*estation o* the sacred mountain at the center o* the world. It is also highly re!ered 0y -onpos5 Eindus and Fains. 1".
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter 2our #*

4 T'E 3(DD'A NO *()T'E) T'AN ONE!! PAL+

3ditor,s note: The follo(in" is +reviously untr nsl ted text on the D5o"chen + th) The uthor, the "re t !yin"m medit tion m ster 'i+h m 4in+oche @<=>A8<6<>B, h s ttem+ted to +oint out the Ctrue n ture of mind)D

The 5uintessential nstructions of +ind6 The 3uddha No *urther Than Ones Palm
". I 0ow to Padmasam0ha!a5 and to the glorious 4ama who is the emanation o* the wisdom 0eing +an?ushri1 and like all the -uddhas and their sons. To those desiring to learn the meditation o* recogni3ing the pro*ound meaning o* the mind5 I will eCplain in 0rie*5 the 0eginning path o* the pith instructions.& It is initially necessary to rely on the Iuintessential instructions o* a 4ama who has the eCperience o*

reali3ation. I* one does not enter into the eCperience o* the 4ama.s instructions5 Then all perse!ering and e**ort in meditation is like shooting an arrow in the dark. (or this reason5 renounce all corrupt and arti*icial !iews o* meditation. The pith point is placing one.s awareness in the un*a0ricated5 sel*9settled state, the *ace o* naked wisdom which is separate *rom the shell o* the mind i.e.5 that which identi*ies. -y recogni3ing this wisdom5 one reaches the essential point. The meaning o* La0iding *rom the 0eginning. is the natural5 un*a0ricated state." Ea!ing de!eloped an inner con!iction that all appearances are the essence o* the Dharmakaya ' 5 do not re?ect this knowledge. Indulging in discursi!e eCplanations a0out the path is similar to chasing a*ter a rain0ow. >hen meditati!e eCperiences arise as the product o* awareness o* the great un*a0ricated state5 it is not through eCternal *ocus5 0ut rather through maintaining non9acti!ity. $ Ama3ing5 how one reaches this knowledge. "". At the *ortunate time o* reaching the intermediate state5 %ne maintains the unwa!ering state continuously 0y recollection o* the sel*9settled state o* Lmind9itsel*.. Fust placing in that state is enough. The un*a0ricated mind is no other than this. I* o0structed 0y the arising clouds o* mental analysis which create a distinction 0etween the su0?ect and o0?ect o* meditation5 at that time recall the nature o* mind which *rom the 0eginning is un*a0ricated: Lmind9itsel*5. !ast as the sky. -y relaCing5 *ree tightness and dispel grasping to these conceptions. Sel*9settled knowledge is not thoughts which *low in !arious directions. It is clear5 radiant emptiness that is separate *rom all mental grasping. This state cannot 0e descri0ed 0y eCample5 sym0ol5 or words. %ne directly percei!es ultimate awareness through discriminating wisdom. The state o* great impartial empty awareness has not mo!ed5 is not mo!ing5 and will not mo!e. It is one.s own *ace which is o0scured 0y the stains o* sudden conceptions, !arious delusory meanderings. Eow sadO >hat will 0e o0tained 0y grasping a*ter a mirageH >hat is the purpose o* *ollowing a*ter these
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!aried dreamsH To what 0ene*it is grasping onto spaceH -y !arious concepts one turns one.s own head around. Put aside this eChausting meaninglessness and relaC into the primordial sphere. The real sky is knowing that samsara and nir!ana are merely an illusory display. Although there are multi*arious displays5 !iew them with one taste. -y 0eing intimate with meditation one can immediately recollect sky9like awareness which is naked5 sel*9settled5 !i!id awareness5 *ree *rom conception. The natural mind is without knowing or not9knowing, happiness or anguish. -liss arises *rom this totally relaCed state. At this time whether going or staying5 eating or sleeping5 one is continuously *amiliar with the state5 and all is the path. Thus the meaning o* mind*ulness is awareness similar to the sky. And e!en in the period a*ter *ormal meditation one.s conceptions are greatly reduced. """. At the *ortunate time o* the *inal state5 with regards to the *our occasions o* going5 staying5 eating5 and sleeping5/ the ha0itual imprints5 *rom which all conceptions arise5 and the karmic winds o* the mind are trans*ormed. %ne possesses the capacity o* resting 0ack into the city o* unmo!ing5 innate wisdom. That which is called samsara7 is mere conceptuali3ation. The great wisdom is *ree *rom all conceptuali3ation. At this time whate!er arises mani*ests as completely per*ect. The state o* great clear light is continuous:day and night. It is separate *rom

the delineation o* recollection and non9recollection5 and *rom de!iating *rom its own place through recollection o* the all9per!ading 0asic ground. At this time one does not make accomplishment through e**ort. >ithout eCception5 the Iualities o* the paths and groundsG clair!oyance5 compassion5 etc.5 are sel*9arising,8 increasing like the ripening grass in summer. (ree *rom apprehension and conceit, li0erated *rom hope and *ear5 It is un0orn5 unending great happiness5 eCpansi!e as the sky. This great yoga is like the play*ul @aruda in the sky o* the impartial @reat Per*ection. >onder*ulO Ea!ing relied on the Iuintessential instructions o* a teacher5 the way to mani*est this heart9essence wisdom5 Is to accomplish the two accumulations o* merit and wisdom8 in a !ast way like the ocean. And then5 without di**iculty reali3ation will 0e placed in one.s hand. Ama3ingO Accordingly5 may all sentient 0eings 0y the !irtue o* this eCplanation come to see the youth*ul +an?ushri5 who is the compassionate acti!ity o* one.s own awareness, the supreme teacher5 and diamond9essence the clear9light D3ogpa Chenpo. Ea!ing seen this5 in this !ery li*e5 may we attain per*ect enlightenment.
Composed by Mipham Jamyang Dorje Rinpoche. Translation by Khempo Palden Sherab, Khempo Tsewong Dongyal, Deborah Lockwood, Michael Katz

Notes To Cha"ter *i$e

+an?ushriG the -odhisatt!a o* >isdom. According to -uddhist mythology +an?ushri was in a pre!ious incarnation 2ing Am0a5 who !owed to 0ecome a 0odhisatt!a *or the 0ene*it o* all sentient 0eings. 1. Pith instructionG The lama.s heart instruction. Condensed essential instruction *or meditation presented 0y the lama to his heart disciples. &. 7n*a0ricated stateG The awareness arising at the instant o* perception, pure presence arising without correction5 and uncreated 0y causes. (or additional in*ormation5 see The Cycle of ".
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter 2i-e $1

D y nd !i"ht 0y #amkhai #or0u. DharmakayaG Dh rm means the whole o* eCistence, kaya means the dimension o* that. The essential ground o* 0eing whose essence is clarity and luminosity and within which all phenomena are seen to 0e empty o* inherent eCistence. '. +editati!e eCperience arising through non9acti!ityG The meditation o* D3ogchen is non9conceptual and only accomplished 0y the e**ortless recognition o* one.s true unconditional nature. Acti!ity or e**orts to accomplish meditation are contrary to the relaCed presence o* D3ogchen practice. $. @oing5 staying5 eating5 or sleepingG The all9inclusi!e *our acti!ities within which a D3ogchen practitioner stri!es to maintain awareness. /. SamsaraG Cyclic eCistence marked 0y 0irth5 old age5 sickness5 death5 and re0irth. @o!erned 0y desire5 hatred5 and ignorance5 sentient 0eings continue to migrate throughout the siC realms o* samsara the realms o* the gods5 demi9gods5 humans5 animals5 hungry ghosts5 and hell 0eings according to their karma. 7. Sel*9arising IualitiesG As a natural conseIuence o* D3ogchen meditation ad!anced practitioners may de!elop transcendent Iualities such as great wisdom5 compassion5 clair!oyance5 etc. 8. The two accumulationsG The accumulation o* merit through good deeds and the accumulation o* wisdom through contemplation. Though 0oth are important on the path o* the Dharma5 the

-uddha said that i* one could maintain the state o* contemplation the accumulation o* wisdom *or the time it takes an ant to walk *rom the tip o* one.s nose to one.s *orehead5 this would 0e more 0ene*icial than a li*etime o* accumulation o* good merit through !irtuous action and generosity. 8. +ipham ;inpocheG the *amous nineteenth9century Ti0etan -uddhist master and scholar5 originally a student o* Patrul ;inpoche +ipham5 who wrote original commentaries on D3ogchen and other important -uddhist scriptures. 1 .
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Notes To +ha'ter 2i-e $2

7 3) E* 3 O-)AP'Y O* NA+/'A NO)3(

#amkhai #or0u ;inpoche was 0orn in 1ast Ti0et5 on the eighth day o* the tenth month o* the 1arth9Tiger year 18"8. Eis *ather was a mem0er o* a no0le *amily and sometime o**icial with the go!ernment. >hen he was two years old5 he was recogni3ed 0y two meditation masters as the reincarnation o* Ad3om Drugpa. Ad3om Drugpa5 one o* the great D3ogchen masters o* the early part o* this century5 was the disciple o* the *irst 2hyentse ;inpoche and also the disciple o* Patrul ;inpoche. -oth o* these illustrious teachers were leaders o* the ;imed or non9sectarian mo!ement in nineteenth9century eastern Ti0et. Ad3om Drugpa 0ecame a terton5 or disco!erer o* hidden treasure teCts5 ha!ing recei!ed !isions directly *rom the incompara0le Figme 4ingpa 17" 91788 when the *ormer was thirty. Ad3om Drugpa su0seIuently 0ecame the master o* many contemporary teachers o* D3ogchen. Among them was #or0u ;inpoche.s paternal uncle5 Togdan5 who 0ecame #or0u.s *irst D3ogchen teacher. >hen he was eight years old5 #or0u ;inpoche was additionally recogni3ed 0y 0oth the siCteenth 2armapa and the then Situ ;inpoche to 0e a reincarnation o* the illustrious Drugpa 2agyu master Padma 2arpo 1$&791$8&5 the historical *ounder o* the state o* -hutan. (rom the time he was eight years old until he was *ourteen5 #or0u ;inpoche attended monastic college5 made retreats5 and studied with renowned teachers including the woman master Ayu 2handro 18"8918$". At this time she was already one hundred and thirteen years old and had 0een in a dark retreat *or some *i*ty9siC years. #or0u ;inpoche recei!ed numerous transmissions *rom her which he su0seIuently practiced in intensi!e retreat. In 18$' he was in!ited to !isit the People.s ;epu0lic o* China as a representati!e o* Ti0etan youth. (rom 18$' he was an instructor in Ti0etan language at the Southwestern 7ni!ersity o* +inor #ationalities at Chengdu5 Sichuan5 China. >hile li!ing in China he acIuired pro*iciency in the Chinese and +ongolian languages. >hen he was se!enteen years old5 returning to his home country o* Derge *ollowing a !ision recei!ed in dream5 #or0u ;inpoche came to meet his ;oot +aster5 Changchu0 Dor?e5 who li!ed in a remote !alley to the east. A practicing physician5 Changchu0 Dor?e ;inpoche headed a commune consisting entirely o* lay practitioners5 yogins and yoginis. (rom this master5 #or0u ;inpoche recei!ed additional initiations into5 and transmission o*5 the essential teaching o* D3ogchen. +ore importantly5 according to #or0u this master introduced him directly to the eCperience o* D3ogchen. Ee remained with him *or almost a year5 o*ten assisting Changchu0 Dor?e ;inpoche in his medical practice and ser!ing as his scri0e and secretary. A*ter this5 #or0u ;inpoche set out on a prolonged pilgrimage to Central Ti0et5 #epal5 India5 and -hutan. ;eturning to Derge5 the land o* his 0irth5 he *ound that deteriorating political conditions had led to the eruption o* !iolence. Tra!eling on5 *irst to Central Ti0et5 he *inally emerged in Sikkim. (rom 18$8 to 18/ he li!ed in @angtok5 Sikkim5 employed as an author and editor o* Ti0etan teCt0ooks *or the De!elopment %**ice o* the @o!ernment o* Sikkim. In 18/ 5 when he was twenty9two years old5 at the in!itation o* Pro*essor @iuseppe Tucci5 he went to Italy and resided *or se!eral years in ;ome. (rom 18/' to the present5 #or0u ;inpoche has 0een a pro*essor at the Istituto %rientale5 7ni!ersity

o* #aples5 where he teaches Ti0etan language5 +ongolian language5 and Ti0etan cultural history. Ee has done eCtensi!e research into the historical origins o* Ti0etan culture5 in!estigating little9known literary sources *rom the -onpo tradition. In 188"5 #or0u ;inpoche hosted the *irst International
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Con!ention on Ti0etan +edicine5 held in Denice5 Italy. Although still acti!ely teaching at the uni!ersity5 *or the past ten years #or0u ;inpoche has in*ormally conducted teaching retreats in !arious countries. During these retreats5 he has gi!en practical instruction in D3ogchen practices in a non9sectarian *ormat5 as well as taught aspects o* Ti0etan culture5 especially 6antra 6oga5 Ti0etan medicine5 and astrology. #or0u ;inpoche is also the author o* more than ten 0ooks on D3ogchen meditation5 including The Cryst l nd the 2 y of &i"ht and The Cycle of D y nd !i"ht. The a0o!e in*ormation was largely eCtracted 0y Fohn ;eynolds *rom a 0iography in Ti0etan5 andre!ised 0y the editor.
Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light $ 81!E2 8!O41AP/Y O2 NA35/A! NO180 $"

3 3L O-)AP'Y

Artemidorus5 D.G .neirocritic . Park ;idge5 #FG #oyes Press5 187$. -oss5 +. The An lysis of Dre ms. #ew 6orkG Philosophical 4i0rary5 18$8. Castaneda5 C. Eourney to *xtl n. #ew 6orkG Simon PSchuster5 187&. Castaneda5 C. The Te chin"s of Don Eu n. #ew 6orkG Simon PSchuster5 18/8. Craig5 P.1. CThe 4e lness of Dre ms)D In ;. ;usso5 ed.5 Dre ms Are 2iser Th n 'en) -erkeleyG #orth Atlantic -ooks5 1887. Da 4iu. T i Chi Chu n nd 'edit tion) #ew 6orkG Schocken -ooks5 188/. 1liade5 +. Sh m nism: Arch ic Techni0ues of 3cst sy) 4ondonG ;out9ledge P2egan Paul5 187 . 4eakey5 ;. P4ewin5 ;. Peo+le of the & $e) #ew 6orkG A!on5 1878. (araday5 A. The Dre m % me) #ew 6orkG Earper P;ow5 187'. (araday5 A. Dre m Po(er) #ew 6orkG -erkley +edallion -ooks5 187". (ossage5 F.4.5 Clemens5 P4oew5 eds. Dre m *nter+ret tion: A Com+rehensive Study, 4evised) #ew 6orkG P.+.A.5 1887. (reud5 S. The *nter+ret tion of Dre ms) #ew 6orkG A!on -ooks5 18/$. (reud5 S.5 C*ntroductory &ectures on Psycho n lysis)D In The Com+lete Psycholo"ic l 2or$s of Si"mund Freud) Standard edition. #ew 6orkG Eogarth Press5 181/. @ampopa. The Ee(el .rn ment of &iber tion) Trans. Eer0ert @uen9ther. -erkeleyG Sham0hala5 1881. @ar*ield5 P. Cre tive Dre min") #ew 6orkG -allantine5 187'. @endlin5 1. &et 7our #ody *nter+ret 7our Dre ms) >ilmetteG Chiron Pu0lishers5 188/. @rant5 F. Dreamers. -athG Ashgro!e Press5 188'. @rossinger5 ;. CThe Dre m 2or$)D In ;. ;usso5 ed.5 Dre ms Are 2iser Th n 'en) -erkeleyG #orth Atlantic -ooks5 1887. Eall5 C. P4ind5 ;. Dre m &ife nd &iter ture: A Study of Fr n5 ; f$ ) Chapel EillG 7ni!ersity o* #orth Carolina Press5 187 . Eo0son5 F.A. The Dre min" #r in) #ew 6orkG -asic -ooks5 1888. Fung5 C. 'emories, Dre ms nd 4eflections) 4ondonG ;outledge P2egan Paul5 18/". 2el3er5 2. CThe Sun nd the Sh do()D In ;. ;usso5 ed. Dre ms re 2iser th n 'en) -erkeleyG #orth Atlantic -ooks5 1887. 2ongtrul5 Famgon. The Torch of Cert inty) Trans. Fudith Eanson. -ostonG Sham0hala5 188/. 4a-erge5 S. &ucid Dre min") #ew 6orkG -allantine -ooks5 188/. 4incoln5 F. The Dre m in Primitive Cultures) -altimoreG >illiams P>ilkins5 18"$. 4oewe5 +. P-lacker5 C. .r cles nd Divin tion) -oulderG Sham0hala5 1881. 4ama 4odo. # rdo Te chin"s) San (ranciscoG 2TD Pu0lications5 188&. +ass5 C. Scott. The 1y+notic *nvention of Dre ms) #ew 6orkG >iley5 18/7. +c@uire5 F. !i"ht nd D y) #ew 6orkG Simon PSchuster5 1888.

+indell5 A. Dre mbody) -ostonG Sigo Press5 188&. +indell5 A. 2or$in" (ith the Dre m #ody) 4ondonG ;outledge and 2egan Paul5 188$. #or0u5 #amkhai. The Cryst l nd the 2 y of &i"ht) Fohn Shane5 ed. #ew 6orkG ;outledge P 2egan Paul5 188/. #or0u5 #amkhai. The Cycle of D y nd !i"ht) Fohn ;eynolds5 ed. -arrytownG Station Eill Press5 188'. #or0u5 #amkhai. The &ittle Son" of Do s 7ou Ple se) Archidosso5 ItalyG Shang Shung 1ditions5 188/. #or0u5 #amkhai. 7 ntr 7o" ) %li!er 4eick5 ed. @leisdor*5 AustriaG 1dition Tsaparang5 1888. %uspensky5 P.D. The Fourth 2 y) #ew 6orkG Dintage -ooks5 1871. Perls5 (. *n nd .ut of the % rb "e P il) +oa05 7tahG ;eal People Press5 18/8.
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;eynolds5 Fohn. Self8&iber tion Throu"h Seein" (ith ! $ed A( reness) -arrytownG Station Eill Press5 1888. Saint Denys5 E. Dre ms nd 1o( to %uide Them) 4ondon5 Duckworth5 188&. Stewart5 2. CDre m Theory in ' l y )D In C. Tart5 ed.5 Altered St tes of Consciousness) #ew 6orkG Dou0leday5 1871. Sutton5 P.5 ed. Dre min", the An of Abori"in l Austr li ) #ew 6orkG @eorge -ra3iller PThe Asia Society @alleries Pu0lications5 1888. Tart5 Charles5 ed. Altered St tes of Consciousness) #ew 6ork5 >iley Pu0lishers5 18/8. Tulku5 T. .+enness 'ind) -erkeleyG Dharma Pu0lishing5 1878.
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