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TAMAYO, JOHN JOSEPH B.

PH1-O

SEPTEMBER 12, 2013 BIOLOGY LECTURE

CLASSIFICATION UNDER AMPHIBIANS.


Three Types of Amphibians Class Amphibia is classified into three orders which are Anura, Caudata and Gymnophiona. Aunra comprises frogs and toads, Caudata comprises salamanders, newts, mudpuppies, waterdogs, sirens, and amphiuma and Gymnophiona comprises caecilians. These three types of amphibians, though under one class, have several distinguishing features.... Amphibians are tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that can live on land and water alternatively. They start their lives underwater and then move on to live on land in their adult stages. This dual ability to live in water as well as on land has given them the name 'Amphibians', which has been derived from the Greek word amphibios meaning 'double life'. They belong to the class Amphibia, subphylum Vertebrata and phylum Chordata. Amphibians are cold-blooded, which means that they have no control over their body temperature and are seen to take on the temperature of their surroundings. Today around 6000 species of amphibians exist of which one-third are listed as endangered amphibians. Class Amphibia comprises three orders: Anura (Salientia), Caudata (Urodela), and Gymnophiona (Apoda), which is why amphibians are of three types. Frogs and toads come under the order Anura; salamanders, newts, waterdogs, mudpuppies, sirens, and amphiuma come under the order Caudata; and the third type consists of the Caecilians under the order Gymnophiona. Order Anura (Salientia): Frogs and Toads The term 'anura' means absence of tail, which implies that this class features the lack of the tail feature: Toads and adult frogs lack tails. Approximately 4500 species come under this category, making Anura the largest order of the three. They are found across the globe and range from few millimeters to a feet or two in length. Species of this order differ from the other two orders, Caudata and Gymnophiona, in the fact they are four-legged, wherein the hind limbs are longer thereby enabling them to climb and leap. Another area where they also differ from the other species is the fact that they are external fertilizers (union of male and female sex cells outside the body of the female). These species are also vocal and are seen to make various sounds ranging from squeaks to barks. Frogs and toads come under this category. Though they are similar in many ways, they have different characteristics as well. Frogs are characterized by smooth, moist skin through which they absorb water. They possess lungs, although they make use of their skin to breathe as well. Their two bulging eyes are retractable in nature, which means that the frog can make its eyes go in and out of the socket. Frogs have long, webbed hind limbs which assist them while

swimming, leaping and climbing, and are seen to spend a lot of time in the water. On the other hand, toads are special types of frogs which possess extraordinarily granulous, warty, dry skin, thereby enabling them to live on drier regions. Unlike the frog's long hind limbs, the toad's hind limbs are shorter and are suited for walking on land. Toads are tailless amphibians, whereas, frogs possess tails in the amphibian stage, however, lose it in their adult life. Order Caudata (Urodela): Salamanders, Newts, Waterdogs, Mudpuppies, Sirens, and Amphiuma Today, about 500 species of amphibians have been classified under this category and the number keeps getting revised according to new discoveries. The term 'Caudata' has been derived from the Latin word Cauda meaning tail. This implies that the species under this amphibian category are tailed species. This characteristic differentiates these amphibian species from those under the order Anura. Their tails are approximately equal to the length of the body, and in some species such as Oedipina, the tails are extraordinarily long. The welldeveloped tails enable the aquatic caudates to swim well. Caudates are also characterized by their four equal-sized limbs which they use for walking. An exception is the siren which lacks hind limbs and has reduced fore limbs instead. Unlike the anurans, this species does not leap and jump from one place to another. Sometimes, they may just run. Caudates, unlike the anurans are not able to vocalize, except Dicamptodon ensatus which makes squeaking noises when provoked. They also vary in size and even include a species that is approximately 6 feet long called Andrias davidanius, which happens to be the world's largest amphibian. Salamanders, newts, waterdogs, mudpuppies, sirens, and amphiuma fall under this order. The lungless salamander group is the largest, comprising over half the known caudate species. Newts and salamanders are quite similar, except for the fact that salamanders are completely aquatic and completely terrestrial, thus they can live on land or in water. However, newts live on land during summer, and throughout the winter and in spring enter the water in order to breed. The lungless salamanders are found mostly in the US, with a fraction also found in Europe. Giant salamanders (Cryptobranchidae) and Amphiuma (Amphiumidae) are among the smallest groups in the caudate order and feature only three living species under them. Order Gymnophiona (Apoda): Caecilians Approximately 50 known species of Caecilians come under the order Gymnophiona, and the amphibians coming under this order are the ones that have been least studied. They are characterized by long, worm-like segmented bodies and are mostly found in parts of South America, Africa and Southern Asia. These amphibians have reduced tails and also lack any kind of appendages (family Ichthyophiidae is an exception). Rather than resembling typical amphibians, they resemble eels or earthworms. They live underground and in aquatic habitats, and possess highly ossified skulls and powerful heads, which

enable them to burrow deep into the soil. This is why they are seldom seen. They also have reduced eyes (nearly functionless eyes) and tiny scales, which makes them the only amphibian species to possess dermal scales. We seldom give a second thought to amphibians and their characteristics. However, the more we hear and learn about them, the more interesting they seem. Amphibians are intriguing creatures with myriads of wonderful features. However, the tragedy is that there is a possibility of these creatures becoming extinct even before we can learn everything about them. Urbanization, environmental pollution and several other factors are pushing amphibians towards extinction. We cannot stand and watch these 'double life' unique animals just disappear into thin air!

Frog from kingdom to scientific name Toad to Frog Kingdom


Frogs and toads are amphibians, animals who begin their lives in the water (breathing with gills) and then, during maturity, live on land (breathing with lungs). The word amphibian means "double life." Frogs and toads are found all around the world, on all continents except Antarctica. Anatomy: Frogs and toads belong to the order Anura (meaning "without a tail", since most have no tail in their adult form). They also have a very short backbone.
True Frogs (Family Ranidae) Skin Teeth Eyes Hind Legs Eggs Moist and smooth Teeth in upper jaw Eyes bulge out from the body Long, powerful jumping legs; most frogs have webbed hind feet. Eggs laid in clusters True Toads (Family Bufonidae) Bumpy and dry No teeth Eyes do not bulge out from the body; a poison gland is located behind each eye. Shorter legs (for walking) Eggs laid in long chains (but a few toads give birth to live young)

Diet: Frogs and toads eat insects, spiders, small fish, worms and other tiny animals. They catch them with their long, sticky tongue. Life Cycle: Like all amphibians, frogs spend their lives near water because they must return

to the water to lay their eggs. Frogs and toads begin their lives as tiny eggs laid in clusters on or very near the water. The eggs hatch into tadpoles that swim in fresh water and breathe with gills. As a tadpole grows, it develops legs and loses its tail. When this process is complete, the froglet breathes with lungs and lives on land. Beginnings: The first true frogs evolved during the early Jurassic period, about 200 million years ago (during the time of the dinosaurs). Classification of Frogs and Toads: Kingdom Animalia (animals) Phylum Chordata (animals with a notochord) Class Amphibia (amphibians) Order Anura (frogs and toads) Family Many families, including Family Bufonidae (toads), Family Centrolenidae, Family Dendrobatidae (poison dart frogs), Family Discoglossidae, Family Hylidae (tree frogs, etc.), Family Hyperolidae, Family Leptodactylidae, Family Microhylidae, Family Myobatrachidae, Family Pelobatidae, Family Pipidae, Family Pseudidae, Family Ranidae (true frogs), Family Rhacophoridae, Family Rhinophrynidae.

Differentiate a male frog from a female frog


The best time to distinguish male frogs from female frogs is during mating season. That's because the bulk of the unmistakable differences dictating gender are most apparent during reproductive activity. In most species, both genders have similar appearances with few clues as to male or female. If the males of a particular species are colored bright or dull, then so are the females. Size For many frog species, the females are significantly larger than the males. This is to accommodate the amphibian mating process called amplexus. The male climbs on top of the female and she supports his weight as she discharges eggs and he spreads sperm on top of them. He is smaller so that his weight does not crush her. Her body is larger also to provide ample storage and transport room for the eggs. Reproductive Organs Male and female frogs have differing genitals, but even this fact isn't particularly accessible in determining if an individual frog is male or female. This is because frog genitalia for both genders is housed within the frogs body. A male frog has two interior testicles and spermatic canal -- not a penis -- that produce the sperm. A female frog has ovaries and oviducts, as well as a uterus that stores the eggs until release, but is not involved in gestation. Other Physical Differences

A small round disc called the tympanum covers the ears of both male and female frogs. On males of most frog species, the circumference of this small disc is larger than the eye of the frog. On females of most frog species, the disc's circumference is equal to the size of the frog's eye. During breeding season, the males develop gripper pads on their thumbs to aid them in amplexus. The females do not grow these pads. Males also develop a dark throat color during mating season that sets them apart from females, according to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Otherwise, male and female frogs of each species tend to have the same coloring. Male Only Behaviors While eating habits, defensive maneuvers, use of camouflage and shedding of skin is the same for male and female frogs, there are a couple of behaviors that only male frogs engage in. The first is singing for a mate during the breeding season. The second is the "hugging" or "humping" aspect of amplexus. Male frogs don't restrict performing this behavior to only on female frogs. They will attach themselves to logs, rocks, trees, shoes and backpacks and hump until the mood passes.