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GENERAL INTRODUCTION Explanation of citation and referencing

During the course of writing an essay, report or other assignment it is usual to support arguments by reference to other published work. These references may be from work presented in journal or newspaper articles, government reports, books or specific chapters of books, research dissertations or theses, material from the Internet etc. Citation is the practice of referring to the work of other authors in the text of your own piece of work. Such works are cited to show evidence both of the background reading that has been done and to support the content and conclusions. ach citation re!uires a reference at the end of the work" this gives the full details of the source item and should enable it to be traced. #eferring accurately to such source materials is part of sound academic practice and a skill that should be mastered. $ther reasons for accurate citation and referencing are% & To give credit to the concepts and ideas of other authors. & To provide the reader 'often the marker(examiner of the assignment) with evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading. & To enable those who read your work to locate the cited references easily. Remember to note the details of all the documents you read. The following pages give detailed guidance for various types of publication as there are major differences between books, journal articles and websites, but a minimum re!uirement is for the author, date, title, and further details which help to identify the source.

Plagiarism
*lagiarism is passing off the work of others as your own. This constitutes academic theft and is a serious matter which is penalised in assignment marking. Plagiarism is the submission of an item of assessment containing elements of work produced by another person(s) in such a way that it could be assumed to be the students own work. Examples of plagiarism are: & the verbatim copying of another persons work without acknowledgement & the close paraphrasing of another persons work by simply changing a few words or altering the order of presentation without acknowledgement & the unacknowledged uotation of phrases from another persons work and!or the presentation of another persons idea(s) as ones own. "opying or close paraphrasing with occasional acknowledgement of the source may also be deemed to be plagiarism if the absence of uotation marks implies that the phraseology is the students own. Plagiarised work may belong to another student or be from a published source such as a book# report# $ournal or material available on the internet.

Referencing systems
There are a number of systems for the citation of references. +nglia #uskin ,niversity expects students to use the alphabetical(name-date system, in a particular style, known as the .+#/+#D style. In this, the author0s surname and year of publication are cited in the text, e.g. '1ond, 2334) and a reference list 'of these citations) is included at the end of the assignment, in alphabetical order by author with date. This reference list also includes important details such as the title and publisher. + biblio ra!hy lists relevant items that you have used in the preparation of the assignment but not necessarily cited in your text. + bibliography should also be in the .arvard style and the inclusion of such a list shows that you have read widely beyond the items you have cited. 5.1. 6aculty regulations may differ in the use of bibliographies and reference lists, students are advised to check with their 6aculty.

CITING RE"ERENCE# IN TE$T usin the %ar&ard #ystem


#eferences to sources may be cited in the text in different ways depending on the nature of the sentence(paragraph that is being written.

Authors name cited in the text


7hen making reference to an author8s work in your text, their name is followed by the year of publication of their work, and page reference, in brackets 'parentheses) and forms part of the sentence. 9ormack ':;;4, pp.<2-<<) states that 0when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works0. In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of 9ormack ':;;4, pp.<2-<<).

Authors name not cited directly in the text


If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author8s name and publication year are placed at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets% =aking reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience '9ormack, :;;4).

More than one author cited in the text


7here reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, they are both cited% >ones ':;4?) and Smith ':;4@) have both shownAA

More than one author not cited directly in the text


Bist these at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence, putting the author8s name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a semi-colon and within brackets% 6urther research in the late forties '>ones, :;4?" Smith, :;4@) lead to major developmentsAAAA.

Two authors for the same work


7hen there are two authors for a work they should both be noted in the text% 7hite and 1rown ':;?4) in their recent research paper foundAA.. 7ith regard to *# * and the role of libraries, 9rane and ,r!uhart ':;;4) suggestA $r indirectly, using an ampersand 'C) % During the mid nineties research undertaken in Buton 'Slater C >ones, :;;?) showed thatAAAAA. arlier research '7hite C 1rown, :;??) demonstrated that the presence of certain chemicals would lead toAAA

More than two authors for a work


7here there are several authors 'more than two), only the first author should be used, followed by Det al.8 meaning Dand others8% Ereen, et al. ':;;F) found that the majority AA or indirectly% #ecent research has found that the majority ofAA'Ereen, et al., :;;F)

No date
The abbreviation n.d. is used to denote this% Smith 'n.d.) has written and demonstratedAA or indirectly% arlier research 'Smith, n.d.) demonstrated thatA.. very effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission. See also section '.

Page numbers
Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources. This is particularly important for !uotations and for paraphrasing specific paragraphs in the texts%

Bawrence ':;??, p.:24) or indirectly% 'Bawrence, :;??, p.:24)

e!eral works by one author in different years


If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years, then the references should be cited in chronological order 'i.e. earliest first)% as suggested by 1loggs ':;;2, :;;4) or indirectly% '1loggs :;;2, :;;4)AA

e!eral works by one author in the same year


If you are !uoting several works published by the same author in the same year, they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the year for each item% arlier research by Smith ':;;<a) found thatAAAbut later research suggested again by Smith ':;;<b) thatAA. If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion G or an author has made the same point in several publications they can all be referred to by using lower case letters 'as above)% 1loggs ':;;<a, b) has stated on more than one occasion thatA

"uoting portions of published text


If you want to include text from a published work in your essay then the sentence's) must be included within !uotation marks, and may be introduced by such phrases as% the author states that DAA..8 or Athe author writes that DAA..8 In order for a reader to trace the !uoted section it is good practice to give the number of the page where the !uotation was found. The !uotation should also be emphasiHed 'especially if it runs to several lines) by indenting it and using !uotation marks. This clearly identifies it as the work of someone else% $n the topic of professional writing and referencing 9ormack ':;;4, p.<2)

states% 07hen writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works0.

#hapter authors in edited works


#eferences to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger work, that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the name of the contributory author and not the editor of the whole volume% In his work on health information, Smith ':;IF) statesA In the reference list at the end of your document( you should include details of both the cha!ter author and the editor of the entire )or*+ 'See below for further details)

#orporate authors
If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is usually cited under the body that commissioned it. This applies to publications by associations, companies, government departments etc. such as Department of the nvironment or #oyal 9ollege of 5ursing. It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, eg. #95, in your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets% :st citation% #oyal 9ollege of 5ursing '#95) ' 233I) 2nd citation% #95 '233I) 5ote that the full name is the preferred format in the reference list. Some reports are written by specially convened groups or committees and can be cited by the name of the committee% 9ommittee on 5ursing ':;I2) Select 9ommittee on Stem 9ell #esearch '2332)

No author
If the author cannot be identified use D Anonymous8 or DAnon.8 and the title of the work and date of publication. The title should be written in italics. very effort should be made to establish the authorship if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission% %arketing strategy '+non., :;;;)

econdary sources $second%hand references&


7hile you are consulting an original work, you may come across a summary of another author8s work, which you would like to make reference to in your own document. This is called secondary referencing% + direct reference% #esearch recently carried out by 1rown ':;?? cited in 1assett, :;@?, p.:42) found thatAA.. In this example, 1rown is the work, which you wish to refer to, but have not read directly for yourself. 1assett is the secondary source, where you found the summary of 1rown8s work.. $r indirectly% '1rown, :;?? cited in 1assett, :;@?, p.:42) In the example below 7hite is the primary or original source and 1lack is the secondary source. It is important to realise that 1lack may have taken 7hite0s ideas forward, and altered their original meaning. It is recommended that where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than rely on someone else8s interpretation of a work. 7hite, ':;;3) as cited in 1lack ':;;4), suggests thatA The reference list at the end of your document should only contain )or*s that you ha&e read.

Tables and diagrams


7hen reproducing selected data from a diagram or table, or copying the entire table or diagram, a reference must be made to the source. + reference within the text to a table taken from eg. a book, should include the author and page 'Smith, 233F, p.<<) to enable the reader to identify the data. If the source of the data is not the author8s own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such% ',nited 5ations, :;IF cited in Smith, 233F, p.<<) If the table is reproduced in its entirety, place the citation as a footnote. 1e particularly careful to note the original source of data, as well as the authorship of the document. 6ull details should be included in the reference list.

In the following example, a table is reproduced from page 2?I, of a book written by #obert +maHon which is the 4th edition and published by 6T *rentice .all of .arlow, ngland in 233F. The title of the book is =anagement in the media% decision makers. J If you wish to reproduce the table in your own work G replicate the table Television ownership in England (Percentage of households) Date Percentage 1970 60 1980 I3

Source : National Statistics Office, 1985 * +nd add a 6ootnote G at the bottom of the page in your own work acknowledging the source of the reproduced table. K5ational Statistics $ffice :;@F cited in +maHon, 233F, p.2?I J If you wish to !uote from a table in the above book in your essay% A..historical figures demonstrate that only sixty percent of households had televisions in 1ritain by the :;I3s '5ational Statistics $ffice :;@F cited in +maHon, 233F, p. 2?I). J If you wish to reference the book in the reference list or bibliography% +maHon, #., 233F. %anagement in the media: decision makers. 4th ed. .arlow% 6T

CO,-ILING T%E RE"ERENCE LI#T AND .I.LIOGRA-%/ 'eneral guidelines( layout and punctuation
The purpose of a reference list is to enable sources to be easily traced by another reader. Different types of publication re!uire different amounts of information but there are certain common elements such as authorship, year of publication and title. The last section deals with references where some of the details are unknown. The .arvard Style lays down standards for the order and content of information in the reference. Some variations of layout are acceptable provided that they are used consistently. +ll Items should be listed alphabetically by author or authorship, regardless of the format, ie. whether books, websites or journal articles etc. 7here there are several works from one author or source they should by listed together but in date order with the earliest work listed first.

)ooks
,se the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details. The re!uired elements for a book reference are% +uthor, Initials(6irst name., Lear. &itle of book. dition. *lace of publication% *ublisher. #edman, *., 233?. 'ood essay writing: a social sciences guide. <rd ed. Bondon% $pen ,niversity in assoc. with Sage. 1aron, David *., 233@. (usiness and the organisation. ?th ed. 9hester '9T)% *earson.
Please note )uthor: *urname with capital first letter and followed by a comma. +nitials: +n capitals with full,stop after each and comma after full,stop of last initial. -ear: Publication year (not printing or impression) followed by full,stop. &itle: .ull title of book!thesis!dissertation in italics with capitali/ation of first word and proper nouns only. .ollowed by full,stop unless there is a sub,title. *ub,title: .ollows a colon at end of full title# no capitali/ation unless proper nouns. .ollow by full,stop.

Edition: 0nly include this if not first edition and use number followed by abbreviation ed. .ollowed by full, stop. Place of publication: &own or city# follow by colon. +f there may be confusion with 12 place names# for 1*) towns include the *tate in abreviated form# eg. "hester("&). Publisher: "ompany name followed by full,stop.

.oo*s )ith t)o( three or four authors


6or books with two, three or four authors of e!ual status the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. ,se an ampersand 'C) to link the last two multiple authors. The re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthors, Initials., Lear. &itle of book. dition. 'only include this if not the first edition) *lace% *ublisher. 1arker, #. Mirk, >. C =unday, #.>., :;@@. 3arrative analysis. <rd ed. 1loomington% Indiana ,niversity *ress.

.oo*s )ith more than four authors


6or books where there are more than four authors, use the first author only with surname and initials followed by et al. The re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor, Initials., Lear. &itle of book. dition. 'only include this if not the first edition) *lace% *ublisher. Erace, 1. et al., :;@@. ) history of the world. *rinceton, 5>% *rinceton ,niversity *ress.

.oo*s )hich are edited


6or books which are edited give the editor's) surname's) and initials, followed by ed. or eds. The re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor, Initials., Lear. &itle of book. dition. 'only include this if not the first edition) *lace% *ublisher Meene, . ed., :;@@. 3atural language. 9ambridge% ,niversity of 9ambridge *ress. Silverman, D.6. C *ropp, M.M. eds., :;;3. &he active interview. 1everly .ills, 9+% Sage. +llouche, >ose. ed., 233?. "orporate social resposibility# 4olume 5: concepts# accountability and reporting. 1asingstoke% *algrave =acmillan.

Cha!ters of edited boo*s


6or chapters of edited books the re!uired elements for a reference are% 9hapter author's) surname's) and initials. Lear of chapter. Title of chapter followed by NIn%O 1ook editor's) initials and surnames with ed. or eds. after the last name. Lear of book. &itle of book. *lace of publication% *ublisher. 9hapter number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop. Smith, >., :;IF. + source of information. In% 7. >ones, ed. 2333. 0ne hundred and one ways to find information about health. $xford% $xford ,niversity *ress. 9h.2. Samson, 9., :;I3. *roblems of information studies in history. In% S. Stone, ed. :;@3. 6umanities information research. Sheffield% 9#,S, pp.44-?@.

,ulti!le )or*s by the same author


7here there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date. Remember that this must also be consistent )ith the citations in the te0t. 6or multiple works the re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor, Lear. &itle of book . *lace of publication% *ublisher. Soros, E., :;??a. &he road to serfdom. 9hicago% ,niversity of 9hicago *ress. Soros, E., :;??b. (eyond the road to serfdom. 9hicago% ,niversity of 9hicago *ress. This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. +s an alternative their initials can be included in the citation. 7orks by the same author should be displayed in chronological order, earliest first.

.oo*s )hich ha&e been translated


6or works which have been translated the reference should include details of the translator, the suggested elements for such references are% +uthor, Lear. &itle of book .. Translated from 'language) by 'name of translator) *lace of publication% *ublisher. 9anetti, lias., 233:. &he voices of %arrakesh: a record of a visit. Translated from Eerman by >.+.,nderwood. San 6rancisco% +rion. 6or major works of historic significance, the date of the original work, may be included along with the date of the translation. Mant, I., :I@F. 6undamental principles of the metaphysic of morals. Translated by T.M. +bbott., :;@@. 5ew Lork% *rometheus 1ooks.

E1boo*s
6or e-books the re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor, Lear, &itle of book. Ptype of mediumQ *lace of publication% *ublisher. 6ollowed by N+vailable at%O include e-book source and web site address(,#B',niform #esource Bocator) and routing details if needed. P+ccessed dateQ. 6ishman, #., 233F. &he rise and fall of suburbia. Pe-bookQ 9hester% 9astle *ress. +vailable at% ,niversity Bibrary(Digital Bibrary(e-books http%((libweb.anglia.ac.uk ( books P+ccessed F >une 233FQ. 9arlsen, >. C 9harters, S., eds. 233I. 'lobal wine tourism. Pe-bookQ 7allingford% 9+1I *ub. +vailable at% ,niversity Bibrary 9atalogue( https%((oscar.lib.anglia.ac.uk(6(6;FI,#D5+#+@;M,<S1+F655;=S*RM52MS?,4IRL SI#4S:*I:2>-:@32?TfuncUfull-setsetCsetVnumberU33233:CsetVentryU3333F;CformatU;;; P+ccessed ; >une 233@Q. 6or a pdf version of a Eovernment *ublication or similar% +uthorship, Lear, &itle of book. Ptype of mediumQ *lace of publication% *ublisher. 6ollowed by N+vailable at%O include address(,#B',niform #esource Bocator) and routing details if needed. P+ccessed dateQ. Department of .ealth, 233@. 6ealth ine ualities: progress and next steps. PpdfQ Bondon% Department of .ealth. +vailable at% http%((www.dh.gov.uk(en(*ublicationsandstatistics(*ublications(*ublications*olicy+ndEu idance(D.V3@F<3I P+ccessed ; >une 233@Q. 5.1. the ,#B should be underlined.

*ournal articles and newspapers


2ournal articles
6or journal articles the re!uired elements for a references are% +uthor, Initials., Lear. Title of article. .ull &itle of 7ournal# /olume number 'Issue(*art number), *age numbers. 1oughton, >.=., 2332. The 1retton 7oods proposal% an in depth look. Political *cience 8uarterly# 42 '?), pp.F?4-I@. *erry, 9., 233:. 7hat health care assistants know about clean hands. 3ursing &imes# 2F =ay, ;I'22), pp.?<-?4.
Please note )uthor: *urname with capital first letter and followed by comma. +nitials: +n capitals with full,stop after each and comma after full,stop of last initial. -ear: Publication year followed by full,stop. &itle: .ull title of article 30& in italics with capitali/ation of first word and proper nouns only. .ollowed by full,stop unless there is a sub,title. *ub,title: .ollows a colon at end of full title# no capitali/ation unless proper nouns. .ollowed by full,stop. 7ournal title: .ull title of $ournal# in italics# with capitali/ation of key words. .ollowed by comma. 4olume number: +ssue!Part number: +n brackets# followed by comma. Page numbers: Preceded by pp. for a range of pages and p. for a single page. .ollowed by full,stop.

2ournal articles from an electronic source


6or journal articles from an electronic source the re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor, Initials., Lear. Title of article. .ull &itle of 7ournal# Ptype of mediumQ /olume number 'Issue(*art number), *age numbers if availalble. +vailable at% include web site address(,#B',niform #esource Bocator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the home page of the source. P+ccessed dateQ. 1oughton, >.=., 2332. The 1retton 7oods proposal% an in depth look. Political *cience 8uarterly, P$nlineQ. 42 '?), +vailable at% 1lackwell Science Synergy http%((www.pol.upenn(articles P+ccessed :2 >une 233FQ. .amill, 9., :;;;. +cademic essay writing in the first person% a guide for undergraduates. 3ursing *tandard# P$nlineQ 2: >ul., :< '44), pp. <@-43. +vailable at% http%((libweb.anglia.ac.uk(ejournals(<<< P+ccessed :2 >une 233FQ. >enkings, #.,:;@;. 9lashing with caching. )9+):3E# P$nlineQ :3 September, Issue 2:. +vailable at% http%((www.ariadne.ac.uk(issue2:(web-cache( P+ccessed 2 December 2334Q. 5.1. the ,#B should be underlined.

2ournal abstract from a database


6or a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full article, the re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor, Initials., Lear. Title of article. .ull &itle of 7ournal# Ptype of mediumQ /olume number 'Issue(*art number), *age numbers if available, abstract only. +vailable at% include web site address(,#B',niform #esource Bocator) and additional details of access. P+ccessed dateQ. 1oughton, >.=., 2332. The 1retton 7oods proposal% an in depth look. Political *cience 8uarterly, Pe-journalQ 42 '?). +bstract only. +vailable at%1lackwellScienceSynergydatabase http%((www.pol.upenn(articles, 1lackwell Science Synergy P+ccessed :2 >une 233FQ. 5.1. the ,#B should be underlined very effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission

Ne)s!a!er articles
6or newspaper articles the re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor, Initials., Lear. Title of article. .ull &itle of 3ewspaper# Day and month before page number and column line. Slapper, E., 233F. 9orporate manslaughter% new issues for lawyers. &he &imes, < Sep. p. 4b.

Online ne)s!a!er articles


6or newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor or corporate author, Lear. Title of document or page . 3ame of newspaper# Ptype of mediumQ additional date information. +vailable at% include web site address(,#B',niform #esource Bocator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the home page of the source.P+ccessed dateQ. 9hittenden, =., #ogers, B. C Smith, D., 233<. 6ocus% DTargetitis ails 5.S. &imes 0nline# PinternetQ : >une. +vailable at% http%((www.timesonline.co.uk(print6riendly(3,,::-:F3?-??;.html P+ccessed :I =arch 233FQ.

5.1. the ,#B should be underlined It is ood !ractice to *ee! in your files a co!y of the front !a e of any )ebsite you use.

OT%ER T/-E# O" DOCU,ENT


There are other types of documents which you may wish to include in your reference list or bibliography. There is no official .arvard guide for these but some suggestions are set out below%

Acts of Parliament
The re!uired elements are% Short title with Mey words capitaliHed, which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets. Mey words of titles are capitaliHed. *lace of publication% *ublisher. 6igher Education )ct ;<<=. 'c.@), Bondon% .=S$. 6or +cts prior to :;?<, the regal year and parliamentary session are included% 9oad &ransport >ighting )ct 5?@A. 'FC? liH. 2, c.F:), Bondon% .=S$.

tatutory +nstruments
The re!uired elements for a reference are% Short title with Mey words capitaliHed. Lear. the abbreviation 0SI0 followed by the year of publication and the SI number. *lace of publication% *ublisher. Public 0ffers of *ecurities 9egulations 5??@. SI :;;F(:F<I, Bondon% .=S$.

#ommand Papers and other official publications


The re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthorship, which may be part of the title. Lear. &itle# in italics if a separate element# 9ommand number as it is on the document, within brackets, *lace of publication% *ublisher. 9oyal "ommission on civil liability and compensation for personal in$ury# :;I@. '*earson #eport) '9mnd. I3F4) Bondon% .=S$. Select 9ommittee on nationalised industries ':;I@-;). "onsumers and the nationalised industries: prelegislative hearings '.9 <<4 of :;I@-;) Bondon% .=S$.

,aw report
6ollowing normal legal practice the re!uired elements for a reference are% 5ame of the parties involved in the law case, Lear of reporting 'in s!uare brackets, where there is no volume) number Baw reporting series, /olume and number, *age reference if available. 9 v Bhite (7ohn 6enry) P233FQ 79+ 9rim ?@;, 233F 7B :34F2@. 7ones v >ipman P:;?2Q : 7B# @<2. *aidi v .rance ':;;4) :I .## 2F:, p.24F

Annual report
The re!uired elements for a reference are% 9orporate author, LearK. .ull title of annual report# *lace of publication% *ublisher. =arks C Spencer, 2334. &he way forward, annual report ;<<C,;<<=, Bondon% =arks C Spencer. 6or an e1&ersion of an annual report the re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor or corporate author, Lear. &itle of document or page# Ptype of mediumQ +vailable at% include web site address(,#B',niform #esource Bocator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the home page of the source. P+ccessed dateQ =arks C Spencer, 2334. )nnual report ;<<C,;<<=. P$nlineQ +vailable at% http%((wwwmarks-and-spencer.co.uk(corporate(annual233<( P+ccessed 4 >une 233FQ 5.1. the ,#B should be underlined It is ood !ractice to *ee! in your files a co!y of the front !a e of any )ebsite you use.

)ritish tandard and +nternational tandards


The re!uired elements for a reference are% 9orporate author, Lear. +dentifying letters and numbers and full title of (*# *lace of publication% *ublisher. 1ritish Standards Institution, :;;3. (* @@@@:5??< 9ecommendations for wiring identification. =ilton Meynes% 1SI. International Standards $ffice, :;;@. +*0 D?< E ; +nformation and documentation: (ibliographical references: Electronic documents . Eeneva% IS$.

#onference report
The re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthorship author, editor or organisation, Lear. .ull title of conference report. Bocation, Date, *ublisher% *lace of publication. ,5D S+ ',nited 5ations Department of conomic and Social +ffairs), 233F. Dth 'lobal forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance . Seoul, #epublic of Morea 24-2I =ay 233F. ,nited 5ations% 5ew Lork.

#onference paper
The re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthorship, Lear. 6ull title of conference paper. In% followed by ditor or name of organisation, .ull title of conference. Bocation, Date, *ublisher% *lace of publication. 1rown, >., 233F. valuating surveys of transparent governance. In% ,5D S+ ',nited 5ations Department of conomic and Social +ffairs), Dth 'lobal forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, #epublic of Morea 24-2I =ay 233F. ,nited 5ations% 5ew Lork.

-issertation
The re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor, Lear of publication. &itle of dissertation. Bevel. *lace of ,niversity 'If not clear from the name of the ,niversity)% 5ame of ,niversity. #ichmond, >., 233F. "ustomer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the (ank of (ritain. *h. D. 9helmsford% +nglia #uskin ,niversity.

-.- or !ideo( film and broadcasts


The re!uired elements for a reference are% .ull title of :4: or video. Lear of distribution. P=ediumQ Director 'if relevant) 9ountry or origin% 6ilm studio or maker. '$ther relevant details). 'reat films from the F<s: a selection of clips from Barner (rothers top films from the 5?F<s. 233F PD/DQ 5ew Lork% 7arner 1rothers. 6ealth for all children C: the video., 2334. P/ideoQ Bondon% 9hild Erowth 6oundation. '5arrated by D.1.=. .all). 6or a 6ilm the suggested elements should include% &itle. Lear of release. P=ediumQ Director. 9ountry of origin% 6ilm studio. %acbeth, :;4@. P6ilmQ Directed by $rson 7ells. ,S+% #epublic *ictures. 6or a broadcast the suggested elements should include% *eries title and episode name and number if relevant , Lear of broadcast. P=ediumQ 1roadcasting organisation and 9hannel, date and time of transmission. >ittle (ritain, 233?. PT/ programmeQ 119, 1192, <3 >anuary 233? 23.33.

Map
The re!uired elements for a reference are% =ap maker, Lear of issue. Title of map. %ap series# Sheet number, scale, *lace of publication% *ublisher. $rdnance Survey, 233?. 9hester and 5orth 7ales. >andranger series, Sheet :3?, :%F3333, Southampton% $rdnance Survey.

Pictures( +mages and Photographs


The suggested elements for a reference are% +rtist(*hotographers name, Lear of production. Title of image. P=ediumQ '9ollection details). 1eaton, 9., :;F?. =arilyn =onroe. P*hotographQ '=arilyn =onroe8s own private collection). 1eaton, 9., :;44. "hina 5?==: ) mother resting her head on her sick childGs pillow in the "anadian %ission 6ospital in "hengtu . P*hotographQ 'Imperial 7ar =useum 9ollection). 6or an electronic reference the sugested elements are% +rtist(*hotographers name, Lear of production. Title of image. PmediumQ +vailable at% include web site address(,#B',niform #esource Bocator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the home page of the source.P+ccessed dateQ. Dean, #oger, 233@ Tales from Topographic $ceans. Pelectronic printQ +vailable at% http%((rogerdean.com(store(productVinfo.phpTc*athU4@CproductsVidU@@ 6rom home page(store(calendar(august P+ccessed :@ >une 233@Q.

ELECTRONIC #OURCE# /ebsites


6or websites found on the world wide web the re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthorship or Source, Lear. &itle of web document or web page. P=ediumQ 'date of update) +vailable at% include web site address(,#B',niform #esource Bocator) and additional details such as access or routing from the home page of the source. P+ccessed dateQ. 5ational electronic Bibrary for .ealth, 233<. "an walking make you slimmer and healthierH '.itting the headlines article) P$nlineQ ',pdated :? >an 233F) +vailable at% http%((www.nhs.uk.hth.walking P+ccessed :3 +pril 233FQ. 5.1. the ,#B should be underlined The title of a web page is normally the main heading on the page. It is ood !ractice to *ee! a co!y of the front !a e of any )ebsite you use.

Publications a!ailable from websites


6or publications found on the internet the re!uired elements for a reference are% +uthor or corporate author, Lear. &itle of document. Ptype of mediumQ *lace% *roducer(*ublisher. +vailable at% include web site address(,#B',niform #esource Bocator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the home page of the source.P+ccessed dateQ. 5.1. the ,#B should be underlined Scottish Intercollegiate Euidelines, 233:. 6ypertension in the elderly. 'SIE5 publication 23) PinternetQ dinburgh % SIE5 '*ublished 233:) +vailable at% http%((www.sign.ac.uk(pdf(sign4;.pdf P+ccessed :I =arch 233FQ. 1oots Eroup *lc., 233<. "orporate social responsibility. P$nlineQ 1oots Eroup *lc. +vailable at% http%((www.1oots-*lc.9om(Information(Info.+spTBevel:idU44ICBevel 2idU3 P+ccessed 2< >uly 233FQ. Defoe, D., :;;;. &he fortunes and the misfortunes of the famous %oll .landers. P$nlineQ 9hampaign, Illinois% *roject Eutenberg. +vailable at% http%((*romo.5et(9gi*romo(*g(T;.9giT ntryU<I3C6ullULesC6tpsiteU.ttp%((www.Ibiblio.$rg(Eutenberg( P+ccessed :@ 5ovember 233FQ. It is ood !ractice to *ee! a co!y of the front !a e of any )ebsite you use.

E%mail correspondence0discussion lists


-articular care needs to be ta*en if you are 3uotin from these as they may include !ersonal e1mail addresses and be from a restricted source. -ermission should be sou ht before these sources are 3uoted. 6or e-mail correspondence or discussion lists the suggested elements for a reference are% 5ame of sender and e-mail address, Lear. %essage or sub$ect title from posting line. Ptype of mediumQ #ecipient0s name and e-mail address. Date sent% Including time. +vailable at% ,#B 'e.g. details of where message is archived). P+ccessed dateQ. >ones, *., jonesWjones.com, 233F. %obile phone developments. P -mailQ =essage to # E. Schmit 'r.g.schmitWsyy.ac.uk). Sent =onday I >une 233F, 3@%:<. +vailable at% http%((gog.defer.com(233443I43:4defer4archive.htmlP+ccessed I >uly 233FQ. i Co!ies of such corres!ondence should be *e!t( as these may need to be submitted as an a!!endi0 in an academic submission.

UN-U.LI#%ED 5OR6# 1npublished works


Lou may occasionally have access to a document before it is published and will therefore not be able to provide full details% 1loggs, >., 'in press) ) new book that + have written. Bondon% /anity. 7oolley, . C =uncey, T., 'in press) Demons or diamonds% a study to ascertain the range of attitudes present in health professionals to children with conduct disorder. 7ournal of )dolescent Psychiatric 3ursing. '+ccepted for publication December 2332).

+nformal or in%house publications


6or informal publications, such as class handouts and leaflets, provide what details you can% +nglia #uskin ,niversity, 233I. 1sing the "ochrane >ibrary. PBeafletQ +ugust 233I ed. 9ambridge% +nglia #uskin ,niversity.

Personal communication
7here you refer to a more informal personal communication, e.g. letter, email, phone call or conversation, provide as much detail as possible and note the nature of the communication% *ermission should be sought before these sources are !uoted, and a copy retained for reference. .indle, ., 2333. +ntroducing "ow I 'ate 0mneo "omfort: an infant milk for digestive comfort. PBetterQ '*ersonal communication, 2 >une 2333). $8Sullivan, S., 233<. :iscussion on citation and referencing PBetterQ '*ersonal communication, F >une 233<).

RE"ERENCE# 5IT% ,I##ING DETAIL#


7here there is no obvious publication date, check the content and references to work out the earliest likely date, for example% :;;FT probable year ca. :;;F approximately :;;F :;;1 decade certain but not year :;;T probable decade $ccasionally it may not be possible to identify an author, place or publisher. This applies particularly to what is known as Dgrey literature8, such as some government documents, leaflets and other less offical material. +non author anonymous or not identifiable s.l. no place of publication 'Batin% sine loco) s.n. no named publisher 'Batin% sine nomine) Information such as place and publisher not found on the document, but traced from other sources, should be placed in s!uare brackets. /ou should ho)e&er be &ery cautious about usin as su!!ortin e&idence material )here you cannot identify the author or source. The sources uote! in this gui!e ha"e #een co$%ile! for the %ur%oses of illustration onl&'