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PSYCHOLOGY REVIEWER HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Both change and continuity in the individual across the life span.

. The process begins before birth, in the prenatal environment of the mothers womb.

>>menarche: 400,000; 28 days Nuctornal enzymes wet dreams Teratogens substances that can disrupt normal prenatal development and cause lifelong deficits. GENETICS AND EVOLUTION OF BEHAVIOR >> MONOZYGOTIC identical twins develop from 1 fertilized egg and have the same gene. >> DYZYGOTIC fraternal twins develop from 2 eggs and share half only of their genes. CHROMOSOMES Nuclei of most animals and plant cells contains hereditary material instruction in the form of strands. Humans have 46 chromosomes. 23 pairs in every body cell except for the sex cells. - Sperm and ova contains 23 unpaired chromosomes that unite at CONCEPTION. - Coiled up thread of DNA. 22 AUTOSOMES 23RD PAIR SEX DETERMINER GENES - contains information for production of proteins. - Composed of DNA , special chemicals that control the production of RNA, It is also the genetic material that makes up the chromosomes. - RNA, in turn controls the production of proteins. - PROTEINS become part of the organisms or control the rate of chemicals within it. - CELLS that contained paired chromosomes also contain paired genes. - HOMOZYGOUS received the same gene: show effects - If the genes are different, individual is in the heterozygous trait. D+D = D D+R= D R+R=D GENOMES- all the genetic information in the DNA. ALLELES Different forms of the gene DOMINANT GENE genes that show their effect even if there is only one allele for that trait in the pair. RECESSIVE GENES genes that show their effects only when both alleles are the same. STAGES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT >> GERMINAL STAGE <<

The first prenatal stage of development which begins at conception and lasts two weeks. At comception, the fertilized egg is a single-celled zygote (results when a sperm fertilizes an egg). Conception through implantation. Zygote ( 36 hours after conception ) now called a BLASTOCYST divides and becomes implanted in the uterine wall.

>> EMBRYONIC STAGE<< - Second prenatal stage, from 2 weeks until about 8 weeks after conception, when all the major organs form. - EMBRYO (The term for the developing organism from 2 weeks until about 8 weeks after conception. - Genetic code (XX OR XY) causes sex organs to differentiate. - Y SEX CHROMOSOMES - MALE Testes form and produce androgens - X SEX CHROMOSOMES FEMALE produce estrogen - Embryo is suspended in amniotic sac - Nutrients and wastes are exchanged with mother through the PLACENTA. - Embryo is connected to placenta by the use of UMBILICAL CORD. >>FETAL STAGE<< - The 3rd prenatal stage, which begins with the formation of bone cells 8 weeks after conception and ends at birth. - Characterized by maturation and gains in size PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT >> REFLEXES<< Simple, unlearned, stereotypical elicited by SPECIFIC STIMULI EXAMPLES ARE: Rooting and sucking, withdrawal, startle, grasping

>> MOTOR DEVELOPMENT<< - Brain maturation and environmental factors - FINE MOTOR SKILLS Involve the coordination of the actions of many smaller muscles, along with information from the eyes in the service of some tasks. 2 axis of Development 1. CEPHALOCAUDAL From head to toe 2. PROXIMODISTAL From center towards extremities >> PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT<< Within days, infant can track moving light At 2 months , prefer human face as visual stimuli FIXATION TIME measure of visual preference Perceive depth about time begin crawling Visualize different experiments

It is a duration that captures meaning and states that development is a lifelong process beginning at conception (natality) and ending in death (mortality).

Prenatal period (from conception to birth) Infancy (from birth to the end of 2nd week) Babyhood (end of 2nd week to the end of 2nd year) Early childhood (2yrs to 6 yrs) Late childhood (6-10) Preadolescence or puberty (10-12) Adolescence (12-18) Early adulthood (18-35) Middle adulthood (35-65) Late adulthood or senescence or old age (65-death)

KEY CONCEPTS: Uses the significance of knowledge and understanding of how individuals actually use their mental process in learning situations. Possesses basic foundation of knowing the learners is appropriate in the learning task. If experience is to be worthwhile in the life of the individual, the cognitive or intellectual system overtime must be taken into account.

PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (JEAN PIAGET) SENSORIMOTOR STAGE ( 0-2 YEARS) Determined basically by actual perception of the senses Process experienced between the senses and the external or physical factors Immediately sensed becomes knowledge and symbolically remembered Can be the cause of response but usually insignificant (a baby being scolded) Continuous experience to learn Object permanence- FIRST IMPRESSION LASTS INTUITIVE OR PREOPERATIONAL STAGE There will be an increase in the cognitive process Able to store words and language structures Understanding takes place formative years - stage when a child develops how to talk, read, sing, etc. Demands verbal communication Imitation/ mimicry (role modellling) Starts to fantasize, dream, imagine and freely associate (e.g. imaginary friends) Also known as collective monologue CONCRETE OPERATIONS

Develops logical thinking in relation to function Starts principles and measurement Becomes literal, happens when children laugh easily at humor (e.g giggles at certain topics) Begins to wonder what is happening to them It is for them to convince with newly formed information ( to see is to believe) FORMAL OPERATIONS Hypothesis is testing stage ( slowly but surely) Have their own minds and thoughts and others metacognitive Self-reflection internal dialogue Formation of perspective thought means varied thinking on the same stimulus/situation no two individuals are the same Abstract thinking is being established Known as performing arts stage

ANIMISTIC THINKING belief that inanimate objects are alive EGOCENTRISM viewing the world from ones own perspective and not being capable of seeing things from another persons perspective CONSERVATION recognition that when some properties(such as shape) of an object change, other properties (such as volume) remain constant. THEORY OF MIND ideas and knowledge about how other peoples minds work. DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL REASONING (LAWRENCE KOHLBERG) KOHLBERG- studied the development of moral reasoning in children and adults by giving them a moral dilemma and recording the reasons they provided for their responses. STAGES OF MORAL REASONING PRECONVENTIONAL - the first level in Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning, focusing on avoiding punishments or maximizing rewards. to avoid punishment . judgements are based on personal needs CONVENTIONAL second level in Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning, during which the person values caring, trust, and relationships as well as the social order and lawfulness. Rules are rules and they are not to be broken. POSTCONVENTIONAL the third level in Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning in which the person recognizes universal moral rules that may trump unjust or immoral local rules. Willing to break law and suffer the consequences if it is perceived as unjust or immoral . judgements balance needs of society with personal convictions

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Erik Erikson Key concepts: Interconnection of body and mind

Social development is enhanced by cognitive development establishes good personal (personality) development Understanding of personal growth Growth and development undergo a structural outline or a ground plan. Presence of potentials needed to be develop as the individual progress Crises are expected to happen which needs psychosocial development to define and extend support TRUST VS. MISTRUST (O-24 MONS.) The oral stage wherein the characteristics like biting, drooling, sucking, feeding are observed. Nurturance takes it place by bathing, cuddling, dressing and feeding Care and affection are becomes a highly motivating experience. Maternal warmth and care as the baby can depend upon Outlook on life begins to develop If deprivation may result and difficulty to move on exists AUTONOMY VS. SHAME AND DOUBT (2-3 YEARS) Self-direction and a desire to be independent emerge Personal autonomy develops discovering the world (e.g. breast feeding or bottle feeding to a simple glass of milk.)as well as self-control / self- direction Toilet training begins (bowel and bladder control) Understand their individuality (knowing potentials) Nurture and understand the child to have self-direction INITIATIVE VS. GUILT (3-6 YRS.) Also known as play age The child becomes an individual by recognizing his potentials Child develops from self-direction to self-identity Starts to copy adult behaviors as his model (e.g oepidal and electra complex) A child feels guilty when adults reprimand his behavior INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY IDENTITY VS. IDENTITY CONFUSION INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR, DISGUST